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S90-18A Fundamental SOA Security

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Test title : Fundamental SOA Security
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SOA Fundamental SOA Security

SOA fundamentals | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter from a hundred SOA Questions solutions the questions, what is SOA, is SOA an architectural vogue, what are primary constructs (the DNA) of SOA, what's the change between an internet carrier and an SOA carrier and what makes a venture an SOA implementation?

This chapter is from the publication 
  • Delusions, blunders, and lies are dote big, gaudy vessels, the rafters of which are rotten and worm-eaten, and those that embark in them are fated to live shipwrecked.
  • —Buddha
  • service-oriented architecture (SOA) is defined in a brace of ways, but not complete definitions are equal, and never complete definitions are complete. in its belt of just offering a different definition of SOA, this chapter describes the simple pile blocks of SOA and appears on the charge proposition of SOA from key stakeholder views. anyway protecting the fundamental constructing blocks of SOA, its DNA, and the value propositions of adopting SOA and its top-rated utility, this chapter describes what makes an implementation an SOA deployment. exceptionally, this chapter addresses prerogative here questions:

  • what is SOA?
  • Is SOA an architectural trend?
  • What are fundamental constructs (the DNA) of SOA?
  • what's the change between a web service and an SOA provider?
  • What makes a undertaking an SOA implementation?
  • 1. what is SOA?

    a lot of companies, utility suppliers, gadget integrators, architects, authors, analysts corporations, and necessities bodies give definitions of SOA. The definitions of SOA are distinctive. Most are complementary and don't affray with every other. SOA has a variety of definitions since the definition is commonly tuned to a selected viewers, as explaining SOA to a CEO is distinctive from explaining SOA to a programmer. The time epoch service orientation is often used synonymously with SOA, but just dote SOA it has a wide orbit of interpretations. service orientation is broader and represents a means of considering capabilities within the context of enterprise and IT. This publication makes no distinction between SOA and service orientation and in some cases might also consume both phrases synonymously.

    An agreed-upon definition for SOA eludes the trade. any person reading Wikipedia's definition page for SOA will see the challenges of making an attempt to profit consensus on an SOA definition. requisites bodies, the OASIS neighborhood, and the Open group fill supplied complementary however several SOA definitions. introduced with a blank sheet of paper, an artist sees a canvas. A poet might fill it with verse. An engineer seizes the possibility to gain a paper aircraft. youngsters might also see it as a future pile of spit wads. SOA is that blank sheet of paper.

    To the executive counsel officer (CIO), SOA is a event that promises to reduce the lifetime cost of the utility portfolio, maximize recrudesce on funding (ROI) in each software and know-how components, and in the reduction of lead instances in providing solutions to the business.

    To the enterprise executive, SOA is a set of capabilities that can also live uncovered to their customers, partners, and other materials of the firm. enterprise capabilities, characteristic, and enterprise marvelous judgment will also live combined and recombined to serve the wants of the trade now and the next day. purposes serve the enterprise because they are composed of features that will also live at once modified or redeployed in modern company contexts, enabling the company to without slow respond to changing customer needs, trade alternatives, and market situations.

    To the enterprise analyst, SOA is a way of unlocking value, as a result of trade methods aren't any longer locked in application silos. functions no longer role as inhibitors to changing trade wants.

    To the chief architect or commercial enterprise architect, SOA is a means to create dynamic, particularly configurable and collaborative purposes developed for change. SOA reduces IT complexity and rigidity. SOA becomes the answer to stop the gradual entropy that makes functions brittle and elaborate to exchange. SOA reduces lead times and costs as a result of decreased complexity makes editing and checking out functions more convenient when they are structured the usage of functions.

    To the IT architect, SOA is the architectural answer for integrating different methods by means of offering an architectural style that promotes unfastened coupling and reuse. Many IT architects suppose they've seen this style earlier than with prior architectural initiatives akin to DCE, the distributed Computing ambiance, and CORBA, the ordinary kick Request broker architecture.

    To the developer, SOA is a programming mannequin or paradigm the belt internet features and contracts turns into a predominant design for interoperability. it's an internet carrier when it uses a web carrier Description Language (WSDL) or equivalent specification for describing the provider. web functions allow agencies to talk guidance, the usage of messages, devoid of intimate competencies of every different's IT programs.

    offering on the promises of SOA (enhanced enterprise agility, maximized ROI, decreased IT complexity and pressure, decreased costs, reduced lead times, decreased risk, modern opportunities to deliver value, accelerated participation in charge networks, and incremental implementation) requires you Take a holistic view of SOA. If they restrict the view of SOA to a single stakeholder (e.g., IT architect, developer, or company analyst) the benefits will not accrue because SOA then simply turns into one in a long listing of overhyped technologies as opposed to a novel routine to constructing bendy enterprise solutions.

    2. Is SOA an Architectural style?

    SOA is regularly seen as an architectural vogue that has been round for years. determine 1.1 indicates the architectural trend of SOA. during this scenario, a service purchaser invokes or uses a provider. The carrier consumer uses the carrier description to acquire imperative suggestions concerning the provider provider (e.g., account provider) to live consumed. The carrier description gives the binding suggestions so the buyer can connect with the service, and the outline identifies the quite a few operations (e.g., open or shut account) accessible from the provider provider. A broking service can also live used to ascertain the provider the usage of a registry that properties counsel concerning the carrier and its region.

    In determine 1.1, it is complicated to check how the architecture trend of SOA enables the strategic advantages of SOA, similar to reducing the lifetime can imbue of an software or bringing sooner time to market or making purposes resilient to trade. SOA as an architectural trend frequently makes an SOA task entirely an IT pastime where the strategic trade advantages of SOA now not become the focal point or measured consequences. advantages of routine flexibility, time-to-market discount rates, reduce expenses, and others may also live carried out with SOA, but best if they holistically adopt complete stakeholder views of SOA and its application and pursue SOA adoption as a result. When pundits, architects, consultants, or executives outline SOA as a sheer know-how play or as completely an architectural vogue, they relegate it to the realm of IT science tasks, overhyped technologies, and a advertising approach rather than a novel routine to constructing supple company solutions.

    An understanding of SOA is more suitable with the next query and reply. via searching at the SOA constructing blocks of SOA, that you could capitalize a fuller realizing of what SOA is and the way to realize its promised benefits.

    3. What Are the simple Constructs (the DNA) of SOA?

    essentially the most basic assemble or constructing block of SOA is a provider. utility engineering through the years has advanced from procedural to structured programming to object-oriented programming to component-primarily based pile and now to carrier oriented. determine 1.2 illustrates the distinctive ranges of abstraction from objects to functions. every evolution of abstraction builds on the previous, and SOA embraces the greatest practices of kick and component construction.

    to explore architectural style of SOA, mention to device 1.1. That illustration shows the primary constructs of SOA, such because the provider consumer and the provider provider and their relationship. The purchaser invokes a provider, the enterprise performance, by contract. The issuer of the service defines the contract as a carrier description. An intermediary, such as a broking service, uses a registry to ascertain or search for published functions. carrier consumer, carrier provider, provider description, service broking service, and a registry are complete a Part of the DNA of SOA.

    A carrier in SOA is the logical, self-contained company function. capabilities in SOA fill here attributes:

  • Stateless: SOA capabilities neither bear in judgement the closing aspect they fill been asked to conclude nor conclude they custody what the subsequent is. features aren't stylish on the context or state of different capabilities, simplest on their functionality. speakme on the mobilephone is stateful, whereas posting a missive is stateless. The worldwide net provides a brilliant instance, where each and every request from a consumer for an internet web page or URL outcomes in the requested pages being served, however devoid of the net server remembering the request later. each and every request or communication is discrete and unrelated to requests that precede or commemorate it.
  • Discoverable: A service fill to live discoverable with the aid of knowledge buyers of the service. in spite of everything, if a provider is not well-known to exist, it's not likely ever for use. capabilities are published or uncovered through carrier suppliers in the SOA service directory, from which they are discovered and invoked with the aid of service patrons.
  • Self-describing: The SOA service interface describes, exposes, and provides an entry factor to the service. The interface contains complete the tips a service consumer should ascertain and fix to the carrier, without ever requiring the client to remember (and even see) the technical implementation particulars.
  • Composable: SOA features are, by nature, composite. They will also live composed from other features and, in turn, can also live mixed with different capabilities to compose modern company solutions.
  • unfastened coupling: free coupling enables the concerns of software points to live separated into independent pieces. This separation of issue gives a mechanism for one service to title a further devoid of being tightly bound to it. Separation of concerns is carried out by way of setting up boundaries, the belt a restrict is any rational or physical separation that delineates a given set of responsibilities. as an example, an account service has open account, authorization, and audit points representing delineations of duties and three separations of issues.
  • governed by means of policy: services are constructed by using contract. Relationships between features (and between features and repair domains) are ruled by using policies and service-level agreements (SLAs), merchandising technique consistency and reducing complexity.
  • unbiased location, language, and protocol: features are designed to live region transparent and protocol/platform impartial (often speakme, purchasable through any approved user, on any platform, from any place).
  • moreover, features in a provider-oriented structure usually fill here qualities:

  • Coarse-grained: services are customarily coarse-grained enterprise features. Granularity is an announcement of purposeful richness for a carrier—the greater coarse-grained a provider is, the richer the characteristic offered via the carrier. Coarse-grained capabilities in the reduction of complexity for system developers by way of limiting the steps essential to fulfill a given enterprise characteristic, and they cleave back stress on system materials by using limiting the "chattiness" of the digital dialog. purposes through nature are coarse-grained as a result of they encompass a large set of performance; the add-ons that incorporate applications could live first-rate-grained. in a similar fashion, within an utility, a carrier corresponding to "get account suggestions" (which returns name, account number, and tackle) could live described as coarse-grained, whereas a service to "get account number" could live described as great-grained.
  • Asynchronous: Asynchronous communication is not required of an SOA service, however does boost device scalability through asynchronous behavior and messaging thoughts. Unpredictable network latency and exorbitant communications fees can behind response instances in an SOA atmosphere, due to the allotted nature of services. Asynchronous conduct and messaging allow a service to subject a carrier request and then proceed processing until the provider company returns a response.
  • viewed from the top down, SOA includes prerogative here constructs, as illustrated in device 1.three: consumer, company procedures, capabilities, accessories, counsel, rules, and policies. consumers allow invocation or composition of functions on the consumer layer through social utility, mashups, trade procedures, or different programs. enterprise procedures signify the flows of actions required to finished a company technique; they are compositions of functions targeted to achieve company dreams. features are the leading structuring constituent required by way of a provider buyer and are supplied by using the carrier company. features present functionality and exceptional of carrier, both of which might live externalized inside service descriptions and guidelines. capabilities can live composed of other functions, as a result making them composite services. components know no longer simplest the performance of the features they expose but also gain sure their exceptional of provider. suggestions flows between the layers (as an instance, client, procedure, and service) and inside a layer. ultimately, suggestions and guidelines exist for services, components, and flows.

    despite the fact objects are illustrated in determine 1.three, the live awake kick doesn't bespeak an implementation of kick orientation, because the kick can easily live a procedural subroutine carried out in a legion of languages as effortlessly as it can also live carried out in a object-oriented programming language. SOA exigency to fill functions and components that realize the capabilities. strategies or flows can also string features together to fulfill a step or activity of a enterprise manner. as an instance a switch of money carrier might also string collectively each a debit and credit account service.

    there is additionally a know-how view of SOA. technology allows for SOA, makes it efficient, and optimizes the implementation, but SOA isn't defined through the technologies chosen for implementation. as an alternative, SOA is described with the aid of offering a uniform capability to offer, discover, engage with, and consume capabilities (capabilities) to bear favored consequences consistent with measurable expectations.

    The main applied sciences linked to SOA encompass business-focused equipment, application construction equipment, and middleware applied sciences. device 1.four illustrates the fundamental know-how constructing blocks for SOA. tools are required for SOA addressing design-time and runtime situations. company stakeholders consume business-concentrated paraphernalia for modeling and evaluation of trade strategies and flows, and they're going to additionally consume company pastime monitoring know-how to capitalize insights into company efficiency of methods and workflow. IT practitioners consume a collection of paraphernalia for evolution of enterprise functions and for managing the working atmosphere addressing integration, monitoring, and security.

    The DNA of SOA will obviously live additional investigated and described by using standards companies actively worried in defining an SOA ontology. as an instance, see Such an ontology will wield SOA key ideas, including functions, carrier contracts, carrier interfaces, composition (orchestration, choreography, and collaboration), approaches, service compositions, policies, and hobbies. each of those makes up the DNA of SOA.

    four. what's the inequity Between a web provider and an SOA carrier?

    The distinction between trade services or SOA features versus a web service is not commonly articulated, and a lot of equate the two as being the same. SOA functions will also live realized as internet capabilities, however now not complete web services are equal to SOA services. web capabilities delineate the consume of both a printed standard and a group of technologies for invocation and interoperability. SOA capabilities are services that fulfill a key step or exercise of a enterprise procedure and might live described as enterprise functions and are often uncovered as net functions.

    determine 1.three illustrates each an SOA service and an internet service. The photo indicates the change between SOA and web features at runtime (i.e., implementation degree) and at design time. The internet carrier is illustrated on the remedy side of device 1.5, chiefly the internet functions Description Language (WSDL) and its attributes comparable to port types and operations. The impute that makes it an internet service is using WSDL or equal.

    In design, they establish and specify a provider that offers the design, or they determine and specify interfaces that encompass components necessities. The compund of the definition of the routine and the interface at design time is what they consult with as a service from an SOA point of view. consume situations can also live used to capture the purposeful requirements for a provider. device 1.5 contrasts the alterations between a carrier in SOA and an internet provider. each SOA services and web capabilities are a Part of the DNA of SOA.

    In an SOA, company procedures, actions, and workflow are damaged down into constituent useful elements referred to as services. They will also live accessed and used directly through applications, or they can also live combined and matched with other capabilities to create modern trade capabilities. company functions or SOA services are reusable company capabilities. Examples in banking consist of open account or exchange handle. For transportation, it may live rep reservation or grasp reservation, and with personal loan processing, rep personal loan, commemorate for personal loan, and supersede address are examples of company services. trade techniques are additionally key constructs of SOA, Part of its DNA.

    5. What Makes a venture an SOA Implementation?

    The deployment of services makes a challenge an SOA implementation, where a provider is defined within the previous reply as an internet service or an SOA service. the consume of the web service Description Language (WSDL) or equivalent makes a service an internet provider. An SOA provider should meet the criteria described within the answer 2; particularly, an SOA carrier should live stateless; discoverable; self-describing; composable; loosely coupled; ruled; and independent of place, language, or protocol. that is, using services alone makes the venture or implementation an SOA implementation. besides the fact that children, an SOA implementation can also not accrue the preferred advantages of SOA round imbue reductions, reuse, time to market, or flexibility.

    functions can fill different tiers of maturity. as an instance, functions can also live ad hoc of their design and implementation where a WSDL façade is applied to gain feature attainable to different systems or purposes. services can even live architected where provider modeling and governance are used to maximize service reuse.

    The implementation of SOA technologies with out a deployment of 1 or extra capabilities might also live described as an SOA implementation. this is able to live extraordinary as a result of middleware and infrastructure implementations (e.g., a registry or enterprise service bus) would live carried out together with the deployment of functions.

    just as services fill distinctive stages of maturity, so conclude SOA adoptions inside a company. Some SOA adoptions require a program of projects to tackle a event of expanding maturity to achieve strategic SOA desires of constructing systems for change, infusing flexibility as an impute of systems, or cutting back the lifetime fees of applications and infrastructure. in this case, the program contains a collection of SOA projects that incrementally hoist the maturity of SOA in a company and along the way permit the awareness of the strategic SOA benefits.

    frequently, on account of overselling of SOA, company leaders, managers, and executives wrongly accept as valid with that the merits of SOA automatically accrue when an SOA implementation happens. SOA has distinctive and distinctive definitions, and therefore its implementations are equally varied. So, agencies in quest of to accrue any of the promised benefits of SOA exigency to conclude more than seat of attention on SOA implementations. it's, each and every expected odds of SOA requires a different plane of SOA maturity. for instance, if the purpose is barely to reduce the cycle time of a company routine that offers with exterior companions, exposing web capabilities may live the best quintessential SOA adoption. youngsters, if the enterprise purpose is to cleave back time to market for modern items, this requires a broader adoption of SOA that addresses reusable capabilities, structuring of functions using functions, enhancing integration the consume of services, and points of SOA governance to tackle provider sharing, funding, and ownership.

    10 ideas of SOA | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    in many customer engagements, I exigency to establish a primary set of ideas of SOA. the following sections interlard simple concepts that a provider-oriented structure (SOA) should expose.These aren't added as an absolute certainty, but quite as a cadaver of reference for SOA-related discussions. You’ll live awake that the first four are according to Don box’s four tenets, besides the fact that children over time they may additionally fill received a temper very own spin.

    1. specific Boundaries

    every petite thing needed by means of the carrier to provide its functionality should still live handed to it when it is invoked. complete access to the carrier should live by way of its publicly uncovered interface; no hidden assumptions exigency to live vital to invoke the carrier. “features are inextricably tied to messaging in that the only means into and out of a carrier are through messages”. A carrier invocation should still – as a typical pattern – no longer trust on a shared context; as a substitute provider invocations should still live modeled as stateless. An interface uncovered through a carrier is ruled via a contract that describes its useful and non-functional capabilities and features. The invocation of a provider is an action that has a enterprise impact, is perhaps towering priced in terms of useful resource consumption, and introduces a class of errors diverse than these of a local routine invocation or far off procedure call. A carrier invocation is not a far flung technique name.

    whereas ingesting and presenting functions certainly may still live as effortless as feasible, it is therefore undesirable to cover too much of the undeniable fact that an interaction with a service takes region. The message sent to or bought from the carrier, the carrier contract, and the provider itself should still complete live first-category constructs in the SOA. This ability, as an instance, that programming fashions and tools that are used may still as a minimum deliver an API that exposes these ideas to the carrier programmer. In summary, a provider exposes its functionality via an express interface that encapsulates its internals; interplay with a carrier is an specific act, relying on the passing of messages between customer and provider.

    2. Shared contract and Schema, no longer category

    ranging from a provider description (a contract), each a provider purchaser and a provider provider should fill everything they deserve to devour or give the service. Following the principle of lax coupling, a carrier company can not depend on the purchaser’s skill to reuse any code that it gives in its personal ambiance; after all, it might possibly live using a several pile or runtime environment. This precept places extreme limits on the classification of statistics that may also live exchanged in an SOA. Ideally, the information is exchanged as XML files validatable against one or greater schemas, for the judgement that these are supported in every programming ambiance one could assume about.

    As a final result, adherence to this precept is not viable in a DCOM-based or RMI-primarily based environments - which in fact guidelines them out as a legitimate alternative for SOA.

    three. coverage-pushed

    To engage with a provider, two orthogonal requirement sets should live met:

  • the functionality, syntax and semantics of the issuer fill to healthy the customer’s requirements,
  • the technical capabilities and wishes should healthy.
  • for example, a carrier company may additionally present precisely the carrier a buyer wants, however proffer it over JMS while the customer can handiest consume HTTP (e.g. because it is applied on the .internet platform); a provider might require message-degree encryption by means of the XML Encryption commonplace, while the client can best assist transport-degree security the usage of SSL. Even in those situations where both companions conclude fill the integral capabilities, they may exigency to live “activated” – e.g. a company might encrypt response messages to different consumers the consume of several algorithms, in response to their needs.

    To support access to a provider from the largest viable number of in another way equipped and ready consumers, a coverage mechanism has been delivered as a Part of the SOA device set. while the purposeful elements are described in the service interface, the orthogonal, non-practical capabilities and desires are exact the consume of policies.

    four. self sustaining

    related to the specific boundaries principle, a carrier is self reliant in that its best relation to the backyard world – at least from the SOA perspective – is through its interface. In specific, it should live feasible to trade a carrier’s runtime ambiance, e.g. from a light-weight prototype implementation to a full-blown, utility server-based assortment of participating accessories, with no one at all repercussion on its consumers. features will also live modified and deployed, versioned and managed independently of every other. A service company can't count on the means of its consumers to promptly suitable to a modern edition of the service; a few of them might no longer even live competent, or willing, to suitable to a brand modern edition of a service interface in any respect (notably if they are outside the provider company’s sphere of manage).

    5. Wire codecs, not Programming Language APIs

    capabilities are uncovered the usage of a particular wire structure that needs to live supported. This precept is strongly related to the first two principles, however introduces a brand modern standpoint: To gain sure the utmost accessibility (and therefore, lengthy-time epoch usability), a carrier ought to live available from any platform that supports the alternate of messages adhering to the provider interface as long as the interaction conforms to the coverage defined for the provider. for example, it's a efficient verify for conformance to this precept to respect no matter if it's feasible to devour or give a specific provider from a mainstream dynamic programming language similar to Perl, Python or Ruby. even if no one at all of these may additionally presently play any role in the latest expertise landscape, this consideration can role a litmus explore at various to check even if the following standards are met:

  • All message formats are described the consume of an open average, or a human readable description
  • it is viable to create messages adhering to those schemas with affordable exertion without requiring a selected programmer’s library
  • The semantics and syntax for additional information vital for successful verbal exchange, similar to headers for purposes akin to safety or reliability, commemorate a public specification or standard
  • at least one of the vital transport (or switch) protocols used to engage with the service is a (or is accessible via a) middling network protocol
  • 6. doc-oriented

    To engage with functions, records is handed as files. A document is an explicitly modeled, hierarchical container for information. Self-descriptiveness is one censorious aspect of document-orientation. Ideally, a document may live modeled after precise-world files, akin to purchase orders, invoices, or account statements. documents should still live designed in order that they are advantageous on the context of an issue domain, which might also imply their consume with one or greater services.

    in a similar vogue to a real-world paper doc, a doc exchanged with a provider will consist of redundant tips. as an instance, a customer identification should live would becould very well live included together with the client’s wield suggestions (despite the fact the customer identification would live satisfactory). This redundancy is explicitly accepted on account that it serves to sequester the service interface from the underlying statistics mannequin of both carrier customer and repair company. Whena doc-oriented pattern is utilized, service invocations develop into significant exchanges of trade messages as a substitute of context-free RPC calls. while now not an absolute required, it might continually live assumed that XML may live used as the document layout/syntax.

    Messages flowing between individuals in an SOA connect disparate systems that evolve independently of each and every different. The free coupling precept mandates that the dependence on typical potential must live as small as viable. When messages are despatched in a allotted Objects or RPC infrastructure, customer and server can trust on a set of proxy classes (stubs and skeletons) generated from the identical interface description document. If here's no longer the case, communication ceases on the assumption that the contract doesn't steer interplay between those two parties. for this reason, RPC-trend infrastructures require synchronized evolution of client and server application code.

    this is illustrated via the following evaluation. believe here message:


    and evaluate it to:

    2006-03-13 47113

    while it is glaring that the second option is human-readable while the first one isn't, it's also splendid that in the 2d case, a participant that accesses the counsel via a know-how comparable to XPath can live a whole lot improved remoted in opposition t smaller, non-breaking alterations than one that depends on the mounted syntax. Conversely, the consume of a self-descriptive message layout comparable to XML whereas nonetheless the usage of RPC patterns, reminiscent of stub and skeleton era, serves only to expand XML’s reputation as the most advantageous strategy to waste bandwidth. If one makes consume of XML, the advantages should still live exploited, too. (See this paper for a superb dialogue of why many latest web features stacks fail this explore at various.)

    7. Loosely coupled

    Most SOA proponents will conform that free coupling is a vital theory. regrettably, there are various opinions in regards to the characteristics that gain a device “loosely coupled”. There are multiple dimensions by which a paraphernalia can also live loosely or tightly coupled, and reckoning on the necessities and context, it may well live loosely coupled in a few of them and tightly coupled in others. Dimensions include:

  • Time: When individuals are loosely coupled in time, they don’t ought to live up and running on the equal time to communicate. This requires a way of buffering/queuing in between them, besides the fact that children the routine taken for this is irrelevant. When one participant sends a message to the different one, it does not trust on an instantaneous answer message to continue processing (neither logically, nor bodily).
  • area: If contributors question for the address of contributors they intend to talk with, the vicinity can trade without needing to re-application, reconfigure or even restart the conversation companions. this means some sort of lookup manner using a listing or address that outlets service endpoint addresses.
  • class: In an analogy to the theory of static vs. dynamic and weak vs. potent typing in programming languages, a participant can both count on complete or best on materials of a document structure to role its work.
  • version: participants can depend on a selected edition of a provider interface, or live resilient to change (to a undeniable diploma). The more accurate the edition healthy has to be, the less loosely coupled the members (during this dimension). a majestic principle to commemorate is Postel’s legislation: carrier providers should still live implemented to settle for as numerous models as possible, and consequently live generous in what they accept (and maybe even tolerant of error), whereas service consumers should conclude their finest to conform to exact grammars and document forms. This increases the middling system’s stability and suppleness.
  • Cardinality: There can live a 1:1-relationship between provider consumers and repair suppliers, mainly in instances the belt a request/response interaction takes location or an express message queue is used. In other instances, a provider purchaser (which during this case is greater reasonably called a “message sender” or “adventure source” may additionally neither comprehend nor custody concerning the number of recipients of a message.
  • lookup: A participant that intends to invoke a service can either depend on a (physical or logical) title of a provider issuer to communicate with, or it may well role a explore up operation first, using a description of a collection of capabilities instead. this means a registry and/or repository it's capable of suitable the customer’s needs to a providers capabilities (both at once or in some way).
  • Interface: participants might also require adherence to a service-specific interface or they can also aid a well-known interface. If a gardenvariety interface is used, complete individuals drinking this standard interface can interact with complete contributors offering it. whereas this might also explore clumsy at first sight, the principle of a single conventional (uniform) interface is at the core of the WWW’s architecture.
  • It is not complete the time feasible nor even pleasing to create a paraphernalia that is loosely coupled in the entire dimensions outlined above. For several types of features, different exchange-offs exigency to live made. more dialogue about dimensions of free coupling will also live institute in Carlos Perez's unbelievable writings, e.g. here or here.

    eight. necessities-compliant

    A key precept to live adopted in an SOA strategy is the reliance on requisites instead of proprietary APIs and formats. specifications exists for technical elements comparable to records codecs, metadata, transport and switch protocols, in addition to for company-degree artifacts akin to doc forms (e.g. in UBL).

    while this may look absolutely evident to many, some argue that a proprietary answer, equivalent to those provided by way of some EAI or messaging providers, follows SOA concepts. This principle highlights the value of requisites - the extra, the improved. Of direction or not it's debatable what relevance a selected has as there are such a lot of to gain a choice from. essentially the most censorious point of any common is its acceptance (which really interprets to "Microsoft has to live on the writer list" in case of web functions).

    9. seller independent

    No architectural principle should trust on any specific dealer’s product. To seriously change an summary conception prerogative into a concrete, working system, it’s unavoidable to pick sure items, each industrial and free/open source software. no one at all of those decisions ought to fill implications on an architectural stage. this implies reliance on both interoperability and portability specifications as a marvelous deal as fairly feasible. because of this, a service issuer or provider purchaser may also live developed the consume of any expertise that helps the usurp specifications, no longer limited by using any seller roadmap.

    10. Metadata-driven

    all of the metadata artifacts in the standard SOA should live stored in a means that allows for them to live institute out, retrieved and interpreted at both design and rush time. Artifacts encompass descriptions of provider interfaces, participants, endpoint and binding tips, organizational devices and accountability, document forms/schemas, purchaser/issuer relationships etc. As plenty as possible, utilization of those artifacts may still live automated by either code technology or interpretation and become a Part of the provider and participant life cycle.

    This concludes my checklist of ideas. in spite of the fact that you conclude not conform with complete of them - and frankly, I don't predict you to, at least now not with complete of them -, i hope you can consume them to gas some dialogue!

    Stefan Tilkov is certainly one of InfoQ's SOA editors and co-founder and a predominant consultant at innoQ, a consultancy with places of work in Germany and Switzerland.

    SOA: seat of attention on the basics | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    I've noticed that those charged with constructing enterprise SOAs are engaged on organising strategies to the implementation of their SOA instance -- they aren't yet trying to find "key enabling SOA know-how," at the least no longer yet. This capacity that they're establishing methodologies, defining deliverables, and deciding upon how complete of those artifacts are linked. What's extra, they are focusing on training, and knowing just what they're doing earlier than they conclude it. we've learned from the previous that quick movements towards a know-how style with out the germane volume of upfront considering typically effects in failure.

    So, what are individuals engaged on?

  • Modeling and implementation. Holistic modeling of the SOA and complete of its working parts.
  • security design and implementation. identifying how you're going to comfortable and govern your SOA.
  • Semantic understanding and metadata modeling. picking complete application semantics and defining the common metadata model.
  • provider design and implementation. Designing features properly, implementing them, and monitoring them.
  • Orchestration and procedure modeling. Modeling approaches, and imposing them without slow from the model.
  • if you interrogate me, here is a superb trend. no matter if it's the appeal of SOA because the scorching modern technology, or possibly the reinvention of latest know-how, most commercial enterprise architects view SOA as a key strategic initiative, and are not willing to possibility failure. this is evident within the gradual uptake to SOA, now accelerating, as bigger corporations conclude some advanced planning as well as deal smarter with the notion of SOA, maintaining in intellect or not it's basically a event no longer a destination.

    finding an routine isn't that convenient, although. There actually is a very marvelous deal written on this topic via some very sensible individuals, however the remedy approach to your sure organization may live a bit diverse from the generalized techniques/methodologies you see around nowadays. In other words, you will live performing some planning to create the plan. as an example, when I wrote the 12 Steps to SOA a number of years in the past, i was creating a close goal checklist of projects as well as deliverables to assist groups in imposing their SOA. Now, notwithstanding, i am finding that some agencies fill accelerated it to 14 steps, and others decreased it to eleven, once more, customizing the routine for his or her sure requirements, and that is the judgement ok via me.

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    Global Internet of Things Policies, 2018 - Innovative Benchmarking Index for 11 IoT Markets - | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Apr 2, 2019--The "Global Internet of Things Policies, 2018" report has been added to's offering.

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has been introduced to solve a variety of trade challenges faced by enterprises in the following categories: 1) visibility and insights, 2) optimization of trade processes, 3) tracking of assets, 4) monitoring of assets and environment, 5) improved customer engagement, 6) enabling modern services, 7) enabling modern trade models, and 8) automation.

    This report provides in-depth knowledge about the fundamental elements that governments should provide so that the private sector can invest in IoT. The report details the policies that the different governments fill been adopting with respect to the 8 elements above.

    Policies are covered for the following regions: The European Union, the United States, India, China, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, and Indonesia. This research also contains a benchmarking index for each of these countries with respect to the policies developed.

    Research Insights

    IoT will change the way discontinuance users hope to consume products and services and how they measure services outcomes. Traditional services offered are not personalized, but this is changing with IoT as it provides the ability to cater services to suit individual needs.

    IoT is also changing the way enterprises are offering products and services to discontinuance users. Organizations offering IoT-enhanced services will increasingly suitable their trade model towards a service-oriented and outcome-based pricing model while having to engage with an ecosystem approach to proffer an end-to-end service that might span multiple domains.

    Governments across The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), as well as from the other parts of the world, fill realized that the volume of IoT devices is going to expand exponentially in their respective countries. This has forced them to assume about drafting laws and developing an ecosystem for IoT to wave in their respective countries.

    The European Union's general Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) came into result in May 2018 and represents a paradigm shift with respect to data protection. It is likely to contour a model for modern data privacy rules in other jurisdictions.

    In order to reduce the burden of doing trade in the EU for local companies, ASEAN countries must hunt to harmonize their data privacy, cross-border transfer, and data security protocols. If they fail to conclude so, they risk being left behind their global competitors. ASEAN governments should avoid granting privacy exemptions to local firms that wield alien data because doing so can lead to other countries viewing their privacy and data protection laws as weak and ineffective.

    Key Issues Addressed

  • What are the fundamental elements that governments should provide so that the private sector can invest in IoT?
  • Do the governments of the selected countries actually provide such fundamentals?
  • Topics Covered

    1. Scope

    2. Executive Summary

    3. Internet of Things Overview and Nomenclature

  • Defining the Internet of Things
  • What is Enabling IoT Adoption?
  • IoT Taxonomy
  • Introduction of IoT Applications and Services into Different Domains
  • IoT Finding Its Way into Numerous Domains and Applications
  • Major Benefits of the Internet of Things
  • IoT Creating Value for discontinuance Users
  • Value Creation for Organizations Offering IoT
  • How is IoT Going to Evolve to Support trade Objectives?
  • Major Categories of Stakeholders
  • Mapping the Messy IoT Value Chain and Approaches Taken
  • 4. IoT Policy Review

  • Questions That exigency Answers
  • 5. What are the Fundamental Elements that Governments Should Provide so that the Private Sector Can Invest in IoT?

  • Fundamental Elements Governments Should Provide so the Private Sector Can Invest in IoT - Parameters
  • Sub-parameters for Infrastructure
  • Security, Data Sovereignty, and Privacy fill No Sub-parameters
  • Data Privacy Issues Arise from the Collection and consume of Personal and Non-personal Information
  • Regulatory Frameworks for Non-personal Data Typically differ from Those for Personal Data
  • Sub-parameters for Policy Framework
  • Summary of Parameters and Associated Sub-parameters
  • 6. Examination of the Fundamentals Provided by the Government for IoT Investment - European Union

  • Infrastructure
  • Data Privacy
  • Security
  • Data Sovereignty
  • Policy Framework
  • 7. Examination of the Fundamentals Provided by the Government for IoT Investment - United States

    8. Examination of the Fundamentals Provided by the Government for IoT Investment - Japan

    9. Examination of the Fundamentals Provided by the Government for IoT Investment - China

    10. Examination of the Fundamentals Provided by the Government for IoT Investment - Singapore

    11. Examination of the Fundamentals Provided by the Government for IoT Investment - Malaysia

    12. Examination of the Fundamentals Provided by the Government for IoT Investment - Indonesia

    13. Examination of the Fundamentals Provided by the Government for IoT Investment - Thailand

    14. Examination of the Fundamentals Provided by the Government for IoT Investment - Vietnam

    15. Examination of the Fundamentals Provided by the Government for IoT Investment - Philippines

    16. Examination of the Fundamentals Provided by the Government for IoT Investment - India

    17. IoT Policy Benchmarking Parameters

  • Parameters for Benchmarking - Best Practices
  • 18. IoT Policy Benchmarking Scoring Guide

  • Scoring steer for Benchmarking
  • Introduction to Consulting Template
  • 19. IoT Policy Benchmarking Selected Countries

  • Benchmarking for Selected Countries
  • 20. Growth Opportunities and Companies to Action

  • Growth break - The Number of IoT Devices Increases Significantly
  • Strategic Imperatives for Success and Growth
  • 21. IoT Policy Benchmarking Conclusions

    For more information about this report visit—internet?w=4

    View source version on


    Laura Wood, Senior Press Manager

    For E.S.T Office Hours muster 1-917-300-0470

    For U.S./CAN Toll Free muster 1-800-526-8630

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    Related Topics:Internet of Things and M2M



    SOURCE: Research and Markets

    Copyright trade Wire 2019.

    PUB: 04/02/2019 01:45 PM/DISC: 04/02/2019 01:45 PM

    Copyright trade Wire 2019.

    © 2019 The Associated Press. complete rights reserved. This material may not live published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

    Slovenia recalls ambassador from Croatia over spying reports | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The Slovenian alien affairs ministry has recalled the country’s ambassador to Croatia for consultations following reports that Croatian representatives tried to influence the reporting of a Slovenian media outlet on the activities of the Croatian intelligence in Slovenia.

    Relations between Croatia and Slovenia fill been deteriorating in the eventual few years since the two countries were unable to settle a verge dispute. Croatia refuses to accept the July 2017 Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) ruling giving Slovenia access to the towering seas through Piran Bay, claiming the process was corrupted. Zagreb’s stance is that it will not accept the ruling after a Slovenian official was discovered trying to influence the outcome back in 2015.

    Local media reported earlier in April that the leaked phone recordings that led to Croatia declaring the verge arbitration corrupted were made by the Croatian Intelligence Agency (SOA).

    Excerpts from a leaked tape were published by Croatian daily Jutarnji List in July 2015. They issue to elaborate the Slovenian representative in the arbitration tribunal, Jernej Sekolec, discussing strategy with Simona Drenik, the Slovenian finance ministry’s representative before the court. The transcripts revealed disclosure of confidential information and a joint project to influence other judges.

    Days after the release of the tapes, the Croatian parliament voted unanimously in favour of withdrawing from the arbitration. Croatia’s then prime minister Zoran Milanovic told MPs that while the tribunal may continue to work, “we won't recognise any of its decisions”.

    Slovenian media now report that Croatian officials tried to influence the reporting of commercial broadcaster POP TV on the activities of the Croatian intelligence service, STA tidings agency reported. On April 8, POP TV reported that the Croatian government had used an intermediary to try to forestall the tidings portal from revealing the fact that SOA was amenable for the wiretapping in the verge dispute.

    “Recently, inadmissible activities of the Croatian underhand service targeting Croatia’s neighbours, Slovenia among them, fill been made public. In democratic Europe and the world at large, alien interference and pressure exerted on editorial policies are deemed unacceptable. The Croatian ambassador, Boris Grigić, has been summoned to the alien ministry, and Slovenia's ambassador to Croatia, Smiljana Knez, recalled for consultations,” the Slovenian alien affairs minister said in a statement.

    In addition, Slovenian Prime Minister Marjan Sarec called a session of the country’s National Security Council.

    “Any pressures on the media are inadmissible and wayward to the fundamental principles of democracy. If such pressures are conducted by a alien government, this indicates a major democratic deficit and a shift away from the fundamental European values,” he said.

    The Croatian government has rejected the allegations made by Slovenia, while SOA called the reports in the Slovenian media “untrue and tendentious fabrications”, according to Total Croatia News.

    ABN AMRO’s Service Oriented Architecture 2.0 | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    By Piethein Strengholt

    When I published the ABN AMRO’s Integration Architecture article, I quickly mentioned ‘Service Orientation’ as one of the three integration patterns of their DIAL integration architecture. Spending only 10 lines about this pattern isn’t fair, since within ABN AMRO they fill an entire program running named ‘SOA 2.0’. With this blogpost I want to dive a petite bit deeper into their vision at how ABN AMRO sees the future ‘Service Oriented Architecture’.

    Since SOA is a widely used concept, let’s start with my understanding of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) first:

  • SOA is about exposing ‘functionality’ through web services. Some people muster these Services, while others dote to consume the terminology API’s.
  • SOA is about abstraction. Applications (and complexity) evaporate towards the background and instead trade functionality is provided.
  • SOA is about allowing applications to communicate using a contour of standard structure (REST based).
  • SOA is about exchanging data, but also about processes and functions.
  • SOA is about synchronous communication (wait for something to finish in order to continue) and asynchronous communication (don’t wait).
  • SOA is about decoupling, allowing applications to independently change without the exigency to change complete other applications.
  • About the application decoupling it is marvelous to mention that ‘data coupling’ is most often unavoidable. Services often trust on other services’ data, e.g. account information or customer information requires many other services to drag data out of systems. Since there is no workaround for not having the data, there’s always some contour of coupling.

    Old situation

    Before they explore at their future state architecture and initiatives, it’s marvelous to recede rewind back to the point where their SOA journey started. Their SOA journey started just dote many other enterprises, aiming to gain the IT landscape more flexible, rationalize systems and provide real-time communication.

    During that time no enterprise integration platforms were available, so they started to build one ourselves. It is comparable with pile ‘one large system’. The large system uses a single data model, has many shared libraries, takes custody of security, does processing & orchestration, does data integration and many other things.

    Somewhere down the line the concept of an Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) was introduced. The ESB promoted their agility and flexibility because it enabled us to more quickly deliver services using the adapters and support for protocol conversions. On the other hand, it had to work and comply with the ‘one large system’, so complete services delivered by the ESB had to comply with the (canonical) data model, processing models, security models, etc.

    SOA 1.0

    Meanwhile doing SOA they also noticed that the world was changing. Concepts dote API Economy, Open Banking and PSD2 were introduced, applications started equipping modern (REST) interfaces on the flee and the agility became much more important. Their ‘optimize for re-use principle’ came under a lot of pressure. Consequently, they had to promote up with a modern approach. Based on their experiences and observations they concluded that a refreshment regarding SOA was needed.

    Service Orientation Architecture 2.0

    Agility of their internal ecosystem: One of the cornerstones of their modern SOA 2.0 model is that it had to better the agility. Transformation of enterprise architecture is an ongoing process. Eliminating dependencies and removing complexity is a crucial Part of this larger transition. Breaking up the monolith was unavoidable.

    This also led to an principal determination that they had to let recede the single canonical model and to supersede it with the concept of multiple canonical evolving at the very time.

    Breaking up the monolith also resulted into another principal decision. They had to give back the responsibility of the trade logic, execution of the process, persistency of data, etc. With a decentralized model, domains can evolve at their own speed, without holding up other domains. Principles such as ‘Optimize as nearby as viable to the data’, ‘Exposing functionality instead of systems’ and ‘Keep domain logic in your domain’ were set.

    Connecting to other ecosystems: With the modernization of applications using modern decoupling patterns (REST) they also had to explore censorious at their current integration platform, the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB). In cases of no weighty lifting, is the ESB always required? A lightweight API Gateway is more attractive, since it doesn’t fill the overhead, while at the very time giving flexibility of decoupling, control and security. As a result, they introduced the API Gateway into their architecture as an enhancement for the future Service Oriented Architecture. The API Gateway also has another benefit. Cloud, (SAAS, PAAS) offerings and the external data consumption and distribution will thrust the connectivity even further. Having a point of control over complete APIs makes sense. The API Gateway is expected to fill an principal role in their architecture. Eventually the API Gateway will become more principal than their ESB since most of complete communication is expected to live modern. Consequently, they positioned the ESB solely to solve the problem of legacy system modernization and weighty integration. To complete the modernization and comply with the demands of data consumption they set additional principles such as: ‘Services are built for the consumers’ and ‘Simplicity and usage of community modern standards’.

    SOA 2.0

    In their architecture you can see a limpid split between ‘internal’ consumers and ‘external’ consumers. The language they speak internally is under their control, but externally this isn’t often the case. The ‘format’ they consume for internal communication differs very much from the ‘formats’ that are being used in the outside world. This results in an additional translation when re-using internal services. Therefore, they positioned an External API Gateway in their architecture to conclude this external translation and to cope with the additional security measures that are needed when exposing externally.

    To finalize their SOA architecture, they distinguished their ‘internal’ consumers into AAB Applications and Channels. AAB Applications typically consume direct, but for their Channels environment it is completely different ball game. Channels is where communication happens directly with their customers. It’s about human interaction, web & mobile experience and machines (Bots, Alexa, IFTTT, etc.). To proffer the best experience additional components are needed, such as entitlement checks, request handling and validation, state management, caching, etc. These components are Part of the Channels domain and are expected to play nicely with their API Gateway.

    Wrap up

    Service Orientation Architecture 2.0 is a refresh of their SOA strategy. It is worth sharing that the fundamentals of SOA remains the same, so we’re not changing the SOA philosophy. Mainly the techniques fill changed.

    By having clearer responsibilities, using modern patterns and standards they believe to fill a more supple and scalable architecture. The Service Orientation Architecture 2.0 is for ABN AMRO the reference architecture for their architects, developers, engineers and solution designers. It will enable them to deliver the highest value for the trade and their customers.

    SOA 2.0 is Part of their DIAL architecture. DIAL stands for Digital Integration & Access Layer, which is their reference architecture for Ecosystem integration. They recently ‘open sourced’ a large Part of this architecture and by sharing their SOA 2.0 reference architecture you should fill a pretty marvelous insight in how they explore at Data Management & Data Integration.

    About the author(s):Piethein Strengholt, Technology ArchitectPiethein is Technology Architect for ABN AMRO. He is Part of a towering performing team of technology enthusiasts with a zeal for the latest developments and trends. Are you interested to unite me on this journey? delight let us know!

    Big heads up also for Maarten Spit, Peter Goosen, Michel Kroon and Wim Janse.

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    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [43 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

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