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VCS-256 Administration of Veritas InfoScale Availability 7.1 for UNIX/Linux

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VCS-256 exam Dumps Source : Administration of Veritas InfoScale Availability 7.1 for UNIX/Linux

Test Code : VCS-256
Test denomination : Administration of Veritas InfoScale Availability 7.1 for UNIX/Linux
Vendor denomination : Veritas
: 84 existent Questions

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Veritas Administration of Veritas InfoScale

Veritas applied sciences to deliver govt agencies with information insurance device and Cloud services | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Sep 18, 2018

Stephanie Simone

Veritas applied sciences, company of commercial enterprise statistics coverage and application-defined storage options, is entering into a government-wide contract for the U.S. general services Administration (GSA), proposing federal corporations with data governance and cloud statistics management application.

below the settlement, govt corporations could hold access to Veritas data coverage and cloud solutions at negotiated costs to allow for stronger information management.

The settlement is derived from the GSA IT schedule 70 and totally helps the Federal recommendation know-how Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Enhancement application.

The contract brings Veritas’ enterprise information management portfolio to every eligible federal, state, native, and tribal government groups.

These agencies can build upon the statistics coverage groundwork of Veritas NetBackup and add further facts management capabilities to accelerate their cloud initiatives.

some of the initial offerings encompass:

  • Veritas statistics perception helps organizations help unstructured statistics governance to reduce expenses, random and achieve compliance through actionable intelligence into statistics possession, usage and access controls.
  • Veritas eDiscovery Platform provides governments with the superior evaluation toolkit for isolating central legal, regulatory and investigative objects, revealing context and prioritizing what is most critical, the usage of a single application.
  • Veritas InfoScale helps federal IT groups more desirable protect tips and applications across physical and digital infrastructures. InfoScale minimizes downtime by using offering extreme availability and calamity recovery over any distance for famous company features, including individual databases, customized purposes and tangled multitier purposes across physical, virtual and cloud environments.
  • Veritas commercial enterprise Vault, when provided as a solution with a FedRAMP approved utility-as-a provider (SaaS) cloud service from bluesource (known as EV247), frees businesses from the overhead of owning, running or managing email and file archives. The EV247 solution is powered with the aid of the realm’s main archiving know-how from Veritas. it is a cloud platform, utility archiving solution and managed provider every in one.
  • Veritas 360 data administration gives agencies the skill to transform their records to address the challenges of conclusion-to-conclusion information management by using facts visibility, compliance readiness, industry continuity, statistics protection and recoverability. It accomplishes every of those dreams while maintaining records/workload portability and storage optimization.
  • For extra guidance about this information, consult with www.veritas.com.


    Veritas Boosts software efficiency and Streamlines information insurance policy and administration on AWS | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    LAS VEGAS--(business WIRE)--Veritas applied sciences, the leader in tips management, nowadays introduced at AWS re:Invent unique capabilities for InfoScale and NetBackup designed to optimize industry application migration and simplify facts insurance policy deployment inside Amazon web functions (AWS) environments. Veritas InfoScale offers application-defined storage for the cloud and helps breathe inescapable application performance, scale and resiliency requirements are met. additionally, retaining these purposes and other cloud-primarily based workloads has now been made even less demanding with the unique Amazon computing device vivid (AMI) for NetBackup. These latest capabilities breathe a piece of a bunch of present Veritas cloud statistics administration options that aid a variety of AWS spend instances, from facts governance and protection to migration and calamity restoration.

    As organizations look to shift from upfront capex investments to pay-as-you-go opex models, many are prioritizing AWS materials to supplant expensive on-premises infrastructure. in fact, in keeping with Veritas research, 53 percent of mission-vital applications could breathe within the public cloud this yr. This accelerating shift shows that before refreshing on-premises hardware, groups are looking first to the cloud. besides the fact that children, one most famous roadblock to without problems “lifting and shifting” functions relish Oracle, SAP, and other aid intensive workloads is the efficiency and resiliency tradeoffs. while IT has the option of refactoring these functions to work natively within the cloud, doing so can likewise breathe both a big time dedication and an expensive undertaking.

    Veritas InfoScale permits the speed and cost-effectiveness of lifting and shifting to AWS whereas assisting ensure the performance, scalability and resiliency of these industry functions. the unique NetBackup AMI simplifies information protection deployment—both out and in of the cloud—as a piece of the NetBackup platform’s single pane of glass suffer and finished reply to give protection to every actual, digital and cloud-based mostly workloads.

    today’s announcement serves as a vital proof point of Veritas’ fashion to deliver cloud facts management options that address every principal areas of cloud transformation:

  • global statistics Visibility – Blindly moving data and applications to the cloud can pressure up freight and expand chance. in fact, fifty two % of commercial enterprise storage budgets are already spent on storing black facts. With recommendation Map, companies bethink what statistics they've, who owns it and the way ancient it is, offering the insight obligatory to breathe sure they're moving the prerogative information, to the correct place, at the preempt time.
  • standard Cloud Migration – devoid of the apposite tools, migrating records and software workloads to the cloud can note to breathe a complicated and dear activity. To deliver primary and inexpensive cloud migration, Veritas leverages the abysmal erudition of data and application interdependencies constructed into InfoScale to alleviate storage bottlenecks and permit seamless and clever information migration to the AWS cloud. businesses with hybrid-cloud options can now profit the identical accelerated workload portability, resiliency and handle within the cloud that they are used to on-premises.
  • Optimized software performance – Lifting and moving industry functions to the cloud can impose extreme efficiency tradeoffs. The software-recognition and intelligent data caching developed into InfoScale application-defined storage choices alleviates those trade-offs, giving clients an accelerated, yet commercial enterprise-able ambiance to maximise mission-important software efficiency within the cloud. This skill that groups with mission famous tier-one purposes corresponding to Oracle, TIBCO, SAP and different OLTP/OLAP workloads, can now seize expertise of the size and economics of AWS infrastructure without sacrificing required efficiency and reliability.
  • Unified information coverage – The complexity of retaining information the usage of aspect items is exponentially bigger with the adoption of numerous cloud infrastructures. NetBackup grants an easy, legit and unified records protection adventure that siloed and disparate products can not give. With the liberate of NetBackup eight.0, AWS valued clientele can now leverage the unique NetBackup AMI for a preconfigured and customizable cloud deployment of NetBackup in minutes.
  • “Our purchasers are leveraging Veritas options to combine Amazon S3 into their records lifecycle management strategy,” pointed out Mike Palmer, government vice president, chief product officer at Veritas. “hobby in moving tier-one commercial enterprise applications comparable to Oracle and SAP to the cloud is becoming. Veritas is main the efforts to enable these organizations hold a seamless, scalable and within your means reply to entry, share and leverage cloud storage without having to sacrifice performance or resiliency.”

    “As more organizations increasingly flip to a number of styles of clouds to Run some or every of their mission-important purposes, the means to migrate and exploit facts between and throughout platforms—no longer simply in any respect, however quite simply—turns into vital,” referred to notice Peters, observe Director & Senior Analyst, industry strategy community. “by means of creating solutions for these hybrid cloud environments, and notably building-in assist for AWS, Veritas is providing valued clientele with a sociable strategy to both exploit their facts and likewise to capitalize seamless access to the realm’s greatest public cloud provider.”

    Veritas is a gold sponsor of AWS re:Invent 2016. For conference attendees drawn to discovering extra about Veritas cloud data administration offerings for AWS, tickle quest recommendation from us at sales space #632. additionally, comply with us on twitter @Veritasllc and hold interaction with us the usage of #reInvent or #ReInvent2016.

    About Veritas applied sciences

    Veritas technologies permits businesses to harness the vigor of their information, with recommendation administration options serving the area’s biggest and most tangled environments. Veritas works with corporations of every sizes, including 86 percent of world Fortune 500 companies, improving information availability and revealing insights to pressure competitive knowledge. www.veritas.com


    The court should opt for The more suitable criminal issues regarding internet Shutdown, Veritas attorneys agrees With Their past region | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    So when the court docket ruled that the web shutdown was illegal and connectivity may still breathe restored, they wrote that the grounds for the determination had been now not enough to avoid the govt from shutting down the web again.

    To breathe sincere, the govt in Zimbabwe has long gone towards courtroom rulings before although, it's prudent to leave defiance of the courts because the most effective means out for the executive than to depart the challenge of legality placing.

    Already some senior executive officials are promising that the cyber web can breathe shut down once again and are making rash statements like, “traders don’t need the information superhighway.” Even the president has justified the shutting down of the cyber web.

    Veritas has sent out a bulletin which fairly much consents with their assertion that the problem of the legality and constitutionality of the Interception of Communications Act is awfully essential. To celebrate a reprieve in accordance with a technicality will nonetheless leave the govt with an excuse to shut down the cyber web. subsequent time they're going to simply get the president signal the warrant.

    here is the complete Veritas bulletin:

    On Tuesday fifteenth January, the 2d day of a stay-away called by way of the Zimbabwe Congress of alternate Unions, every internet functions across the nation had been terminated below govt directives.  Econet, the country’s greatest cellular telecommunications operator and cyber web service company [ISP], issued the following observation to its subscribers:

    “additional to a warrant issued via the Minister of State within the President’s office for national security throughout the Director-normal of the President’s fork acting when it comes to the Interception of Communications Act, internet functions are at present suspended throughout every networks and web carrier providers.  they are obliged to behave when directed to effect so and the bethink is past their manage.’’

    other ISPs issued identical statements.  As every ISPs complied with the Minister of State’s orders, the impact turned into to shutdown cyber web functions, e-mail features and social media structures such as WhatsApp, fb and Twitter.

    On Wednesday sixteenth January, in a note to the Minister of State, attorneys appearing for 3 particular person journalists and the Zimbabwe Chapter of the Media Institute of Southern Africa [MISA Zimbabwe], demanded instant revocation of his warrant, failing which criminal lawsuits would breathe instituted.  There become no response and no revocation of the warrant.

    courtroom software and the government’s Response

    ZLHR and MISA Zimbabwe v Minister of State for national safety and Others – the cyber web Shutdown Case [link] – tickle observe this hyperlink to examine the finished utility, the Opposition papers filed via the Director-commonplace of CIO and the high court docket order.

    Later the identical day, hence, an urgent chamber utility turned into lodged in the extreme court docket, Harare, in quest of provisional suspension of the warrant and orders to ISPs to renew functions, pending the supply of a remaining order atmosphere apart the warrant.  The candidates hold been Zimbabwe attorneys for Human Rights and MISA Zimbabwe; the respondents were the Minister of State, the Director-time-honored of Intelligence, the President and the ISPs Econet, NetOne and Telecel Zimbabwe.

    This admirably finished application raised numerous grounds justifying the atmosphere apart of the warrant, together with: (1) that section 6 of the Interception of Communications Act [“the Act”] did not authorise a blanket ban or suspension, handiest the interception of communications – making a suspension of internet servicesultra vires; (2) that piece 6 of the Act is discrepant with the constitution, principally section 61 – license of expression, and piece fifty six – equality of every under the legislations.  trust changed into likewise taken to note that the warrant had been issued by the Minister whereas the President had reserved administration of the Act to himself via SI 212/2018.

    The Director-universal filed a breathe alert of opposition on Friday 18th January, supported by an affidavit from the Deputy Director, Administration.  The affidavit admitted that the Minister of State turned into the adult who had issued a “directive” ordering the blanket ban below area 6 of the Act, and that the President had reserved the administration of the Act to himself.  however the Deputy Director firmly defended the Minister’s action as permitted by means of the Act and justified by way of the circumstances current within the country [for instance, the spend of the Internet and social media to foment the violence and other unlawful conduct that accompanied ZCTU stay-away].  She likewise emphatically disputed the other prison and constitutional grounds superior within the utility.

    The listening to before Mr Justice Tagu

    The hearing of the application took vicinity earlier than Mr Justice Tagu on Monday twenty first January, as befitted its urgency.  It become to had been held in the decide’s chambers however was moved to a courtroom as a way to accommodate these members of the press and public wishing to attend.

    tips for the applicants commenced by means of soliciting for the referee to resolve the case on the primary prefatory aspect that the Minister of State, now not being the adult legally accountable for the administration of the Act and therefore now not being “the Minister” for the goal of the Act, changed into no longer the proper functionary to activity the powers conferred on “the Minister” with the aid of area 6 of the Act, whether with the aid of issuing a “warrant” or a “directive”.

    This prefatory aspect become straightforward.  area 6 of the Act – the piece beneath which the Minister became said to hold acted – confers vigor to situation directives and warrants on the “Minister”.  piece 2 of the Act defines “Minister” as which means “the Minister of Transport and Communications or another Minister to whom the President may additionally every now and then allot the administration of this Act”.  The President has not assigned the administration of the Act to the Minister of State; on the opposite, based on SI 212/2018 of nineteenth October 2018, he has reserved  to himself the administration of the Act, as he's entitled to effect in terms of area 104(1) of the charter.  Ergo, the Minister of State has no powers below piece 6 of the Act.

    Veritas in its constitution Watch 2/2019 of 19th January [link] made this factor, and likewise cited that the internet shut down become unconstitutional.

    As information for the Minister and the Director-frequent had [and could have] no reply the prefatory factor, the referee then proceeded to resolve the case in favour of the applicants – without listening to oral controversy on the larger criminal concerns raised with the aid of the application.

    This prefatory factor became easy.  section 6 of the Act – the area below which the Minister became referred to to hold acted – confers vigour to concern directives and warrants on the “Minister”.  area 2 of the Act defines “Minister” as import “the Minister of Transport and Communications or every other Minister to whom the President can likewise now and again allot the administration of this Act”.  The President has no longer assigned the administration of the Act to the Minister of State or some other Minister; on the contrary, in accordance with Statutory Instrument 212/2018 of nineteenth October 2018, he has reserved  to himself the administration of the Act, as he is entitled to effect in terms of section 104(1) of the charter.  Ergo, the Minister of State has no powers beneath section 6 of the Act.

    outcomes

    A provisional order become issued giving the respondents ten days to note cause why a closing order may still no longer breathe issued atmosphere aside the Minister’s directives.  If the respondents are looking to try this , they need to file the requisite papers with the high court docket within ten days, failing which the case could breathe set down for affirmation of the provisional order as an unopposed application.

    To regulate the circumstance pending a remaining order, Mr Justice Tagu additionally granted era in-between aid as follows:

  • suspending forthwith the directives or warrants issued by using the Minister of State or the Director-everyday shutting down cyber web communications prerogative through the outdated week and any subsequent days of January

  • ordering ISPs [Econet, NetOne, Telecel and every other holders of telecommunications licences to unconditionally resume replete and unrestricted cyber web functions to every subscribers

  • remark

    those hoping that the extreme court would spend this case to set aside the Minister’s information superhighway shutdown with a ringing condemnation of the Interception of Communications Act as discrepant with the constitutional rights of residents might likewise hold been upset by means of a selection on a slender technical point now not involving license of expression at all.

    There could breathe a further war of words in the courts – given press studies on statements this week by executive that the Act as it stands isn't best according to the charter but gives executive the energy, albeit in the course of the correct functionary, to impose a web shutdown and/or to interrupt social media purposes every time it believes such action to breathe justified.

    Zimbabwe lawyers for Human RightsZimbabwe Congress of alternate UnionsHigh courtroom

    Zimbabwe attorneys for Human Rights (ZLHR) is a no longer for income human rights hard whose core objective is to foster a tradition of human rights in Zimbabwe in addition to encourage the expand and strengthening of human rights in any respect levels of Zimbabwean society via... read extra About Zimbabwe legal professionals for Human Rights

    The Zimbabwe Congress of alternate Unions is the country's biggest employee consultant with most of its participants in separate sectors of trade in Zimbabwe. It has special pastimes in labour activism and this has resulted in it being linked to opposition political parties principally the... read more About Zimbabwe Congress of exchange Unions

    The high court of Zimbabwe is among the advanced Courts of Zimbabwe. The high court offers originally illustration with every high charge and extreme significance situations. It likewise has a supervisory jurisdiction over every subordinate courts and tribunals. Appeals from the extreme courtroom... study greater About high court


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    COMPUTINGFrom...Network World Fusion networking

    January 24, 2000Web posted at: 12:11 p.m. EST (1711 GMT)

    by John Bass and James Robinson, Network World Test Alliance

    (IDG) -- It every boils down to what you're looking for in a network operating system (NOS).

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    Regardless of the job you saddle your server with, it has to discharge well at reading and writing files and sending them across the network. They designed two benchmark suites to measure each NOS in these two categories. To reflect the existent world, their benchmark tests account a wide purview of server conditions.

    NetWare was the hands-down leader in their performance benchmarking, taking first region in two-thirds of the file tests and earning top billing in the network tests.

    Red Hat Linux followed NetWare in file performance overall and even outpaced the leader in file tests where the read/write loads were small. However, Linux did not discharge well handling big loads - those tests in which there were more than 100 users. Under heavier user loads, Linux had a tendency to stop servicing file requests for a short era and then start up again.

    Windows 2000 demonstrated poverty-stricken write performance across every their file tests. In fact, they create that its write performance was about 10% of its read performance. After consulting with both Microsoft and Client/Server Solutions, the author of the Benchmark Factory testing tool they used, they determined that the poverty-stricken write performance could breathe due to two factors. One, which they were unable to verify, might breathe a practicable performance problem with the SCSI driver for the hardware they used.

    More significant, though, was an issue with their test software. Benchmark Factory sends a write-through flag in each of its write requests that is supposed to cause the server to update cache, if appropriate, and then force a write to disk. When the write to disk occurs, the write muster is released and the next request can breathe sent.

    At first glance, it appeared as if Windows 2000 was the only operating system to homage this write-through flag because its write performance was so poor. Therefore, they ran a second round of write tests with the flag turned off.

    With the flag turned off, NetWare's write performance increased by 30%. This test proved that Novell does indeed homage the write-through flag and will write to disk for each write request when that flag is set. But when the write-through flag is disabled, NetWare writes to disk in a more efficient manner by batching together contiguous blocks of data on the cache and writing every those blocks to disk at once.

    Likewise, Red Hat Linux's performance increased by 10% to 15% when the write-through flag was turned off. When they examined the Samba file system code, they create that it too honors the write-through flag. The Samba code then finds an optimum time during the read/write sequence to write to disk.

    This second round of file testing proves that Windows 2000 is relative on its file system cache to optimize write performance. The results of the testing with the write-through flag off were much higher - as much as 20 times faster. However, Windows 2000 still fell behind both NetWare and RedHat Linux in the file write tests when the write-through flag was off.

    SCO honors the write-through flag by default, since its journaling file system is constructed to maximize data integrity by writing to disk for every write requests. The results in the write tests with the write-through flag on were very similar to the test results with the write-through flag turned off.

    For the network benchmark, they developed two tests. Their long TCP transaction test measured the bandwidth each server can sustain, while their short TCP transaction test measured each server's skill to handle big numbers of network sessions with small file transactions.

    Despite a poverty-stricken showing in the file benchmark, Windows 2000 came out on top in the long TCP transaction test. Windows 2000 is the only NOS with a multithreaded IP stack, which allows it to handle network requests with multiple processors. Novell and Red Hat insist they are working on integrating this capability into their products.

    NetWare and Linux likewise registered strong long TCP test results, coming in second and third, respectively.

    In the short TCP transaction test, NetWare came out the limpid winner. Linux earned second region in spite of its need of support for abortive TCP closes, a fashion by which an operating system can quickly tear down TCP connections. Their testing software, Ganymede Software's Chariot, uses abortive closes in its TCP tests.

    Moving into management

    As enterprise networks grow to require more servers and support more End users, NOS management tools become crucial elements in keeping networks under control. They looked at the management interfaces of each product and drilled down into how each handled server monitoring, client administration, file and print management, and storage management.

    We create Windows 2000 and NetWare provide equally useful management interfaces.

    Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is the glue that holds most of the Windows 2000 management functionality together. This configurable graphical user interface (GUI) lets you snap in Microsoft and third-party applets that customize its functionality. It's a two-paned interface, much relish Windows Explorer, with a nested list on the left and selection details on the right. The console is light to spend and lets you configure many local server elements, including users, disks, and system settings such as time and date.

    MMC likewise lets you implement management policies for groups of users and computers using dynamic Directory, Microsoft's unique directory service. From the dynamic Directory management tool inside MMC, you can configure users and change policies.

    The network configuration tools are create in a separate application that opens when you click on the Network Places icon on the desktop. Each network interface is listed inside this window. You can add and change protocols and configure, enable and disable interfaces from here without rebooting.

    NetWare offers several interfaces for server configuration and management. These tools proffer duplicate functionality, but each is useful depending from where you are trying to manage the system. The System Console offers a number of tools for server configuration. One of the most useful is NWConfig, which lets you change start-up files, install system modules and configure the storage subsystem. NWConfig is simple, intuitive and predictable.

    ConsoleOne is a Java-based interface with a few graphical tools for managing and configuring NetWare. Third-party administration tools can plug into ConsoleOne and let you manage multiple services. They account ConsoleOne's interface is a bit unsophisticated, but it works well enough for those who must hold a Windows- based manager.

    Novell likewise offers a Web-accessible management application called NetWare Management Portal, which lets you manage NetWare servers remotely from a browser, and NWAdmin32, a relatively simple client-side tool for administering Novell Directory Services (NDS) from a Windows 95, 98 or NT client.

    Red Hat's overall systems management interface is called LinuxConf and can Run as a graphical or text-based application. The graphical interface, which resembles that of MMC, works well but has some layout issues that get it difficult to spend at times. For example, when you Run a setup application that takes up a lot of the screen, the system resizes the application larger than the desktop size.

    Still, you can manage pretty much anything on the server from LinuxConf, and you can spend it locally or remotely over the Web or via telnet. You can configure system parameters such as network addresses; file system settings and user accounts; and set up add-on services such as Samba - which is a service that lets Windows clients congregate to files residing on a Linux server - and FTP and Web servers. You can apply changes without rebooting the system.

    Overall, Red Hat's interface is useful and the underlying tools are powerful and flexible, but LinuxConf lacks the polish of the other vendors' tools.

    SCO Admin is a GUI-based front End for about 50 SCO UnixWare configuration and management tools in one window. When you click on a tool, it brings up the application to manage that particular in a separate window.

    Some of SCO's tools are GUI-based while others are text-based. The server required a reboot to apply many of the changes. On the plus side, you can manage multiple UnixWare servers from SCOAdmin.

    SCO likewise offers a useful Java-based remote administration tool called WebTop that works from your browser.

    An eye on the servers and clients

    One famous administration task is monitoring the server itself. Microsoft leads the pack in how well you can support an eye on your server's internals.

    The Windows 2000 System Monitor lets you view a real-time, running graph of system operations, such as CPU and network utilization, and recollection and disk usage. They used these tools extensively to determine the effect of their benchmark tests on the operating system. Another tool called Network Monitor has a basic network packet analyzer that lets you survey the types of packets coming into the server. Together, these Microsoft utilities can breathe used to compare performance and capacity across multiple Windows 2000 servers.

    NetWare's Monitor utility displays processor utilization, recollection usage and buffer utilization on a local server. If you know what to glimpse for, it can breathe a powerful tool for diagnosing bottlenecks in the system. Learning the import of each of the monitored parameters is a bit of a challenge, though.

    If you want to glimpse at performance statistics across multiple servers, you can tap into Novell's Web Management Portal.

    Red Hat offers the standard Linux command-line tools for monitoring the server, such as iostat and vmstat. It has no graphical monitoring tools.

    As with any Unix operating system, you can write scripts to automate these tools across Linux servers. However, these tools are typically cryptic and require a high smooth of proficiency to spend effectively. A suite of graphical monitoring tools would breathe a noteworthy addition to Red Hat's Linux distribution.

    UnixWare likewise offers a number of monitoring tools. System Monitor is UnixWare's simple but limited GUI for monitoring processor and recollection utilization. The sar and rtpm command-line tools together list real-time system utilization of buffer, CPUs and disks. Together, these tools give you a sociable overall notion of the load on the server.

    Client administration

    Along with managing the server, you must manage its users. It's no surprise that the two NOSes that ship with an integrated directory service topped the province in client administration tools.

    We were able to configure user permissions via Microsoft's dynamic Directory and the directory administration tool in MMC. You can group users and computers into organizational units and apply policies to them.

    You can manage Novell's NDS and NetWare clients with ConsoleOne, NWAdmin or NetWare Management Portal. Each can create users, manage file space, and set permissions and rights. Additionally, NetWare ships with a five-user version of Novell's ZENworks tool, which offers desktop administration services such as hardware and software inventory, software distribution and remote control services.

    Red Hat Linux doesn't proffer much in the way of client administration features. You must control local users through Unix permission configuration mechanisms.

    UnixWare is similar to Red Hat Linux in terms of client administration, but SCO provides some Windows binaries on the server to remotely set file and directory permissions from a Windows client, as well as create and change users and their settings. SCO and Red Hat proffer support for the Unix-based Network Information Service (NIS). NIS is a store for network information relish logon names, passwords and home directories. This integration helps with client administration.

    Handling the staples: File and print

    A NOS is nothing without the skill to share file storage and printers. Novell and Microsoft collected top honors in these areas.

    You can easily add and maintain printers in Windows 2000 using the print administration wizard, and you can add file shares using dynamic Directory management tools. Windows 2000 likewise offers Distributed File Services, which let you combine files on more than one server into a single share.

    Novell Distributed Print Services (NDPS) let you quickly incorporate printers into the network. When NDPS senses a unique printer on the network, it defines a Printer Agent that runs on the printer and communicates with NDS. You then spend NDS to define the policies for the unique printer.

    You define NetWare file services by creating and then mounting a disk volume, which likewise manages volume policies.

    Red Hat includes Linux's printtool utility for setting up server-connected and networks printers. You can likewise spend this GUI to create printcap entries to define printer access.

    Linux has a set of command-line file system configuration tools for mounting and unmounting partitions. Samba ships with the product and provides some integration for Windows clients. You can configure Samba only through a cryptic configuration ASCII file - a serious drawback.

    UnixWare provides a elastic GUI-based printer setup tool called Printer SetUp Manager. For file and volume management, SCO offers a tool called VisionFS for interoperability with Windows clients. They used VisionFS to allow their NT clients to access the UnixWare server. This service was light to configure and use.

    Storage management

    Windows 2000 provides the best tools for storage management. Its graphical Manage Disks tool for local disk configuration includes software RAID management; you can dynamically add disks to a volume set without having to reboot the system. Additionally, a signature is written to each of the disks in an array so that they can breathe moved to another 2000 server without having to configure the volume on the unique server. The unique server recognizes the drives as members of a RAID set and adds the volume to the file system dynamically.

    NetWare's volume management tool, NWConfig, is light to use, but it can breathe a puny confusing to set up a RAID volume. Once they knew what they were doing, they had no problems formatting drives and creating a RAID volume. The tool looks a puny primitive, but they give it high marks for functionality and ease of use.

    Red Hat Linux offers no graphical RAID configuration tools, but its command line tools made RAID configuration easy.

    To configure disks on the UnixWare server, they used the Veritas Volume Manager graphical disk and volume administration tool that ships with UnixWare. They had some problems initially getting the tool to recognize the drives so they could breathe formatted. They managed to work around the disk configuration problem using an assortment of command line tools, after which Volume Manager worked well.

    Security

    While they did not probe these NOSes extensively to expose any security weaknesses, they did glimpse at what they offered in security features.

    Microsoft has made significant strides with Windows 2000 security. Windows 2000 supports Kerberos public key certificates as its primary authentication mechanism within a domain, and allows additional authentication with smart cards. Microsoft provides a Security Configuration Tool that integrates with MMC for light management of security objects in the dynamic Directory Services system, and a unique Encrypting File System that lets you designate volumes on which files are automatically stored using encryption.

    Novell added support for a public-key infrastructure into NetWare 5 using a public certificate schema developed by RSA Security that lets you tap into NDS to generate certificates.

    Red Hat offers a basic Kerberos authentication mechanism. With Red Hat Linux, as with most Unix operating systems, the network services can breathe individually controlled to expand security. Red Hat offers Pluggable Authentication Modules as a way of allowing you to set authentication policies across programs running on the server. Passwords are protected with a shadow file. Red Hat likewise bundles firewall and VPN services.

    UnixWare has a set of security tools called Security Manager that lets you set up varying degrees of intrusion protection across your network services, from no restriction to turning every network services off. It's a sociable management time saver, though you could manually modify the services to achieve the identical result.

    Stability and foible tolerance

    The most feature-rich NOS is of puny value if it can't support a server up and running. Windows 2000 offers software RAID 0, 1 and 5 configurations to provide foible tolerance for onboard disk drives, and has a built-in network load-balancing feature that allows a group of servers to glimpse relish one server and share the identical network denomination and IP address. The group decides which server will service each request. This not only distributes the network load across several servers, it likewise provides foible tolerance in case a server goes down. On a lesser scale, you can spend Microsoft's Failover Clustering to provide basic failover services between two servers.

    As with NT 4.0, Windows 2000 provides recollection protection, which means that each process runs in its own segment.

    There are likewise backup and restore capabilities bundled with Windows 2000.

    Novell has an add-on product for NetWare called Novell Cluster Services that allows you to cluster as many as eight servers, every managed from one location using ConsoleOne, NetWare Management Portal or NWAdmin32. But Novell presently offers no clustering products to provide load balancing for applications or file services. NetWare has an elaborate recollection protection scheme to segregate the recollection used for the kernel and applications, and a Storage Management Services module to provide a highly elastic backup and restore facility. Backups can breathe all-inclusive, cover parts of a volume or store a differential snapshot.

    Red Hat provides a load-balancing product called piranha with its Linux. This package provides TCP load balancing between servers in a cluster. There is no hard restrict to the number of servers you can configure in a cluster. Red Hat Linux likewise provides software RAID support through command line tools, has recollection protection capabilities and provides a rudimentary backup facility.

    SCO provides an optional feature to cluster several servers in a load-balancing environment with Non-Stop Clustering for a high smooth of fault-tolerance. Currently, Non-Stop Clustering supports six servers in a cluster. UnixWare provides software RAID support that is managed using SCO's On-Line Data Manager feature. every the standard RAID levels are supported. Computer Associates' bundled ArcServeIT 6.6 provides backup and restore capabilities. UnixWare has recollection protection capabilities.

    Documentation

    Because their testing was conducted before Windows 2000's general availability ship date, they were not able to evaluate its hard-copy documentation. The online documentation provided on a CD is extensive, useful and well-organized, although a Web interface would breathe much easier to spend if it gave more than a pair of sentences at a time for a particular capitalize topic.

    NetWare 5 comes with two manuals: a particular manual for installing and configuring the NOS with sociable explanations of concepts and features along with an overview of how to configure them, and a small spiral-bound booklet of quick start cards. Novell's online documentation is very helpful.

    Red Hat Linux comes with three manuals - an installation guide, a getting started steer and a reference manual - every of which are light to follow.

    Despite being the most difficult product to install, UnixWare offers the best documentation. It comes with two manuals: a system handbook and a getting started guide. The system handbook is a reference for conducting the installation of the operating system. It does a sociable job of reflecting this painful experience. The getting started steer is well-written and well-organized. It covers many of the tools needed to configure and maintain the operating system. SCO's online documentation looks nice and is light to follow.

    Wrapping up

    The bottom line is that these NOSes proffer a wide purview of characteristics and provide enterprise customers with a noteworthy deal of selection regarding how each can breathe used in any given corporate network.

    If you want a good, general purpose NOS that can deliver enterprise-class services with every the bells and whistles imaginable, then Windows 2000 is the strongest contender. However, for high performance, enterprise file and print services, their tests note that Novell leads the pack. If you're willing to pay a higher charge for scalability and reliability, SCO UnixWare would breathe a safe bet. But if you need an inexpensive alternative that will give you bare-bones network services with decent performance, Red Hat Linux can certainly fitting the bill.

    The selection is yours.

    Bass is the technical director and Robinson is a senior technical staff member at Centennial Networking Labs (CNL) at North Carolina State University in Raleigh. CNL focuses on performance, capacity and features of networking and server technologies and equipment.

    RELATED STORIES:

    Debate will focus on Linux vs. LinuxJanuary 20, 2000Some Windows 2000 PCs will jump the gunJanuary 19, 2000IBM throws Linux lovefestJanuary 19, 2000Corel Linux will Run Windows appsJanuary 10, 2000Novell's eDirectory spans platformsNovember 16, 1999New NetWare embraces Web appsNovember 2, 1999Microsoft sets a date for Windows 2000October 28, 1999

    RELATED IDG.net STORIES:

    Fusion's Forum: Square off with the vendors over who has the best NOS(Network World Fusion)How they did it: Details of the testing(Network World Fusion)Find out the tuning parameters(Network World Fusion)Download the Config files(Network World Fusion)The Shootout results(Network World Fusion)Fusion's NOS resources(Network World Fusion)With Windows 2000, NT grows up(Network World Fusion)Fireworks expected at NOS showdown(Network World Fusion)

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    New Products | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    New Products

    ActiveBatch Gets Blackberry Functionality

    Administrators hold long been able to receive pages when servers retreat down, but now they can restart servers with their pagers. Advanced Systems Concepts Inc. has added the Blackberry line of pagers to its list of clients for the ActiveBatch Job Scheduling and Management System.

    The ActiveBatch Wireless Client is a module for the management software that enables administrators to monitor systems and initiate processes from the Blackberry. ActiveBatch Job Scheduling and Management System allows users to set up calendars to initiate processes such as backups or printing, or initiate processes from remote clients.

    Ben Rosenberg, CEO of Advanced Systems, says the company chose to support the Blackberry first since it was the handheld best suited for round-the-clock monitoring. "The battery life is three weeks, and it’s always on," he says. Advanced Systems supports both the pager-sized and PDA-sized Blackberries.

    If a system sends out an SNMP signal, administrators can configure the system to ship an e-mail to a Blackberry, alerting the administrator. The e-mail gives the administrator the option to initiate processes, such as rebooting a server, through the Blackberry. "With the Blackberry, e-mails are always actionable by you," Rosenberg says.

    Rosenberg sees two advantages to system management through wireless devices. First, it obviates the need to give instructions over the phone to a less experienced operator. Second, high-level administrators who travel can support an eye on the system. "If you’re on the road, you’re able to know if something is wrong," he says. With both advantages, administrators will breathe better able to guarantee uptime, with less impact on their lives.

    In addition to the three levels of encryption standards on Blackberry devices, ActiveBatch provides additional security features, such as a password login to the system. This keeps random users, including thieves, from wreaking havoc on corporate systems. "Use of ActiveBatch is always secure," Rosenberg says.

    ActiveBatch can manage Windows, OpenVMS and Unix-based systems with an agent on each server. The agent sends information to a central Windows console. The software integrates with the Windows Management Instrument, which likewise serves as a SNMP provider. ActiveBatch provides three plug-ins for remote clients: e-mail, browser and now the Blackberry.

    Rosenberg says Advanced Systems is working to bring ActiveBatch to PocketPC handhelds. He says that although users can already spend them with the browser-based system, the company will fitting the system to better meet the needs and limitations of the PocketPC platform.

    Contact: Advanced Systems Concepts Inc., www.advsyscon.com, (201) 798-6400

    SafeStone Provides iSeries Support to RSA Security

    Security management provider SafeStone Technologies plc. has added iSeries 400 features to an existing partnership with RSA Security Inc. Under the enhanced agreement, SafeStone is making RSA’s SecurID authentication tool usable on an iSeries 400 platform.

    Using its DetectIT Agent 400 interface, SafeStone is enabling two-factor authentication. Two-factor authentication requires an individual to breathe verified twice before access is allowed to systems.

    DetectIT is an offering designed by SafeStone to protect iSeries 400 exit points from unauthorized user access to confidential data, application and resources within an open-connectivity environment.

    Through DetectIT, RSA’s iSeries-based users will breathe able to leverage software solutions for auditing, data and system management, e-business security, and application and access control for single or multiple networked iSeries 400s.

    As piece of its agreement with RSA, SafeStone will act as RSA’s IBM iSeries industry partner, handling every sales and support responsibility for DetectIT. In this role, SafeStone, which is likewise an IBM confederate for systems management and development, will proffer DetectIT to RSA’s customers as either a standalone or fully integrated offering.

    Contact: RSA Security, Inc., www.rsa.com, (781) 301-5000

    SafeStone Technologies plc, www.safestone.com

    Vendors get Linux Itanium-Ready

    With Intel Corp.’s May release of its 64-bit Itanium processor, Linux vendors are lining up to support the unique architecture. Red Hat Inc., TurboLinux Inc., SuSE AG and Caldera International Inc. every formally released distributions for Itanium.

    To coincide with the announcement, TurboLinux released its Operating System 7 for the Itanium processor. "It’s production-ready," says Thrane Jensen, product manager for Itanium. However, Jensen admits that many users will spend early Itanium machines for testing and development, rather than using them in production environments yet.

    Bill Claybrook, research director for Linux and open source at the Aberdeen Group, confirms that "most people are waiting for McKinley." He believes that users will wait for Intel to release McKinley—its second-generation IA-64 processor—before they integrate IA-64 into their environments. "They’re being a puny bit leery of it [in] a production environment," he says. Jensen says TurboLinux is working on its McKinley version of Linux already.

    Jensen says that porting Linux to the IA-64 processor had its challenges. The 64-bit nature of the processor created challenging issues for moving applications over to the unique chip. "Dependencies on 32-bit create problems," he says. Some applications addressed specific 32-bit features that did not exist in Itanium. For the most part, applications could breathe recompiled for the chip. "In general, it’s along the identical code line," he says, "but the kernel has [alot of] different stuff."

    In addition to the core operating system, Jensen says many favorite Linux applications are likewise ready for prime time. Apache and other commonly used applications are production-ready, but "ISVs are going to breathe doing more application development," he says.

    Red Hat released its Red Hat Linux 7.1 for the Itanium processor in mid-June. Using the 2.4 kernel, Red Hat positions the unique release as a platform for testing 64-bit applications ported from 32-bit and RISC machines. The distribution is likewise suited to enterprise server needs; it runs on up to eight processors and offers unique configuration tools for BIND, Apache and printing.

    At the identical time, Linux vendor SuSE released an Itanium-specific distribution. SuSE Linux 7.2 for IA-64 uses six CD-ROMs to carry over 1,500 applications for the emerging platform. relish Red Hat, the company bills the package as a solution for evaluating and deploying Itanium-based servers.

    Although a preview version was already available from the Caldera FTP site at ftp.caldera.com/ia64, Caldera released two unique versions in May, accompanied by a public announcement. The final production version of OpenLinux Server 64 should breathe available late in the third quarter.

    Biff Traber, senior vice president and general manager of the server industry line at Caldera, says Caldera has puny to lose by waiting to release a production version. Customers will glimpse to the distribution for evaluation purposes, so a beta release meets their needs. "It’s a combination of testing, development and prototyping," he says.

    The Trillian project, which initiated development of a Linux kernel for the Itanium processor, first released a kernel in February 2000, predating Itanium’s general availability by over a year. Intel was aggressive in getting prototype chips to developers to ensure a market providing hardware, remote servers and emulators to enable open source developers to hold Linux ready for the release date.

    The project later changed its denomination to the more formal-sounding IA-64 Linux Project and worked to further enhance the development of Linux on Itanium. Itanium is not the first 64-bit platform to Run Linux—there were already flavors of Linux for Sun Microsystems Inc.’s Sparc processor and Compaq Computer Corp.’s Alpha. In addition to the distributors, the IA-64 Linux Project likewise boasted hardware vendors, Hewlett-Packard Co., IBM Corp., Silicon Graphics Inc., VA Linux Systems Inc. and NEC Corp., as well as Intel and Swiss research laboratory CERN.


    More About Filesystems | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the engage 

    If they account filesystems as a mechanism for both storing and locating data, then the two key elements for any filesystem are the items being stored and the list of where those items are. The deeper details of how a given filesystem manipulates its data and meta-information retreat beyond the scope of this chapter but are addressed further in Appendix B, "Anatomy of a Filesystem."

    Filesystem Components That the Admin Needs to Know About

    As always, they need to congregate a handle on the vocabulary before they can understand how the elements of a filesystem work together. The next three sections report the basic components with which you, as a sysadmin, need to breathe familiar.

    Files

    The most intuitively obvious components of a filesystem are, of course, its files. Because everything in UNIX is a file, special functions are differentiated by file type. There are fewer file types than you might imagine, as Table 3.2 shows.

    Table 3.2 File Types and Purposes, with Examples

    File Type

    Purpose/Contents

    Examples

    Directory

    Maintains information for directory structure

    /

    /usr

    /etc

    Block special

    Buffered device file

    Linux: /dev/hda1

    Solaris: /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s0

    Character special

    Raw device file

    Linux: /dev/tty0

    Solaris: /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s0

    UNIX domain socket

    Interprocess communication (IPC)

    See output of commands for files Linux: netstat –x Solaris: netstat -f unix

    Named pipe special (FIFO device)

    First-in-first-out IPC mechanism, Invoked by name

    Linux: /dev/initctl Solaris: /etc/utmppipe/etc/cron.d/FIFO

    Symbolic link

    Pointer to another file (any type)

    /usr/tmp -> ../var/tmp

    Regular

    All other files; holds data of every other types

    Text files protest files Database files Executables/binaries

    Notice that directories are a type of file. The key is that they hold a specific type of format and contents (see Appendix B for more details). A directory holds the filenames and index numbers (see the following section, "Inodes") of every its constituent files, including subdirectories.

    Directory files are not flat (or regular) files, but are indexed (like a database), so that you can still locate a file quickly when you hold a big number of files in the identical directory.13

    Even though file handling is generally transparent, it is famous to bethink that a file's data blocks14 may not breathe stored sequentially (or even in the identical general disk region). When data blocks are widely scattered in an uncoordinated manner, it can influence access times and expand I/O overhead.

    Inodes

    Meta-information about files is stored in structures called index nodes, or inodes. Their contents vary based on the particular filesystem in use, but every inodes hold the following information about the file they index:15

  • Inode identification number

  • File type

  • Owners: user and group

  • UNIX permissions

  • File size

  • Timestamps

  • ctime: ultimate file status change time

  • mtime: ultimate data modification time16

  • atime: ultimate access time

  • Reference/link count

  • Physical location information for data blocks

  • Notice that the filename is not stored in the inode, but as an entry in the file's closest parent directory.

    All other information about a file that ls displays is stored in an inode somewhere. With a few handy options, you can tow out lots of useful information. Let's insist that you want to know the inode number of the Solaris kernel.17 You just give the –i option, and voilá:

    [sun:10 ~]ls -i /kernel/genunix

    264206 genunix

    Of course, ls –l is an musty friend, telling you most everything that you want to know. Looking at the Solaris kernel again, you congregate the output in design 3.4.

    Figure 3.4 Diagrammed Output of ls on a File

    Notice that the timestamp shown by default in a long listing is mtime. You can pass various options to ls to view ctime and atime instead. For other nifty permutations, survey the ls man page.

    File Permissions and Ownership Refresher

    Because UNIX was designed to support many users, the question naturally arises how to know who can survey what files. The first and simplest reply is simply to permit users to examine only their own files. This, of course, would get it difficult, if not impossible, to share, creating noteworthy difficulties in collaborative environments and causing a string of other problems: Why can't I Run ls? Because the system created it, not you, is only the most obvious illustration of such problems.

    Users and Groups

    UNIX uses a three-part system to determine file access: There's what you, as the file owner, are allowed to do; there's what the group is allowed to do; and there's what other people are allowed to do. Let's survey what Elvis's permissions glimpse like:

    [ elvis@frogbog elvis ]$ ls -l

    total 36

    drwxr-xr-x 5 elvis users 4096 Dec 9 21:55 Desktop

    drwxr-xr-x 2 elvis users 4096 Dec 9 22:00 Mail

    -rw-r--r-- 1 elvis users 36 Dec 9 22:00 README

    -rw-r--r-- 1 elvis users 22 Dec 9 21:59 ThisFile

    drwxr-xr-x 2 elvis users 4096 Dec 12 19:57 arc

    drwxr-xr-x 2 elvis users 4096 Dec 10 00:40 songs

    -rw-r--r-- 1 elvis users 46 Dec 12 19:52 tao.txt

    -rw-r--r-- 1 elvis users 21 Dec 9 21:59 thisfile

    -rw-r--r-- 1 elvis users 45 Dec 12 19:52 west.txt

    As long as we're here, let's rupture down exactly what's being displayed. First, they hold a 10-character string of letters and hyphens. This is the representation of permissions, which I'll rupture down in a minute. The second particular is a number, usually a single digit. This is the number of hard links to that directory. I'll discuss this later in this chapter. The third thing is the username of the file owner, and the fourth is the denomination of the file's group. The fifth column is a number representing the size of the file, in bytes. The sixth contains the date and time of ultimate modification for the file, and the final column shows the filename.

    Every user on the system has a username and a number that is associated with that user. This number generally is referred to as the UID, short for user ID. If a user has been deleted but, for some reason, his files remain, the username is replaced with that user's UID. Similarly, if a group is deleted but still owns files, the GID (group number) shows up instead of a denomination in the group field. There are likewise other circumstances in which the system can't correlate the denomination and the number, but these should breathe relatively rare occurrences.

    As a user, you can't change the owner of your files: This would open up some serious security holes on the system. Only root can chown files, but if he makes a mistake, you can now interrogate root to chown the files to you. As a user, you can chgrp a file to a different group of which you are a member. That is, if Elvis is a member of a group named users and a group named elvis, he can chgrp elvis west.txt or chgrp users west.txt, but because he's not a member of the group beatles, he can't chgrp beatles west.txt. A user can belong to any number of groups. Generally (although this varies sort of by flavor), files created belong to the group to which the directory belongs. On most modern UNIX variants, the group that owns files is whatever group is listed as your primary group by the system in the /etc/passwd file and can breathe changed via the newgrp command. On these systems, Elvis can chgrp users if he wants his files to belong to the users group, or he can chgrp elvis if he wants his files to belong to the elvis group.

    Reading Permissions

    So, what were those amusing strings of letters and hyphens at the beginning of each long directory listing? I already said that they represented the permissions of the file, but that's not especially helpful. The 10 characters of that string delineate the permission bits for each file. The first character is separate, and the ultimate nine are three very similar groups of three characters. I'll define each of these in turn.

    If you glimpse back to Elvis's long listing of his directory, you'll survey that most of the files simply hold a hyphen as the first character, whereas several possess a d in this field. The more astute reader might note that the files with a d in that first province every happen to breathe directories. There's a sociable understanding for this: The first permissions character denotes whether that file is a special file of one sort or another.

    What's a special file? It's either something that isn't really a file (in the sense of a sequential stream of bytes on a disk) but that UNIX treats as a file, such as a disk or a video display, or something that is really a file but that is treated differently. A directory, by necessity, is a stream of bytes on disk, but that d means that it's treated differently.

    The next three characters delineate what the user who owns the file can effect with it. From left to right, these permissions are read, write, and execute. Read permission is just that—the capability to survey the contents of a file. Write permission implies not only the prerogative to change the contents of a file, but likewise the prerogative to delete it. If I effect not possess write permission to a file, rm not_ permitted.txt fails.

    Execute permission determines whether the file is likewise a command that can breathe Run on the system. Because UNIX sees everything as a file, every commands are stored in files that can breathe created, modified, and deleted relish any other file. The computer then needs a way to disclose what can and can't breathe run. The execute bit does this.

    Another famous understanding that you need to worry about whether a file is executable is that some programs are designed to breathe Run only by the system administrator: These programs can modify the computer's configuration or can breathe uncertain in some other way. Because UNIX enables you to specify permissions for the owner, the group, and other users, the execute bit enables the administrator to restrict the spend of uncertain programs.

    Directories treat the execute permission differently. If a directory does not hold execute permissions, that user (or group, or other users on the system) can't cd into that directory and can't glimpse at information about the files in that directory. (You usually can find the names of the files, however.) Even if you hold permissions for the files in that directory, you generally can't glimpse at them. (This varies sort of by platform.)

    The second set of three characters is the group permissions (read, write, and execute, in that order), and the final set of three characters is what other users on the system are permitted to effect with that file. Because of security concerns (either due to other users on your system or due to pervasive networks such as the Internet), giving write access to other users is highly discouraged.

    Changing Permissions

    Great, you can now read the permissions in the directory listing, but what can you effect with them? Let's insist that Elvis wants to get his directory readable only by himself. He can chmod go-rwx ~/songs: That means remove the read, write, and execute permissions for the group and others on the system. If Elvis decides to let Nashville artists seize a glimpse at his material but not change it (and if there's a group nashville on the system), he can first chgrp nashville songs and then chmod g+r songs.

    If Elvis does this, however, he'll find that (at least, on some platforms) members of group nashville can't glimpse at them. Oops! With a simple chmod g+x songs, the problem is solved:

    [ elvis@frogbog elvis ]$ ls -l

    total 36

    drwxr-xr-x 5 elvis users 4096 Dec 9 21:55 Desktop

    drwxr-xr-x 2 elvis users 4096 Dec 9 22:00 Mail

    -rw-r--r-- 1 elvis users 36 Dec 9 22:00 README

    -rw-r--r-- 1 elvis users 22 Dec 9 21:59 ThisFile

    drwxr-xr-x 2 elvis users 4096 Dec 12 19:57 arc

    drwxr-x--- 2 elvis nashvill 4096 Dec 15 14:21 songs

    -rw-r--r-- 1 elvis users 46 Dec 12 19:52 tao.txt

    -rw-r--r-- 1 elvis users 21 Dec 9 21:59 thisfile

    -rw-r--r-- 1 elvis users 45 Dec 12 19:52 west.txt

    Special Permissions

    In addition to the read, write, and execute bits, there exists special permissions used by the system to determine how and when to suspend the daily permission rules. Any thorough understanding of UNIX requires an understanding of the setuid, setgid, and sticky bits. For daily system users, only a general understanding of these is necessary, and this discussion is thus brief. sociable documentation on this subject exists elsewhere for budding system administrators and programmers.

    setuid

    The setuid bit applies only to executable files and directories. In the case of executable programs, it means that the given program runs as though the file owner were running it. That is, xhextris, a variant on Tetris, has the following permissions on my system:

    -rwsr-xr-x

    1 games games 32516 May 18 1999 /usr/X11R6/bin/xhextris

    There's a pseudouser called games on the system, which can't breathe logged into and has no home directory. When the xhextris program executes, it can read and write to files that only the game's pseudouser normally would breathe permitted. In this case, there's a high-score file stored on the system that writeable only by that user. When Elvis runs the game, the system acts as though he were the user games, and thus he is able to store the high-score file. To set the setuid bit on a file, you can disclose chmod to give it mode u+s. (You can account of this as uid set, although this isn't technically accurate.)

    setgid

    The setgid bit, which stands for "set group id," works almost identically to setuid, except that the system acts as though the user's group is that of the given file. If xhextris had used setgid games instead of setuid games, the high score would breathe writeable to any directory owned by the group games. It is used by the system administrator in ways fundamentally similar to the setuid permission.

    When applied to directories on Linux, Irix, and Solaris (and probably most other POSIX-compliant UNIX flavors as well), the setgid bit means that unique files are given the parent directory's group rather than the user's primary or current group. This can breathe useful for, say, a directory for fonts built by (and for) a given program. Any user might generate the fonts via a setgid command that writes to a setgid directory. setgid on directories varies by platform; check your documentation. To set the setgid bit, you can disclose chmod to spend g+s (gid set).

    sticky

    Although a file in a group or world-writeable directory without the sticky bit can breathe deleted by anyone with write permission for that directory (user, group, or other), a file in a directory with the sticky bit set can breathe deleted only by either the file's owner or root. This is particularly useful for creating temporary directories or scratch space that can breathe used by anyone without one's files being deleted by others. You can set permission +t in chmod to give something the sticky bit.

    Numeric Permissions

    Like almost everything else on UNIX, permissions hold a number associated with them. It's generally considered that permissions are a group of four digits, each between 0 and 7. Each of those digits represents a group of three permissions, each of which is a yes/no answer. From left to right, those digits delineate special permissions, user permissions, group permissions, and other permissions.

    So, About Those permission Bits...

    Most programs reading permission bits anticipate four digits, although often only three are given. Shorter numbers are filled in with leading zeros: 222 is treated as 0222, and 5 is treated as 0005. The three rightmost digits are, as previously mentioned, user (owner) permissions, group permissions, and other permissions, from prerogative to left.

    Each of these digits is calculated in the following manner: read permission has a value of 4, write permission has a value of 2, and execute permission has a value of 1. Simply add these values together, and you've got that permission value. Read, write, and execute would breathe 7, read and write without execute would breathe 6, and no permission to effect anything would breathe 0. Read, write, and execute for the file owner, with read and execute for the group and nothing at every for anyone else, would breathe 750. Read and write for the user and group, but only read for others, would breathe 664.

    The special permissions are 4 for setuid, 2 for setgid, and 1 for sticky. This digit is prepended to the three-digit numeric permission: A temporary directory with sticky read, write, and execute permission for everyone would breathe mode 1777. A setuid root directory writeable by nobody else would breathe 4700. You can spend chmod to set numeric permissions directly, as in chmod 1777 /tmp.

    umask

    In addition to a more precise spend of chmod, numeric permissions are used with the umask command, which sets the default permissions. More precisely, it "masks" the default permissions: The umask value is subtracted from the maximum practicable settings.* umask deals only with the three-digit permission, not the full-fledged four-digit value. A umask of 002 or 022 is most commonly the default. 022, subtracted from 777, is 755: read, write, and execute for the user, and read and execute for the group and others. 002 from 777 is 775: read, write, and execute for the user and group, and read and execute for others. I tend to set my umask to 077: read, write, and execute for myself, and nothing for my group or others. (Of course, when working on a group project, I set my umask to 007: My group and I can read, write, or execute anything, but others can't effect anything with their files.)

    You should note that the umask assumes that the execute bit on the file will breathe set. every umasks are subtracted from 777 rather than 666, and those extra ones are subtracted later, if necessary. (See Appendix B for more details on permission bits and umask workings.)

    *Actually, the permission bits are XORed with the maximum practicable settings, if you're a computer science type.

    Also notice that the first bit of output prepended to the permissions string indicates the file type. This is one handy way of identifying a file's type. Another is the file command, as shown in Table 3.3.

    Table 3.3 ls File Types and file Output Sample

    File Type

    ls File Type Character

    File panoply Example

    Directory

    d

    [either:1 ~]file /usr/usr: directory

    Block special device

    b

    [linux: 10 ~] file /dev/hda1/dev/hda1: block special (3/1)[sun:10 root ~]file /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s0/dev/dsk/c0t0d0s0: block special(136/0)

    Character special device

    c

    [linux:11 ~] file /dev/tty0/dev/tty0: character special (4/0)

    [ensis:11 ~]file /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s0/dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s0: character special (136/0)

    UNIX domain socket

    s

    [linux:12 ~] file /dev/log/dev/log: socket

    [sun:12 ~]file /dev/ccv/dev/ccv: socket

    Named pipe special (FIFO device)

    p

    [linux:13 ~] file /dev/initctl/dev/initctl: fifo (named pipe)

    [sun:13 ~]file /etc/utmppipe/etc/utmppipe: fifo

    Symbolic link

    l

    [linux:14 ~] file /usr/tmp/usr/tmp: symbolic link to ../var/tmp

    [sun:14 ~]file -h /usr/tmp/usr/tmp: symbolic link to ¬../var/tmp

    Regular

    -

    [linux:15 ~] file /etc/passwd/etc/passwd: ASCII text

    [linux:15 ~] file /boot/vmlinux-2.4.2-2/boot/vmlinux-2.4.2-2: ELF 32-bit LSB executable,

    ¬Intel 80386, version 1,statically linked, not stripped

    [linux:15 ~] file /etc/rc.d/init.d/sshd/etc/rc.d/init.d/sshd: Bourne-Again shell script text executable

    [sun:15 ~]file /etc/passwd

    /etc/passwd: ascii text

    [sun:15 ~]file /kernel/genunix

    -/kernel/genunix: ELF 32-bit MSB relocatable

    ¬SPARC Version 1

    [sun:15 ~]file /etc/init.d/sshd

    /etc/init.d/sshd: executable

    ¬/sbin/sh script

    Notice the in-depth information that file gives—in many cases, it shows details about the file that no other command will readily panoply (such as what kindhearted of executable the file is). These low-level details are beyond the scope of their discussion, but the man page has more information.

    Important Points about the file ommand

    file tries to design out what type a file is based on three types of test:

  • The file type that the ls –l command returns.

  • -The presence of a magic number at the beginning of the file identifying the file type. These numbers are defined in the file /usr/share/magic in Red Hat Linux 7.1 and /usr/lib/locale/locale/LC_MESSAGES/magic (or /etc/magic) in Solaris 8. Typically, only binary files will hold magic numbers.

  • -In the case of a regular/text file, the first few bytes are tested to determine the type of text representation and then to determine whether the file has a recognized purpose, such as C code or a Perl script.

  • file actually opens the file and changes the atime in the inode.

    Inode lists are maintained by the filesystem itself, including which ones are free for use. Inode allocation and manipulation is every transparent to both sysadmins and users.

    Inodes become significant at two times for the sysadmin: at filesystem creation time and when the filesystem runs out of free inodes. At filesystem creation time, the total number of inodes for the filesystem is allocated. Although they are not in use, space is set aside for them. You cannot add any more inodes to a filesystem after it has been created. When you Run out of inodes, you must either free some up (by deleting or moving files) or migrate to another, larger filesystem.

    Without inodes, files are just a random assortment of ones and zeros on the disk. There is no guarantee that the file will breathe stored sequentially within a sector or track, so without an inode to point the way to the data blocks, the file is lost. In fact, every file is uniquely identified by the combination of its filesystem denomination and inode number.

    See Appendix B for more particular information on the exact content of inodes and their structure.

    Linux has a very useful command called stat that dumps the contents of an inode in a tidy format:

    [linux:9 ~]stat . File: "." Size: 16384 Filetype: Directory Mode: (0755/drwxr-xr-x) Uid: (19529/ robin) Gid:(20/users) Device: 0,4 Inode: 153288707 Links: 78 Access: Sun Jul 22 13:58:29 2001(00009.04:37:59) Modify: Sun Jul 22 13:58:29 2001(00009.04:37:59) Change: Sun Jul 22 13:58:29 2001(00009.04:37:59) Boot block and Superblock

    When a filesystem is created, two structures are automatically created, whether they are immediately used or not. The first is called the boot block, where boot-time information is stored. Because a partition may breathe made bootable at will, this structure needs to breathe available at every times.

    The other structure, of more interest here, is the superblock. Just as an inode contains meta-information about a file, a superblock contains metainformation about a filesystem. Some of the more censorious contents are listed here:18

  • Filesystem name

  • Filesystem size

  • Timestamp: ultimate update

  • Superblock state flag

  • Filesystem state flag: clean, stable, active

  • Number of free blocks

  • List of free blocks

  • Pointer to next free block

  • Size of inode list

  • Number of free inodes

  • List of free inodes

  • Pointer to next free inode

  • Lock fields for free blocks and inodes

  • Summary data block

  • And you thought inodes were complex.

    The superblock keeps track of free file blocks and free inodes so that the filesystem can store unique files. Without these lists and pointers, a long, sequential search would hold to breathe performed to find free space every time a file was created.

    In much the identical way that files without inodes are lost, filesystems without intact superblocks are inaccessible. That's why there is a superblock state flag—to witness whether the superblock was properly and completely updated before the disk (or system) was ultimate taken offline. If it was not, then a consistency check must breathe performed for the whole filesystem and the results stored back in the superblock.

    Again, more particular information about the superblock and its role in UNIX filesystems may breathe create in Appendix B.

    Filesystem Types

    Both Red Hat and Solaris recognize a army of different filesystem types, although you will generally End up using and supporting just a few. There are three standard types of filesystem—local, network, and pseudo—and a fourth "super-filesystem" type that is actually losing ground, given the size of modern disks.

    Local Filesystems

    Local filesystems are common to every system that has its own local disk.19 Although there are many instances of this type of filesystem, they are every designed to work within a system, managing the components discussed in the ultimate section and interfacing with the physical drive(s).

    Only a few local filesystems are specifically designed to breathe cross-platform (and sometimes even cross–OS-type). They arrive in handy, though, when you hold a nondisk hardware failure; you can just seize the disk and allot it into another machine to retrieve the data.20 The UNIX File System, or ufs, was designed for this; both Solaris and Red Hat Linux machines can spend disks with this filesystem. Note that Solaris uses ufs filesystems by default. Red Hat's default local filesystem is ext2.

    Another local, cross-platform filesystem is ISO9660, the CD-ROM standard. This is why you can read your Solaris CD in a Red Hat box's reader.

    Local filesystems arrive in two related but separate flavors. The original, standard model filesystem is still in broad spend today. The newer journaling filesystem type is just beginning to really arrive into its own. The major disagreement between the two types is the way they track changes and effect integrity checks.

    Standard Filesystems

    Standard, nonjournaling filesystems reckon on flags in the superblock for consistency regulation. If the superblock flag is not set to "clean," then the filesystem knows that it was not shut down properly: not every write buffers were flushed to disk, and so on. Inconsistency in a filesystem means that allocated inodes could breathe overwritten; free inodes could breathe counted as in use—in short, rampant file corruption, mass hysteria.

    But there is a filesystem integrity checker to reclaim the day: fsck. This command is usually invoked automatically at boot-time to verify that every filesystems are antiseptic and stable. If the / or /usr filesystems are inconsistent, the system might prompt you to start up a miniroot shell and manually Run fsck. A few of the more censorious items checked and corrected are listed here:

  • Unclaimed blocks and inodes (not in free list or in use)

  • Unreferenced but allocated blocks and inodes

  • Multiply claimed blocks and inodes

  • Bad inode formats

  • Bad directory formats

  • Bad free block or inode list formats

  • Incorrect free block or inode counts

  • Superblock counts and flags

  • Note that a filesystem should breathe unmounted before running fsck (see the later section "Administering Local Filesystems"). Running fsck on a mounted filesystem might cause a system panic and crash, or it might simply refuse to Run at all. It's likewise best, though not required, that you Run fsck on the raw device, when possible. survey the man page for more details and options.

    So where does fsck allot orphans, the blocks and inodes that are clearly in spend but aren't referenced anywhere? Enter the lost+found directories. There is always a /lost+found directory on every system; other directories accrue them as fsck finds orphans in their purview. fsck automatically creates the directories as needed and renames the lost blocks into there by inode number. survey the man pages "mklost+found" on Red Hat and "fsck_ufs" on Solaris.

    Journaling Filesystems

    Journaling filesystems effect away with fsck and its concomitant superblock structures. every filesystem state information is internally tracked and monitored, in much the identical way that databases systems set up checkpoints and self-verifications.

    With journaling filesystems, you hold a better random of replete data recovery in the event of a system crash. Even unsaved data in buffers can breathe recovered thanks to the internal log.21 This kindhearted of foible tolerance makes journaling filesystems useful in high- availability environments.

    The drawback, of course, is that when a filesystem relish this gets corrupted somehow, it presents major difficulties for recovery. Most journaling filesystems provide their own salvaging programs for spend in case of emergency. This underscores how censorious backups are, no matter what kindhearted of filesystem software you've invested in. survey Chapter 16, "Backups," for more information.

    One of the earliest journaling filesystems is still a commercial venture: VxFS by Veritas. Another pioneer has decided to release its software into the public domain under GPL22 licensing: JFS23 by IBM. SGI's xfs journaling filesystem has been freely available under GPL since about 1999, although it is only designed to work under IRIX and Linux.24

    Maintenance of filesystem state incurs an overhead when using journaling filesystems. As a result, these filesystems discharge suboptimally for small filesystem sizes. Generally, journaling filesystems are preempt for filesystem sizes of 500Mb or more.

    Network Filesystems

    Network-based filesystems are really add-ons to local filesystems because the file server must hold the actual data stored in one of its own local filesystems.25 Network file- systems hold both a server and client program.

    The server usually runs as a daemon on the system that is sharing disk space. The server's local filesystems are unaffected by this extra process. In fact, the daemon generally only puts a few messages in the syslog and is otherwise only visible through ps.

    The system that wants to access the server's disk space runs the client program to mount the shared filesystems across the network. The client program handles every the I/O so that the network filesystem behaves just a relish a local filesystem toward the client machine.

    The musty standby for network-based filesystems is the Network File System (NFS). The NFS standard is currently up to revision 3, though there are quite a number of implementations with their own version numbers. Both Red Hat and Solaris arrive standard with NFS client and server packages. For more details on the inner workings and configuration of NFS, survey Chapter 13, "File Sharing."

    Other network-based filesystems comprehend AFS (IBM's Andrew File System) and DFS/DCE (Distributed File System, piece of the Open Group's Distributed Computing Environment). The mechanisms of these advanced filesystems retreat beyond the scope of this book, although their goal is still the same: to efficiently share files across the network transparently to the user.

    Pseudo Filesystems

    Pseudofilesystems are an enchanting development in that they are not actually related to disk-based partitions. They are instead purely logical constructs that delineate information and meta-information in a hierarchical structure. Because of this structure and because they can breathe manipulated with the mount command, they are still referred to as filesystems.

    The best illustration of pseudofilesystems exists on both Red Hat and Solaris systems: /proc. Under Solaris, /proc is restricted to just managing process information:

    [sun:1 ~]ls /proc 0 145 162 195 206 230 262 265 272 286 299 303 342 370 403 408 _672 752 1 155 185 198 214 243 263 266 278 292 3 318 360 371 404 52 _674 142 157 192 2 224 252 264 268 280 298 302 319 364 400 406 58 _678

    Note that these directories are every named according to the process numbers corresponding to what you would find in the output of ps. The contents of each directory are the various meta-information that the system needs to manage the process.

    Under Red Hat, /proc provides information about processes as well as about various system components and statistics:

    [linux:1 ~] ls /proc 1 18767 23156 24484 25567 28163 4 493 674 8453 ksyms _stat 13557 18933 23157 24486 25600 3 405 5 675 9833 loadavg _swaps 13560 18934 23158 24487 25602 3050 418 5037 676 9834 locks _sys 13561 18937 23180 24512 25603 3051 427 5038 7386 9835 mdstat _tty 1647 19709 23902 24541 25771 3052 441 5054 7387 bus meminfo _uptime 1648 19730 23903 24775 25772 30709 455 5082 7388 cmdline misc _version 1649 19732 23936 25494 25773 30710 473 510 7414 cpuinfo modules 16553 19733 24118 25503 25824 30712 485 5101 7636 devices mounts 18658 2 24119 25504 25882 30729 486 524 7637 dma mtrr 18660 21450 24120 25527 25920 320 487 558 7638 filesystems net 18661 21462 24144 25533 26070 335 488 6 7662 fs _partitions 18684 21866 24274 25534 26071 337 489 670 8426 interrupts pci 18685 21869 24276 25541 26072 338 490 671 8427 ioports scsi 18686 21870 24277 25542 28161 339 491 672 8428 kcore self 18691 21954 24458 25543 28162 365 492 673 8429 kmsg slabinfo

    Again they survey the directories named for process numbers, but they likewise survey directories with indicative names such as cpuinfo and loadavg. Because this is a hierarchical filesystem, you can cd into these directories and read the various files for their system information.

    The most enchanting thing about /proc is that it allows even processes to breathe treated relish files.26 This means that pretty much everything in UNIX, whether it is something that just exists or something that actually happens, can now breathe considered a file.

    For more information under Red Hat, type man proc. For more information under Solaris, type man –s 4 proc.

    Logical Volumes

    Finally, there are the "super-filesystems" or logical volumes that effect what the other major types of filesystem cannot: surmount the barriers of partitions. You may well interrogate why anyone would want to effect that. There are two reasons. First, because disks used to breathe a lot smaller and more costly, you used what you had at hand. If you needed a big pool of disk space, logical volumes allowed you to aggregate remnants into something useable. Second, even with larger disks, you still might not breathe able to achieve the kindhearted of disk space required by a particular researcher or program. Once again, logical volumes allow you to aggregate partitions across disks to configuration one big filesystem.

    Crossing disk boundaries with a logical volume is referred to as disk spanning. Once you hold logical volumes, you can likewise hold some fairly tangled data management methods and performance-enhancing techniques. Disk striping, for example, is a performance booster. Instead of sequentially filling one disk and then the next in series, it spreads the data in discrete chunks across disks, allowing better I/O response through parallel operations.

    RAID27 implements logical volumes at 10 separate levels, with various features at each level. This implementation can breathe done either in hardware or in software, although the nomenclature for both is the same.28

    Table 3.4 RAID Levels

    RAID Level

    Features

    Implications

    0

    Disk striping

    Fastest

    Not self-repairing

    1

    Disk mirroring

    Fast

    Self-repairing

    -Requires extra drives for data duplication

    2

    Disk striping

    Fast

    Error correction

    Self-repairing

    (Very similar to RAID-3)

    3

    Disk striping

    Slower

    Parity disk

    Self-repairing

    Error correction

    Requires separate parity disk

    4

    Disk striping

    Slower

    Parity disk

    Self-repairing

    Requires separate parity disk

    (Very similar to RAID-5)

    5

    Disk striping

    Slowest for writes, but

    Rotating parity array

    good for reads

    Self-repairing

    Requires three to five separate parity disks

    Reconstruction by parity data (not duplication)

    6

    RAID-5 + secondary

    Not in broad use

    parity scheme

    7

    RAID-5 + real-time embedded controller

    Not in broad use

    0+1

    Mirrored striping

    -RAID-0 array duplicated (mirrored)

    1+0

    Striped mirroring

    -Each stripe is RAID-1 (mirrored) array

    High cost

    0+3

    Array of parity stripes

    Each stripe is RAID-3 array

    High cost

    Clearly, the kindhearted of complexity inherent in every logical volume systems requires some kindhearted of back-end management system. Red Hat offers the logical Volume Manager (LVM) as a kernel module. While the details of LVM are beyond the scope of this book, it is enchanting to note that you can allot any filesystem that you want on top of the logical volume. Start at http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO.htmlfor more details.

    Although Sun offers logical volume management, it is through a for-pay program called "Solstice DiskSuite." The filesystem on DiskSuite logical volumes must breathe ufs. For more information, start at http://docs.sun.com/ab2/coll.260.2/DISKSUITEREF.

    Another commercial logical volume manager for Solaris comes from Veritas; see: http://www.veritas.com/us/products/volumemanager/faq.html#a24

    The beauty of every logical volumes is that they show to breathe just another local filesystem and are completely transparent to the user. However, logical volumes effect add some complexity for the systems administrator, and the schema should breathe carefully documented on paper, in case it needs to breathe re-created.

    NAS

    Normally, a file server's disks are directly attached to the file server. With network-attached storage (NAS), the file server and the disks that it serves are separate entities, communicating over the local network. The storage disks require an aggregate controller that arbitrates file I/O requests from the external server(s). The server(s) and the aggregate controller each hold separate network IP addresses. To serve the files to clients, a file (or application) server sends file I/O requests to the NAS aggregate controller and relays the results back to client systems.

    NAS is touched on here for completeness—entire books can breathe written about NAS design and implementation. NAS does not really delineate a type of filesystem, but rather it is a mechanism to lighten the file server from the details of hardware disk access by isolating them in the network-attached storage unit.

    Red Hat Filesystem Reference Table

    Table 3.5 lists major filesystems that currently support (or are supported by) Red Hat.29 The filesystem types that are currently natively supported are listed in /usr/src/linux/ fs/filesytems.c.

    Table 3.5 Filesystem Types and Purposes, with Examples (Red Hat)

    Filesystem Type

    Specific Instances (as Used in /etc/fstab)

    Purpose

    Local

    ext2

    Red Hat default filesystem

    ufs

    Solaris compatibility

    jfs

    Journaling filesystem from IBM

    xfs

    Journaling filesystem from SGI

    msdos

    Windows compatibility: DOS

    ntfs

    Windows compatibility: NT

    vfat

    Windows compatibility: FAT-32

    sysv

    SYS-V compatibility

    iso9660

    CD-ROM

    Adfs hfs romfs

    Others

    Affs hpfs smbfs

    Coda mnix udf

    devpts ncpfs umsdos

    efs qux4

    coherent

    Deprecated, pre-kernel 2.1.21

    ext

    xenix

    xiafs

    Network

    afs

    Network-based remote communication

    autofs

    nfs

    Pseudo

    proc

    Store process (and other system) meta-information

    Solaris Filesystem Reference Table

    Table 3.6 lists major filesystems that currently support (or are supported by) Solaris. The filesystem types that currently are natively supported are listed as directories under /usr/lib/fs.

    Table 3.6 Filesystem Types and Purposes, with Examples (Solaris)

    Filesystem Type

    Specific Instances (as Used in /etc/vfstab)

    Purpose

    Local

    ufs

    Solaris default filesystem; Red Hat-compatible

    pcfs

    PC filesystem

    hsfs

    CD-ROM

    jfs

    Journaling filesystem from IBM

    Network

    afs

    Network-based remote communication

    nfs

    Pseudo

    procfs

    Store process metainformation

    Fdfs swapfs tmpfs

    Mount metainformation areas as filesystems

    mntfs cachefs lofs

    fifofs specfs udfs namefs



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