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Test Code : P8010-004
Test cognomen : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 30 actual Questions

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IBM IBM Commerce Solutions Order

IBM (IBM) Down 10.three% in view that remaining earnings document: Can It Rebound? | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

A month has gone by given that the remaining profits record for IBM (IBM). Shares Have misplaced about 10.3% in that time body, underperforming the S&P 500.

Will the coincident terrible vogue continue leading as much as its next income unencumber, or is IBM due for a breakout? before they dive into how traders and analysts Have reacted as of late, let's trap a brief loom on the most fresh earnings file with a purpose to accept a better maneuver on the distinguished catalysts.

IBM’s Q2 results benefit from pervade chopping, lessen Share signify number

IBM reported third-quarter 2018 non-GAAP profits of $3.forty two per share, which beat the Zacks Consensus estimate via pair of cents. income per share (EPS) multiplied four.9% from the yr-in the past quarter.

The year-over-12 months increase in EPS can subsist attributed to solid pre-tax margin working leverage (28 cents contribution) and aggressive share buybacks (19 cents contribution). This became partly offset through reduce revenues (seven cents terrible Have an repercussion on) and higher tax cost (17 cents negative influence).

Revenues of $18.76 billion lagged the Zacks Consensus estimate of $19.10 billion and declined 2.1% on a 12 months-over-yr foundation. At constant foreign money (cc), revenues remained flat.

IBM mentioned that signings plunged 21% to $eight billion. features backlog declined three% from the yr-ago quarter to $113 billion.

Geographic revenue particulars

Revenues from Americas inched up 1%, pushed with the aid of continued increase in Canada and Latin the united states and modest growth in the u.s..

Europe, center-East and Africa reduced 2% from the yr-in the past quarter, driven through decline in Germany and France, partially offset by means of boom in Spain and the UK.

Asia-Pacific revenues declined 1% on a year-over-year basis with modest growth in Japan.

Strategic Imperatives boom Continues

Strategic Imperatives (cloud, analytics, mobility and protection) grew 7% at cc from the year-ago quarter to $9.3 billion. safety revenues surged 34%. On a trailing 12-month foundation, Strategic Imperatives revenues were $39.5 billion, up 13% (11% at cc).

Cloud revenues surged 13% from the yr-ago quarter to $four.6 billion. The annual Run rate for cloud as-a-provider revenues multiplied 24% at cc on a 12 months-over-12 months foundation to $eleven.4 billion.

Cloud revenues of $19 billion on a trailing 12-month foundation elevated 20% (18% at cc) and now accounts for 24% of IBM’s total revenues.

Cognitive Revenues Decline

Cognitive options’ revenues-exterior reduced 5.7% year over year (down 5% at cc) to $four.15 billion. Segmental revenues touching on Strategic Imperatives and Cloud declined four% and a pair of%, respectively. Cloud as-a-carrier revenue annual Run rate became $2 billion.

options utility comprises choices in strategic verticals dote fitness, area-particular capabilities dote analytics and protection, and IBM’s emerging technologies of AI and blockchain. The segment likewise contains choices that address horizontal domains dote collaboration, commerce and ability. solutions utility revenues reduced 3% year over 12 months in the quarter.

IBM brought up that in commerce locality the infusion of AI into choices dote customer journey analytics helped SaaS signings to grow double digit in the quarter. The fresh launch of Notes Domino edition 10, which is optimized for cellular, and supports JavaScript and node.js will boost increase collaboration in 2019.

Transaction Processing utility contains software that runs mission-essential workloads, leveraging IBM’s hardware platforms. Revenues fell 8% on a yr-over-12 months foundation.

IBM witnessed increase in trade verticals dote fitness, key areas of analytics and safety in the quarter. Watson health witnessed extensive-based mostly boom in Payer, provider, Imaging and existence Sciences domains.

all the way through the quarter, the Sugar.IQ utility, developed through Medtronic in partnership with IBM, hit the market. The software is designed to simplify and enhance every day diabetes management.

IBM brought up that analytics performed well within the quarter, driven with the aid of statistics science offerings and IBM Cloud deepest for facts providing.

during the quarter, the company introduced jaundice detection capabilities and launched recent Watson features on the IBM Cloud deepest platform.

safety growth changed into pushed by means of offerings in orchestration, data protection and endpoint management.

In blockchain, IBM meals believe community for food safeguard went live in the quarter. Reatiler Carrefour joined IBM’s blockchain network. The company additionally collectively introduced TradeLens with Maersk that addresses inefficiencies in the world give chain. IBM currently supports 75 dynamic blockchain networks.

international business capabilities Revenues boost

Revenues from world business functions-external segment had been $4.13 billion, up 0.9% from the 12 months-in the past quarter (up three% at cc). Segmental revenues referring to Strategic Imperatives grew 9%. Cloud apply surged 18%. Cloud as-a-service income annual Run cost became $1.9 billion.

software management revenues declined 1% from the year-in the past quarter. despite the fact, global routine functions revenues climbed 2%. moreover, Consulting revenues elevated 7% yr over yr, pushed via strong efficiency from IBM’s digital enterprise.

expertise features & Cloud structures: Revenues Dip

Revenues from expertise services & Cloud structures-exterior lowered 2% from the 12 months-in the past quarter (flat at cc) to $8.29 billion. Segmental revenues concerning Strategic Imperatives advanced sixteen%, pushed with the aid of hybrid cloud capabilities. Cloud surged 22% from the year-in the past quarter. Cloud as-a-provider revenue annual Run fee changed into $7.5 billion.

Integration utility increased 1% from the 12 months-in the past quarter. complete through the quarter, ninety five organizations worldwide chosen IBM Cloud private offering. Infrastructure services revenues additionally improved 1% on a year-over-12 months basis.

despite the fact, Technical wait on features revenues diminished three% from the year-ago quarter.

vigor & z14 drive systems Revenues

systems revenues multiplied 0.9% on a year-over-yr groundwork (up 2% at cc) to $1.seventy four billion. Segmental revenues relating Strategic Imperatives surged 5%, whereas Cloud revenues declined eight%.

IBM Z revenues extended 6% yr over year on greater than 20% MIPS increase, pushed by way of vast-based adoption of the z14 mainframe.

vigor revenues multiplied 17% from the 12 months-in the past quarter. prerogative through the quarter, IBM launched its subsequent technology POWER9 processors for midrange and excessive-conclusion techniques which are designed for dealing with superior analytics, cloud environments and facts-intensive workloads in AI, HANA, and UNIX markets.

IBM likewise brought recent offerings optimizing both hardware and software for AI. management believes that items dote PowerAI imaginative and prescient and PowerAI commercial enterprise will wait on pressure recent client adoption.

youngsters, storage hardware revenues declined 6% because of vulnerable performance within the midrange and inordinate conclusion, partially offset with the aid of mighty growth in complete twinkle Arrays. IBM mentioned that pricing power within the immensely aggressive storage market is hurting revenues. The company announced its recent FlashSystems with subsequent technology NVMe technology complete through the quarter.

working techniques application revenues declined 4%, while systems Hardware superior four% from the year-in the past quarter.

ultimately, world Financing (includes financing and used machine revenue) revenues decreased 9.1% at cc to $388 million.

operating details

Non-GAAP unseemly margin remained unchanged from the yr-in the past quarter at 47.four%. This turned into IBM’s premier unseemly margin efficiency in years and changed into essentially pushed by a hundred and sixty basis aspects (bps) growth in services margin. despite the fact, unfavorable combine in z14 mainframe and utility wholly offset this enlargement.

working rate declined 4% 12 months over year, as a result of consciousness of acquisition synergies and enhancing operational efficiencies. IBM continues to invest in speedy starting to subsist fields dote hybrid cloud, synthetic intelligence (AI), protection and blockchain.

Pre-tax margin from continuing operations multiplied 50 bps on a year-over-12 months groundwork to 19.2%.

Cognitive solutions and world enterprise features segment pre-tax margins improved one hundred ninety bps and 320 bps, respectively, on a 12 months-over-yr basis. youngsters, technology capabilities & Cloud structures angle pre-tax margin reduced in size one hundred bps.

methods pre-tax income became $209 million down 38% 12 months over yr. world Financing segment pre-tax earnings jumped 26.7% to $308 million.

balance Sheet & cash stream details

IBM ended third-quarter 2018 with $14.70 billion in complete money and marketable securities in comparison with $11.ninety three billion at the conclusion of 2d-quarter 2018. complete debt (together with world financing) was $46.9 billion, up $1.four million from the previous quarter.

IBM reported money stream from operations (except for global Financing receivables) of $3.1 billion and generated free money stream of $2.2 billion in the quarter.

within the pronounced quarter, the business back $2.1 billion to shareholders via dividends and share repurchases. on the respite of the quarter, the enterprise had $1.four billion closing under current buyback authorization.

suggestions

IBM reiterated EPS forecast for 2018. Non-GAAP EPS is anticipated to subsist at the least $13.eighty.

IBM still anticipates 2018 free money circulate of $12 billion.

Story continues

How Have Estimates Been relocating when you account that Then?

in the past month, traders Have witnessed a downward vogue in sparkling estimates.

VGM ratings

at this time, IBM has a regular boom score of C, though it's lagging a bit of on the Momentum ranking entrance with a D. besides the fact that children, the inventory turned into allotted a grade of A on the expense facet, putting it within the commandeer quintile for this funding strategy.

basic, the stock has an aggregate VGM ranking of B. if you aren't focused on one method, this score is the one subsist sure to subsist interested in.

Outlook

Estimates Have been widely trending downward for the inventory, and the magnitude of those revisions shows a downward shift. chiefly, IBM has a Zacks Rank #3 (cling). They call an in-line recur from the stock within the following pair of months.

want the newest techniques from Zacks investment analysis? nowadays, which you could download 7 surest shares for the subsequent 30 Days. click on to accept this free file foreign enterprise Machines organisation (IBM) : Free inventory analysis record To read this text on Zacks.com click prerogative here. Zacks investment research


IBM predicts AI will create a recent breed of marketers | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

as the calendar flips, marketers will appear to subsist to find recent how to profit an facet. As IBM predicts, a recent breed of entrepreneurs is rising with the support of synthetic intelligence.

IBM Watson advertising released its 2019 advertising and marketing tendencies file, highlighting traits within the business. The group predicted that in the emotion economic climate, buyers will likely Have interaction extra with manufacturers which are genuine and deliver on their convictions.

That may no longer subsist a recent construction by itself, but IBM believes AI and computing device getting to know will fabricate hyper-personalization a truth because the proliferation of facts and the streamlining of marketing stacks will permit marketers to deliver customized content material at a massive scale.

Michael Trapani, marketing software director for IBM Watson advertising, said emotion and personal connection doesn't Have to subsist in battle with the seemingly bloodless and calculating world of AI.

"Making a reference to a company will at complete times subsist a really human, emotion-driven technique for consumers. where AI and computing device getting to know are available is the capacity to superior inform entrepreneurs in accordance with uncovering insights about your shoppers that a human could no longer note or locate. these insights then enable human marketers to boost better and more apposite artistic after which deliver it at scale across channels to individual patrons," observed Trapani.

in line with the document, the expected inflow of AI will lead to emergence of 'consulgencies,' as the should construct out abilities in client event analytics and mobile apps will note the capabilities of consultancies and companies converge.

"many of the company partners that work with IBM Have added or elevated their technical and facts integration and consulting capabilities. Many are likewise moving to more of consultative arrangement, focused more on hours and effects than on media buys. As for AI, complete agencies regardless of size are exploring uses of AI to solve their customer's advertising and customer challenges, even if it is building chatbots or interactive experiences," Trapani talked about.

"companies are likewise more and more the exhaust of off-the-shelf AI-based mostly advertising and marketing options that can call premiere customer journeys, determine purchasers surely to churn, and identify and call where consumers are struggling to finished goals in an online event."

among the many predictions embrace the boom of the director of advertising and marketing information office and the emergence of the 'martecheter,' a greater tech-savvy marketer. The document additionally says that, traditionally, the highest character benefits to a entrepreneurs Have been finances, equipment, and talent, but that order will flip as the industry moves far from hiring single-professional marketers given the accent on client taste and advertising and marketing technologies.

The internal workings of the entire C-suite might note a transformation, too. according to the file, the focal point on client centricity will create extra alternatives for commerce and digital groups to combination and scan with customer data.


Metro footwear faucets IBM Watson For Digital Commerce | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

ibm shoes

Metro footwear Ltd, one in every of India’s leading multi-manufacturer sneakers chains, is launching a brand recent Digital Commerce platform powered with the aid of Watson client tryst hosted on IBM Cloud. this could encompass IBM Watson Order management and Commerce for seamless digital engagement. Working with IBM company companion CEBS international, IBM solutions will now not only assist drive sophisticated customer experiences and recent ranges of solace but deliver efficiencies to the supply chain.

With a national footprint of 350 actual showrooms, an expanding manufacturer portfolio and altering customer preferences, Metro shoes Ltd become facing challenges in managing orders coming from multiple online platforms.  earlier dealt with by way of unreliable application, resulting in need of visibility of true-time records of sales, stock vicinity and returns. apart from its stock management challenges, Metro footwear Ltd crucial to increase online presence for a few of their generic interior manufacturers which were getting low visibility impacting universal income.

“know-how is redefining customer tryst and may subsist the key differentiator for retail brands of the longer term. We’re excited to collaborate with IBM and CEBS to embark on their digital transformation journey,” said Alisha Malik, vice chairman, Digital, Metro footwear. “With IBM’s expertise within the omni-channel commerce and retail house, they are assured that these adjustments will no longer handiest wait on accelerate the execution of their approach, however likewise provide us an locality over competitors. At Metro shoes, they strongly believe that the recent solution will increase the typical user experience, thereby increasing revisits, traffic and loyalty.”

With IBM, Metro shoes Ltd can benefit recent levels of consumer perception, which may likewise subsist used to customise the on-line taste for each and every vacationer as they navigate in the course of the web page. Delivered via a single platform, Metro shoes can subsist in a position to exhibit complete of its brands and advocate specific gadgets in line with insights shared by using consumers. This customized event will encompass recent and convenient fulfillmentoptions corresponding to purchase on-line, pick up in save, reserve in retain and straightforward returns. because of these recent capabilities, Metro footwear should subsist in a position to raise every vacationer’s adventure on the website by way of enabling commerce practitioners with cognitive apparatus which wait on them convey omni-channel experiences that interact consumers and pressure income.

With IBM’s know-how capabilities and CEBS talents with marketplace integration, Metro shoes as a company/seller will likewise subsist capable of combine with greater than 14 e-marketplaces dote Amazon, Flipkart and different main portals with a centralized routine and stock engine to permit Metro to scale as much as the needs of a starting to subsist market enterprise. further, IBM Cloud will support elevate the capacity to configure hefty workloads and thereby carry efficiency required for top usage complete the way through the searching season.

speaking concerning the collaboration, Nishant Kalra, enterprise unit leader – IBM Watson consumer tryst - India/South Asiaadded, “IBM is on the forefront of assisting shoppers embody more recent ways to work and digitally transforming the way they engage with their respite shoppers. they are satisfied to subsist a Part of Metro footwear’ digital transformation adventure by means of supplying sophisticated digital commerce adventure, leveraging the retailers by using merging them with on-line, and at last driving manufacturer advocacy. IBM in affiliation with CEBS will enable abysmal innovation, sooner-go-to-market and streamline processes for scalability.”

The IBM platform will create a bridge between its online and offline business which the retailer prior to now lacked. With the brand recent built-in single view, Metro footwear sooner or later should subsist in a position to exhaust insights received from the digital realm to design particular providing for valued clientele as they walk into any of their retailers. in consequence, they can trap note what consumers desire, fabricate unavoidable availability when and where they want it and even study pass promoting and upselling throughout their quite a lot of manufacturers.

For Metro footwear, IBM Watson Order management and Commerce solutions can pave way for IBM’s cognitive applied sciences to carry insights that wait on them deliver clients with customized options and an better user event –from click to birth.

“With over 15 years of taste in developing e-company equipment, CEBS has been a relied on options provider and companion for companies across the globe,”talked about Satish Swaroop, President, CEBS global. Their useful and versatile utility options paired with IBM’s abysmal expertise skills will give Metro shoes a true-time, centralized apparatus for customer administration.”


P8010-004 IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

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P8010-004 exam Dumps Source : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Test Code : P8010-004
Test cognomen : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 30 actual Questions

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Modeled larval connectivity of a multi-species reef fish and invertebrate assemblage off the coast of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

Introduction

Knowledge of population connectivity is necessary for effective management in marine environments (Mitarai, Siegel & Winters, 2008; Botsford et al., 2009; Toonen et al., 2011). For many species of marine invertebrate and reef fish, dispersal is mostly limited to the pelagic larval life stage. Therefore, an understanding of larval dispersal patterns is censorious for studying population dynamics, connectivity, and conservation in the marine environment (Jones, Srinivasan & Almany, 2007; Lipcius et al., 2008; Gaines et al., 2010; Toonen et al., 2011). Many coastal and reef species Have a bi-phasic life history in which adults panoply limited geographic sweep and lofty site fidelity, while larvae are pelagic and highly mobile (Thorson, 1950; Scheltema, 1971; Strathmann, 1993; Marshall et al., 2012). This life history strategy is not only common to sessile invertebrates such as corals or limpets; many reef fish species Have been shown to Have a home sweep of <1 km as adults (Meyer et al., 2000; Meyer, Papastamatiou & Clark, 2010). Depending on species, the mobile planktonic stage can last from hours to months and has the potential to transport larvae up to hundreds of kilometers away from a site of origin (Scheltema, 1971; Richmond, 1987; Shanks, 2009). lore of larval dispersal patterns can subsist used to inform effective management, such as marine spatial management strategies that sustain source populations of breeding individuals capable of dispersing offspring to other areas.

Both biological and physical factors repercussion larval dispersal, although the relative weight of these factors is likely variable among species and sites and remains debated (Levin, 2006; Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007; Cowen & Sponaugle, 2009; White et al., 2010). In situ data on pelagic larvae are sparse; marine organisms at this life stage are difficult to capture and identify, and are typically create in low densities across big areas of the open ocean (Clarke, 1991; Wren & Kobayashi, 2016). A variety of genetic and chemistry techniques Have therefore been developed to estimate larval connectivity (Gillanders, 2005; Leis, Siebeck & Dixson, 2011; Toonen et al., 2011; Johnson et al., 2018). Computer models informed by sphere and laboratory data Have likewise become a valuable tool for estimating larval dispersal and population connectivity (Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007; Botsford et al., 2009; Sponaugle et al., 2012; Kough, Paris & Butler IV, 2013; Wood et al., 2014). Individual-based models, or IBMs, can incorporate both biological and physical factors known to influence larval movement. Pelagic larval duration (PLD), for example, is the amount of time a larva spends in the water column before settlement and can vary widely among or even within species ( Toonen & Pawlik, 2001). PLD affects how far an individual can subsist successfully transported by ocean currents, and so is expected to directly touch connectivity patterns (Siegel et al., 2003; Shanks, 2009; Dawson et al., 2014). In addition to PLD, adult reproductive strategy and timing (Carson et al., 2010; Portnoy et al., 2013), fecundity (Castorani et al., 2017), larval mortality (Vikebøet al., 2007), and larval developmental, morphological, and behavioral characteristics (Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007) may complete play a role in shaping connectivity patterns. Physical factors such as temperature, bathymetry, and current direction can likewise substantially influence connectivity (Cowen & Sponaugle, 2009). In this study, they incorporated both biotic and abiotic components in an IBM coupled with an oceanographic model to call fine-scale patterns of larval exchange around the island of Moloka‘i in the Hawaiian archipelago.

The main Hawaiian Islands are located in the middle of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, and are bordered by the North Hawaiian Ridge current along the northern coasts of the islands and the Hawaii Lee Current along the southern coasts, both of which Run east to west and are driven by the prevalent easterly trade winds (Lumpkin, 1998; Friedlander et al., 2005). The Hawai‘i Lee Countercurrent, which runs along the southern perimeter of the chain, flows west to east (Lumpkin, 1998). The pattern of mesoscale eddies around the islands is complicated and varies seasonally (Friedlander et al., 2005; Vaz et al., 2013).

Hawaiian marine communities visage unprecedented pressures, including coastal development, overexploitation, disease, and increasing temperature and acidification due to climate change (Smith, 1993; Lowe, 1995; Coles & Brown, 2003; Friedlander et al., 2003; Friedlander et al., 2005; Aeby, 2006). Declines in Hawaiian marine resources squabble for implementation of a more holistic approach than traditional single-species maximum sustainable yield techniques, which Have proven ineffective (Goodyear, 1996; Hilborn, 2011). There is a generic movement toward the exhaust of ecosystem-based management, which requires lore of ecosystem structure and connectivity patterns to establish and manage marine spatial planning areas (Slocombe, 1993; Browman et al., 2004; Pikitch et al., 2004; Arkema, Abramson & Dewsbury, 2006). Kalaupapa National Historical Park is a federal marine protected locality (MPA) located on the north shore of Moloka‘i, an island in the Maui Nui complicated of the Hawaiian archipelago, that includes submerged lands and waters up to 1 4 mile offshore (NOAA, 2009). At least five IUCN red-listed coral species Have been identified within this area (Kenyon, Maragos & Fenner, 2011), and in 2010 the Park showed the greatest fish biomass and species diversity out of four Hawaiian National Parks surveyed (Beets, Brown & Friedlander, 2010). One of the major benefits expected of MPAs is that the protected waters within the locality provide a source of larval spillover to other sites on the island, seeding these areas for commercial, recreational, and subsistence fishing (McClanahan & Mangi, 2000; Halpern & Warner, 2003; Lester et al., 2009).

In this study, they used a Lagrangian particle-tracking IBM (Wong-Ala et al., 2018) to simulate larval dispersal around Moloka‘i and to estimate the larval exchange among sites at the scale of an individual island. They Have parameterized their model with biological data for eleven species covering a breadth of Hawaiian reef species life histories (e.g., habitat preferences, larval behaviors, and pelagic larval durations, Table 1), and of interest to both the local community and resource managers. Their goals were to examine patterns of species-specific connectivity, characterize the location and relative magnitude of connections around Moloka‘i, recount sites of potential management relevance, and address the question of whether Kalaupapa National Historical Park provides larval spillover for adjacent sites on Moloka‘i, or connections to the adjacent islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, O‘ahu, Lana‘i, and Kaho‘olawe.

Table 1:

Target taxa selected for the study, based on cultural, ecological, and/or economic importance.

PLD = pelagic larval duration. Short dispersers (3–25 day minimum PLD) in white, medium dispersers (30–50 day minimum PLD) in light gray, and long dispersers (140–270 day minimum PLD) in black gray. Spawn season and timing from traditional ecological lore shared by cultural practitioners on the island. Asterisk indicates that congener-level data was used. Commonname Scientific name Spawn type # of larvae spawned Spawningday of year Spawning hour of day Spawning moon phase Larval depth (m) PLD (days) Habitat ’Opihi/ Limpet Cellana spp. Broadcast1 861,300 1–60 & 121–181 – New 0–5 3–181,2 Intertidal1 Ko’a/ Cauliflower coral Pocillopora meandrina Broadcast3 1,671,840 91–151 07:15–08:00 Full 0–54 5–90*5 Reef He’e/ Octopus Octopus cyanea Benthic6 1,392,096 1–360 – – 50–100 216 Reef, rubble7 Moi/ Pacific threadfin Polydactylus sexfilis Broadcast 1,004,640 152–243 – – 50–1008 259 Sand10 Uhu uliuli/ Spectacled parrotfish Chlorurus perspicillatus Broadcast 1,404,792 152–212 – – 0–120*11 30*12 Reef10 Uhu palukaluka/ Reddlip parrotfish Scarus rubroviolaceus Broadcast 1,404,792 152–212 – – 0–120*11 30*12 Rock, reef10 Kumu/ Whitesaddle Goatfish Parupeneus porphyreus Broadcast 1,071,252 32–90 – – 0–50*11 41–56*12 Sand, rock, reef10 Kole/ Spotted surgeonfish Ctenochaetus strigosus Broadcast 1,177,200 60–120 – – 50–10011 50*12 Rock, reef, rubble10 ‘Ōmilu/ Bluefin trevally Caranx melampygus Broadcast 1,310,616 121–243 – – 0–80*11 140*13,14 Sand, reef10 Ulua/ Giant trevally Caranx ignoblis Broadcast 1,151,040 152–243 – Full 0–80*11 14013,14 Sand, rock, reef10 Ula/ Spiny lobster Panulirus spp. Benthic15 1,573,248 152–243 – – 50–10016 27017 Rock, pavement16 Methods Circulation model

We selected the hydrodynamic model MITgcm, which is designed for the study of dynamical processes in the ocean on a horizontal scale. This model solves incompressible Navier–Stokes equations to recount the motion of viscous fluid on a sphere, discretized using a finite-volume technique (Marshall et al., 1997). The one-km resolution MITgcm domain for this study extends from 198.2°E to 206°E and from 17°N to 22.2°N, an locality that includes the islands of Moloka‘i, Maui, Lana‘i, Kaho‘olawe, O‘ahu, and Hawai‘i. While Ni‘ihau and southern Kaua’i likewise tumble within the domain, they discarded connectivity to these islands because they prevaricate within the 0.5° limit zone of the current model. limit conditions are enforced over 20 grid points on complete sides of the model domain. Vertically, the model is divided into 50 layers that increase in thickness with depth, from five m at the surface (0.0–5.0 m) to 510 m at the ground (4,470 –4,980 m). Model variables were initialized using the output of a Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) at a horizontal resolution of 0.04° (∼four km) configured for the main Hawaiian Islands, using the generic Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans database (GEBCO, 1/60°) (Jia et al., 2011).

The simulation runs from March 31st, 2011 to July 30th, 2013 with a temporal resolution of 24 h and shows seasonal eddies as well as persistent mesoscale features (Fig. S1). They Do not embrace tides in the model due to temporal resolution. Their model era represents a neutral ocean state; no El Niño or La Niña events occurred during this time period. To ground-truth the circulation model, they compared surface current output to real-time trajectories of surface drifters from the GDP Drifter Data Assembly hub (Fig. S2) (Elipot et al., 2016), as well as other current models of the locality (Wren et al., 2016; Storlazzi et al., 2017).

Biological model

To simulate larval dispersal, they used a modified version of the Wong-Ala et al. (2018) IBM, a 3D Lagrangian particle-tracking model written in the R programming language (R Core Team, 2017). The model takes the aforementioned MITgcm current products as input, as well as shoreline shapefiles extracted from the full resolution NOAA Global Self-consistent Hierarchical High-resolution Geography database, v2.3.0 (Wessel & Smith, 1996). Their model included 65 land masses within the geographic domain, the largest being the island of Hawai‘i and the smallest being Pu‘uki‘i Island, a 1.5-acre islet off the eastern coast of Maui. To model depth, they used the one arc-minute-resolution ETOPO1 bathymetry, extracted using the R package ‘marmap’ (Amante & Eakins, 2009; Pante & Simon-Bouhet, 2013).

Each species was simulated with a separate model run. Larvae were modeled from spawning to settlement and were transported at each timestep (t = 2 h) by advection-diffusion transport. This transport consisted of (1) advective displacement caused by water flow, consisting of east (u) and north (v) velocities read from daily MITgcm files, and (2) additional random-walk displacement, using a diffusion constant of 0.2 m2/s−1 (Lowe et al., 2009). Vertical velocities (w) were not implemented by the model; details of vertical larval movement are described below. Advection was interpolated between data points at each timestep using an Eulerian 2D barycentric interpolation method. They chose this implementation over a more computationally intensive interpolation routine (i.e., fourth-order Runge–Kutta) because they did not keep a disagreement at this timestep length. Biological processes modeled embrace PLD, reproduction timing and location, mortality, and ontogenetic changes in vertical distribution; these qualities were parameterized via species-specific data obtained from previous studies and from the local fishing and management community (Table 1).

Larvae were released from habitat-specific spawning sites and were considered settled if they fell within a roughly one-km contour around reef or intertidal habitat at the respite of their pelagic larval duration. Distance from habitat was used rather than water depth because Penguin Bank, a relatively shallow bank to the southwest of Moloka‘i, does not limn suitable habitat for reef-associated species. PLD for each larva was a randomly assigned value between the minimum and maximum PLD for that species, and larvae were removed from the model if they had reached their PLD and were not within a settlement zone. No data on pre-competency era were available for their study species, so this parameter was not included. Mortality rates were calculated as larval half-lives; e.g., one-half of complete larvae were assumed to Have survived at one-half of the maximum PLD for that species (following Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). Since their focus was on potential connectivity pathways, reproductive rates were calibrated to allow for saturation of workable settlement sites, equating from ∼900,000 to ∼1,7000,000 larvae released depending on species. Fecundity was therefore derived not from biological data, but from computational minimums.

Development, and resulting ontogenetic changes in behavior, is specific to the life history of each species. Broadcast-spawning species with weakly-swimming larvae (P. meandrina and Cellana spp., Table 1) were transported as passive particles randomly distributed between 0–5 m depth (Storlazzi, Brown & Field, 2006). Previous studies Have demonstrated that fish larvae Have a lofty degree of control over their vertical position in the water column (Irisson et al., 2010; Huebert, Cowen & Sponaugle, 2011). Therefore, they modeled broadcast-spawning fish species with a 24-hour passive buoyant angle to simulate eggs pre-hatch, followed by a pelagic larval angle with a species-specific depth distribution. For C. ignoblis, C. melampygus, P. porphyreus, C. perspicillatus, and S. rubroviolaceus, they used genus-level depth distributions (Fig. S3) obtained from the 1996 NOAA ichthyoplankton vertical distributions data report (Boehlert & Mundy, 1996). P. sexfilis and C. strigosus larvae were randomly distributed between 50–100 m (Boehlert, Watson & Sun, 1992). Benthic brooding species (O. cyanea and Panulirus spp.) Do not Have a passive buoyant phase, and thus were released as larvae randomly distributed between 50–100 m. At each time step, a larva’s depth was checked against bathymetry, and was assigned to the nearest available layer if the species-specific depth was not available at these coordinates.

For data-poor species, they used congener-level estimates for PLD (see Table 1). For example, there is no estimate of larval duration for Caranx species, but in Hawai‘i peak spawning occurs in May–July and peak recruitment in August–December (Sudekum, 1984; Longenecker, Langston & Barrett, 2008). In consultation with resource managers and community members, a PLD of 140 days was chosen pending future data that indicates a more accurate pelagic period.

Habitat selection

Spawning sites were generated using data from published literature and modified after input from native Hawaiian cultural practitioners and the Moloka‘i fishing community (Fig. 1). Species-specific habitat suitability was inferred from the 2013–2016 Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands (Costa & Kendall, 2016). They designated coral habitat as areas with 5–90% coral cover, or ≥1 site-specific coral species richness, for a total of 127 spawning sites on Moloka‘i. Habitat for reef invertebrates followed coral habitat, with additional sites added after community feedback for a total of 136 sites. Areas with a predicted reef fish biomass of 58–1,288 g/m2 were designated as reef fish habitat (Stamoulis et al., 2016), for a total of 109 spawning sites. Sand habitat was designated as 90–100% uncolonized for a total of 115 sites. Intertidal habitat was designated as any rocky shoreline locality not covered by sand or mud, for a total of 87 sites. Number of adults was assumed equal at complete sites. For regional analysis, they pooled sites into groups of two to 11 sites based on benthic habitat and surrounding geography (Fig. 1A). Adjacent sites were grouped if they shared the selfsame benthic habitat classification and prevalent wave direction, and/or were Part of the selfsame reef tract.

Figure 1: Spawning sites used in the model by species. (A) C. perspicillatus, S. rubroviolaceus, P. porphyreus, C. strigosus, C. ignoblis, and C. melampygus, n = 109; (B) P. meandrina, n = 129;(C) O. cyanea and Panulirus spp., n = 136; (D) P. sexfilis, n = 115; and (E) Cellana spp., n = 87. Region names are displayed over associated spawning sites for fish species in (A). Regions are made up of two to 11 sites, grouped based on coastal geography and surrounding benthic habitat, and are designated in (A) by adjacent colored dots. Kalaupapa National Historical Park is highlighted in light green in (A). Source–sink dynamics and local retention

Dispersal distance was measured via the distm office in the R package ‘geosphere’, which calculates distance between geographical points via the Haversine formula (Hijmans, 2016). This distance, measured between spawn and settlement locations, was used to figure dispersal kernels to examine and compare species-specific distributions. They likewise measured local retention, or the percentage of successful settlers from a site that were retained at that site (i.e., settlers at site A that originated from site A/total successful settlers that originated from site A). To estimate the role of specific sites around Moloka‘i, they likewise calculated a source–sink index for each species (Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014; Wren et al., 2016). This index defines sites as either a source, in which a site’s successful export to other sites is greater than its import, or a sink, in which import from other sites is greater than successful export. It is calculated by dividing the disagreement between number of successfully exported and imported larvae by the sum of complete successfully exported and imported larvae. A value <0 indicates that a site acts as a net sink, while a value >0 indicates that a site acts as a net source. While they measured successful dispersal to adjacent islands, they did not spawn larvae from them, and therefore these islands limn exogenous sinks. For this reason, settlement to other islands was not included in source–sink index calculations.

We likewise calculated settlement harmony between different regions for each species (Calabrese & Fagan, 2004). They calculated the forward settlement proportion, i.e., the harmony of settlers from a specific settlement site (s) originating from an observed origin site (o), by scaling the number of successful settlers from site o settling at site s to complete successful settlers originating from site o. Forward harmony can subsist represented as Pso = Sos∕∑So. They likewise calculated rearward settlement proportion, or the harmony of settlers from a specific origin site (o) observed at settlement site (s), by scaling the number of settlers observed at site s originating from site o to complete settlers observed at site s. The rearward harmony can subsist represented as Pos = Sos∕∑Ss.

Graph-theoretic analysis

To quantify connections between sites, they applied graph theory to population connectivity (Treml et al., 2008; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). Graph theoretic analysis is highly scalable and can subsist used to examine fine-scale networks between reef sites up to broad-scale analyses between islands or archipelagos, mapping to both local and regional management needs. It likewise allows for both network- and site-specific metrics, enabling the comparison of connectivity between species and habitat sites as well as highlighting potential multi-generational dispersal corridors. Graph theory likewise provides a powerful tool for spatial visualization, allowing for rapid, intuitive communication of connectivity results to researchers, managers, and the public alike. This type of analysis can subsist used to model pairwise relationships between spatial data points by breaking down individual-based output into a series of nodes (habitat sites) and edges (directed connections between habitat sites). They then used these nodes and edges to examine the relative weight of each site and dispersal pathway to the greater pattern of connectivity around Moloka‘i, as well as differences in connectivity patterns between species (Treml et al., 2008; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). They used the R package ‘igraph’ to examine several measures of within-island connectivity (Csardi & Nepusz, 2006). Edge density, or the harmony of realized edges out of complete workable edges, is a multi-site measure of connectivity. Areas with a higher edge density Have more direct connections between habitat sites, and thus are more strongly connected. They measured edge density along and between the north, south, east, and west coasts of Moloka‘i to examine workable population structure and degree of exchange among the marine resources of local communities.

The distribution of shortest path length is likewise informative for comparing overall connectivity. In graph theory, a shortest path is the minimum number of steps needed to connect two sites. For example, two sites that exchange larvae in either direction are connected by a shortest path of one, whereas if they both share larvae with an intermediate site but not with each other, they are connected by a shortest path of two. In a biological context, shortest path can correspond to number of generations needed for exchange: sites with a shortest path of two require two generations to fabricate a connection. unconcerned shortest path, therefore, is a descriptive statistic to estimate connectivity of a network. If two sites are unconnected, it is workable to Have infinite-length shortest paths; here, these eternal values were renowned but not included in final analyses.

Networks can likewise subsist broken in connected components (Csardi & Nepusz, 2006). A weakly connected component (WCC) is a subgraph in which complete nodes are not reachable by other nodes. A network split into multiple WCCs indicates separate populations that Do not exchange any individuals, and a big number of WCCs indicates a low degree of island-wide connectivity. A strongly connected component (SCC) is a subgraph in which complete nodes are directly connected and indicates a lofty degree of connectivity. A region with many small SCCs can argue lofty local connectivity but low island-wide connectivity. Furthermore, component analysis can identify reduce nodes, or nodes that, if removed, atomize a network into multiple WCCs. Pinpointing these reduce nodes can identify potential distinguished sites for preserving a population’s connectivity, and could inform predictions about the repercussion of site loss (e.g., a large-scale coral bleaching event) on overall connectivity.

On a regional scale, it is distinguished to note which sites are exporting larvae to, or importing larvae from, other sites. To this end, they examined in-degree and out-degree for each region. In-degree refers to the number of inward-directed edges to a specific node, or how many other sites provide larvae into site ‘A’. Out-degree refers to the number of outward-directed edges from a specific node, or how many sites receive larvae from site ‘A’. Habitat sites with a lofty out-degree seed a big number of other sites, and argue potentially distinguished larval sources, while habitat sites with a low in-degree rely on a limited number of larval sources and may therefore subsist dependent on connections with these few other sites to maintain population size. Finally, betweenness centrality (BC) refers to the number of shortest paths that pass through a given node, and may therefore argue connectivity pathways or ‘chokepoints’ that are distinguished to overall connectivity on a multigenerational timescale. BC was weighted with the harmony of dispersal as described in the preceding section. They calculated in-degree, out-degree, and weighted betweenness centrality for each region in the network for each species.

As with the source–sink index, they did not embrace sites on islands other than Moloka‘i in their calculations of edge density, shortest paths, connected components, reduce nodes, in- and out-degree, or betweenness centrality in order to focus on within-island patterns of connectivity.

Results Effects of biological parameters on fine-scale connectivity patterns

The species-specific parameters that were available to parameterize the dispersal models substantially influenced final output (Fig. 2). The harmony of successful settlers (either to Moloka‘i or to neighboring islands) varied widely by species, from 2% (Panulirus spp.) to 25% (Cellana spp.). Minimum pelagic duration and settlement success were negatively correlated (e.g., an estimated −0.79 Pearson correlation coefficient). Species modeled with batch spawning at a specific moon angle and/or time of day (Cellana spp., P. meandrina, and C. ignoblis) displayed slightly higher settlement success than similar species modeled with constant spawning over specific months. On a smaller scale, they likewise examined unconcerned site-scale local retention, comparing only retention to the spawning site versus other sites on Moloka‘i (Fig. 2). Local retention was lowest for Caranx spp. (<1%) and highest for O. cyanea and P. sexfilis (8.1% and 10%, respectively).

Figure 2: Summary statistics for each species network. Summary statistics are displayed in order of increasing minimum pelagic larval duration from left to right. Heatmap colors are based on normalized values from 0–1 for each analysis. Successful settlement refers to the harmony of larvae settled out of the total number of larvae spawned. Local retention is measured as the harmony of larvae spawned from a site that settle at the selfsame site. Shortest path is measured as the minimum number of steps needed to connect two sites. Strongly connected sites refers to the harmony of sites in a network that belong to a strongly connected component. stand for dispersal distance is measured in kilometers from spawn site to settlement site.

We measured network-wide connectivity via distribution of shortest paths, or the minimum number of steps between a given two nodes in a network, only including sites on Moloka‘i (Fig. 2). O. cyanea and P. sexfilis showed the smallest shortest paths overall, sense that on average, it would trap fewer generations for these species to demographically bridge any given pair of sites. Using maximum shortest path, it could trap these species three generations at most to connect sites. Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, by comparison, could trap as many as five generations. Other medium- and long-dispersing species showed relatively equivalent shortest-path distributions, with trevally species showing the highest stand for path length and therefore the lowest island-scale connectivity.

The number and size of weakly-connected and strongly-connected components in a network is likewise an informative measure of connectivity (Fig. 2). No species in their study group was broken into multiple weakly-connected components; however, there were species-specific patterns of strongly connected sites. O. cyanea and P. sexfilis were the most strongly connected, with complete sites in the network falling into a single SCC. Cellana spp. and P. meandrina each had approximately 60% of sites included in a SCC, but both panoply fragmentation with seven and six SCCs respectively, ranging in size from two to 22 sites. This SCC pattern suggests low global connectivity but lofty local connectivity for these species. Medium and long dispersers showed larger connected components; 70% of parrotfish sites fell within two SCCs; 40% of P. porphyreus sites fell within two SCCs; 70% of C. strigosus sites, 55% of C. melampygus sites, and 40% of Panulirus sites fell within a single SCC. In contrast, only 26% of C. ignoblis sites fell within a single SCC. It is likewise distinguished to note that the lower connectivity scores observed in long-dispersing species likely reflect a larger scale of connectivity. Species with a shorter PLD are highly connected at reef and island levels but may panoply weaker connections between islands. Species with a longer PLD, such as trevally or spiny lobster, are likely more highly connected at inter-island scales which reflects the lower connectivity scores per island shown here.

Figure 3: Dispersal distance density kernels. Dispersal distance is combined across species by minimum pelagic larval duration (PLD) length in days (short, medium, or long). Most short dispersers settle nearby to home, while few long dispersers are retained at or near their spawning sites.

Minimum PLD was positively correlated with stand for dispersal distance (e.g., an estimated 0.88 Pearson correlation coefficient with minimum pelagic duration loge-transformed to linearize the relationship), and dispersal kernels differed between species that are short dispersers (3–25 days), medium dispersers (30–50 days), or long dispersers (140–270 days) (Fig. 3). Short dispersers travelled a stand for distance of 24.06 ± 31.33 km, medium dispersers travelled a stand for distance of 52.71 ± 40.37 km, and long dispersers travelled the farthest, at a stand for of 89.41 ± 41.43 km. However, regardless of PLD, there were essentially two peaks of stand for dispersal: a short-distance peak of <30 km, and a long-distance peak of roughly 50–125 km (Fig. 3). The short-distance peak largely represents larvae that settle back to Moloka‘i, while the long-distance peak largely represents settlement to other islands; the low point between them corresponds to deep-water channels between islands, i.e., unsuitable habitat for settlement. Median dispersal distance for short dispersers was substantially less than the stand for at 8.85 km, indicating that most of these larvae settled relatively nearby to their spawning sites, with rare long-distance dispersal events bringing up the average. Median distance for medium (54.22 km) and long (91.57 km) dispersers was closer to the mean, indicating more even distance distributions and thus a higher probability of long-distance dispersal for these species. Maximum dispersal distance varied between ∼150–180 km depending on species, except for the spiny lobster Panulirus spp., with a PLD of 270 d and a maximum dispersal distance of approximately 300 km.

Settlement to Moloka‘i and other islands in the archipelago

Different species showed different forward settlement harmony to adjacent islands (Fig. 4), although every species in the study group successfully settled back to Moloka‘i. P. meandrina showed the highest percentage of island-scale local retention (82%), while C. ignoblis showed the lowest (7%). An unconcerned of 74% of larvae from short-dispersing species settled back to Moloka‘i, as compared to an unconcerned of 41% of medium dispersers and 9% of long dispersers. A big harmony of larvae likewise settled to O‘ahu, with longer PLDs resulting in greater proportions, ranging from 14% of O. cyanea to 88% of C. ignoblis. Moloka‘i and O‘ahu were the most commonly settled islands by percentage. Overall, settlement from Moloka‘i to Lana‘i, Maui, Kaho‘olawe, and Hawai‘i was fairly lower. Larvae of every species settled to Lana‘i, and settlement to this island made up less than 5% of settled larvae across complete species. Likewise, settlement to Maui made up less than 7% of settlement across species, with P. meandrina as the only species that had no successful paths from Moloka‘i to Maui. Settlement to Kaho‘olawe and Hawai‘i was less common, with the exception of Panulirus spp., which had 16% of complete settled larvae on Hawai‘i.

Figure 4: Forward settlement from Moloka’i to other islands. Proportion of simulated larvae settled to each island from Moloka‘i by species, organized in order of increasing minimum pelagic larval duration from left to right.

We likewise examined coast-specific patterns of rearward settlement harmony to other islands, discarding connections with a very low harmony of larvae (<0.1% of total larvae of that species settling to other islands). Averaged across species, 83% of larvae settling to O‘ahu from Moloka‘i were spawned on the north shore of Moloka‘i, with 12% spawned on the west shore (Fig. S4). Spawning sites on the east and south shores contributed <5% of complete larvae settling to O‘ahu from Moloka‘i. The east and south shores of Moloka‘i had the highest unconcerned percentage of larvae settling to Lana‘i from Moloka‘i, at 78% and 20% respectively, and to Kaho‘olawe from Moloka‘i at 63% and 34%. Of the species that settled to Maui from Moloka‘i, on unconcerned most were spawned on the east (53%) or north (39%) shores, as were the species that settled to Hawai‘i Island from Moloka‘i (22% east, 76% north). These patterns argue that multiple coasts of Moloka‘i Have the potential to export larvae to neighboring islands.

Temporal settlement profiles likewise varied by species (Fig. 5). Species modeled with moon-phase spawning and relatively short settlement windows (Cellana spp. and C. ignoblis) were characterized by discrete settlement pulses, whereas other species showed settlement over a broader era of time. Some species likewise showed distinctive patterns of settlement to other islands; their model suggests specific windows when long-distance dispersal is possible, as well as times of year when local retention is maximized (Fig. 5).

Figure 5: Species-specific temporal recruitment patterns. Proportion densities of settlement to specific islands from Moloka‘i based on day of year settled, by species. Rare dispersal events (e.g., Maui or Lana‘i for Cellana spp.) loom as narrow spikes, while broad distributions generally argue more common settlement pathways. Regional patterns of connectivity in Moloka‘i coastal waters

Within Moloka‘i, their model predicts that coast-specific population structure is likely; averaged across complete species, 84% of individuals settled back to the selfsame coast on which they were spawned rather than a different coast on Moloka‘i. Excluding connections with a very low harmony of larvae (<0.1% of total larvae of that species that settled to Moloka‘i), they create that the harmony of coast-scale local retention was generally higher than dispersal to another coast, with the exception of the west coast (Fig. 6A). The north and south coasts had a lofty degree of local retention in every species except for the long-dispersing Panulirus spp., and the east coast likewise had lofty local retention overall. Between coasts, a lofty harmony of larvae that spawned on the west coast settled on the north coast, and a lesser amount of larvae were exchanged from the east to south and from the north to east. With a few species-specific exceptions, larval exchange between other coasts of Moloka‘i was negligible.

Figure 6: Coast-by-coast patterns of connectivity on Moloka‘i. (A) unconcerned rearward settlement harmony by species per pair of coastlines, calculated by the number of larvae settling at site s from site o divided by complete settled larvae at site s. Directional coastline pairs (Spawn > Settlement) are ordered from left to prerogative by increasing median settlement proportion. (B) Heatmap of edge density for coast-specific networks by species. Density is calculated by the number of complete realized paths out of total workable paths, disregarding directionality.

We likewise calculated edge density, including complete connections between coasts on Moloka‘i regardless of settlement harmony (Fig. 6B). The eastern coast was particularly well-connected, with an edge density between 0.14 and 0.44, depending on the species. The southern shore showed lofty edge density for short and medium dispersers (0.16–0.39) but low for long dispersers (<0.005). The north shore likewise showed relatively lofty edge density (0.20 on average), although these values were smaller for long dispersers. The west coast showed very low edge density, with the exceptions of O. cyanea (0.37) and P. sexfilis (0.13). Virtually complete networks that included two coasts showed lower edge density. One exception was the east/south shore network, which had an edge density of 0.10–0.65 except for Cellana spp. Across species, edge density between the south and west coasts was 0.12 on average, and between the east and west coasts was 0.04 on average. Edge density between north and south coasts was particularly low for complete species (<0.05), a divide that was especially separate in Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, which showed zero realized connections between these coasts. Although northern and southern populations are potentially weakly connected by sites along the eastern ( P. meandrina) or western (Cellana spp.) shores, their model predicts very little, if any, demographic connectivity.

To explore patterns of connectivity on a finer scale, they pooled sites into regions (as defined in Fig. 1) in order to anatomize relationships between these regions. Arranging model output into node-edge networks clarified pathways and regions of note, and revealed several patterns which did not ensue simple predictions based on PLD (Fig. 7). Cellana spp. and P. meandrina showed the most fragmentation, with several SCCs and low connectivity between coasts. Connectivity was highest in O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, which had a single SCC containing complete regions. Medium and long dispersers generally showed fewer strongly connected regions on the south shore than the north shore, with the exception of C. strigosus. P. porphyreus showed more strongly connected regions east of Kalaupapa but lower connectivity on the western half of the island.

Figure 7: Moloka’i connectivity networks by species. Graph-theoretic networks between regions around Moloka’i by species arranged in order of minimum pelagic larval duration. (A–D) Short dispersers (3–25 days), (E–G) medium dispersers (30–50 days), and (H–J) long dispersers (140–270 days). Node size reflects betweenness centrality of each region, scaled per species for visibility. Node color reflects out-degree of each region; yellow nodes Have a low out-degree, red nodes Have a medium out-degree, and black nodes Have a lofty out-degree. Red edges are connections in a strongly connected component, while gray edges are not Part of a strongly connected component (although may still limn substantial connections). Edge thickness represents log-transformed harmony of dispersal along that edge.

Region-level networks showed both species-specific and species-wide patterns of connectivity (Fig. 8). With a few exceptions, sites along the eastern coast—notably, Cape Halawa and Pauwalu Harbor—showed relatively lofty betweenness centrality, and may therefore act as multigenerational pathways between north-shore and south-shore populations. In Cellana spp., Leinapapio Point and Mokio Point had the highest BC, while in high-connectivity O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, regions on the west coast had lofty BC scores. P. meandrina and C. strigosus showed several regions along the south shore with lofty BC. For Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, regions in the northeast had the highest out-degree, and therefore seeded the greatest number of other sites with larvae (Fig. 8). Correspondingly, regions in the northwest (and southwest in the case of P. meandrina) showed the highest in-degree. For O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, regions on the western and southern coasts showed the highest out-degree. For most species, both out-degree and in-degree were generally highest on the northern and eastern coasts, suggesting higher connectivity in these areas.

Figure 8: Region-level summary statistics across complete species. Betweenness centrality is a measure of the number of paths that pass through a unavoidable region; a lofty score suggests potentially distinguished multi-generation connectivity pathways. In-degree and out-degree mention to the amount of a node’s incoming and outgoing connections. Betweenness centrality, in-degree, and out-degree Have complete been normalized to values between 0 to 1 per species. Local retention is measured as the harmony of larvae that settled back to their spawn site out of complete larvae spawned at that site. Source-sink index is a measure of net export or import; negative values (blue) argue a net larval sink, while positive values (red) argue a net larval source. White indicates that a site is neither a strong source nor sink. Gray values for Cellana spp. denote a need of suitable habitat sites in that particular region.

Several species-wide hotspots of local retention emerged, particularly East Kalaupapa Peninsula/Leinaopapio Point, the northeast point of Moloka‘i, and the middle of the south shore. Some species likewise showed some degree of local retention west of Kalaupapa Peninsula. While local retention was observed in the long-dispersing Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp., this amount was essentially negligible. In terms of source–sink dynamics, Ki‘oko‘o, Pu‘ukaoku Point, and West Kalaupapa Peninsula, complete on the north shore, were the only sites that consistently acted as a net source, exporting more larvae than they import (Fig. 8). Kaunakakai Harbor, Lono Harbor, and Mokio Point acted as net sinks across complete species. Puko‘o, Pauwalu Harbor, and Cape Halawa were either weak net sources or neither sources nor sinks, which corresponds to the lofty levels of local retention observed at these sites. Pala‘au and Mo‘omomi acted as either weak sinks or sources for short dispersers and as sources for long dispersers.

Only four networks showed regional cut-nodes, or nodes that, if removed, atomize a network into multiple weakly-connected components (Fig. S5). Cellana spp. showed two cut-nodes: Mokio Point in northwest Moloka‘i and La‘au Point in southwest Moloka‘i, which if removed isolated Small Bay and Lono Harbor, respectively. C. perspicillatus, and S. rubroviolaceus showed a similar pattern in regards to Mokio Point; removal of this node isolated Small Bay in this species as well. In C. ignoblis, loss of Pauwalu Harbor isolated Lono Harbor, and loss of Pala‘au isolated Ilio Point on the northern coast. Finally, in Panulirus spp., loss of Leinaopapio Point isolated Papuhaku Beach, since Leinapapio Point was the only larval source from Moloka‘i for Papuhaku Beach in this species.

Figure 9: Connectivity matrix for larvae spawned on Kalaupapa Peninsula. Includes larvae settled on Molokaí (regions below horizontal black line) and those settled on other islands (regions above horizontal black line), spawned from either the east (E) or west (W) coast of Kalaupapa. Heatmap colors limn rearward proportion, calculated by the number of larvae settling at site s from site o divided by complete settled larvae at site s. White squares argue no dispersal along this path. The role of Kalaupapa Peninsula in inter- and intra-island connectivity

Our model suggests that Kalaupapa National Historical Park may play a role in inter-island connectivity, especially in terms of long-distance dispersal. Out of complete regions on Moloka‘i, East Kalaupapa Peninsula was the single largest exporter of larvae to Hawai‘i Island, accounting for 19% of complete larvae transported from Moloka‘i to this island; West Kalaupapa Peninsula accounted for another 10%. The park likewise contributed 22% of complete larvae exported from Moloka‘i to O‘ahu, and successfully exported a smaller percentage of larvae to Maui, Lana‘i, and Kaho‘olawe (Fig. 9). Kalaupapa was not marked as a cut-node for any species, sense that full population breaks are not predicted in the case of habitat or population loss in this area. Nevertheless, in their model Kalaupapa exported larvae to multiple regions along the north shore in complete species, as well as regions along the east, south, and/or west shores in most species networks (Figs. 9 and 10). The park may play a particularly distinguished role for long-dispersing species; settlement from Kalaupapa made up 18%–29% of complete successful settlement in Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp., despite making up only 12% of spawning sites included in the model. In C. strigosus, S. rubroviolaceus, and C. strigosus, Kalaupapa showed a particularly lofty out-degree, or number of outgoing connections to other regions, and West Kalaupapa was likewise one of the few regions on Moloka‘i that acted as a net larval source across complete species (Fig. 8). Their study has likewise demonstrated that different regions of a marine protected locality can potentially accomplish different roles, even in a small MPA such as Kalaupapa. Across species, the east coast of Kalaupapa showed a significantly higher betweenness centrality than the west (p = 0.028), while the west coast of Kalauapapa showed a significantly higher source–sink index than the east (p = 2.63e−9).

Figure 10: Larval spillover from Kalaupapa National Historical Park. Site-level dispersal to sites around Moloka‘i from sites in the Kalaupapa National Historical Park protected area, by species. (A–D) Short dispersers (3–25 days), (E–G) medium dispersers (30–50 days), and (H–J) long dispersers (140–270 days). Edge color reflects harmony of dispersal along that edge; red indicates higher harmony while yellow indicates lower proportion. Kalaupapa National Historical Park is highlighted in light green. Discussion Effects of biological and physical parameters on connectivity

We incorporated the distribution of suitable habitat, variable reproduction, variable PLD, and ontogenetic changes in swimming capacity and empirical vertical distributions of larvae into their model to increase biological realism, and assess how such traits repercussion predictions of larval dispersal. The Wong-Ala et al. (2018) IBM provides a highly resilient model framework that can easily subsist modified to incorporate either additional species-specific data or entirely recent biological traits. In this study, they included specific spawning seasons for complete species, as well as spawning by moon angle for Cellana spp., P. meandrina, and C. ignoblis because such data was available for these species. It proved difficult to obtain the necessary biological information to parameterize the model, but as more data about life history and larval deportment become available, such information can subsist easily added for these species and others. Some potential additions to future iterations of the model might embrace density of reproductive-age adults within each habitat patch, temperature-dependent pelagic larval duration (Houde, 1989), ontogenetic-dependent behavioral changes such as orientation and diel vertical migration (Fiksen et al., 2007; Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007), pre-competency period, and larval habitat preferences as such information becomes available.

In this study, they Have demonstrated that patterns of fine-scale connectivity around Moloka‘i are largely species-specific and can vary with life history traits, even in species with identical pelagic larval duration. For example, the parrotfish S. rubroviolaceus and C. perspicillatus panoply greater connectivity along the northern coast, while the goatfish P. porphyreus shows higher connectivity along the eastern half of the island. These species Have similar PLD windows, but vary in dispersal depth and spawning season. Spawning season and timing altered patterns of inter-island dispersal (Fig. 5) as well as overall settlement success, which was slightly higher in species that spawned by moon angle (Fig. 2). While maximum PLD did loom play a role in the probability of rare long-distance dispersal, minimum PLD appears to subsist the main driver of unconcerned dispersal distance (Fig. 2). Overall, species with a shorter minimum PLD had higher settlement success, shorter stand for dispersal distance, higher local retention, and higher local connectivity as measured by the amount and size of strongly connected components.

The interaction of biological and oceanographic factors likewise influenced connectivity patterns. Because mesoscale current patterns can vary substantially over the course of the year, the timing of spawning for unavoidable species may subsist censorious for estimating settlement (Wren et al., 2016; Wong-Ala et al., 2018). Intermittent ocean processes may influence the probability of local retention versus long-distance dispersal; a big harmony of larvae settled to O‘ahu, which is fairly surprising given that in order to settle from Moloka‘i to O‘ahu, larvae must cross the Kaiwi Channel (approx. 40 km). However, the intermittent presence of mesoscale gyres may act as a stabilizing pathway across the channel, sweeping larvae up either the windward or leeward coast of O‘ahu depending on spawning site. Likewise, in their model long-distance dispersal to Hawai‘i Island was workable at unavoidable times of the year due to a gyre to the north of Maui; larvae were transported from Kalaupapa to this gyre, where they were carried to the northeast shore of Hawai‘i (Fig. S6). preparatory analysis likewise suggests that distribution of larval depth influenced edge directionality and size of connected components (Fig. 7); surface currents are variable and primarily wind-driven, giving positively-buoyant larvae different patterns of dispersal than species that disperse deeper in the water column (Fig. S7).

Model limitations and future perspectives

Our findings Have several caveats. Because fine-scale density estimates are not available for their species of interest around Moloka’i, they assumed that fecundity is equivalent at complete sites. This simplification may lead us to under- or over-estimate the strength of connections between sites. need of adequate data likewise necessitated estimation or extrapolation from congener information for larval traits such as larval dispersal depth and PLD. Since it is difficult if not impossible to identify larvae to the species level without genetic analysis, they used genus-level larval distribution data (Boehlert & Mundy, 1996), or lacking that, an estimate of 50–100 m as a depth layer that is generally more enriched with larvae (Boehlert, Watson & Sun, 1992; Wren & Kobayashi, 2016). They likewise estimated PLD in several cases using congener-level data (see Table 1). While specificity is example for making informed management decisions about a unavoidable species, past sensitivity analysis has shown that variation in PLD length does not greatly repercussion patterns of dispersal in species with a PLD of >40 days (Wren & Kobayashi, 2016).

Although their MITgcm current model shows annual consistency, it only spans two and a half years chosen as neutral state ‘average’ ocean conditions. It does not span any El Niño or La Niña (ENSO) events, which intuition wide-scale sea-surface temperature anomalies and may therefore touch patterns of connectivity during these years. El Niño can Have a particularly strong repercussion on coral reproduction, since the warm currents associated with these events can lead to severe temperature stress (Glynn & D’Croz, 1990; Wood et al., 2016). While there has been diminutive study to date on the effects of ENSO on fine-scale connectivity, previous work has demonstrated increased variability during these events. For example, Wood et al. (2016) showed a reduce in eastward Pacific dispersal during El Niño years, but an increase in westward dispersal, and Treml et al. (2008) showed unique connections in the West Pacific as well as an increase in connectivity during El Niño. While these effects are difficult to predict, especially at such a small scale, additional model years would increase self-possession in long-term connectivity estimations. Additionally, with a temporal resolution of 24 h, they could not adequately address the role of tides on dispersal, and therefore did not embrace them in the MITgcm. Storlazzi et al. (2017) showed that tidal forces did touch larval dispersal in Maui Nui, underlining the weight of including both fine-scale, short-duration models and coarser-scale, long-duration models in final management decisions.

We likewise limit their model’s scope geographically. Their goal was to determine whether they could resolve predictive patterns at this scale apposite to management. Interpretation of connectivity output can subsist biased by spatial resolution of the ocean model, since complicated coastal processes can subsist smoothed and therefore repercussion larval trajectories. To limit this bias, they focused mainly on coastal and regional connectivity on scales greater than the current resolution. They likewise used the finest-scale current products available for their study area, and their results panoply generic agreement with similar studies of the region that exhaust a coarser resolution (Wren & Kobayashi, 2016) and a finer resolution (Storlazzi et al., 2017). Also, while lore of island-scale connectivity is distinguished for local management, it does disregard potential connections from other islands. In their calculations of edge density, betweenness centrality and source-sink index, they included only settlement to Moloka‘i, discarding exogenous sinks that would jaundice their analysis. Likewise, they cannot call the harmony of larvae settling to other islands that originated from Moloka‘i, or the harmony of larvae on Moloka‘i that originated from other islands.

It is likewise distinguished to note scale in relation to measures of connectivity; they await that long-dispersing species such as Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp. will panoply much higher measures of connectivity when measured across the whole archipelago as opposed to a single island. The cut-nodes observed in these species may not actually atomize up populations on a big scale due to this inter-island connectivity. Nevertheless, cut-nodes in species with short- and medium-length PLD may indeed label distinguished habitat locations, especially in terms of providing links between two otherwise disconnected coasts. It may subsist that for unavoidable species or unavoidable regions, stock replenishment relies on larval import from other islands, underscoring the weight of MPA selection for population maintenance in the archipelago as a whole.

Implications for management

Clearly, there is no single management approach that encompasses the breadth of life history and deportment differences that repercussion patterns of larval dispersal and connectivity (Toonen et al., 2011; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). The spatial, temporal, and species-specific variability suggested by their model stresses the need for multi-scale management, specifically tailored to local and regional connectivity patterns and the suite of target species. Even on such a small scale, different regions around the island of Moloka‘i can play very different roles in the greater pattern of connectivity (Fig. 8); sites along the west coast, for example, showed fewer ingoing and outgoing connections than sites on the north coast, and therefore may subsist more at risk of isolation. Seasonal variation should likewise subsist taken into account, as mesoscale current patterns (and resulting connectivity patterns) vary over the course of a year. Their model suggests species-specific temporal patterns of settlement (Fig. 5); even in the year-round spawner O. cyanea, local retention to Moloka‘i as well as settlement to O‘ahu was maximized in spring and early summer, while settlement to other islands mostly occurred in late summer and fall.

Regions that panoply similar network dynamics may benefit from similar management strategies. Areas that act as larval sources either by harmony of larvae (high source–sink index) or number of sites (high out-degree) should receive management consideration. On Moloka‘i, across complete species in their study, these sources fell mostly on the northern and eastern coasts. Maintenance of these areas is especially distinguished for downstream areas that depend on upstream populations for a source of larvae, such as those with a low source–sink index, low in-degree, and/or low local retention. Across species, regions with the highest betweenness centrality scores fell mainly in the northeast (Cape Halawa and Pauwalu Harbor). These areas should receive consideration as potentially distinguished intergenerational pathways, particularly as a means of connecting north-coast and south-coast populations, which showed a need of connectivity both in total number of connections (edge density) and harmony of larvae. Both of these connectivity measures were included because edge density includes complete connections, even those with a very small harmony of larvae, and may therefore embrace rare dispersal events that are of diminutive relevance to managers. Additionally, edge density comparisons between networks should subsist viewed with the caveat that these networks Do not necessarily Have the selfsame number of nodes. Nevertheless, both edge density and harmony panoply very similar patterns, and embrace both demographically-relevant common connections as well as rare connections that could influence genetic connectivity.

Management that seeks to establish a resilient network of spatially managed areas should likewise account the preservation of both weakly-connected and strongly-connected components, as removal of key cut-nodes (Fig. S5) breaks up a network. Sites within a SCC Have more direct connections and therefore may subsist more resilient to local population loss. pervade should subsist taken to preserve breeding populations at larval sources, connectivity pathways, and cut-nodes within a SCC, since without these key sites the network can fragment into multiple independent SCCs instead of a single stable network. This drill may subsist especially distinguished for species for which they estimate multiple small SCCs, such as Cellana spp. or P. meandrina.

Kalaupapa Peninsula emerged as an distinguished site in Moloka‘i population connectivity, acting as a larval source for other regions around the island. The Park seeded areas along the north shore in complete species, and likewise exported larvae to sites along the east and west shores in complete species except P. meandrina and Cellana spp. Additionally, it was a larval source for sites along the south shore in the fishes C. perspicillatus, S. rubroviolaceus, and C. strigosus as well as Panulirus spp. Western Kalaupapa Peninsula was one of only three regions included in the analysis (the others being Ki‘oko‘o and Pu‘ukaoku Point, likewise on the north shore) that acted as a net larval source across complete species. Eastern Kalaupapa Peninsula was particularly highly connected, and was Part of a strongly connected component in every species. The Park likewise emerged as a potential point of connection to adjacent islands, particularly to O‘ahu and Hawai‘i. Expanding the spatial scale of their model will further elucidate Kalaupapa’s role in the greater pattern of inter-island connectivity.

In addition to biophysical modeling, genetic analyses can subsist used to identify persistent population structure of relevance to managers (Cowen et al., 2000; Casey, Jardim & Martinsohn, 2016). Their finding that exchange among islands is generally low in species with a short- to medium-length PLD agrees with population genetic analyses of marine species in the Hawaiian Islands (Bird et al., 2007; Rivera et al., 2011; Toonen et al., 2011; Concepcion, Baums & Toonen, 2014). On a finer scale, they call some level of shoreline-specific population structure for most species included in the study (Fig. 6). Unfortunately, genetic analyses to date Have been performed over too broad a scale to effectively compare to these fine-scale connectivity predictions around Moloka‘i or even among locations on adjacent islands. These model results warrant such small scale genetic analyses because there are species, such as the coral P. meandrina, for which the model predicts transparent separation of north-shore and south-shore populations which should subsist simple to test using genetic data. To validate these model predictions with this technique, more fine-scale population genetic analyses are needed.

Conclusions

The maintenance of demographically connected populations is distinguished for conservation. In this study, they contribute to the growing corpse of work in biophysical connectivity modeling, focusing on a region and suite of species that are of relevance to resource managers. Furthermore, they demonstrate the value of quantifying fine-scale relationships between habitat sites via graph-theoretic methods. Multispecies network analysis revealed persistent patterns that can wait on define region-wide practices, as well as species-specific connectivity that merits more individual consideration. They demonstrate that connectivity is influenced not only by PLD, but likewise by other life-history traits such as spawning season, moon-phase spawning, and ontogenetic changes in larval depth. lofty local retention of larvae with a short- or medium-length PLD is consistent with population genetic studies of the area. They likewise identify regions of management importance, including West Kalaupapa Peninsula, which acts as a consistent larval source across species; East Kalaupapa Peninsula, which is a strongly connected region in every species network, and Pauwalu Harbor/Cape Halawa, which may act as distinguished multigenerational pathways. Connectivity is only one piece of the mystify of MPA effectiveness, which must likewise account for reproductive population size, long-term persistence, and post-settlement survival (Burgess et al., 2014). That being said, their study provides a quantitative roadmap of potential demographic connectivity, and thus presents an effective tool for estimating current and future patterns of dispersal around Kalaupapa Peninsula and around Moloka‘i as a whole.

Supplemental Information Current patterns in the model domain.

Current direction and velocity is displayed at a depth of 55 m below sea surface on (A) March 31st, 2011, (B) June 30th, 2011, (C) September 30th, 2011, and (D) December 31st, 2011. Arrowhead direction follows current direction, and u/v velocity is displayed through arrow length and color (purple, low velocity, red, lofty velocity). Domain extends from 198.2°E to 206°E and from 17°N to 22.2°N. The island of Moloka‘i is highlighted in red.

Subset of validation drifter paths.

Drifter paths in black and corresponding model paths are colored by drifter ID. complete drifter information was extracted from the GDP Drifter Data Assembly hub (Elipot et al., 2016). Drifters were included if they fell within the model domain spatially and temporally, and were tested by releasing 1,000 particles on the correct day where they entered the model domain, at the uppermost depth layer of their oceanographic model (0–5 m).

Selected larval depth distributions.

Modeled vertical larval distributions for Caranx spp. (left), S. rubroviolaceus and C. perspicillatus (middle), and P. porphyreus (right), using data from the 1996 NOAA ichthyoplankton vertical distributions data report (Boehlert & Mundy 1996).

Coast-specific rearward settlement patterns by island

Proportion of simulated larvae settled to each island from sites on each coast of Moloka‘i, averaged across complete species that successfully settled to that island.

Regional cut-nodes for four species networks

Mokio Point and La‘au Point were cut-nodes for Cellana spp., Mokio Point was a cut-node for C. perspicillatus and S. rubroviolaceus, Pauwalu Harbor and Pala‘au were cut-nodes for C. ignoblis, and Leinaopapio Point was a cut-node for Panulirus spp.

Selected dispersal pathways for Panulirus spp. larvae

500 randomly sampled dispersal pathways for lobster larvae (Panulirus spp.) that successfully settled to Hawai‘i Island after being spawned off the coast of Moloka‘i. Red tracks argue settlement earlier in the year (February–March), while black tracks argue settlement later in the year (April–May). Most larvae are transported to the northeast coast of Hawai‘i via a gyre to the north of Maui, while a smaller harmony are transported through Maui Nui.

Eddy differences by depth layer.

Differences in eddy pattern and strength in surface layers (A, 2.5 m) vs. abysmal layers (B, 55 m) on March 31, 2011. Arrowhead direction follows current direction, and u/v velocity is displayed through arrow length and color (purple, low velocity, red, lofty velocity). While big gyres remain consistent at different depths, smaller features vary along this gradient. For example, the currents around Kaho‘olawe, the small gyre off the eastern coast of O‘ahu, and currents to the north of Maui complete vary in direction and/or velocity.


Avoid Bothersome Garbage Collection Pauses | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

Many engineers complain that the non-deterministic deportment of the garbage collector prevents them from utilizing the Java environment for mission-critical applications, especially distributed message-driven displays (GUIs) where user responsiveness is critical. They conform that garbage collection does occur at the worst times: for example, when a user clicks a mouse or a recent message enters the system requiring immediate processing. These events must subsist handled without the retard of in-progress garbage collection. How Do they preclude these garbage collection pauses that meddle with the responsiveness of an application ("bothersome pauses")?

We Have discovered a very effective technique to preclude bothersome garbage collection pauses and build responsive Java applications. This technique or pattern is especially effective for a distributive message-driven panoply system with soft real-time constraints. This article details this pattern in three simple steps and provides evidence of the effectiveness of the technique.

Pattern to Control Garbage Collection PausesThe Java environment provides so many benefits to the software community - platform independence, industry momentum, a plethora of resources (online tutorials, code, interest groups, etc.), object-oriented utilities and interfaces (collections, network I/O, Swing display, etc.) that can subsist plugged in and out - that once you Have experienced working with Java it's difficult to Go back to traditional languages. Unfortunately, in some mission-critical applications, dote message-driven GUIs that must subsist very responsive to user events, the requirements coerce you to trap that step backward. There's no scope for multiple second garbage collection pauses. (The garbage collector collects complete the "unreachable" references in an application so the space consumed by them can subsist reused. It's a low-priority thread that usually only takes priority over other threads when the VM is running out of memory.) Do they really Have to lose complete the benefits of Java? First, let's account the requirements.

A system engineer should account imposing requirements for garbage collection dote the following list taken from a telecom industry example (see References).1.  GC sequential overhead on a system may not subsist more than 10% to ensure scalability and optimal exhaust of system resources for maximum throughput.2.  Any single GC respite during the entire application Run may subsist no more than 200ms to meet the latency requirements as set by the protocol between the client and the server, and to ensure edifying response times by the server.

Armed with these requirements, the system engineer has defined the worst-case deportment in a manner that can subsist tested.

The next question is: How Do they meet these requirements? Alka Gupta and Michael Doyle fabricate excellent suggestions in their article (see References). Their approach is to tune the parameters on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). They trap a slightly different approach that leaves the exhaust of parameter definitions as defined by the JVM to subsist used as a final tuning technique.

Why not counsel the garbage collector what and when to collect?

In other words, control garbage collection via the software architecture. fabricate the job of the garbage collector easy! This technique can subsist described as a multiple step pattern. The first step of the pattern is described below as "Nullify Objects." The second step involves forcing garbage collection to occur as delineated in "Forcing Garbage Collection." The final step involves either placing persistent data out of the attain of the collector or into a data pool so that an application will continue to accomplish well in the long run.

Step 1: Nullify ObjectsMemory leaks strike awe into the hearts of programmers! Not only Do they debase performance, they eventually terminate the application. Yet remembrance leaks prove very subtle and difficult to debug. The JVM performs garbage collection in the background, freeing the coder from such details, but traps still exist. The biggest danger is placing an protest into a collection and forgetting to remove it. The remembrance used by that protest will never subsist reclaimed.

A programmer can preclude this type of remembrance leak by setting the protest reference and complete underlying protest references ("deep" objects) to null when the protest is no longer needed. Setting an protest reference to "null" tells the garbage collector that at least this one reference to the protest is no longer needed. Once complete references to an protest are cleared, the garbage collector is free to reclaim that space. Giving the collector such "hints" makes its job easier and faster. Moreover, a smaller remembrance footprint likewise makes an application Run faster.

Knowing when to set an protest reference to null requires a complete understanding of the problem space. For instance, if the remote receiver allocates the remembrance space for a message, the leisure of the application must know when to release the space back for reuse. Study the domain. Once an protest or "subobject" is no longer needed, counsel the garbage collector.

Thus, the first step of the pattern is to set objects to null once you're sure they're no longer needed. They call this step "nullify" and embrace it in the definition of the classes of frequently used objects.

The following code snippet shows a routine that "nullifies" a track object. The class members that consist of primitives only (contain no additional class objects) are set to null directly, as in lines 3-5. The class members that accommodate class objects provide their own nullify routine as in line 9.

1 public void nullify () {23 this.threatId = null ;4 this.elPosition = null ;5 this.kinematics = null ;67 if (this.iff != null)8 {9 this.iff.nullify();10 this.iff = null ;11 }12 }

The track nullify is called from the thread that has completed processing the message. In other words, once the message has been stored or processed, that thread tells the JVM it no longer needs that object. Also, if the protest was placed in some Collection (like an ArrayList), it's removed from the Collection and set to null.

By setting objects to null in this manner, the garbage collector and thus the JVM can Run more efficiently. Train yourself to program with "nullify" methods and their invocation in mind.

Step 2: "Force" Garbage CollectionThe second step of the pattern is to control when garbage collection occurs. The garbage collector, GC, runs as Java priority 1 (the lowest priority). The virtual machine, VM, runs at Java priority 10 (the highest priority). Most books recommend against the usage of Java priority 1 and 10 for assigning priorities to Java applications. In most cases, the GC runs during idle times, generally when the VM is waiting for user input or when the VM has Run out of memory. In the latter case, the GC interrupts high-priority processing in the application.

Some programmers dote to exhaust the "-Xincgc" directive on the Java command line. This tells the JVM to accomplish garbage collection in increments when it desires. Again, the timing of the garbage collection may subsist inopportune. Instead, they suggest that the garbage collector accomplish a full garbage collection as soon as it can in either or both of two ways:1.  Request garbage collection to chance as soon as possible: This routine proves useful when the programmer knows he or she has a "break" to garbage collect. For example, after a big image is loaded into remembrance and scaled, the remembrance footprint is large. Forcing a garbage collection to occur at that point is wise. Another edifying locality may subsist after a big message has been processed in the application and is no longer needed.2.  Schedule garbage collection to occur at a fixed rate: This routine is optimal when the programmer does not Have a specific second when he knows his application can stop shortly and garbage collect. Normally, most applications are written in this manner.

Listing 1 introduces a class named "BetterControlOfGC". It's a utility class that provides the methods described earlier. There are two public methods: "suggestGCNow()" and "scheduleRegularGC(milliseconds)" that respectively correspond to the steps described earlier. Line 7 suggests to the VM to garbage collect the unreachable objects as soon as possible. The documentation makes it transparent that the garbage collection may not occur instantaneously, but taste has shown that it will subsist performed as soon as the VM is able to accomplish the task. Invoking the routine on line 25 causes garbage collection to occur at a fixed rate as determined by the parameter to the method.

In scheduling the GC to occur at a fixed rate, a garbage collection stimulator task, GCStimulatorTask, is utilized. The code extends the "java.util.timer" thread in line 10. No recent thread is created; the processing runs on the single timer thread available birth with the Java 1.3 environment. Similarly, to retain the processing lean, the GC stimulator follows the Singleton pattern as shown by lines 18-23 and line 27. There can subsist only one stimulator per application, where an application is any code running on an instance of the JVM.

We suggest that you set the interval at which the garbage collector runs from a Java property file. Thus you can tune the application without having to recompile the code. Write some simple code to read a property file that's either a parameter on the command line or a resource bundle in the class path. residence the command parameter "-verbose:gc" on your executable command line and measure the time it takes to garbage collect. Tune this number until you achieve the results you want. If the budget allows, experiment with other virtual machines and/or hardware.

Step 3: Store Persistent Objects into Persistent Data Areas or Store Long-Lived Objects in PoolsUsing persistent data areas is purely optional. It supports the underlying premise of this article. In order to bind the disruption of the garbage collector in your application, fabricate its job easy. If you know that an protest or collection of objects would live for the duration of your application, let the collector know. It would subsist nice if the Java environment provided some sort of flag that could subsist placed on objects upon their creation to counsel the garbage collector "-keep out". However, there is currently no such means. (The Real-Time Specification for Java describes an locality of remembrance called "Immortal Memory" where objects live for the duration of the application and garbage collection should not run.) You may try using a database; however, this may leisurely down your application even more. Another solution currently under the Java Community Process is JSR 107. JCache provides a standard set of APIs and semantics that allow a programmer to cache frequently used data objects for the local JVM or across JVMs. This API is still under review and may not subsist available yet. However, they believe it holds much pledge for the Java developer community. retain this avenue open and in mind for future architectures. What can they Do now?

The pooling of objects is not recent to real-time programmers. The concept is to create complete your expected data objects before you initiate processing, then complete your data can subsist placed into structures without the expense of instance creation during processing time. This has the odds of keeping your remembrance footprint stable. It has the handicap of requiring a "deep copy" routine to subsist written to store the data into the pool. (If you simply set an protest to another, you're changing the protest reference and not reusing the selfsame space.) The nanosecond expense of the abysmal copy is far less than that of the protest instance creation.

If the data pooling technique is combined with the proper exhaust of the "nullify" technique, garbage collection becomes optimized. The reasons are fairly straightforward:1.  Since the protest is set to null immediately after the abysmal copy, it lives only in the young generation portion of the memory. It does not progress into the older generations of remembrance and thus takes less of the garbage collector's cycle time.2.  Since the protest is nullified immediately and no other reference to it exists in some other collection protest in the application, the job of the garbage collector is easier. In other words, the garbage collector does not Have to retain track of an protest that exists in a collection.

When using data pools, it's wise to exhaust the parameters "-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC -XX:MaxTenuringThreshold=0 -XX:SurvivorRatio=128" on the command line. These counsel the JVM to lope objects on the first sweep from the recent generation to the old. It commands the JVM to exhaust the concurrent label sweep algorithm on the frail generation that proves more efficient since it works "concurrently" for a multi-processor platform. For single processor machines, try the "-Xincgc" option. We've seen those long garbage collector pauses, which occur after hours of execution, vanish using this technique and these parameters. Performing well in the long Run is the genuine benefit of this last step.

Performance ResultsTypically, most engineers want proof before changing their approach to designing and coding. Why not? Since we're now suggesting that even Java programmers should subsist concerned about resource allocation, it better subsist worth it! Once upon a time, assembly language and C programmers spent time tweaking remembrance and register usage to improve performance. This step was necessary. Now, as higher-level object-oriented programmers they may disdain this thought. This pattern has dared to imply that such considerations, although not as low level as registers and remembrance addresses (instead at the protest level), are still necessary for high-performance coding. Can it subsist true?

The underlying premise is that if you know how your engine works, you can drive it better to obtain optimal performance and endurance. This is as genuine for my 1985 300TD (Mercedes, five cylinder, turbo diesel station wagon) with 265,000 miles as for my Java code running on a HotSpot VM. For instance, knowing that a diesel's optimal performance is when the engine is warm since it relies on compression for power, I let my car warm up before I "push it." Similarly, I don't overload the vehicle with the tons of stuff I could residence in the tailgate. HotSpot fits the analogy. Performance improves after the VM "warms up" and compiles the HotSpot code into the native language. I likewise retain my remembrance footprint skinny and light. The comparison breaks down after awhile, but the basic truth does not change. You can exhaust a system the best when you understand how it works.

Our challenge to you is to trap statistics before and after implementing this pattern on just a small portion of your code. tickle recognize that the gain will subsist best exemplified when your application is scaled upward. In other words, the heavier the load on the system, the better the results.

The following statistics were taken after the pattern was applied. They are charted as:1.  Limited nullify routine invocation is used where only the incoming messages are not "nullified." (The leisure of the application from which the statistics were taken was left intact with a very skinny remembrance usage.) There is no forced garbage collection.2.  Nullify routine invocation and forced garbage collection is utilized.

The test environment is a Microsoft Windows 2000 X86 Family 15 Model 2 Stepping 4 Genuine Intel ~1794MHz laptop running the BEA WebLogic Server 7.0 with Service Pack 7.1 with a physical remembrance size of 523,704KB. The Java Message Server (JMS server), a track generator, and a tactical panoply are complete running on the selfsame laptop over the local developer network (MAGIC). The server makes no optimizations, even though each application resides locally. The JVMs are treated as if they were distributed across the network. They're running on the J2SE 1.4.1 release.

The test target application is a Java Swing Tactical panoply with full panning, zooming, and track-hooking capabilities. It receives bundles of tracks via the Java Message Service that are displayed at their proper location on the given image. Each track is approximately 88 bytes and the overall container size is about 70 bytes. This byte measurement does not embrace complete the additional class information that's likewise sent during serialization. The container is the message that holds an array of tracks that contains information such as time and number of tracks. For their tests, the tracks are sent at a 1Hz rate. Twenty sets of data are captured.

To illustrate the test environment, a screen capture of a 5,000 track load (4,999 tracks plus the ship) is shown in figure 1. The background shows tracks rendered with the Military Standard 2525B symbology over an image of the Middle East. The small window titled "Track Generator Desktop" is a minimized window showing the parameters of the test set through the track generator application. Notice that 45 messages had been sent at the time of the screen capture. Directly beneath this window sits the Windows Task Manager. Note that the CPU utilization is at 83%. At first this doesn't appear that bad. But at that rate, there isn't much scope for the user to initiate zooming, panning, hooking tracks, and so on. The final command window to the prerogative is that of the tactical panoply application. The parameter "-verbose:gc" is placed on the Java command line (java -verbose:gc myMainApplication.class). The VM is performing the listed garbage collection at its own rate, not by command of the application.

The final test of 10,000 tracks performed extremely poorly. The system does not scale; the CPU is pegged. At this point most engineers may jeer at Java again. Let's trap another peek after implementing the pattern.

After implementation, where the nullify methods are invoked properly and garbage collection is requested at a intermittent interval (2Hz), melodramatic improvements are realized. The last test of 10,000 tracks proves that the processor still has plenty of scope to Do more work. In other words, the pattern scales very well.

Performance SummaryThe pattern to wait on control garbage collection pauses most definitely improves the overall performance of the application. Notice how well the pattern scales under the heavier track loads in the performance bar chart in figure 2. The darker middle bar shows the processor utilization at each level of the message (track) load. As the message traffic increases, the processor utilization grows more slowly than without the pattern. The last light-colored bar shows the improved performance. The main strength of the pattern is how well it scales under hefty message loads.

There is another subtle strength to the pattern. This one is difficult to measure since it requires very long-lived tests. If Step 3 is faithfully followed, those horribly long garbage collection pauses that occur after hours of running disappear. This is a key benefit to the pattern since most of their applications are designed to Run "forever."

We're confident that many other Java applications would benefit from implementing this very simple pattern.

The steps to control garbage collection pauses are:1.  Set complete objects that are no longer in exhaust to null and fabricate sure they're not left within some collection. "Nullify" objects.2.  coerce garbage collection to occur both:

  • After some major memory-intense operation (e.g., scaling an image)
  • At a intermittent rate that provides the best performance for your application3.  rescue long-lived data in a persistent data locality if feasible or in a pool of data and exhaust the commandeer garbage collector algorithm.

    By following these three simple steps, you'll avoid those bothersome garbage collection pauses and relish complete the benefits of the Java environment. It's time the Java environment was fully utilized in mission-critical panoply systems.

    References

  • Gupta, A., and Doyle, M. "Turbo-Charging the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine, v1.4.x to improve the Performance and Scalability of Application Servers": http://developer.java.sun.com/developer/ technicalArticles/Programming/turbo/
  • JSR 1, Real-Time Specification for Java: http://jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=1
  • Java HotSpot VM options: http://java.sun.com/docs/hotspot/VMOptions.html
  • Java Specification Request for JCache: http://jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=107

  • PCI DSS questions answered: Solutions to tough PCI problems | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    During their recent virtual seminar, PCI DSS 2.0: Why the latest update matters to you, experts Ed Moyle and Diana...

    Kelley of SecurityCurve were unable to respond complete of the PCI DSS questions they received during their live question-and-answer session. SearchSecurity.com has asked them to give brief responses to each of the unanswered questions, and we've published those questions and responses below to wait on you solve your unique PCI problems.

    For additional information about the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, visit SearchSecurity.com's PCI DSS resources page.

  • Where can they find information about PCI DSS compliance that is focused on those of us who are "Mom & Pop" shops?Since most small organizations tumble into the self-assessment category, a remarkable resource is the Security Standards Council SAQ (Self-Assessment Questionnaire) section. Specifically these documents:

    SAQ main page

    PCI DSS SAQ instructions and guidelines

    SAQ: How it complete fits together

    SAQ A-D and Guidelines

  • It seems the necessity of PCI compliance hasn't fully penetrated the Asian markets. Do you Have any suggestions on how to achieve compliance for companies who Do business in Asia, where adjusting to PCI standards aren't a priority?Companies should subsist compliant regardless of where the payment information is stored, processed or transmitted. Even if processors in a particular locale aren't as focused on the standard, the companies (merchants/retailers) with operations in those locales should implement the selfsame controls as they Do in other areas of the globe.

  • If card data is entered via the virtual terminal of a third-party on a desktop PC where wireless is not enabled, Do I need wireless scans?All wireless networks within the CDE (cardholder data environment) need to subsist scanned pursuant to the PCI DSS wireless guidelines provided by the Council. If audit and test findings substantiate there is no wireless on the virtual terminal and there is no wireless within the CDE, additional scans are not required (for example, note that the wireless scanning requirement is not addressed in SAQ C-VT specific to virtual terminal-only environments). Note, however, that if you exhaust other devices beyond just the virtual terminal to store/process/transmit cardholder data (such as a PoS on your network), you will Have to scan.

  • Is there a standard for isolating non-compliant custom systems that Do not Have a newer PCI-compliant version available? Let's assume this would subsist a software package without encryption in its database.There are two standards for payment software – the PA DSS for commercial software and the PCI DSS for commercial software with significant customization and custom software. If the custom software is saving PANs in an unencrypted format, it is non-compliant with PCI DSS. The best options are to stop saving the PANs and exhaust an alternative -- dote masking, tokens or other unique identifier -- or find a way to encrypt the PAN data before it enters the database. If this is not possible, create a document explaining why, list compensating controls (such as increased monitoring and access control) and effect in residence a road map for mitigating or eliminating the problem. Although the compensating controls/road map will not stand for a fully compliant RoC or SAQ, it does panoply edifying faith on the Part of the company to work towards correcting the problem.

  • In terms of a policy strategy, should an enterprise's existing information security policies subsist amended to embrace PCI requirements, or Do the requirements need to subsist addressed in PCI-specific policies?In most cases the CDE (cardholder data environment) under PCI is a very small portion of the network and should subsist clearly zoned off from the leisure of the corporate network activities. As a separate Part of the network, a unique policy (or policy set) should apply for that zone. So PCI-specific policies should exist. However, parts of existing policy – for example strong password controls and reset – can subsist re-used in the PCI-specific policies where applicable.

  • Regarding encryption in requirement 3, if the decryption key is not present in the cardholder environment, is the system out of the scope of PCI?In the FAQ section of the Council site it states: "Encrypted data may subsist deemed out of scope if, and only if, it has been validated that the entity that possesses encrypted cardholder data does not Have the means to decrypt it." So if the entity does not Have the key, that data may subsist deemed out of scope.

  • Does PCI require verification that there are no rogue wireless access points that may Have connected to the POS network?Yes. From the Council's Wireless Guidance: "These are requirements that complete organizations should Have in residence to protect their networks from attacks via rogue or unknown wireless access points (APs) and clients. They apply to organizations regardless of their exhaust of wireless technology and regardless of whether the wireless technology is a Part of the CDE or not." And, "The purpose of PCI DSS requirement 11.1 is to ensure an unauthorized or rogue wireless device introduced into an organization's network does not allow unmanaged and unsecured WLAN access to the CDE. The intent is to preclude an attacker from using rogue wireless devices to negatively repercussion the security of cardholder data. In order to combat rogue WLANs, it is acceptable to exhaust a wireless analyzer or a preventative control such as a Wireless Intrusion Detection/Prevention System (IDS/IPS) as defined by the PCI DSS."

  • Where is disaster recovery and business continuity planning covered in the PCI DSS requirements, or is it?Disaster recovery and BCP are not explicitly called out in the 2.0 version of PCI DSS; however, incident response planning is. "12.5.3 - Establish, document, and dispense security incident response and escalation procedures to ensure timely and effective handling of complete situations." likewise in the Penetration Testing supplement it states: "Perform testing in accordance with censorious company processes including change control, business continuity, and disaster recovery." And, in the Application Reviews and Web Application Firewalls Clarified it states: "Adhere to complete policies and procedures including change control, business continuity, and disaster recovery."

  • Would you define "scope" as the geographical locality of the PCI servers? Or would you define "scope" as the SAQ requirements? It seems at times they are used interchangeably.The scope of the audit surface is the cardholder data environment (CDE). The CDE is "The people, processes and technology that store, process or transmit cardholder data or sensitive authentication data, including any connected system components." So any system component in the CDE is in scope regardless of geographic location.

  • Shared accounts are prohibited according to PCI DSS as I understand it, but imagine if you Have your network apparatus management outsourced and the firewalls and switches for the cardholder environment are managed by a third party or a service supplier. In this scenario, you would need two-factor authentication for administrative access to the CHE, but what if the service provider/supplier has several technicians and you are using RSA tokens? Do you Have to supply one authentication account and one RSA token per technician? Or is it necessary only to supply one account and one RSA token for the service provider/supplier? You're prerogative that shared accounts are prohibited by PCI DSS; Requirement 8 states: "Assign a unique ID to each person with computer access." Strictly speaking, to subsist compliant, a unique ID and two-factor token would need to subsist assigned for each person remotely administering the firewalls and switches.

  • Can you speak to some of the feedback you Have received from clients who Have implemented a tokenization product, including some of the key areas to focus on when selecting a vendor?We've received positive feedback from companies that exhaust tokenization in the CDE to reduce scope. One that they spoke to and Have mentioned publicly is Helzberg Diamond Shops, Inc.. However, they caution that to subsist completely effective, organizations need to likewise address scope reduction and zoning, document the tokenization implementation so it can subsist reviewed during audit, and substantiate with your acquirer/processor that tokenization is acceptable. For vendor selection, the Council is working on tokenization guidance, but Visa Inc.has already issued its recommended guidance, Tokenization Best Practices.
  • Speaking from a university standpoint, they trap credit cards in many ways -- POS, Internet, MOTO – but they exhaust only PA-DSS applications and they are hosted by a service provider, so they Do not store any CHD. Their CHDE is really the PCs (and network) where the card data is entered or swiped. They Have segmented complete system components (PCs where CHD is entered or swiped) away from their regular network. It appears that many of the PA-DSS requirements are in reference to "stored" credit card data. Can you give me some recommendation on how to determine how much of the requirements apply to us given that they Do not store CHD? They Have secured complete components that Have CHD entered and they are running PA-DSS-compliant applications.Sounds dote you've done a lot of remarkable scoping work. The PA-DSS applies to applications, but entities still need to subsist PCI DSS compliant. Since your applications are already PA-DSS compliant, focus instead on what matters to your university, which is attesting to PCI DSS compliance. If your transactions levels qualify you for self-assessment review, the self-assessment guidelines (please note question 1 for more information) and determine which one applies and complete that. In general, if you tumble under multiple SAQs your acquirer/processer will want you to complete SAQ –D. However, to subsist sure, check with your acquirer/processor to confirm.
  • Can you proffer recommendation on what to peek for in an internal audit and reporting product for PCI DSS compliance?There are multiple audit and reporting tool types that can subsist used in PCI DSS compliance. For example, a penetration testing system will recur reports on vulnerabilities and exposures in the CDE, while a patching system will recur reports on patch information, both of which apply. In many cases, when organizations judge about a meta-console for reporting, it is a log or event/information aggregation console that brings together multiple reporting components for exhaust in PCI DSS compliance work. For any tool, peek for the capacity to check for issues specific to PCI DSS (ex: password policy on servers and applications in the CDE) and report on these in a template that maps the finding to the specific requirement.

  • I Have a question about PCI and the cloud. They are a PCI level 1 merchant. They are thinking of moving their data hub to cloud, Amazon to subsist specific. They understand that Amazon is PCI level 1 compliant. Is it really workable to subsist a PCI-compliant level 1 merchant in a cloud environment? Do you Have any guidance regarding PCI in a cloud environment?Amazon.com Inc. (Amazon Web Services – AWS) is, as of this writing, a PCI DSS Validated Service Provider. However, using AWS, or any Validated Service Provider, does not eradicate the need to entity using the service to subsist PCI DSS compliant . As Amazon notes, "All merchants must manage their own PCI certification. For the portion of the PCI cardholder environment deployed in AWS, your QSA can rely on their validated service provider status, but you will still subsist required to fullfil complete other PCI compliance and testing requirements that don't deal with the technology infrastructure, including how you manage the cardholder environment that you host with AWS." So while a cloud provider can subsist third party validated as a PCI DSS provider, this doesn't stand for they're certified to PCI or that entities using the service are automatically certified.

    If you are going to host some or complete of your CDE in the cloud, Do so with a compliant provider. However, don't forget to annually check that the provider is remaining compliant with your CDE, as well as the parts of your CDE that are hosted in the cloud. Additionally, according to the PCI Security Standards, your RoC must "document the role of each service provider, clearly identifying which requirements apply to the assessed entity and which apply to the service provider." And:

    "12.8 – If cardholder data is shared with service providers, maintain and implement policies and procedures to manage service providers, to embrace the following:

    12.8.1 – Maintain a list of service providers.

    12.8.2 –Maintain a written agreement that includes an acknowledgement that the service providers are amenable for the security of cardholder data that the service providers possess.

    12.8.3 - Ensure there is an established process for engaging service providers including proper due diligence prior to engagement.

    12.8.4 - Maintain a program to monitor service providers' PCI DSS compliance status at least annually"

  • In exertion to ensure PCI compliance, they Have a number of different products from different vendors, since there does not appear to subsist one full PCI compliance "solution." Is this by design? Is there any odds to having each requirement met by a different vendor's product?There are a number of components in PCI compliance and they encompass people, process and technology, and span both the physical and the logical. Also, complete of the documentation related to policies and process. It would subsist extremely difficult (arguably impossible) for a single solution to Do it all. The reality is that organizations exhaust a number of different vendor solutions for the technical controls.

    Some vendors provide products that meet different controls. For example, a vendor with a log aggregation or SIEM tool that likewise sells antivirus/malware or patch management. The immense win is not necessarily to Have complete tools (or many tools) from the selfsame vendor, but to subsist able to bring together reporting, logs, test and monitoring information in a centralized residence to fabricate oversight and compliance monitoring more comprehensive and efficient.

  • How can companies deal with call recordings in the call hub when taking card payments by phone? Are there any mitigating factors?Because there is not a lot of call hub guidance in the PCI DSS, the Council addressed call hub issues in a special FAQ #5362. "The Council's position remains that if you can digitally query sensitive authentication data (SAD) contained within audio recordings - if dejected is easily accessible - then it must not subsist stored."

    Though this is not hosted on the PCI Security Standard Council Domain -- it is the official FAQ for the Council and can subsist accessed directly by clicking in the FAQs link at the top of the official Council page.

    Also, tickle note question below for additional information on storage rules regarding sensitive authentication data (SAD).

  • Our call-recording solution requires manual intervention to bleep out the CV2 number. Is this sufficient as a compensating control to meet the standard?

    If the CV2 (or any other sensitive authentication data/SAD) is not stored, this should meet the standard. Document how the manual process is implemented to ensure dejected is truly being deleted and not stored.

    Alternately, according to PCI Security Standards Council FAQ "If these recordings cannot subsist data mined, storage of CAV2, CVC2, CVV2 or CID codes after authorization may subsist permissible as long as commandeer validation has been performed. This includes the physical and analytic protections defined in PCI DSS that must still subsist applied to these call recording formats."

  • If you Have backups of credit card data in a secure location, is that a violation? How can it subsist mitigated?It's not a violation -- it is Part of a requirement! Requirement 9.5 explicitly states: "Store media back-ups in a secure location, preferably an off-site facility, such as an alternate or back-up site, or a commercial storage facility. Review the location's security at least annually." bethink to fabricate sure the data was encrypted before it was backed up and that the personnel at the facility Do not Have the key to decrypt the data.

  • What are the rules for external scanning?External scanning is covered in Requirement 11.2.2 – "Perform quarterly external vulnerability scans via an Approved Scanning Vendor (ASV), approved by the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council (PCI SSC).

    Note: Quarterly external vulnerability scans must subsist performed by an Approved Scanning Vendor (ASV), approved by the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council (PCI SSC). Scans conducted after network changes may subsist performed by internal staff." 

    See the PCI Security Standard for a list of ASVs

    Also helpful is the ASV Program Guide, and the ASV Client Feedback Form

  • PCI 2.0 lightly touches upon virtualization for the first time. Does this extend beyond virtual machine images to virtual appliances (e.g. exhaust of virtual firewalls & virtual switches in hosted products)?Yes, according to the Scope of Assessment for Compliance it does extend to virtual appliances. "System components" in v2.0 include, "any virtualization components such as virtual machines, virtual switches/routers, virtual appliances, virtual applications/desktops, and hypervisors." likewise note that virtualization is mentioned in Requirement 2.2.1: Implement only one primary office per server, "Note: Where virtualization technologies are in use, implement only one primary office per virtual system component."

  • Is a system that is not holding the cardholder data, but only processing it (like a Web farm) a Part of PCI audit requirements?Yes, if a system component stores, processes or transmits cardholder data or sensitive authentication data, it is Part of the CDE and within scope of the PCI DSS audit. For additional guidance, mention to the Scope of Assessment for Compliance with PCI DSS requirements section of PCI DSS v2.0.

  • When Do companies Have to switch over to PCI 2.0?For the absolute final word on compliance deadlines, check with your acquirer or specific card brand. In general, however, v2.0 went into effect on January 1, 2011 and there is a year to comply with the recent standard. If you are in the middle of an assessment cycle that started in 2010 and the compliance assessment will subsist completed before the respite of 2011, you can continue the process with v1.2.1. If you a starting a recent assessment cycle in 2011, exhaust v2.0.

  • If an organization has filled out the self assessment questionnaire (SAQ) and identified that it has not complied with the 12 DSS requirements, should the SAQ still subsist submitted? Or should the organization wait until the 12 requirements Have been satisfied?Before admitting defeat, note if there is any way your organization can accept to subsist compliant. Don't forget, if a non-compliant system or process is not essential, it could subsist scoped out of the CDE and out of the compliance surface. likewise don't forget about compensating controls. The example is to subsist fully compliant, but compensating controls provide a way for organizations to subsist mitigating risks as they work towards implementing better controls.

    According to the Compensating Controls Appendix B in SAQ D v2.0: "Compensating controls may subsist considered for most PCI DSS requirements when an entity cannot meet a requirement explicitly as stated, due to legitimate technical or documented business constraints, but has sufficiently mitigated the risk associated with the requirement through implementation of other, or compensating, controls." Also, there is a compensating control worksheet that needs to subsist completed in Appendix C of the SAQ D v2.0.

    If de-scoping the non-compliant system and compensating controls are not options, then you will need to check the "Non-Compliant" box on the SAQ and effect in a target date for compliance. In most cases, your acquirer/processor will want to note this proof, and possibly inquire of your organization to fill out the "Action Plan" Part of the SAQ; however, check with your acquirer/processor to subsist sure.

  • Let's talk about the mythical beast that is end-to-end encryption. Does it exist? More specifically, one of their audience members asked, "What if end-to-end encryption from the pin pad / card swipe POS is implemented? Does that trap everything out of PCI scope?"The Council is calling this P2PE for point-to-point encryption. sense turning the cardholder data into ciphertext (encrypting it) and then transmitting it, encrypted to a destination, for example, the payment processor. If the P2PE begins on swipe by cashier of the credit card at the PoS (point of sale) and continues complete the way to the processor, it is not stored, and no one in the interim path has the keys to decrypt the data, then it could reduce the scope of the audit surface significantly. Caveats here are that everything will need to subsist implemented correctly, validated and tested. However, note that the entity still must subsist PCI DSS compliant – though compliance may subsist greatly simplified. And, at this time, the PCI Security Standards Council still deems P2PE an emerging technology and is formalizing official guidance, training QSAs on how to evaluate apposite P2PE components, as well as considering creating a validated list of P2PE solutions. For more information on the status of P2PE, tickle read the Initial Roadmap: Point-to-Point Encryption Technology and PCI DSS Compliance program guide.

  • Under what circumstances can an internal audit certify a merchant as being PCI compliant?If the merchant qualifies for SAQ completion, internal audit can subsist amenable for the assessment and attestation process. "Each payment card brand has defined specific requirements for compliance validation and reporting, such as provisions for performing self-assessments and when to engage a QSA."

    If the merchant must complete a RoC, it is workable to Do the on-site assessment with an internal resource if the brand allows it. Check with your brand for specifics, Mastercard Inc., for example, has deemed that as of June 30, 2011, the "primary internal auditor staff engaged in validating PCI DSS compliance [must] attend PCI SSC ISA Training and pass the associated accreditation program annually."

  • What PCI and security implications Do you anticipate arising with the recent generation of contact-less cards, given that they are now being widely distributed?If the data can subsist transmitted in a secure encrypted format over the RF from the contact-less card to a secure endpoint, the data should not subsist exposed. However, if the data from the card is in clear-text over the air, sniffing attacks will subsist a major concern. Also, key management and MiTMs may subsist problems depending on specific technical implementations.

  • Are quarterly penetration tests still required for wireless access points that are using WPA-2?Yes, quarterly tests are required. Requirement 11.1 covers complete known/unknown wireless access points regardless of protections on them. "11.1 - Test for the presence of wireless access points and detect unauthorized wireless access points on a quarterly basis." The intuition for this is that one of the intents of this requirement is to ensure there are no rogue devices in the CDE.

  • Does Citrix sessioning between payment apps and hosted sites provide sufficient encryption for PCI compliance?If the session is configured to transmit the data between the payment apps and the hosted site using an approved routine (ex: SSL/TLS ) then it should subsist compliant for at least the transmission portion of the standard.

    Requirement 4.1 -- "Use strong cryptography and security protocols (for example, SSL/TLS, IPSEC, SSH, etc.) to safeguard sensitive cardholder data during transmission over open, public networks."

  • How much are organizations spending on PCI compliance? Can you provide a sweep both for one-time costs and annual maintenance?There are two sides to this coin: cost of the audit and cost of compliance overall.
  • Audit cost: According to a recent Ponemon survey on PCI DSS trends (.pdf), the unconcerned cost of the audit itself is $225,000 for the largest (Tier 1) merchants, but the cost can sweep much higher or lower depending on complexity of the environment, size of the CDE, and other factors .

  • Overall cost of compliance: In 2008, Gartner conducted a survey of 50 merchants and create that PCI costs had been increasing since 2006 (Gartner.com registration required) and cited costs averaging 2.7M for Tier 1 merchants, 1.1M for Tier 2, and 155k for Tier 3. Again, these are averages, so your particular case might subsist different.
  • Requirement 2.2.1 mandates that censorious servers provide a single-purpose service. If I Have a single server hosting an e-commerce application with a Web server and database residing on a physical server, Do I need to residence the database on a separate server?Yes, in most cases. Requirement 2.2.1 – "Implement only one primary office per server to preclude functions that require different security levels from co-existing on the selfsame server." The intent of this requirement is to provide some protections if the underlying host, in this case the operation system running the database and e-commerce application is breached, causing one or both of the services to subsist exposed to attack. VMs are now allowed, so the selfsame piece of hardware could subsist used with a hypervisor to separate the two services across two VMs. Alternately, if there is a censorious business need, such as performance, for both primary functions to subsist on the selfsame server, account if this justifies a compensating control by completing the compensating control worksheet (Appendix C of the PCI DSS).
  • About the author:Ed Moyle is currently a manager with CTG's Information Security Solutions practice, providing strategy, consulting, and solutions to clients worldwide as well as a founding partner of SecurityCurve.

    Diana Kelley is a partner with Amherst, N.H.-based consulting solid SecurityCurve. She formerly served as vice president and service director with research solid Burton Group. She has extensive taste creating secure network architectures and business solutions for big corporations and delivering strategic, competitive lore to security software vendors.



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