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construction projects for carrier-oriented options are, on the floor, plenty like some other customized development projects for dispensed functions. functions are designed, developed, and deployed alongside the commonplace supporting forged of entrance and returned-end technologies. when you dig slightly deeper below the layers of carrier-orientation, although, you're going to locate that as a way to competently construct and position capabilities as a fragment of a standardized SOA, unpretentious task cycles require some alterations.
As they will survey in determine 1 (see under), mediocre tower lifecycles encompass processes peculiarly tailor-made to the introduction of capabilities in support of SOA. within the service-oriented evaluation stage, for instance, services are modeled as service candidates that comprise a introductory SOA. These candidates then turn into the starting aspect for the provider-oriented design phase, which transforms them into ethical world carrier contracts.
provider-oriented evaluation (and a connected sub-system known as provider modeling) symbolize a crucial a fragment of carrier tower that requires the involvement of business analysts and extremely a worthy deal demonstrates how company evaluation in time-honored is littered with SOA. we'll discuss these tactics in more component later during this collection. For now, their focus is on the task lifecycle and its relationship to enterprise analysis.
figure 1: regular phases of an SOA delivery lifecycle.
The lifecycle tiers displayed in determine 1 portray an easy, sequential direction to constructing particular person functions. actual world beginning, although, is hardly ever that essential. These levels generally should live prepared into a delivery cycle that can accommodate the dreams and constraints associated with assignment necessities, schedules, and budgets.
The challenge frequently lies in balancing these concerns. The success of SOA within an commercial enterprise is increasingly associated with the extent to which it is standardized when phased into enterprise and software domains. although, the success of a venture delivering a carrier-oriented reply is traditionally measured through the extent to which the solution fulfills anticipated necessities within a given funds and timeline.
To address this difficulty, they want a technique. This approach should live in accordance with a firm's priorities in order to set up the relevant stability between the delivery of lengthy-time period migration desires with the success of extra immediate, tactical requirements.
in this article they contrast two mediocre concepts used to build capabilities known as backside-up and right-down. Neither is ideal, however each supply us with insight as to how the SOA birth lifecycle may moreover live configured.
The bottom-up approach is at present probably the most unpretentious diversity, where services are created on an "as want" basis to meet generally tactical requirements. The exact-down strategy, on the other hand, is one in outright evaluation, abysmal thought, and endurance. provider-orientation is infused into company layers so that functions may moreover live modeled in alignment with enterprise models. In other phrases, it is way more strategic.
since the theme of this series is about how SOA pertains to company evaluation they are greater interested in what lies at the back of the precise-down process. The backside-up strategy is described essentially to supply contrast.
the vast majority of companies which are presently edifice capabilities as internet features comply with a technique similar to the one proven in determine 2. The primary intent being that many just add net capabilities to their current application environments with a view to leverage the open net functions expertise set (essentially for integration applications). in spite of the fact that the ensuing architecture is commonly referred to as SOA, it definitely continues to live greater harking back to mediocre disbursed architectural fashions, as carrier-orientation is rarely considered.
figure 2: unpretentious bottom-up procedure steps.
although backside-up designs permits for the efficient advent of capabilities they can introduce some ponderous penalties down the highway. enforcing a "suitable SOA" after a wide unfold implementation of tactical functions can impose a very superior deal of retro-becoming.
here's very a superior deal an "evaluation first" routine that requires no longer handiest business approaches to develop into carrier-oriented, it moreover promotes the creation (or realignment) of an organization's typical enterprise models. This manner is for this judgement intently tied to or derived from a firm's existing company logic, and it frequently outcomes in the advent of a lot of reusable company and application features.
The exact-down strategy will usually comprise some or outright the steps illustrated in device 3.
determine three: usual accurate-down manner steps.
The aspect of this routine is to invest within the up-front analysis and planning work required to build a towering quality carrier structure. The confine and parameters of each service are utterly analyzed to maximise reuse skills and alternatives for streamlined and complicated compositions. outright of this lays the groundwork for a standardized and federated commercial enterprise where features maintain a state of adaptability, while carrying on with to unify current heterogeneity.
The barriers to following a excellent-down strategy are usually associated with time and funds. agencies are required to execute investments drastically in up-front evaluation projects that can hold a worthy deal of time to divulge tangible, ROI-type benefits. There are additional risks linked to over planning, the set by the time the evaluation initiatives are achieved, they could develop into outdated.
accurate-down strategy and commercial enterprise models
Of particular activity to business analysts are the enterprise fashions referenced in Step 1 of determine 3. These are inclined to vary across diverse groups, each of in order to own models which are keen to its company domains.
average forms of commercial enterprise model documents include a proper ontology, an business entity model, an enterprise-wide analytic statistics model, a standardized statistics representation structure (frequently realized through a group of standardized XML Schemas), and different kinds of fashions generally associated with commercial enterprise guidance structure.
Some of those supply enterprise-centric views of a solid that prove extraordinarily positive sources for deriving enterprise capabilities. company entity models principally tie at once into the subsequent definition of entity-centric enterprise capabilities.
besides the fact that children listed as only a single step within the typical procedure, the requirements to thoroughly define business models can effectively outcome in the want for one or extra separate strategies, each of which can moreover require its own assignment and working group. however, if the required commercial enterprise business models already exist, then this step may moreover readily include their identification.
The option of tower strategy will assess the extent to which enterprise analysts can support contour a carrier portfolio conceptually, before services are corporal implemented. it is hence rewarding to give serious consideration to the professionals and cons associated with each strategy.
The subsequent article during this collection continues this exploration via explaining a standard deliverable of the exact-down evaluation endeavor conventional as the commercial enterprise carrier model. they are able to moreover then portray how the both tactical and strategic necessities will moreover live addressed in an option strategy referred to as "agile" or "meet-in-the-center."
this article carries excerpts from "service-Oriented structure: concepts, technology, and Design" via Thomas Erl (792 pages, Hardcover, ISBN: 0131858580, Prentice hall/Pearson PTR, Copyright 2006). For extra assistance, talk over with www.soabooks.com.
in regards to the writer
Thomas Erl is the realm's appropriate-selling SOA creator and series Editor of the "Prentice corridor carrier-Oriented Computing sequence from Thomas Erl" (www.soabooks.com). Thomas is moreover the founding father of SOA programs Inc., a solid focusing on strategic SOA consulting, planning, and practising services (www.soatraining.com.) Thomas has made colossal contributions to the SOA trade in the areas of provider-orientation research and the construction of a mainstream SOA methodology. Thomas is involved with a brace of technical committees and research efforts, and travels generally for talking, practising, and consulting engagements. To learn greater, talk over with www.thomaserl.com.
this text introduces an exceptional routine for relocating your SOA application ahead through an incremental, challenge-based mostly strategy.
this text turned into initially posted within the SOA journal (www.soamag.com), a book officially linked to “The Prentice corridor service-Oriented Computing sequence from Thomas Erl” (www.soabooks.com). Copyright SOA techniques Inc. (www.soasystems.com).Like this text? They suggest
abstract: tasks are the lifeblood of an IT branch. pretty much every thing in it is measured via a challenge lens. SOA, because of its international-centric nature, is commonly viewed as incompatible with task-based application start lifecycles. as a result, most groups learn themselves with the plight of the way to with no mishap improve an SOA initiatives and proceed to convey tasks at the identical time.
The reply is to combine carrier lifecycle management, structure, SOA governance, funding, and SOA metrics right into a single comprehensive software. The premiere purpose is to execute sure that via addressing mission needs capabilities are being conveniently designed and applied and that leverage takes locality and is verifiable and that the mediocre SOA application goals are being accomplished. this article introduces a superior technique for pitiable your SOA program ahead through an incremental, task-primarily based strategy.Introduction
all and sundry, from the CEO to the developer, understands the advantages of SOA and why it is going to live used. youngsters, many businesses nevertheless fight with questions about a way to correctly beginning, form, and forward an SOA program. Even with heedful and skilled information, SOA initiatives face mounting challenges. essentially the most well-known barrier to SOA success is the very simple unit of IT operations – a undertaking. projects are the oldest and most generally approved solution to deliver work in an IT corporation. projects are time bound and oriented against supplying inevitable outcomes for limited audiences. SOA initiatives span varied groups and businesses and are geared towards addressing the huge needs of leveraging present belongings or developing unique reusable assets. hence, challenge-based mostly work is essentially considered incompatible with SOA.
Most corporations that own embarked on the SOA journey find themselves within the unenviable set of trying to reconcile tactical project work with the strategic SOA initiatives. mission work requires start of customized functions or third party applications, whereas SOA’s goal is to set up a base of reusable services. tasks only keeping about their necessities. Shared functions own to hold the necessities throughout numerous initiatives into consideration to live basically reusable. venture’s funding comes from the road of business (LoB) that is supposed to edge from it. because SOA efforts can span varied LoB’s, a single company can moreover now not live the basic funding supply. Merging these diametrically opposing views into a comprehensive approach has proved complex for most IT retail outlets.
The methodology outlined listed here bridges the gap between mission work and SOA. It introduces a group of ideas that no longer best enable the initiatives to obtain their goals but additionally promote the introduction and reuse of shared features. moreover, it addresses the funding, reward, and enforcement concerns that are vital to achieve both project and SOA goals.The service ownership difficulty
some of the greatest political barriers facing SOA in any corporation is provider possession. considering the fact that task groups obligate the start of custom code or integrations, they trust that it is their domain and accountability to build features that tackle venture wants. backyard groups are seen with mistrust, in spite of the fact that they work alongside the mission crew (as an instance, code created through others is commonly brushed aside or brushed aside). mission teams accept as ethical with themselves the specialists on the locality enviornment coated by using the mission requirements while pushing aside the potential that exists backyard of the team.
ownership can moreover live a sensitive discipline. Many task groups and IT managers subscribe to the silo mentality where they harmonize with the whole stack – from the UI down to the records sources – as their property. hence, they harmonize with any services, shared or now not, that tackle challenge or application wants as a fragment of the whole stack. Any dialogue or initiative that can live construed as an infringement on their territory can trigger irrational habits or illogical conversations. alas, the fact of it's commonly such that empire edifice and territorialism are seen through the core management as the most useful approach in opposition t success.
in an endeavor to develop into a hit with SOA, IT businesses requisite to smash these silos. Shared capabilities that may moreover live consumed by means of a brace of tasks own to live owned and managed one after the other. features requisite to live regarded unbiased utility products which own their own lifecycles diverse from those of tasks or functions they serve. Their code has to live saved one after the other from different code. They ought to own their own verify instances and peek at various suites. Shared capabilities may still stay on a dedicated, independently scalable infrastructure to live inevitable applicable levels of responsiveness, scalability, and performance. Ideally, even the information accessed by the shared services ought to live business caliber and stay on an commercial enterprise scalable infrastructure. device 1 depicts how an pattern SOA infrastructure should still look following these instructions.
determine 1: An "premiere" SOA infrastructure environment.
one of the most censorious reasons for breaking down silos and managing capabilities independently is incongruence between SOA and venture dreams. initiatives simplest keeping about their personal timelines and goals. If a project or application group creates a provider and assumes possession over it, the equal crew will should live accountable for making changes crucial via its future consumers. it'll must address unique necessities that are coming from a unique group, comply with that group’s timeframes, and execute sure that adjustments don't own an effect on current consumers. These responsibilities signify a complete departure from usual undertaking dreams and hence are conveniently now not live adhered to in many instances. as a result, the decentralized possession of features ends up leading to elevated duplication and an usual failure of the SOA software.
the way to address this vicissitude is unpretentious – create a centralized team liable for shared service design, building, testing, and assist. it is going to hold accountability for reconciling outright of the carrier-related requirements, designing services to address them, setting up and imposing SOA requisites, ensuring relevant scalability of functions, and managing the services as independent software products. Gartner regularly calls this class of a team the mixing Competency middle (ICC). This strategy eliminates the in the past outlined problems and minimizes the project-centric focus as a result of services are delivered by a separate neighborhood whose fundamental purpose is the advancement of SOA. moreover, a centralized group is stronger perfect for driving the adoption of shared features within the greatest and positive way.service Lifecycle management
Most agencies carry business initiatives by the expend of IT projects. for this reason, projects will most frequently drive the claim for capabilities. there is, of path, a much better routine to identify what reusable functions are mandatory, through whom, and when. A finished business technique mapping will create a transparent roadmap for carrier identification and demand. sadly, many groups nonetheless select no longer to circulation in this route and continue to permit tasks to continue to live the riding obligate in the back of provider identification and implementation.
When a provider is designed and developed to tackle particular project needs, it isn't utterly reusable. unique consumers consistently requisite adjustments delivered to the carrier to conform to their necessities. This typically comprises box adjustments or additions, unique operations, addition or elimination of foremost entities, and even expertise enterprise common sense changes. The greatest SOA underhand is that capabilities are nearly on no account reused as-is – changes and integration costs are virtually unavoidable.
in order to execute features really reusable and execute sure maximum leverage, the service lifecycle requisite to live centrally managed. The significant crew answerable for the start of services requisite to even live charged with service identification, lifecycle management, and pipelining activities. outright the disparate service requirements offered by distinctive projects requisite to live collected collectively to create a comprehensive view of the carrier pipeline and roadmap. determine 2 depicts the relationship between mission needs and a carrier roadmap.
determine 2: A carrier roadmap as influenced through tasks.
the key to the pipelining activity is accurate and timely guidance. this may execute it feasible to include diverse task requirements into the provider that is supposed to live created for a selected assignment. If the undertaking timelines are immediate enough and the necessities are well defined, service designers should still try to include as many of them as viable into the current release. This introduces efficiencies, scalability, and agility into the birth mechanism through accumulating procedures and information gathering throughout distinctive projects. Centralized and consistent provider lifecycle management could execute this a fact.Minimizing own an repercussion on of changes and Maximizing Reuse
due to the fact adjustments to functions are inevitable, the architecture and design patterns ought to live based with trade in mind. features ought to live designed in such a means that many of the adjustments brought as fragment of its evolution could own minimal, if any own an effect on on its latest patrons. an extra purpose of provider design should still live to maximize carrier reuse as this represents the cornerstone of SOA. both of these dreams will moreover live completed through the expend of the service Façade and Concurrent Contracts design patterns [REF-1] at the side of a canonical modeling method.
Canonical modeling is a well known and based routine for abstracting provider patrons from the backend information sources and introducing a common entity representation. Many SOA proponents harmonize that canonical modeling is a vital fragment in the success of the SOA program. A canonical, or normal, mannequin attempts to set up a single, constant representation of the entire entities that could live passed through a shared provider. This representation should live independent from the backend information constructions and service customer specifics, which will Cut the influence on buyers when both one adjustments. additionally, as a result of LoBs may additionally signify the identical entities in a unique manner, a single canonical mannequin will abet reconcile these variations and permit diverse materials of the solid to speak the same language. This, in flip, maximizes the competencies and ethical reuse of services constructed across the business.
The provider Façade sample is used to Cut the own an repercussion on of carrier changes on its consumers. each provider, whether it's developed using a canonical mannequin or not, should expose a façade interface by way of Concurrent Contracts inevitable to each purchaser. patrons would no longer entry the carrier at once however slightly via its uncovered façade contract. each and every façade may still live designed in such a routine that it presents statistics in a benevolent without problems understood and ingested by using individual or group of service buyers. device three shows how the façade sample may still live used to design and construct shared features.
determine 3: The carrier Facade sample in action.
because every façade constrict is specific to at least one or many carrier consumers and doesn't expose inner (canonical) carrier contract, alterations to the provider implementation or even to the canonical mannequin will own minimal, if any repercussion on the customer. The mappings between the façade constrict and canonical structure may wish to live up-to-date however this activity might live clear to the buyers. From their standpoint, no adjustments will hold area. The carrier Façade pattern additionally ensures optimum reuse of the carrier because the identical carrier illustration is getting used beneath the covers notwithstanding numerous façade interfaces can live uncovered.SOA Governance
the entire most reliable tactics and architectures can't live helpful if they don't look to live being adopted. here's the set governance comes into play. establishing and enforcing useful governance mechanisms and procedures is paramount to the success of any SOA program. The secret's to live sure minimal overhead, highest compatibility with the current IT governance methods, and immoderate level of synergy with outright the software development Methodologies (SDM) being adopted within the organization. The success of the SOA program is stylish on how effectual it is, how closely it may moreover live integrated with the current strategies, and how strongly its options can moreover live enforced.
SOA governance and the project-based mostly IT subculture are largely incompatible. SOA governance inserts checkpoints into the standard circulation of application construction, whereas tasks are essentially worried with hitting their timelines in any respect expenses. If the governance mechanisms commemorate a problem and seek information from a assignment to execute changes, this can lead to unpleasant conversations at even the govt degree. Confrontations like these may often live unavoidable; despite the fact, the premier routine to execute inevitable that each governance and project goals are met is to acquire visibility into the project pipeline as early as feasible and repercussion each assignment’s direction to live in keeping with the centered SOA guidelines. SOA governance doesn’t should live focused essentially on enforcement and catching non-compliers however as an alternative should still pay attention to exploiting synergies with the already centered SDM tactics and influencing the solutions.
figure four depicts a pattern SOA governance routine that can moreover live employed to satisfy each undertaking and SOA application dreams. live conscious that it's designed to live conveniently integrated with the commonplace waterfall SDM. The governance checkpoints are very gentle and may live achieved in a short period of time, in order that tasks don't lose advantageous time navigating advanced governance strategies. on the identical time, however, the entire governance steps are well timed and ensure relevant compliance right through the application start procedure. they're designed with influence, not enforcement in intellect.
seeing that the entire projects that utilize existing or create unique functions requisite to commemorate these governance mechanisms, many dreams of superior SOA governance will moreover live performed. Getting publicity to the relevant tasks as early as the evaluation fragment offers the means for SOA governance to own an repercussion on their route. This moreover makes it feasible for the Shared capabilities team to profit perception into the comprehensive functions pipeline, accumulate outright of the linked requirements together, and device provider releases correctly. each governance checkpoint represents an chance to validate even if used techniques were carried out and, if now not, reject the project from pitiable forward. most importantly, the SOA governance manner should still accept an chance to fully shut the loop on outright the adjustments or unique functions being deployed, which should still live represented within the formal approval or rejection of pitiable the code into construction.
one more vital factor of the SOA governance process that's depicted on device 4 but no longer yet mentioned is the role of the Registry/Repository (RegRep). each checkpoint prompts an motion involving carrier registration or merchandising. here's vital not most effectual to document a ethical state of the provider however moreover to formalize and automate the entire SOA governance procedure. Many RegRep tools comprise governance automation capabilities. Exploiting them is extraordinarily effectual due to the fact that it streamlines the whole manner and eliminates inefficient manual steps. organising a policy that each one capabilities should live registered to live consumable closes any loophole projects can are attempting to hold edge of. because registration and promoting steps are tightly coupled with the SOA governance checkpoints, which deserve to live performed by way of an unbiased birthday celebration, tasks attain not requisite an altenative to sidestep any of them. in the event that they do, services will effectively peek like unavailable for consumption or in a state incompatible with the assignment wants. finally, registries may moreover live used to bring together run-time carrier utilization metrics, the magnitude of which is discussed almost immediately.carrier Funding
Funding for the SOA program should Come from a well-known supply. it would cowl every puny thing from the shared infrastructure, expertise, equipment, and methodologies. the set the money involves construct particular person functions, although, items a much bigger challenge. due to the fact initiatives are the primary drivers behind claim for capabilities, special consideration may still live given to venture needs and budgets. As discussed previous, particular person carrier’s pipeline and roadmap should still live unbiased from these of a challenge. consequently, service design and implementation can include further requirements that topple outside of the project scope. yet another standard undertaking-connected vicissitude stems from the shared nature of services. it's unfair to affliction a undertaking with the complete cost of a carrier that can live utilized by a number of different buyers.
There are three feasible tips on how to tackle the service funding considerations.
If option 1 is selected, a brace of techniques for recouping the introductory investment can moreover live used.
As outlined above, it is unfair for the venture to raise the complete prices of the carrier build-out, in particular if it comprises further necessities. as a result, until the challenge implements one of the most alternate options to recoup its introductory funding, funding alternative #1 is not going to live attainable. now not getting better the money isn't a practical alternative both as it doesn't incent the initiatives to build in fact reusable services. The different charge healing concepts may additionally work but require special metrics to live captured on the provider leverage and/or transactional quantity.
organising a principal funding source for outright projects to expend when edifice reusable services is likely the optimal strategy. Few corporations, despite the fact, would live willing to write what in essence could live a immaculate check for the tasks to execute expend of of their service start efforts. The chance for ill-treat and misappropriations can live too tempting. unless powerful governance and control mechanisms are in place, this funding formula will most likely turn out to live costing the business extra cash and provide unrealistically small revert on funding.
proposing supplementary funding to tasks constructing functions is likely essentially the most practical approach. A valuable fund has to live established to cowl the efforts falling outdoor of the project scope. since shared services would typically include other initiatives’ and enterprise necessities, the exact cost finally ends up being larger than what tasks budgeted for their wants. hence, the easiest way to divide supplementary funding is to enable the projects to pay for performance already blanketed in their budgets and canopy outright of the additional fees during the valuable fund.
some thing the funding routine is used, it needs to live cautiously administered. a celebration no longer concerned in daily venture work is most fulfilling proper to play the administrative role. The Shared capabilities group is the most likely candidate to control the funds and expend it accurately to extra the SOA program adoption, raise provider leverage, and evade political influences.SOA Metrics
once the SOA program is up and working, its effectiveness, stage of adoption, and outcomes should live measured. This can live done during the assortment and conversation of the crucial metrics. the most everyday SOA measurements are the number of services created, volume of service reuse, and charge avoidance/mark downs.
due to the fact that the well-known Shared features team has an entire view of outright of the current and future carrier advent or reuse opportunities, it's in the premier set to collect and record on the metrics. in order to accumulate accurate metrics and yield censorious studies, here steps requisite to live performed.
all the steps above should live accomplished for every assignment that both creates or leverages services. Any adjustments to the existing service should depend towards the entire can charge of the construct.
once the entire data has been accrued, cost avoidance will moreover live calculated. The simple formulation for individual service charge avoidance as concerning a particular project is supplied beneath.
carrier cost Avoidance = carrier build can charge – challenge’s carrier Integration cost
carrier build charge = initial carrier build cost + cost of outright Subsequent adjustments
To calculate the complete undertaking’s can charge avoidance amount, quite simply add the cost avoidance for outright of the services being leveraged. To forecast the overall expertise can charge avoidance at any point of time, multiply the variety of instances every service is envisioned to live leveraged by using its build can charge and add it outright together. in view that the combination expenses for each ongoing or future mission can best live estimated, a common reuse component can moreover live applied to the provider construct charge. eighty% is the unpretentious number utilized in these instances. word that projects creating services should still no longer import number towards charge avoidance.
In cost avoidance calculations and projections, realizing each and every provider operation instead of the complete service reuse will lead to greater accurate results. To obtain this, current and future reuse alternatives should still live tracked on the carrier operation degree. This degree of granularity can live tough to obtain, youngsters, mainly when maintaining tune of the build prices. for this reason, approximation ideas will moreover live used that check the operation build charge based on some manipulations of the whole provider build charge. Dividing the total carrier construct can charge by using the amount of operations produced may live the least difficult strategy. If tracking is performed at the carrier operation stage, the cost avoidance formulas above should alternate to bespeak operation rather than carrier inevitable metrics.
as soon as metrics are accumulated, they deserve to live distributed to outright the SOA program stakeholders. reckoning on the firm, it will moreover live IT managers and executives, enterprise executives, and partners. Metrics may still now not live reported effectively for the sake of sharing the progress made with the aid of the SOA application however fairly to support SOA program’s dreams and influence the habits resulting in reaching them. inevitable goals requisite to live set through the IT executives and metrics may still live used to investigate even if they've been effectively reached or no longer. Metrics collection and reporting should still live performed by a significant crew with a purpose to live sure that the complete routine can not live compromised to misrepresent the fact or serve individual team’s or group’s interests.Conclusion
despite what the expertise companies would such as you to consider, SOA is a fancy idea. a brace of points should Come collectively to basically obtain service orientation. lots of work needs to live executed to set up a a success SOA program. Yet, outright of this needs to live executed along side providing projects. The business does not stop. It doesn't and can't watch for the SOA software to live dependent, fully constructed out, and outright of the services delivered. hence, most SOA programs face the challenge of dealing with initiatives while at the identical time attempting to carry on their immoderate stage guarantees.
To tackle the SOA and project train incompatibilities, carrier lifecycle administration, architecture, SOA governance, funding, and SOA metrics should live brought together in a comprehensive program. creating a vital team to control this procedure will influence in more constant deliverables, more productive operations, much less casual for political own an effect on, and quicker attainment of SOA merits.
projects with SOA learning should still live regarded fragment of the usual features pipeline. Cumulative necessities should still power provider design and construction. The provider architecture needs to live springy adequate to accommodate alterations, lower the influence of carrier adjustments on the current patrons, and maximize carrier reuse potential. SOA governance should still strike the initiatives to execute the appropriate decisions and capture non-compliers if essential. A finished view of the project pipeline should still execute this routine streamlined and productive. exceptionally exact funding options should dispose of the disincentive for tasks to construct reusable functions. at last, the SOA metrics should divulge the finished consequences and influence the appropriate conduct. device 5 demonstrates the relationship between outright of the task-oriented SOA features.
these groups that embrace the venture-oriented strategy to SOA can own more advantageous success in SOA adoption and offering outcomes. at the conclusion of the day, the company doesn’t keeping how many services were constructed or leveraged. What really makes the company executives tick are the income, unique product introductions, unique purchasers, precise sign downs, done efficiencies, and everything else that deals with growing to live profits and impacting the base line. Enabling business agility is the primary train of SOA. setting up an strategy that grants both the SOA application benefits and company desires of quicker time to market and value reductions will certainly execute IT and the entire company a hit.References
[REF-1] SOA Design Patterns (Prentice hall), www.soapatterns.com
la--(business WIRE)--SOA utility, a leading issuer of API management options, announced nowadays that its Semantics manager Product has been chosen by means of the medical data Interchange specifications Consortium (CDISC) to vigour its Shared health And medical research digital (SHARE) Library mission. CDISC SHARE will give a world digital repository for constructing, integrating and having access to CDISC metadata standards for scientific analysis in digital format. counsel on CDISC SHARE will moreover live discovered at http://www.cdisc.org/cdisc-share.
SOA utility's Semantics manager™ is a comprehensive metadata and standards management reply that organizations expend to quite simply meet governance, regulatory and requisites compliance (GRC) necessities for guidance model definition and administration (e.g., in BioPharma, Finance and many others.), whereas improving common business efficiency. Semantics supervisor helps businesses profile and align their distinct interior counsel models to both trade typical definitions and to a standard inside illustration. by using aligning with trade specifications and with the aid of mapping data to domain concepts, companies can achieve semantic interoperability - a key train of any API administration initiative that comprises data alternate. Semantics supervisor enables a collaborative, metadata-pushed tips lifecycle by way of providing corporations a centralized, requirements-based metadata repository and governance process automation platform.
For the BioPharma industry, Semantics manager enormously improves the capacity to hold note the influence of adjustments to each necessities and operational facts representations as they evolve. Semantics manager combines existing requisites (e.g., CDISC, BRIDG and ISO 21090) with a versatile metamodel definition framework that easily contains unique requisites. requirements development businesses (SDOs) can leverage the federation capabilities of Semantics supervisor to instantly disseminate necessities to business.
"We at CDISC are delighted to live working with SOA utility as their expertise accomplice on this vital initiative," stated Wayne Kubick, Chief know-how Officer for CDISC. "After an intensive evaluation system, it grew to live clear that SOA software's solution supplied CDISC with the greatest possibility to right now deliver on the promise of SHARE for realizing the various advantages of CDISC specifications and enhancing interoperability with healthcare."
“we are excited to live chosen by using CDISC and are interested to expend their huge event in metadata management, exceptionally in the context of features and API's, to allow CDISC's imaginative and prescient of semantic interoperability for the BioPharma business,” eminent Brent Carlson, SVP expertise, SOA software.
Semantics supervisor is constructed on trade necessities such as kick management group's (OMG) Reusable Asset Specification (RAS) and ISO’s 11179 standard for Metadata registries. the base library includes outright CDISC Terminologies, CDASH 1.1, SDTM 1.2, BRIDG three.1, and ISO 21090, giving BioPharma businesses a jumpstart towards aligning their inside tips models with domain necessities and regulatory requirements. As a centralized requirements-based repository, Semantics manager gives a single supply of governed content material to implement facts requisites, strategies and guidelines whereas making inevitable regulatory compliance and effectual records trade each throughout the solid and externally with companions and regulators. content material can live readily discovered and reused by the expend of extensive in-built search mechanisms. Collaboration is built-in as neatly and is feasible at any level - metadata, governance or at the repository level, with outright actions tracked via a totally configurable audit path that offers counsel about used choices and facts lineage. greater suggestions may moreover live discovered at http://www.soa.com/options/semantics-management.
About SOA software
SOA utility’s mission is to energy the API monetary system with items that enable their customers to devise, construct, speed and share APIs via complete cloud and on-premise solutions for API lifecycle, protection, administration and developer engagement. the world’s greatest companies together with bank of the united states, Pfizer, and Verizon expend SOA software products to harness the vigor of their expertise and seriously change their businesses. Gartner positioned SOA software within the Leaders Quadrant for the 2011 “Magic Quadrant for SOA Governance technologies.” The business is moreover diagnosed as a “leader” by using the Forrester research Waves for integrated SOA Governance, SOA administration, and SOA lifestyles Cycle management. For greater counsel, please discuss with http://www.soa.com.
All product and business names herein can live trademarks of their registered house owners.
SOA utility, Semantics supervisor, OAuth Server, Lifecycle manager, neighborhood manager, policy supervisor, Portfolio manager, carrier supervisor, API Gateway, and SOLA are emblems of SOA utility, Inc.
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Construction began this month on a third apartment complex in Jacksonville's Brooklyn district, more progress for a formerly blighted fragment of town that has held mixed fortunes for developers and that experts command is still a tricky set to revitalize.
Sandwiched between downtown and Riverside, and laden with pedestrian hazards, the Brooklyn neighborhood presents significant challenges to developers, but the newest residential development signals continued interest in edifice there despite mixed results for the two retail projects already in place.
The Vista Brooklyn project will live the neighborhood's third major complex in six years. adding another 308 apartments and 13,000-square-feet of retail space to the revitalized neighborhood.
Experts command it will live a challenge to develop a complementary restaurant and retail arm of the housing projects because of inherent pedestrian and surface road conditions and its location between Riverside and Downtown.
The reality is that at 220 Riverside, an apartment complex next door where Vista Brooklyn is being built, the attempt to jump-start retail development fizzled.
Despite the closing of multiple businesses, mostly restaurants, at 220 Riverside, Vista Brooklyn developers want to link their residential project — slated for completion in 2021 — with retail.
“We reckon for walkable urban neighborhoods to thrive it is well-known for there to live ground-floor retail creating energy at the pedestrian-street level,” said Keith Goldfaden,managing ally for NAI Hallmark, the development solid managing Vista Brooklyn's construction.
Goldfaden said it’s too early to command what companies will occupy Vista Brooklyn retail spaces. He said they'll target local, regional and national retailers as tenants.
“We envision having a brace of restaurants along with service-oriented retailers that can service both the great day-time workforce and the ever-growing residential base and future hotels guests,” Goldfaden said.
Apartment complexes built in Brooklyn own had no problems with occupancy rates for tenants. Recently-opened apartment complexes in the LaVilla locality to the east and north of Brooklyn are moreover thriving in terms of attracting tenants.
A MIXED BAG
Retail in the unique Brooklyn developments is a mixed bag.
The Brooklyn Station shopping heart to the east of Vista Brooklyn anchored by The Fresh Market grocery store has thrived. Even when retail tenants leave the urban shopping plaza, they’re quickly replaced.
220 Riverside opened in 2016 with a complete slate of first-floor retail tenants adjoining an amphitheater called Unity Plaza. In May, Brixx Wood Fired Pizza closed, the terminal retailer operating in the building's commercial space.
The Unity Plaza decline has been unrelenting, according to multiple Times-Union reports. The first restaurant to immediate was Sbraga & Company, which survived just eight months. A year ago, a restaurant called Hobnob said it would no longer operate as a dine-in restaurant.
Twenty-two months later, Brixx was shuttered.
It’s a far shout from the urban culture heart promised when Hallmark broke ground on the amphitheater in 2013. Unity Plaza’s amphitheater, which holds about 2,000 people, was built with $2.6 million in taxpayer money and envisioned as an event-driven gathering spot for people from around the city.
“We’ll own their very own central park with their own activities with their own identity,” said Alex Coley, principal and co-founder of Hallmark Partners in an April 2013 report. “It is their faith that we’ll peek back on this day, the dedication of Unity Plaza, as a censorious milestone and evolution of their downtown.”
That glowing prediction fizzled.
Few events own been held at the amphitheater and some restaurant owners blamed the want of cultural activity on the closing of their businesses at 220 Riverside.
NOBLE EFFORT, broad HURDLES
Don Capener, dean of the Jacksonville University Davis College of Business, said Hallmark’s plans for mixed-use tenants at Vista Brooklyn are noble, but they face serious hurdles to execute a retract at retail.
“I reckon there are challenges. The pent-up claim they outright hoped for downtown — or housing directly adjacent to downtown — is an well-known understanding or concept. It’s time will come,” Capener said.
“The question is if that will live in the next two or three years or a five-to-10-year timetable. Certainly, outright of us hope it’s the shorter one. ... I own my doubts,” Capener said.
Brooklyn is in an gauche geographic location — not directly in downtown’s urban core and on the outskirts of the Riverside that thrives in places such as Five Points.
Brooklyn was moreover blighted for decades before Brooklyn Station and 220 Riverside along with other projects were built in the terminal half of this decade. Pockets of blight still speed along Park Street and other nearby locations.
Residents in the increasing number of apartments in the LaVilla locality moreover own to cross busy and risky high-traffic overpasses on Riverside Avenue and Park Street to come by to Brooklyn, making pedestrian access formidable if not frightening.
Given those considerations, Capener said the retail space being built into apartment complexes may live ahead of its time, making the prospect of sustaining retailers in residential complexes tough.
Jake Gordon, CEO of Downtown Vision Inc., a nonprofit organization that works with the city to foster commercial development downtown, acknowledged Capener’s point that Brooklyn faces unique challenges.
“When you attain these developments, your focus is on the housing,” Gordon said. “Although, people want to live where there are amenities.
“A lot of times you survey these bigger residential projects … include retail because that helps them lease up. You want to live near amenities like stores,” Gordon said.
The problem, Gordon said, is that the nature of retail has undergone rapid change just since 2015. The internet, restaurant home delivery and other factors add substantial competition to traditional retailers.
“I don’t vice Unity [Plaza] at outright for bringing in a brace of high-end restaurants. ... I reckon they did the best that they could in terms of the assumptions they had at the time and it just is a challenging location.
“But there are definitely other things that could potentially thrive there with outright the people animate there,” Gordon said.
Ultimately, the risk of opening an apartment complex with retail space is still a solid prospect, Gordon said. If developers don’t include commercial units when they open, it’s much more difficult to add retail later, he said.
BROOKLYN STATION SHOWS SUCCESS
The Brooklyn Station shopping heart proves retail can thrive in the neighborhood.
Gordon said the bigger challenge is to come by the mixed-use developments to piggy-back off of that success.
The key to jump-starting success for mixed-use developments that tender retail space in downtown will own to live aided by the true estate industry.
“The retail is arduous to fill and it’s moreover a totally different job [from residential]. If you peek at retail brokers in downtown, they effectively don’t own any retail brokers because the sizes are so small, the commission you come by isn’t worth your time as a broker … . It’s benevolent of the terminal thing to Come along,” Gordon said.
“I would command to a unique developer, you own to own retail in your ground floor. But also, it’s really arduous to depend on that retail to execute you a bunch of money to abet you complete your project,” Gordon said.
Lower-cost restaurants — though not quick food — and service-oriented shops such as computer stores, hair salons and work-out centers will likely lead to an upward transition for more sustainable businesses in mixed-use Brooklyn developments, Gordon said.
The Brooklyn Station shopping heart can serve as a template, Gordon said.
Capener agreed on that end. He said Brooklyn Station should live seen as an impetus for businesses to operate in mixed-use developments such as Vista Brooklyn.
“I believe they can work together. There can live synergy, even competition,” Capener said. “It adds what I muster censorious mass. Getting some of those retailers to add to that censorious mass I reckon makes a significant contribution to the success of the neighborhood.”
Development projects for service-oriented solutions are, on the surface, much like any other custom development projects for distributed applications. Services are designed, developed, and deployed alongside the usual supporting cast of front and back-end technologies. Once you dig a bit deeper under the layers of service-orientation, though, you'll find that in order to properly construct and position services as fragment of a standardized SOA, traditional project cycles require some adjustments.
As they can survey in device 1 (see below), common delivery lifecycles include processes specifically tailored to the creation of services in support of SOA. In the service-oriented analysis stage, for example, services are modeled as service candidates that comprise a introductory SOA. These candidates then become the starting point for the service-oriented design phase, which transforms them into true world service contracts.
Service-oriented analysis (and a related sub-process known as service modeling) portray an well-known fragment of service delivery that requires the involvement of business analysts and very much demonstrates how business analysis in generic is affected by SOA. We'll discuss these processes in more detail later in this series. For now, their focus is on the project lifecycle and its relationship to business analysis.
Figure 1: Common phases of an SOA delivery lifecycle.
The lifecycle stages displayed in device 1 portray a simple, sequential path to edifice individual services. true world delivery, however, is rarely that simple. These stages generally requisite to live organized into a delivery cycle that can accommodate the goals and constraints associated with project requirements, schedules, and budgets.
The challenge often lies in balancing these considerations. The success of SOA within an enterprise is increasingly associated with the extent to which it is standardized when phased into business and application domains. However, the success of a project delivering a service-oriented solution is traditionally measured by the extent to which the solution fulfills expected requirements within a given budget and timeline.
To address this problem, they requisite a strategy. This strategy must live based on an organization's priorities in order to establish the remedy poise between the delivery of long-term migration goals with the fulfillment of more immediate, tactical requirements.
In this article they contrast two common strategies used to build services known as bottom-up and top-down. Neither is perfect, but both provide us with insight as to how the SOA delivery lifecycle can live configured.
The bottom-up approach is currently the most common variety, where services are created on an "as need" basis to fulfill mostly tactical requirements. The top-down approach, on the other hand, is one of analysis, abysmal thought, and patience. Service-orientation is infused into business layers so that services can live modeled in alignment with business models. In other words, it is far more strategic.
Because the theme of this series is about how SOA relates to business analysis they are more interested in what lies behind the top-down process. The bottom-up approach is described primarily to provide contrast.
The majority of organizations that are currently edifice services as Web services result a process similar to the one shown in device 2. The primary judgement being that many just add Web services to their existing application environments in order to leverage the open Web services technology set (primarily for integration purposes). Even though the resulting architecture is often referred to as SOA, it really is still more reminiscent of traditional distributed architectural models, as service-orientation is rarely taken into consideration.
Figure 2: Common bottom-up process steps.
Though bottom-up designs allows for the efficient creation of services they can introduce some ponderous penalties down the road. Implementing a "proper SOA" after a wide spread implementation of tactical services can impose a worthy deal of retro-fitting.
This is very much an "analysis first" approach that requires not only business processes to become service-oriented, it moreover promotes the creation (or realignment) of an organization's overall business models. This process is therefore closely tied to or derived from an organization's existing business logic, and it commonly results in the creation of numerous reusable business and application services.
The top-down approach will typically hold some or outright of the steps illustrated in device 3.
Figure 3: Common top-down process steps.
The point of this strategy is to invest in the up-front analysis and planning work required to build a towering quality service architecture. The confine and parameters of each service are thoroughly analyzed to maximize reuse potential and opportunities for streamlined and sophisticated compositions. outright of this lays the groundwork for a standardized and federated enterprise where services maintain a state of adaptability, while continuing to unify existing heterogeneity.
The obstacles to following a top-down approach are usually associated with time and money. Organizations are required to invest significantly in up-front analysis projects that can hold a worthy deal of time to demonstrate tangible, ROI-type benefits. There are further risks associated with over planning, where by the time the analysis projects are completed, they can become outdated.
Top-down approach and enterprise models
Of particular interest to business analysts are the enterprise models referenced in Step 1 of device 3. These tend to vary across different organizations, each of which will own models that are unique to its business domains.
Common types of enterprise model documents include a formal ontology, an enterprise entity model, an enterprise-wide analytic data model, a standardized data representation architecture (often realized through a collection of standardized XML Schemas), and other forms of models generally associated with enterprise information architecture.
Some of these provide business-centric perspectives of an organization that prove extremely valuable sources for deriving business services. business entity models especially tie directly into the subsequent definition of entity-centric business services.
Although listed as just a single step in the overall process, the requirements to properly define enterprise models can easily result in the requisite for one or more separate processes, each of which may require its own project and working group. On the other hand, if the required enterprise business models already exist, then this step may simply consist of their identification.
The altenative of delivery strategy will determine the extent to which business analysts can abet shape a service portfolio conceptually, before services are physically implemented. It is therefore worthwhile to give serious consideration to the pros and cons associated with each approach.
The next article in this series continues this exploration by explaining a common deliverable of the top-down analysis endeavor known as the enterprise service model. They will moreover then portray how the both tactical and strategic requirements can live addressed in an alternative strategy known as "agile" or "meet-in-the-middle."
This article contains excerpts from "Service-Oriented Architecture: Concepts, Technology, and Design" by Thomas Erl (792 pages, Hardcover, ISBN: 0131858580, Prentice Hall/Pearson PTR, Copyright 2006). For more information, visit www.soabooks.com.
About the author
Thomas Erl is the world's top-selling SOA author and Series Editor of the "Prentice Hall Service-Oriented Computing Series from Thomas Erl" (www.soabooks.com). Thomas is moreover the founder of SOA Systems Inc., a solid specializing in strategic SOA consulting, planning, and training services (www.soatraining.com.) Thomas has made significant contributions to the SOA industry in the areas of service-orientation research and the development of a mainstream SOA methodology. Thomas is involved with a number of technical committees and research efforts, and travels frequently for speaking, training, and consulting engagements. To learn more, visit www.thomaserl.com.
Easier, cost-effective, better perfoming irrigation systems for the farmers, environmentally frendlier and economically sound for outright water users. This is MASSCOTTE: "MApping System and Services for Canal Operation TEchniques."What is MASSCOTE?
The MASSCOTE is a step-wise methodology to evaluate and resolve different components of an irrigation system and then develop a modernization plan. The modernization device consists of physical, institutional, and managerial improvements in different components to improve water delivery service and cost effectiveness of operation and management.
While the overall goal of MASSCOTE is modernization of management with the users as central actors, canal operation is the focus and entry point: modern design and management concepts are based on the definition of an operation device to achieve specific service and performance objectives. Users are central to this Service Oriented Management (SOM) approach.What attain they stand for by modernization of irrigation systems?
FAO defines the modernization as following: A process of technical and managerial upgrading (as opposed to mere rehabilitation) of irrigation schemes with the objective to improve resource utilization (labor, water, economics, environmental) and water delivery service to farms.Why the focus on canal operation?
As they often command “Canals don’t lie”: they reflect the existing performance and express the constraints, limits and opportunities of the management. Thus the entry point of MASSCOTE is canal operation but the scope is modernization and the goal is to promote Service Oriented Management (SOM) with specific targets that are explicit in terms of cost, water and other resources expend effectiveness, and for the environment.
Canal operation is a censorious entry point because: (i) it is the activity that puts management decisions into tangible outputs; and (ii) it is there thatmasscote in india the current management performance is sanctioned and expressed in the most obvious manner (its symptoms). MASSCOTE evolves from canaloperation to management options (institutional partitioning, organization, and SOM). A longer-term device will address more systematically other issues related to management such as incentive structure, governance, and financing in a full-fletched asset management planHow does MASSCOTE work?
MASSCOTE methodology consists of 11 steps (click here to view steps) which are grouped into two main parts
The steps in the first fragment deal with evaluation and analysis of the current situation, practices and processes. In the second fragment a vision for the irrigation system is developed and targets are established. The modernization improvements are then planned to achieve these targets.
An well-known feature of the methodology concerns the revolving nature of MASSCOTE. This might imply iterative circles before reaching a consolidated stage of analysis and project – several rounds of MASSCOTE at different levels of the system (main supply, subunits) before integrating at the main supply and subunit level.Is Modernization a one shot process?
Certainly not, successful modernization programs Show that modernization is a continuing process that moreover needs a lot of maturation period before stakeholders converge towards a common understanding and tangibles interventions. Using RAP and MASSCOTE appears to live a superior approach in investing in the initial stages of the process and insufflate a superior momentum
The different time frames of the interventions:
The MASSCOTE aims to assist technical experts, irrigation managers and masscote in chinamore broadly irrigation professionals, in seriously addressing modern needs, issues and challenges, analyzing outright the associated details, and embarking upon the difficult road of modernization or re-engineering of irrigation management of medium to great irrigation canal systems, with practical and particular objectives, plans and solutions.Who can conduct MASSCOTE for modernization
MASSCOTE methodology can live applied by any skilled professionals, however FAO recommends whenever feasible to associate MASSCOTE with a training that allows participants to live familiarized with the various steps of the process as well as with some modern techniques of canal control.Whose benefits?
Modernization focuses in on making it easier, simpler and more economical to achieve improved overall economic, water-related and environmental performance through improved service delivery to outright users especially the farmers, thanks to improved irrigation management. masscote in indiaIt pays particular attention to buy-in from irrigation service provider staff (in agencies and water users associations that employ them) in terms of benefits that accrue to them, in addition to the core objective of improving performance and service to farmers. Those who provide funding (agencies, tax payers and farmers) are moreover intended as censorious beneficiaries together with:
MASSCOTE is already used in:
...and who is interested in adopting it:
More on Masscote >>
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ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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