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Tariq Munshi,1,2 M Selim Asmer,1,2 Sarah Penfold,1,2 Jennifer Pikard,1,2 Dane Mauer-Vakil,1 Emma Banwell1
1School of medicine, Queen’s university, 2Department of Psychiatry, Queen’s institution, Kingston, ON, Canada
abstract: The actual health of people plagued by mental disease is conventional to be diminished in comparison to the familiar inhabitants, with worse fitness results and shortened lifestyles expectancy. This locations a fine burden on fitness care programs everywhere. because of stigma and clinician attitudes, it can be problematic for physicians to interact with mentally unwell patients to screen for physical disease and put in force physical health interventions. enticing with these patients during acute inpatient admission is an awesome time to identify any certain issues that may well be the center of attention of scientific attention. The Canadian govt mandates that each one patients admitted to medical institution acquire activities physical assessment as a part of their care. Their look at aimed to implement a kind to ebook physical screening for all psychiatric sufferers admitted to an acute inpatient Psychiatric Unit in Kingston, ON, Canada; the sufferers underwent two cycles of scientific audit between 2014 and 2015 to measure completion of forms. besides the fact that children the completion price decreased, the frequency of consultation with the hospitalist extended greatly between both cycles. There was no relationship found between patient age, psychiatric prognosis, and day of admission right through the week did not have an effect on completion of actual fitness screening. extra education and advocacy is needed to be sure applicable screening of physical problems in patients admitted for psychiatric reasons. Future reports are mandatory to examine the effectiveness of these forms and whether or no longer they're positive in improving fitness outcomes in the long term.
keyword phrases: physical examination, audit, health kind
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Nothing strikes greater worry within the coronary heart of an internet publisher than these three letters: C-G-I. CGI (which stands for common gateway interface), is a mechanism for safely transporting information from a shopper (a browser) to a server. it is customarily used to switch statistics from an HTML form to the server.
regular kind manage objects -- also referred to as "widgets" -- encompass the following:
The standard form feels like this. notice I've supplied name= attributes for all kind controls, including the kind itself:<kind identify="myform" action="" components="GET"> Enter whatever in the box: <BR> <enter classification="textual content" identify="inputbox" cost=""><P> <input class="button" name="button" cost="click on" onClick="testResults(this.form)"> </form>
The testResults function is standard -- it purely copies the contents of the textual content box to a variable named TestVar. note how the text box contents become referenced. I defined the form object i wanted to make use of (known as kind), the thing inside the kind that i needed (referred to as inputbox), and the property of that object i needed (the value property).greater from JavaWorld
desire extra programming tutorials and news? Get the JavaWorld business Java publication delivered to your inbox.surroundings a value in a kind object
function writeText (kind) kind.inputbox.price = "Have a pleasant day!" </SCRIPT> </HEAD> <body> <form name="myform" motion="" formula="GET"> Enter anything in the box: <BR> <enter class="text" identify="inputbox" price=""><P> <enter category="button" name="button1" price="read" onClick="readText(this.form)"> <input category="button" identify="button2" price="Write" onClick="writeText(this.kind)"> </form> </physique> </HTML>
Radio buttons are used to allow the person to opt for one, and only one, merchandise from a gaggle of options. Radio buttons are always used in multiples; there is not any logical experience in having just one radio button on a kind, as a result of once you click on it, you cannot unclick it. if you need an easy click/unclick choice use a verify box instead (see beneath).
environment a radio button preference with HTML market is elementary. if you need the kind to at the beginning seem with a given radio button chosen, add the CHECKED attribute to the HTML markup for that button:<enter classification="radio" identify="rad" value="rad_button1" CHECKED onClick=0>
As with the radio button object, add a CHECKED attribute to the HTML markup for that assess box you wish to be at first assess when the form is first loaded.<enter classification="checkbox" name="check1" price="0" CHECKED>Checkbox 1>
the use of text Areas
textual content areas are used for varied-line textual content entry. The default measurement of the textual content field is 1 row by means of 20 characters. that you may alternate the dimension the usage of the COLS and ROWS attributes. here's a regular example of a textual content enviornment with a text box forty characters extensive by means of 7 rows:<TEXTAREA name="myarea" COLS="forty" ROWS="7"> </TEXTAREA>
Remarks delivered at Silicon Valley IP forum 2019
Deputy Director of the U.S. Patent and Trademark workplace Laura Peter
April 10, 2019
Palo Alto, California
As organized for delivery
decent afternoon every person, and thank you, John Cabeca for your variety introduction. It’s a pleasure to be right here with all of you these days to focus on highbrow property in a worldwide environment.
simply believe: a hundred and fifty years ago, earlier than the invention of the vehicle or the aircraft, it could have taken weeks to get throughout the country, let alone worldwide. Now i will be able to hop on a plane and be in London for breakfast. just 50 years ago, earlier than the invention of the cell or the cyber web, i'd have had to mail a written letter or use a landline to name a person across the world. Now i will be able to send a tweet to hundreds of thousands of americans worldwide in precisely seconds. The evolution of technology has resulted in an increasingly global ambiance.
Chieko Asakawa’s innovations are helping to join even more americans. In 1997, she invented the domestic page Reader, the primary functional voice browser to deliver advantageous internet entry for the blind and visually impaired desktop clients. lately named as a 2019 inductee into the countrywide Inventors corridor of reputation (NIHF), Dr. Asakawa holds over 20 patents, is an IBM exotic provider Professor within the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon tuition, and is an IBM Fellow at IBM analysis.
youngsters visually impaired herself on the age of 14, she didn't let this avert her resourceful intellect. reasonably, she used this to her skills to help her be aware the needs of a unique audience. in exactly five short years, her domestic web page Reader turned into widespread globally to aid americans “hear” the cyber web, what she calls “a modern second for the blind.” youngsters at the beginning developed in her native language of jap, its use turned into later elevated to consist of eleven additional languages.
at the moment, she is working on establishing a man-made intelligence-powered navigation equipment, called NavCog. This smartphone app will support the blind and different disabled populations in navigating the physical world. Dr. Asakawa believes the future of AI is that “cognitive counsel will increase…our 5 senses.” With the upward thrust of the web, and the assist of innovations similar to that of Dr. Asakawa, the world has develop into infinitely extra connected.
In nowadays’s world world, they should view intellectual property though a unique lens. As you comprehend, IP insurance plan differs all over in line with every nation’s national laws. in keeping with a fresh report through the U.S. Chamber of Commerce’s world Innovation policy middle (GIPC), the U.S. is still the strongest highbrow property device in the world. primarily, the U.S. moved up this 12 months to tie for 2d place within the patent rights rankings, a movement up of 10 spots from the prior 12 months. The 2019 Chamber record mentioned their USPTO PTAB reforms as a first-rate basis for the superior rankings this yr.
however to ensure that us to stay international leaders in the economic system and innovation, they need to continue to improve their IP system. They should proceed to stimulate and incentivize innovation. IP intensive industries employ over forty five million americans and hundreds of hundreds of thousands of individuals worldwide. highbrow property is primary to the U.S. economic climate, accounting for $6.6 trillion in the U.S., more than the nominal GDP of any other nation on this planet.
indeed, from the starting of their nation, intellectual property has been the engine behind the us’s economic and cultural development. Recognizing its significance, their Founders covered IP rights in the constitution itself. truly, in the body of the charter, notwithstanding the Amendments, the be aware “right” is mentioned simplest as soon as: it's in Article 1, section eight, Clause 8, granting the Congress energy “to advertise the development of Science and effective Arts, through securing for restrained instances to Authors and Inventors the exclusive right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.”
Our Founders have been forward of their time to foresee how important preserving highbrow property rights and stimulating innovation is to the growth and success of their nation. For this nation’s top of the line inventors, backed with the aid of their patent equipment, went on to trade the area. with a view to make certain that their nation remains on the forefront of technology, the USPTO need to at a minimal supply a legitimate and predictable prison framework to incentivize and offer protection to innovation, inspire americans to innovate, and expand the opportunities for innovation.
To increase the reliability and predictability of U.S. patents, they have initiated a couple of changes on the USPTO in the past yr. particularly, they now have made adjustments with appreciate to patent field be counted eligibility below part one zero one and court cases on the Patent Trial and Appeals Board (PTAB).
although the statutory language regarding patentable subject depend has remained just about unchanged due to the fact the 1790s, they all comprehend that recent judicial choices have brought a level of uncertainty to the utility of the legislation. This has led to confusion for applicants, attorneys, and their examiners who wrestle with these issues each day.
The USPTO has been working tough to clarify patentable subject count under section a hundred and one—of direction, within their statutory authority and judicial precedent. As lots of you understand, over the last 12 months, we've issued information to examiners related to: the “conventionality” evaluation within the second step of the Mayo/Alice framework, “formula of medicine” claims, and most these days a revised framework for 101 subject count number eligibility analysis that synthesizes the legislation and streamlines the a hundred and one evaluation at the USPTO.
Our examiners have welcomed this new assistance on section a hundred and one. due to the fact the free up of the 2019 Revised Patent area depend Eligibility counsel (“the 2019 PEG”) in January, they now have been diligently practising their employees. by using now, just about all patent examiners and PTAB judges have received practicing. through initial accounts, it looks that this new suggestions has resulted in more clarity for examiners. as an example, from January thru December of 2018, on ordinary 14.3% of office movements in synthetic intelligence had been allowances. for the reason that the training in January, the commonplace has expanded to 35.9%. Of path, they cannot directly attribute this improved allowance rate to the revised a hundred and one tips, in view that there are lots of components that go into selecting allowability.
To help maintain the public informed, the brand new information and linked materials are available on their site. They also performed a Patent satisfactory Chat in January—that you would be able to discover the recording of this on-line as neatly. As they begin to use this new suggestions in examination and at the PTAB, we're also reviewing public feedback.
during the last yr, we've also initiated a number of alterations at the PTAB. among other things, they up-to-date the Trial follow e-book, they published two new standard working strategies (SOP), they published a remaining rule changing the claim construction normal in AIA trials on the PTAB to in shape the regular used with the aid of district courts and by means of the ITC, and only in the near past, they initiated a claim amendment pilot application in AIA trials.
the primary SOP outlined the techniques the Board makes use of for assigning (or re-assigning) judges to circumstances and clarified that the PTAB will extend panels handiest in very limited instances. The 2nd SOP created a Precedential Opinion Panel (POP), which governs precedential and informative decisions of the Board. This panel will assist to increase consistency on considerations of terrific significance to the company.
In March, they issued their first determination from a POP panel listening to regarding problem joinder and equal celebration joinder. They additionally lately exact five previous selections as precedential with admire to the themes of motions to amend, reside testimony, and submitting new facts; and unique three outdated decisions as informative with admire to the themes of applying the revised 101 assistance and the grounds for institution.
After reviewing the general public feedback, they recently posted a Federal Register word concerning a pilot program for action to amend observe before the PTAB. This pilot application applies to all AIA trial complaints instituted on or after March 15, 2019 and offers patent homeowners with two new alternate options. A patent proprietor may additionally choose to obtain preliminary assistance from the Board on its motion to amend; and a patent proprietor might also choose to file a revised motion to amend after receiving the PTAB’s preliminary information (if requested). This pilot program is designed to make certain that put up supply lawsuits don't seem to be all-or-nothing.
For the general public, they additionally simply held a Patent pleasant Chat the day gone by and a Boardside Chat today on the new pilot software, the recordings of so that they can each be purchasable on-line soon. and finally on March 14, they appointed Scott Boalick as new chief decide of PTAB and Jacqueline Bonilla as new deputy chief choose, positions through which they have got both been performing due to the fact that September 2018. Chief decide Boalick and Deputy Chief decide Bonilla have both been instrumental in helping to strengthen and put in force these new PTAB reforms over the ultimate year.
As I actually have outlined, in this truly world environment, the USPTO can't operate in a bubble. somewhat, they ought to be utterly engaged with the foreign IP neighborhood. To that end, the USPTO participates in cooperative forums, reminiscent of IP5 for patents, TM5 for trademarks, and ID5 for industrial designs. These forums permit world IP leaders to meet automatically, discuss IP policy considerations, and collaborate on international initiatives.
The IP5 includes the realm’s 5 greatest patent workplaces: the EPO (European Patent workplace), the JPO (Japan Patent office), KIPO (the Korean intellectual Property office), CNIPA (the national intellectual Property Administration of the individuals’s Republic of China), and the USPTO. collectively, these five places of work account for greater than eighty% of patent functions filed international, in addition to 95% of all PCT work. vital IP5 initiatives in order to assist promote international worksharing include classification harmonization, the multiplied Collaborative Search Pilot, and global file.
Classification harmonization is a partnership between the USPTO and the EPO to deliver an internationally compatible device to enhance patent looking. because of this initiative, the USPTO has now transformed from the U.S. Patent Classification equipment (USPC) to the Cooperative Patent Classification system (CPC).
additionally, USPTO’s world file, created in collaboration with the IP5, offers their examiners, and the general public, with free streamlined access to the prosecution histories of international counterpart functions in actual time, including English desktop-automated translations of chinese language, eastern, and Korean office actions. This enables examiners to more easily discover vital references and prior art previous within the prosecution.
beneath the elevated Collaborative Search Pilot (CSP), the search effects of examiners on the USPTO are mixed with these from the Japan Patent workplace (JPO) and/or the Korean intellectual Property office (KIPO). Examiners in this pilot program will have the optimum prior art in entrance of them from distinct overseas offices before issuing their first office action. All of those cooperative efforts aid the USPTO in their mission to increase the search and examination of their purposes and supply a superior, reliable patent grant.
in a similar fashion on the trademark aspect, the USPTO is a member of the TM5, which contains the realm’s 5 greatest trademark places of work: the EUIPO (European Union highbrow Patent office), the JPO, KIPO, CNIPA, and the USPTO. Ongoing TM5 initiatives consist of efforts to reduce dangerous faith filings, promote attention of fraudulent solicitations (the place inner most events pretend to be the USPTO and require charge of fees), and fight counterfeiting.
The USPTO has been diligently working to improve the accuracy and integrity of the trademark register. in the U.S., the number of trademark registration purposes continues to rise drastically. Trademark functions elevated eight% in fiscal yr 2018, on exact of the remarkable 12% growth cost in fiscal year 2017. China filings accounted for 9.1% of total trademark filings ultimate yr and eight.3% of filings to date this year. although, contemporary tendencies do reveal that chinese filing charges are starting to degree off.
To fight inaccurate or fraudulent claims of use and the upward thrust in fake specimens, they are piloting utility to aid investigate if a photograph has been digitally altered, and they are actively encouraging legal professionals to document suspicious specimens in pending purposes. with the intention to without difficulty implement compliance with statutory and regulatory requirements for all applicants, and help their efforts to enrich the accuracy of the U.S. Trademark Register, they recently proposed a new U.S.-assistance rule.
On February 15, they posted a be aware of proposed rulemaking, which would require all international domiciled trademark candidates and registrants to be represented via a U.S.-licensed legal professional in order to file trademark documents with the USPTO. the public remark period lately closed and we're presently reviewing the feedback amassed.
any other particular techniques during which the USPTO expands its global attain are through classes such because the China IP Roadshows and the USPTO IP attaché application. Their China IP Roadshows help U.S. appropriate holders navigate the IP landscape in China. due to the fact that 2017, we've carried out over 20 of those free one-day classes around the country. issues include how to file patent and trademark functions and enforce resulting IP rights in China, and how to hold counterfeit goods from China out of the U.S. market. take a look at their site for greater advice on the upcoming roadshow in L.A. in June.
Our IP attaché application locations individuals in U.S. embassies and consulates worldwide, together with China, India, and Ukraine. The role of an IP connecté is to promote U.S. executive IP coverage positions to the advantage of U.S. stakeholders. mainly, the attachés without delay are seeking for adjustments in guidelines, legal guidelines, and rules related to highbrow property; train host executive officers on IP matters to assist them bear in mind the U.S. govt viewpoint; and habits public cognizance programs to build grass roots help for U.S. coverage positions on IP.
one of their main priorities at the USPTO has been, and continues to be, to trade the dialogue surrounding intellectual property with a purpose to stimulate innovation. In nowadays’s enormously competitive global financial system, it is more and more crucial to be sure that all americans who are inclined to work hard and persevere have the option to innovate, delivery new groups, be triumphant in centered groups, and ultimately obtain the American Dream.
We must increase the scientists and engineers, the out-of-the-box thinkers and entrepreneurs, the inventors and visionaries. For they are the precise heroes in their society. They must center of attention on the brilliance of their inventors, the pleasure of innovation, and the unbelievable merits anybody benefit from these developments.
One truly inspiring illustration of this innovation is Kenton Lee and his nonprofit as a result of international, a 2018 winner of the USPTO Patents for Humanity awards. In 2007, Idaho native Kenton Lee, traveled halfway the world over to volunteer at an orphanage in Nairobi, Kenya. sooner or later as he changed into jogging down a dust route to church with the little ones, he noticed the shoes of the 6-year-ancient little girl in a white dress walking by his side. Her small feet barely healthy into her footwear; the exact of her footwear had been reduce open so her little toes may stick out. In that second, Lee became impressed to create “The Shoe That Grows.”
Lee developed a distinct patented shoe design, which could develop five sizes and closing as much as five years. product of leather-based, compressed rubber, Velcro, and snaps, the footwear weigh below a pound and fold for transport, so you can fit 50 pair inside a daily-sized suitcase. Lee believes, “innovation is the key to fighting poverty.” Over two billion people undergo from soil-transmitted ailments and parasites, and over 300 million babies all over the world don’t have any footwear. due to the fact 2009, as a result of foreign has disbursed over 180,000 footwear to youngsters in over ninety five countries.
Their mission is “to leverage innovation to make issues better.” and i think this should be their mission as smartly. Innovation has the capabilities to enhance their world in so many ways. So allow us to proceed to fulfill their constitutional mandate “to promote the progress of science and valuable arts.” let us work collectively to uphold the U.S. highbrow property gadget because the strongest in the world.
thanks again for the opportunity to be with you nowadays. I welcome any questions you can also have.
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Nominees Bring Decades of Management and Global Operating Experience, Including at Leading Healthcare Companies
CAMBRIDGE, Mass., April 29, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Biogen (BIIB) today announced the nomination of John R. Chiminski, William A. Hawkins and Jesus B. Mantas to stand for election to the company’s board of directors at its 2019 annual meeting of stockholders, scheduled for June 19, 2019.
Mr. Chiminski is Chair of the board and Chief Executive Officer of Catalent, Inc., a global provider of advanced delivery technologies and development solutions for drugs, biologics and consumer health products. Mr. Hawkins is a Senior Advisor to EW Healthcare Partners, a life sciences private equity firm, and is the former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Medtronic, Inc., a global leader in medical technology. Mr. Mantas is the Managing Partner and General Manager leading worldwide strategy, offerings, digital platforms, innovation and thought leadership for IBM Global Business Services, the $17 billion unit of IBM that helps global enterprises with their digital transformations.
“We have heard the calls from their shareholders and have acted by nominating John, Bill and Jesus to join the Biogen Board at this important time for their company,” said Stelios Papadopoulos, Ph.D., Biogen’s Chairman. “We are confident that each of them will provide valuable insights and expertise as they continue their work discovering and developing innovative treatments for patients around the world all the while dedicated to maximizing value on behalf of their shareholders over the long term.”
“I am excited by the nomination of John, Bill and Jesus and the additional fresh perspectives that they will bring to their Board. I look forward to working with them to optimize the allocation of Biogen’s cash flows for the benefit of all shareholders,” stated Alexander J. Denner, Ph.D., Chair of the Corporate Governance Committee. Dr. Denner continued, “Today’s announcement is a significant step in the board’s refreshment, and they will continue the process with a view toward further diversifying and enhancing the makeup of the board.”
“We are excited to announce the nomination of John, Bill and Jesus for election to Biogen’s Board. Their diverse backgrounds and experience in scientific, medical, and digital innovation are highly complementary to their pioneering vision,” said Michel Vounatsos, Biogen’s Chief Executive Officer. “We believe they will add to the wealth of their existing expertise while also bringing new perspectives to their Board as they continue to work to maximize value for their shareholders and advance their leadership in bringing breakthrough therapies to patients.”
Mr. Chiminski, Mr. Hawkins and Mr. Mantas are being nominated at the 2019 annual meeting of stockholders along with the existing 11 directors, who will stand for re-election. If all nominees are elected, the board would expand to 14 directors, 13 of whom would be independent.
About John R. Chiminski
Mr. Chiminski has served as the Chief Executive Officer of Catalent, Inc., a global provider of advanced delivery technologies and development solutions for drugs, biologics and consumer health products, since March 2009, as a director since February 2009 and as Chair of the board since October 2016. Prior to that, Mr. Chiminski spent more than 20 years at GE Healthcare in engineering, operations and various senior leadership roles. From 2007 to 2009 Mr. Chiminski was President and Chief Executive Officer of GE Medical Diagnostics, a global business with sales of $1.9 billion. From 2005 to 2007 he served as Vice President and General Manager of GE Healthcare’s Global Magnetic Resonance Business and from 2001 to 2005 as Vice President and General Manager of Global Healthcare Services. Earlier at GE, he held a series of cross- functional leadership positions in both manufacturing and engineering, including a GE Medical Systems assignment in France.
Mr. Chiminski received a B.S. from Michigan State University and an M.S. from Purdue University, both in electrical engineering, as well as an M.S. in management from the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University.
About William A. Hawkins
Mr. Hawkins serves as a Senior Advisor to EW Healthcare Partners, a life sciences private equity firm. Mr. Hawkins is the former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Medtronic, Inc., a global leader in medical technology. He was at Medtronic from 2002 until 2011. After retiring from Medtronic, he served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Immucor, a private equity backed global leader in transfusion and transplant medicine from October 2011 to July 2015. From 1998 to 2001 Mr. Hawkins served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Novoste Corporation, an interventional cardiology company. Prior to that, Mr. Hawkins served in a variety of senior roles at American Home Products, a consumer, pharma and medical device company, Johnson & Johnson, a healthcare company, Guidant Corporation, a medical products company, and Eli Lilly and Company, a global pharmaceutical company.
Mr. Hawkins also serves as a Director of Avanos Medical, Inc., a medical technology company, as Chairman of Bioventus, LLC and Chairman of 4 Tech and as a Director of Trice Medical, Inc., AsKBio; Virtue Labs, Cerius, Keratin Biosciences and Baebies, Inc., all of which are medical products companies. Mr. Hawkins is Vice Chair of the Duke University Board of Trustees and is Chair of the Duke University Health System. Mr. Hawkins was elected as a member of the AIMBE College of Fellows and the National Academy of Engineering. He has a dual degree in electrical and biomedical engineering from Duke University and an M.B.A. from the University of Virginia’s Darden School of Business.
About Jesus B. Mantas
Mr. Mantas is the Managing Partner and General Manager leading worldwide strategy, offerings, digital platforms, innovation and thought leadership for IBM Global Business Services, the $17 billion unit of IBM that helps global leading enterprises design, transform and operate their businesses with digital and cloud technologies. He also serves on the board of IBM Services, the world largest technology services provider, and co-chairs the IBM Hispanic diversity council.
Prior to his current role, he led globally multiple units in IBM, including Cognitive Process Transformation, Business Consulting and Global Process Services. From 2010 to 2014 Mr. Mantas lived in Brazil and led IBM Global Business Services in Latin America. From 2006 through 2010 he was Vice President of IBM Enterprise Sector in North America. Prior to joining IBM, Mr. Mantas was a partner in the High Technology practice of PricewaterhouseCoopers Consulting and an officer in the Air Force of Spain.
Mr. Mantas serves in the World Economic Forum Global Artificial Intelligence Council and has been recognized as Top 25 Global Consulting Leader, Top 100 Hispanic IT Executive and Great Minds in STEM. He has degrees in telecommunications, software engineering and business administration from the Polytechnic University of Madrid and has served as professor at the Paul Merage School of Business, University of California Irvine.
About BiogenAt Biogen, their mission is clear: they are pioneers in neuroscience. Biogen discovers, develops, and delivers worldwide innovative therapies for people living with serious neurological and neurodegenerative diseases as well as related therapeutic adjacencies. One of the world’s first global biotechnology companies, Biogen was founded in 1978 by Charles Weissmann, Heinz Schaller, Kenneth Murray, and Nobel Prize winners Walter Gilbert and Phillip Sharp, and today has the leading portfolio of medicines to treat multiple sclerosis, has introduced the first and only approved treatment for spinal muscular atrophy, and is focused on advancing neuroscience research programs in MS and neuroimmunology, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, movement disorders, neuromuscular disorders, acute neurology, neurocognitive disorders, pain, and ophthalmology. Biogen also commercializes biosimilars of advanced biologics.
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This syllabus responds to two current tendencies within the architectural profession: first, the increasing globalization of architectural practice and architectural education; second, the profession’s loss of ground to various specialized forms of expertise (largely within the domain of the technical).1 The proposed syllabus is therefore designed around two practical considerations:
1) When an architecture student travels as part of studio coursework—whether to another country or simply another neighborhood—what theoretical training will help her discriminate between, on the one hand, the modes of site interpretation required of her and, on the other hand, the prerogative to represent others with the effect of denying those others’ their capacity to represent themselves?
2) What research tools and methodological approaches might help architecture graduates assert a form of expertise that is distinct from aesthetic tinkering or, similarly, distinct from the expertise possessed by engineers and urban planners/developers?
These two questions lead us astray from a familiar itinerary of themes, debates, and texts whose canonization as “architectural theory” was largely the result of architects’ turn to European philosophy and cultural criticism in the postwar years as a way to legitimize their work as a form of scholarship. Social-scientific interrogations of the urban have typically received scant treatment in architectural theory syllabi relative to the preponderance of texts coming from art and cultural criticism, post-structuralist philosophy (or the latter’s translation into architectural discourse), and comparative literature, to say nothing of the self-promotional texts written by practicing architects and the smattering of humanities scholars whom architects have adopted in their own projects of self-promotion. The resulting curricular blind spots have impaired architects’ abilities to contribute intelligently to contemporary urban issues.
Rather than squarely confront this problem, many architecture schools have begun to reverberate with calls for the discipline’s re-enchantment, as if the discipline was not always-already a perpetual motion machine for re-enchantment (its bouts of malaise belonging as well to that cyclical mechanism). “Theory” has long played a crucial role in such re-enchantment (even the kind of theory that purports the end of theory). Under the profession’s current paradigms of enchantment, architecture students are often asked to digest solipsistic paeans to technological sensuosity (for example) rather than being given a training that might help them responsibly consider the diverse spatial conditions implicated in their design studios. Such a training requires theory courses not only to cover a much broader geographical focus, but also to expose students to how other disciplines have grappled with power imbalances as agents versus objects of research, and how they have approached issues of cross-cultural understanding.
This syllabus takes a step toward redressing the stark absence of attention in architecture curricula not only to social theory but also to methodologies of social and spatial research. Although students are implicitly asked in their design studios to conduct research—e.g., to produce site studies as a matter of course—they generally set about this task without serious methodological or theoretical guidance. They are rarely given any textual introduction to the uses, methods, and pitfalls inhering to different forms of social-scientific, visual, historical, and spatial research. This syllabus therefore presents some basic concepts, methods, uses, and problematics of oral history, human interviews, cartography, and ethnographic observation. These issues are not of course strictly a matter of social-scientific literature; on the contrary, texts from the humanities help students understand crucial issues related to representation and historical knowledge, which are relevant not only to design per se but to the crucial process of understanding the nuanced complexities of a given site.
Undoubtedly, this turn to research methods and the social sciences lacks a certain aesthetic allure relative to the seductions of many theoretical texts one finds at the intersection of cultural studies and architecture. Given the ways that aestheticized verbal discourse supports architecture’s complicity with capitalist development, the syllabus steers students away from regarding “theory” as a verbal aesthetic supplement to design practice. To encourage students not to “use” texts so much as to parse their intentions and devices, students are asked to read and discuss together and formulate answers to questions about the texts. Students with different comfort levels in reading should be paired together to assist each other. Taking advantage of the range of disciplinary, linguistic, and cultural backgrounds represented in the classroom, this exercise also resists how “theory” has often functioned within the aggressively competitive culture of the architectural profession—essentially, as a tool of intellectual one-upmanship. To challenge students without making them feel befuddled or intimidated by the authority of texts or teachers, the syllabus pedagogy stresses the value of struggling and helping each other with difficult readings more than the value of gleaning from texts and lectures what is now commonly referred to as “take-aways.” The surprising fact that so many students seem to not only expect but even demand such “take-aways” is in itself strong evidence for their need to attend to the uses and abuses of theory for (architectural) life.Representation and Rhetoric, Session 1: Discourse
This interrogates the politics of knowledge and representation, asking how particular rhetorical devices help inscribe human geopolitical relationships. Sandoval, drawing on Roland Barthes on Mythology, points to several rhetorical devices through which white maleness is constituted and conversely asks how language can be refashioned toward other ends. They can extrapolate from Said’s text several particular rhetorical devices that appear in Orientalist discourse including tautology, generalization, hyperbole, ventriloquism, and ask whether the visual and spatial can be similarly thought of in terms of possessing rhetorical devices. Relatedly, they will examine the use of the technological and territorial sublime in contexts of territorial conquest. They will ask where visual rhetoric appears in architectural discourse.
Readings∙ Edward Said, “The Scope of Orientalism,” in Orientalism (New York: Vintage, 1979).∙ Chela Sandoval, “The Rhetoric of Supremacism as Revealed by the Ethical Technology: Democratics,” in Methodology of the Oppressed (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000).∙ Aijaz Ahmad, “Jameson’s Rhetoric of Otherness and the ‘National Allegory’,” Social Text 17 (Autumn, 1987): 3–25.∙ Jacques Derrida, “Scribble (Writing-Power), Yale French Studies 58 (1979): 117–147.Representation and Rhetoric, Session 2: Ideology
Students are asked to consider Althusser’s definition of ideology when reading several texts authored by members of early twentieth-century European avant-garde groups. The session provides students with a schematic historic background to Marxian concepts of ideology, including Gramsci’s contributions, and also to the historic contexts surrounding the architectural manifestoes they are reading, including manifestoes for Italian Futurism and the Arbeitsrat für Kunst. They then perform close-readings of a number of manifestos and declamatory statements by the architectural avant-gardes of today, asking how ideology functions in these texts. They conclude by noting the wide scope of practices and institutions Althusser associates with ideology and asking what the limits of ideology might be.
Readings∙ Louis Althusser, "Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses,” trans. Ben Brewster, Lenin and Philosophy and other Essays (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2001), 121–176.∙ Selected manifestoes from Ulrich Conrad, ed. Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1975): “Futurist Architecture,” “Programme of the Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar,” “Work Council for the Art,” and “The New Era.”∙ Antoni Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, eds. Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell-Smith (New York: International Publishers, 1971).Representation and Rhetoric, Session 3: Medium
Building on their discussion of rhetoric and ideology from the preceding sessions, they will consider how twentieth and twenty-first century electronic media help produce forms of subjectivity, governmentality, and habit. They will discuss how Marshall McLuhan’s dictum “the medium is the message” corresponds (or not) to the affective and libidinal powers of audio-visual media. Whereas Morris detects a disquieting power of “spirit” in televisual spectatorship, Stiegler calls for a renewed fostering of the spirit through technics. Connecting these issues to the media and aesthetics architectural production, they will look at images from architectural competition entries from the mid-twentieth century up through contemporary digital renderings, and they will ask what architects and architectural critics are referring to when they echo the call for re-enchantment.
Readings∙ Rosalind C. Morris, “A Room with a Voice: Mediation and Mediumship in Thailand’s Information Age,” in Media Worlds: Anthropology on New Terrain, ed. Faye D. Ginsburg, Lila Abu-Lughod, and Brian Larkin (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002).∙ Bernard Stiegler, “Against the Reign of Innocence: Investing in an Increase in the Value of ‘Spirit’,” In The Re-Enchantment of the World: The Value of Spirit against Industrial Populism, trans. Trevor Arthur (London: Bloomsbury, 2014 ).∙ Mhoze Chikowero, “Is Propaganda Modernity? Press and Radio for ‘Africans’ in Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi during World War II and its Aftermath,” in Modernization as Spectacle in Africa, eds. Peter Jason Bloom, Stephen Miescher, Takyiwaa Manuh (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2014).
Studio MAS, Walter Sisulu Square, Soweto, South Africa, 2002-2011. Source: Gauteng Tourism Authority.Tropes of Architectural Discourse, Session 4: Modernity
This session interrogates the essential ambiguity between modernity as an imperative and modernity as an aspiration in the mid-twentieth century. This begs the question of how the “Third World” was produced/represented vis-à-vis “modernity,” by what actors, and with what agendas. Then, looking at architectural proposals including the design of new postcolonial capitals, educational institutions, infrastructural projects, and political monuments in India, Nigeria, Kenya, and Tanzania, they will interrogate the role of international architectural expertise in postcolonial nation-building endeavors. Recalling Said’s emphasis on representation, they will ask what it means for a nation-state to self-represent within the framework of a presumed developmental lag. They will conclude with a look at the consequences of the Third-World debt crises in the 1980s and the effects of Structural Adjustment Programs on modes of urban development.
Readings∙ Jean Comaroff and John L. Comaroff, “Figuring Democracy: An Anthropological Take on African Political Modernities,” in Theory from the South (Boulder and London: Paradigm Publishers, 2012).∙ Gabrielle Hecht, “Radioactive Excess: Modernization as Spectacle and Betrayal in Postcolonial Gabon,” Modernization as Spectacle in Africa, eds. Peter Jason Bloom, Stephen Miescher and Takyiwaa Manuh (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2014).∙ Adil Hasan Khan, “Ghostly Visitations: ‘Questioning Heirs’ and the Tragic Tasks of Narrating Bandung Futures in Bandung, Global History, and International Law: Critical Pasts and Pending Futures, eds. Luis Eslava, Michael Fakhri, and Vasuki Nesiah (Cambridge, Melbourne, and Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 2017).∙ Ayala Levin, “Haile Selassie’s Imperial Modernity: Expatriate Architects and the Shaping of Addis Ababa,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 75, no. 4 (December 2016): 447–468.Tropes of Architectural Discourse, Session 5: Nature
This session asks students to consider the link between “nature” and the naturalization of various political, technical, and ecological conditions. For example, how do racial logics and related modes of dispossession become naturalized? In reference to Smith’s text, they will discuss Kant’s conception of the sublime and ask how the aesthetics of the sublime functioned vis-à-vis histories of geopolitical conquest. Turning to architecture, they will discuss what falls under the domain of the “natural” within various architectural discourses, ranging from the biopolitics of urban planning to the “nature” of technological progress and the digital-organic. How has “nature” served as a stand-in for “the inevitable” related, inter alia, to the presumed imperative of globalization and its effects on urbanization and consumer culture?
Readings∙ Dipesh Chakrabarty, “The Climate of History: Four Theses,” Critical Inquiry 35, no. 2 (Winter 2009): 197–222.∙ Paula Chakravartty and Denise Ferreira da Silva, “Accumulation, Dispossession, and Debt: The Racial Logic of Global Capitalism,” American Quarterly 64, no. 3: Race, Empire, and the Crisis of the Subprime (September 2012): 361–385.∙ Yates McKee, “Climate Refugees: Biopolitics, Aesethetics, and Critical Climate Change” Qui Parle 19, no. 2 (Summer 2011): 309–325.∙ Neil Smith, “The Production of Nature,” In Uneven Development: Nature, Capital, and the Production of Space (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1984).Tropes of Architectural Discourse, Session 6: The Human
The “human” has long been invoked in architectural discourses as a rationale for a host of different positions and undertakings: from the minimal standards of low-cost human shelter to phenomenological assumptions of innate aesthetic proclivities. While the former presumes the universality of a biological human entity, the latter presupposes a transcendental form of subjectivity, allied to notions of human exceptionality vis-à-vis non-humans. This session traces a trajectory from the still-humanist strains of twentieth-century phenomenology to posthumanist perspectives on cyborgs, techno-futurity, and “re-enchantment,” with special attention to the mystical and ahistorical (or “transhistorical”) leanings of both humanist and posthumanist discourse. Interrogating the utopian and dystopian potentials ofenchantment, they will reflect on Charles Johnson’s notion of an inter-subjectivity based on non-language-based forms of empathy, and they will weigh this conception of an anti-hegemonic form of intersubjectivity against the forms of intersubjectivity orchestrated by nationalism and fascism.2 Accordingly, they will ask how architecture lends itself to the production (or illusion?) of different forms of inter-subjectivity, looking at various monumental architectures, including architectures imagined by Albert Speer and Giuseppe Terragni as well as memorials to slavery and genocide, including Daniel Libeskind’s Jewish Museum, Peter Eisenman’s Holocaust Memorial, and different iterations of the International African American Museum.
Readings∙ Donna Haraway, “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century,” in The Feminism and Visual Culture Reader, ed. Amelia Jones (London: Routledge, 2010): 475–496.∙ Jean-François Lyotard, “Discourse, figure” in Lyotard: Writing the Event, ed. and trans. Geoffrey Bennington (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988), 56-102.∙ Ashraf H. A. Rushdy. “The Phenomenology of the Allmuseri: Charles Johnson and the Subject of the Narrative of Slavery,” African American Review 26, no. 3 (1992): 373–394.∙ Antoine Picon, “Anxious Landscapes: From the Ruin to Rust,” trans. Karen Bates, Grey Room 1 (Fall 2000): 79–81.Tropes of Architectural Discourse, Session 7: Politics
This session turns its attention to how informal architectures and economies might give rise to political processes that are distinct from an inherited liberal European conception of democratic politics. They will discuss how such political practices suggest a critique of received conceptions of biopolitics. As a point of comparison to Chatterjee’s and Diouf’s observations on politics and “informal” urban practices, they will examine institutions and ideologies of self-help in their multiple iterations including the recent expansion of slum upgrading, self-enumeration, micro-credit, and community land titling. They will ask how "the politics of the governed” that Chatterjee detects in auto-constructed settlements differ from the forms of governmentality instated through self-help housing initiatives related to either the demolition or financialization of informal settlements and their economies. They will pay special attention to the gendering effects and presuppositions of self-help. The session should also provide some background on the history of South African township planning and the Group Areas Act as a way to understand Bremner’s perspective on the design proposals for Freedom Square.
Readings∙ Lindsay Bremner, “Reframing Township Space: The Kliptown Project,” Public Culture 16, no. 3 (2004): 521–531.∙ Teresa Caldeira, Peripheral Urbanization: Autoconstruction, Transversal Logics, and Politics in Cities of the Global South,” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 35, no. 1 (2017): 3–20.∙ Partha Chatterjee, “The Politics of the Governed,” in Politics of the Governed (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004).∙ Mamadou Diouf, “Urban Youth and Senegalese Politics: Dakar 1988-1994,” in Cities and Citizenship, ed. James Holston (Durham: Duke University Press, 1999).
Spatial Information Design Lab (Laura Kurgan, Eric Cadora, Davide Rienfurt, Sarah Williams), Million-Dollar Block, 2006, visualization.Producing Discourse, Session 8: Research
Students are asked to select two chapters from the following, bring in a short paragraph summarizing each text they read. Then, in smaller groups, they should share their understandings of different methods, quandaries, and uses of research, and discuss how these methods relate to the contexts they encounter in design projects. The instructor should provide a broad schematic history to the development of various strains of social-scientific method including early twentieth-century anthropology, the work of Max Weber, the Chicago School, and quantitative methods of data analysis and data mining. They will look at examples of how these methods have been used by architects and planners.
Readings∙ Lynn Abrams, Oral History Theory (London: Routledge and Taylor & Francis Group, 2016).∙ Robyn Creagh and Sarah McGann, eds., Visual Spatial Enquiry: Diagrams and Metaphors for Architects and Spatial Thinkers (Abingdon: Routledge, 2019).∙ Fadwa El Guindi, Visual Anthropology: Essential Method and Theory (Walnut Creek: Alta Mira Press, 2004).∙ Mitchell Duneier and Philip Kasinitz, eds., The Urban Ethnography Reader (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014).∙ Henrietta L. Moore and Todd Sanders eds., Anthropology in Theory: issues in Epistemology (Hoboken: Wiley; 2014).∙ Elizabeth Campbell and Luke E. Lassiter, Doing Ethnography (Chichester and Malden: Wiley Blackwell, 2015).Producing Discourse, Session 9: Science
This session focuses firstly on how science has figured as a legitimizing discourse and practice within architecture and developmental politics and, secondly, on what practices and relationships undergird scientific knowledge as such. Students will be introduced to the model of Actor-Network Theory and its development as a device of ethnographic and historical analysis, along with Latour’s emphasis on technologies of transcription. They then examine various examples of architecture’s turn to the natural and social sciences in the mid- and late-twentieth-century, such as the Hochschüle für Gestaltung at Ulm, MIT’s and Harvard’s Joint Center for Urban Studies, and the disciplinary emergence of environmental design and environmental psychology in the United States. They conclude by asking what forms of scientificity are operative in the recent rise of “design thinking” (perhaps related to the logic of “open-ended planning”), and what it means for this new paradigm of “design” to cut across the domains of marketing, economics, high-tech industries, and engineering.
Readings∙ M. Ijlal Muzaffar, “Fuzzy Images: The Problem of Third World Development and the New Ethics of Open-Ended Planning at the MIT-Harvard Joint Center for Urban Studies,” in A Second Modernism: MIT, Architecture, and the ‘Techno-Social’ Moment, ed. Arindam Dutta (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013).∙ Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar, Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1986 ).∙ Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison, “Representation to Presentation,” in Objectivity (Brooklyn: Zone Books, 2007).∙ Fabiola Lopez-Duran, “Picturing Evolution: Le Corbusier and the Remaking of Man,” In Eugenics in the Garden: Transatlantic Architecture and the Crafting of Modernity (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2018).Producing Discourse, Session 10: Travel
We will view portions from the film Lagos: Wide and Close (Koolhaas, et al. 2005). The session should use supplementary historical material beginning with early- and mid-twentieth-century architectural excursions from Europe to Asia and Africa. They will ask how travel functions differently in the accounts given by Bartsch, Clifford, and Koolhaas. They then turn to the development of international expertise and current relationships between “local” and “international” architects. They will discuss the role of travel in students’ own design studios—its purposes (explicit or otherwise), immediate effects, and long-term effects.
Readings∙ Katherine Bartsch, “Roots or Routes: Exploring a New Paradigm for Architectural Historiography through the Work of Geoffrey Bawa,” in Travel, Space, Architecture, ed. Miodrag Mitrasinovic (London: Routledge, 2016).∙ James Clifford, “On Ethnographic Surrealism,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 23, no. 4 (October 1981): 539–564.∙ Rem Koolhaas, Lagos: How it Works (Zürich: Lars Müller, 2007).∙ Miwon Kwon, “The Wrong Place,” Art Journal 59, no. 1 (2000): 32–43.Producing Discourse, Session 11: History (as Text and non-Text)
Beginning with Mbemebe’s observations about architecture’s complicity with the power of historical archives, this session asks what purpose knowledge of the past serves, through what devices and institutions such knowledge is secured, and what the potentials and limitations of historical research and writing are? The session begins with socialist labor movements in post-War Italy, showing how the conditions of the production of historiographic knowledge prompted scholars such as Portelli to turn to oral-history interviews. They will discuss Portelli’s views on the political significance of what is remembered even when memory does not accurately represent past events. Turning then to the limits of archival knowledge, they will discuss, in reference to Forensic Architecture, the importance of empirical evidence of the past. Finally, they will look at how interviewing urban residents was used as a tool by feminist architects attempting to resist relationships of patronage/patriarchy in architectural production.
Readings∙ Alessandro Portelli, “Memory and the Event,” in The Death of Luigi Trastulli and Other Stories (Albany: SUNY Press, 1991).∙ Achille Mbembe, “The Power of the Archive and Its Limits,” in Refiguring the Archive, eds. Carolyn Hamilton, et al. (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press, 2002).∙ Eyal Weizman, “What is Forensic Architecture?,” in Forensic Architecture: Violence at the Threshold of Detectability (New York: Zone Books, 2017).Producing Discourse, Session 12: Mapping
This session explores how the editing of the represented object—a process inherent to cartography—serves to bring things into legibility while, at the same time, obscuring the obscurity that remains in the relationship between the object and the representation. They will discuss issues of scale—at what point the map becomes a plan, and what is the difference—and the political and economic uses of maps as a source of evidence of the past and projections for the future. They will look at the use of cartography as a device of colonial conquest and urban planning and the comparative development (and transformation) of architectural drawing conventions.
Readings∙ Karen Culcasi, “Multiscalar Nations: Cartography and Countercartography of the Egyptian Nation-State” in Decolonizing the Map: Cartography from Colony to Nation, ed. James R. Akerman (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2017).∙ Laura Kurgan, “Mapping Considered as a Matter of Theory and Practice,” in Close Up from a Distance: Mapping, Technology, and Politics (New York: Zone Books, 2014).∙ Sarah Soliman and Erin Newell, “Exploring Mapping: Discussions with Swati Chattopadhyay and Derek Gregory,” disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory 23 (2014): 120–130.
Theory's Curriculum, a project by e-flux Architecture and Joseph Bedford, is produced with the support of the Global Architectural History Teaching Collaborative; Virginia Tech Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning, College of Architecture and Urban Studies, and School of Architecture + Design; School of Architecture, Syracuse University; John H. Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Design, University of Toronto; Department of Architecture, Wentworth Institute of Technology; and Department of Architecture, Iowa State University College of Design.
Ginger Nolan is an assistant professor of architectural theory at the University of Southern California. She holds a PhD in architectural history from Columbia University, in affiliation with the Institute of Comparative Literature and Society. Her work focuses on techno-aesthetics, media, and issues of race.
Alistair Cockburn considers the effect of the physical environment, communication modalities used for jumping the inevitable communication gaps, the role of amicability and conflict, and subcultures on your Agile Software Development team.
This chapter is excerpted from Alistair Cockburn's book, Agile Software Development.This chapter is from the book
This chapter considers the effect of the physical environment, communication modalities used for jumping the inevitable communication gaps, the role of amicability and conflict, and subcultures on the team. These issues highlight the fact that projects need people to notice important events and to be both willing and able to communicate to others what they notice.
"Convection Currents of Information" compares the movement of information to the dispersion of heat and gas. The comparison yields several useful associations: the energy cost of information transfer, osmotic communication, information radiators, and information drafts.
"Jumping Communication Gaps" examines people's efficiency in conveying ideas using warmer and cooler communication channels. It introduces the idea of adding "stickiness" to information and looks at how those two topics relate to transferring information across time.
"Teams as Communities" discusses amicability and conflict, the role of small team victories in team building, and the sorts of subcultures that evolve on a project. They will see that the differing cultural values are both useful to the organization and difficult for the team to deal with.
"Teams as Ecosystems" considers a software development team as an ecosystem in which physical structures, roles, and individuals with unique personalities all exert forces on each other. That each project produces its own, unique ecosystem makes the job of methodology design even more difficult.
Saying that software development is a cooperative game of communication implies that a project's rate of progress is linked to how long it takes information to get from one person's mind to another's. If Kim knows something that Pat needs, the project's progress depends on
Let's see how much this costs a project.Delays and Lost-Opportunity Costs
A programmer these days costs a company about $2.10 per minute, and so adding one minute to getting a question answered adds $2.10 to the cost of the project. Standing up and walking to another table can add that minute.
Suppose that people who program in pairs ask and get answers to 100 questions per week. Adding that minute's delay costs the project $210 per programmer per week. On a 12-person team, this is about $2,500 per week for the team, which adds up to $50,000 for a 20-week project.
The project gets delayed almost a full week and costs an extra $50,000 for each minute of delay in getting questions answered, not assuming any other damage to the project for the questions taking longer to answer!
The delay is more on the order of five minutes if a person has to walk down the hall. If Kim is not there, it is likely that when Pat returns to his office, he has lost the train of thought he was working on and has to spend more time and energy recovering it.
Even worse, the next time Pat has a question, he may decide against walking upstairs, because Kim might not be there. For not asking the question, he makes an assumption. Some percentage of his assumptions will be wrong, and each wrong assumption results in Pat introducing an error into the program. Finding and fixing that error costs the project anything from multiple minutes to multiple days.
Thus, Pat's not asking his question and getting it answered represents a large lost- opportunity cost. Over the course of the project, the lost-opportunity cost is far greater than the cost of walking upstairs.
I hope you palpably feel the project's development costs rising in the following six situations:
Kim and Pat pair-program on the same workstation (Figure 3-1). Pat wonders a question out loud, and Kim answers. Or, Kim mentions the answer in passing as part of their ongoing conversation, and Pat recognizes it as useful information. This takes little work by each person and takes the least time to accomplish.
Figure 3-1 Two people pair programming. (Photo courtesy of Evant Solutions Corporation)
Kim and Pat sit at separate workstations, but right next to each other (side-by-side programming). Using peripheral vision or the usual chitchat that develops when sitting close together, Kim notices that Pat is looking for something on the Web and asks what the question is. Or, Pat simply asks. Kim answers, possibly without looking away from the screen. Not much work; not much time involved.
Kim and Pat work on opposite sides of a room, facing away from each other (Figure 3-2). Kim is not likely to notice that Pat is looking for something, but Pat can easily see whether Kim is available to answer a question. At that point, Pat asks and Kim answers.
Kim and Pat sit in adjacent offices, separated by a wall. Kim can't see when Pat is looking for something, and Pat can't see if Kim is available. Pat must get up, peek around the door frame to see if Kim is in, and then ask Kim the question.
Figure 3-2 Two people sitting at opposites sides of the room. (Photo courtesy of Thoughtworks, Inc.)
Kim and Pat sit on different floors or in adjacent buildings. Pat walks upstairs only to find that Kim is out! Now Pat has lost time, energy, the train of thought he was holding while he was working downstairs, and the motivation to walk upstairs the next time he has a question. The lost-opportunity cost starts to mount.
Kim and Pat sit in different cities, possibly with several time zones between them. In this setting, not only will they not ask each other questions as often, they also will have to use less efficient, less rich communication channels to discuss the question and its answer. They expend more energy, over a longer period of time, to achieve the same communication result.
The main question is, if you were funding this project, which working configuration would you like Kim and Pat to use?
What they see is that even minor differences have an impact on the rate of information flow.
Figure 3-3 Pair programming and working across a partition. Between which pair of people will information discovery happen fastest? (Photo courtesy of Thoughtworks, Inc.)
Notice, in Figure 3-3, the two different situations occurring at the same time. The two people on the left are pair programming. It may be nice for them to have a small separation from the person on the right. However, if it happened to be the two people across the partition who needed to work together, the partition would soon become a problem. Indeed, I visited two people who were working across a partition, and it wasnÕt long before they removed the partition. As one of them explained, "I couldnÕt see his eyes."Erg-seconds
Comparing the flow of information with that of heat and gas is not as far-fetched as it may at first seem. With every speech act, Kim radiates both information and energy into the environment around her. That information or energy gets picked up by people within sight or hearing. Pat also radiates, with every speech act.
In his case he radiates his need for information. Sooner or later, either Kim detects Pat's information need, or Pat detects that Kim has the information. Whichever way the discovery goes, they then engage in conversation (or Pat reads Kim's document, if Kim's information is in written form).
In gas-dispersion problems, one analyzes the distance that molecules travel in a certain amount of time. The unit of measure for molecules is moles and that for distance is meters; therefore, gas dispersion is measured in mole-meters/second (how many moles of the gas travel how far, in how much time).
We can analyze the movement of ideas—memes, to borrow an appropriate term from The Selfish Gene (Dawkins 1990)—using similar terms. They are interested in how many useful memes flow through the project team each minute.
A meter is not the correct unit, though, because ideas travel through phone lines, e-mail notes, and documents, rather than through space.
What they care about is the amount of energy it takes to move a meme from one mind to another. The appropriate units are erg-seconds. An erg is a unit of work (such as walking up the stairs), and a second is a unit of time (such as time spent on the telephone); therefore, the term erg-seconds captures the cost in both labor and time to get a question answered.
(Bo Leuf comments that its inverse is also useful: argh-minutes, a measure of the pain of expending energy and not managing to convey the idea.)
Figure 3-4 Energy and information moving through a barrier complex.
Using this metaphor, let's look at office layouts to see the energy cost associated with detecting that someone else has some needed information.
Suppose that Kim and Pat sit in offices some distance from each other (Figure 3-4). The walls between them keep Pat from seeing or hearing Kim. Kim radiates information as she walks around on her daily travels. The people in her room detect the greatest amount of information, and the people in earshot of her movement detect the next greatest amount. Information reaches Pat either as Kim walks into his office, or indirectly, through other people.
If their offices are next to each other, Kim is more likely to pop into Pat's office, or vice versa (Figure 3-5, top). Just as gas molecules or convected heat move more easily between neighboring rooms, so also does project information.
If Kim and Pat share an office (Figure 3-5, middle), then just as Pat will smell Kim's perfume sooner than anyone outside the office will, so will he notice if Kim radiates information that is useful to him.
Figure 3-5 Gas canisters (or people) in three different configurations.
The greatest rate of information movement occurs if they are sitting side by side. In the case of information, the information transmission is greater if they are working on the same task, pair programming, than if they are merely sitting side by side, working on different tasks (this has more to do with their focus of attention than the radiation).
Describing information transmission costs in erg-seconds captures the effect of distance and communication modality on project costs.
Assume face-to-face communications, sitting in your own office, versus walking 50 meters to a colleague's office. Walking down the hall takes work (ergs) and time (seconds). Energy and cost increase, and the information transfer rate decreases. Move people closer, to the office next door. As the distance decreases, work required to visit the colleague decreases and so do energy and project cost while the information transfer rate increases.
Similarly, describing an idea on the phone takes more time than describing it in person. In this case, the time factor increases, and so does cost to the project.
The erg-seconds formula accounts for these changes well.
Of course, the formula does not account for wasted energy, such as jumping up and down while talking on the phone or walking around the building the long way in getting to a colleague's office. It also does not guarantee that two people who work in the same room will ever actually understand each other. (See "The Impossibility of Communication" on page 8.) What it does say is that project costs increase in proportion to the time it takes for people to understand each other.Osmotic Communication
While writing, reading, typing, or talking, they pick up traces of the ongoing sounds around us, using some background listening mode even though they are not consciously paying attention.
If someone says something interesting, they may perk up and join the conversation. Otherwise, the sound goes through some background processing, either just above or just below their conscious level.
In some cases, they register enough about the conversation to be able to develop what they need directly from memory. Otherwise, they may recall a phrase that was used or perhaps only that a particular person was discussing a particular topic. In any case, they register enough to ask about it.
This taking in of information without directly paying attention to it is like the process of osmosis, in which one substance seeps from one system, through a separator, into another.
Osmotic communication further lowers the cost of idea transfer.
If Pat and Kim work in the same room, with Pat programming and Kim having a discussion, Pat may get just enough information to know that Kim has talked about the idea. If multiple people are working in the same room, then Pat knows that someone in the room has the answer.
We have seen three separate effects that office layout has on communication costs within a project:
The lost-opportunity cost of not asking questions
The overall cost of detecting and transferring information (erg-seconds)
The reduction in cost when people discover information in background sounds (osmotic communication)
The three magnify the effects of distance in office seating. People who sit close by each other benefit in all three effects; people who sit in separate locations suffer in all three.
According to this theory, sponsors should think twice before sponsoring a geographically distributed project.
One might think that they now have an easy answer to the riddle of how to seat people: "Obviously, put them into open and shared workspaces." Unfortunately, people are not so uniform or simple that this will work in all cases.
Three more issues affect the answer in any one particular setting:
The team members exchange both business and technical information.
Suppose that Chris is the business expert in the group. If Chris, Pat, and Kim sit together, Chris can answer business questions as soon as Pat or Kim encounters them. Chris might even see what Pat and Kim are doing and guide them in a different direction. The three of them can put their heads together at any instant to jointly invent something better than any one of them could do.
This sort of radical colocation (as it has recently been called) only works for very small teams. Among 12 programmers and four business experts, who should sit close to whom? How does one arrange seating with two-person rooms?
The most common seating arrangement I encounter consists of programmers sitting on one side of the building and business experts on the other.
This seating arrangement produces two problems. The obvious one is the cost of business communication, including the lost opportunity cost of missed early interventions.
The second is that each group forms its own community and usually complains about the other group. The chitchat in the osmotic communication is filled with these complaints, interfering with the ability of people in each group to work with each other in an amicable way.
As is natural with osmotic communication, this emotionally loaded background noise soaks into each group's subconscious. In this case, it does not educate them but rather attacks their attitude. Going into a meeting with "those idiotic other people," they don't give full consideration to what the other people say and don't offer full information when speaking. The group's amicability suffers, with all the attendant costs just discussed.
My current preference is to find seating arrangements where one or more business experts sit close to two or more programmers. Where this is not possible, I look for other business and social mechanisms that will get the business expert in regular, meaningful collaboration with the programmers on a frequent (preferably daily) basis.
Cross-specialty teams that work together have been recommended by many authors. These teams have been given names such as Holistic Diversity (Cockburn 1998), CASE teams (Hammer 1994), and Feature teams (McCarthy 1995). When this can be done, the project as a whole moves faster, based on the increase in both information flow and amicability across specialties.
Another issue is the matter of people's personal preferences.
As I started asking people about working in shared rooms versus in private offices, several issues emerged.
Some people really value their quiet, private offices. They value them enough that they would feel offended if they had to give them up, some even to the point that they would quit the company. If that is the case, then any gain in communication is partially lost if the person stays, but feels offended, and is completely lost if the person leaves the company.
Thus, the clear theoretical argument for seating people close to the people they need to interact with is affected by personal preferences. Several people have told me, "I prefer having my own office, but considering all the projects I've been on, I would have to say that I was never so productive as when I shared an office with my project mate." I have moved out of private offices so often that I eventually noticed it as a pattern. As I noticed other experts doing it, it became a project-management strategy, which I call "Expert in Earshot" (Cockburn 2001a).
The third issue affecting the question of where to seat people concerns drafts.Drafts
One day, while I was describing this peculiar notion of convection currents of information flow, one of the listeners suddenly exclaimed, "But you have to watch out for drafts!"
He went on to explain that he had been working in a place where he and the other programmers had low-walled cubicles next to each other and so benefited from overhearing each other.
On the other side of their bank of cubicles sat the call-center people, who answered questions on the phone all day. They also benefited from overhearing each other. But, and here was the bad part, the conversation of the call-center people would (in his words) "wash over the walls to the programmers' area." There was a "draft" of unwanted information coming from that area.
Drafts are the unwanted information in their newly extended metaphor.
Later, two programmers were talking about how their walls were too thin. They enjoyed their shared room but were bothered by their neighbors, who argued loudly with each other. Their room was drafty, in an information sense.
We now have a nice pair of forces to balance: They want to set up seating clusters that increase information flow among people sitting within hearing distance and balance that against draftiness—their overhearing information that is not helpful to them. You can develop a sense of this for yourself, as you walk around.Osmosis across Distances
Is there anything that teams can do to improve communication if they do not sit together, for whatever reason?
Charles Herring, in Australia, describes applying technology to simulate "presence and awareness," a term used by a researcher in computer-supported collaborative work (Herring 2001). Following is a paraphrased summary of their experience:
E-Presence and E-Awareness
The people sat in different parts of the same building. They had microphones and Web cameras on their workstations and arranged small windows on their monitors, showing the picture from the other people's cameras.
They wanted to give each person a sensation that they were sitting in a group (ÒpresenceÓ) and an awareness of what the other people were all doing.
Pat could just glance at Kim's image to decide if Kim was in a state to be disturbed with a question. In that glance, he could detect if Kim was typing with great concentration, working in a relaxed mode, talking to someone else, or gone.
Pat could then ask Kim a question, using the microphone or chat boxes they kept on their screens. They could even drop code fragments from their programming workspaces into the chat boxes.
They reported a low distraction rate. Charles added that while programming, he could easily respond to queries and even answer programming problems without losing his main train of thought on his own work.
Pavel Curtis and others at Xerox PARC were able to simulate "whispering" (when a user would like to speak to just one person in a room) through video and audio. They also had their online chat rooms produce background sounds as people entered or left (Curtis 1995).
Because memes (ideas) don't have to travel through air but travel through the senses, primarily audio and visual, they should be able to mimic the effects of convection currents of information using high-bandwidth technology. Still missing from that technology, of course, are the tactile and kinesthetic cues that can be so important to interpersonal communication.Information Radiators
An information radiator displays information in a place where passersby can see it. With information radiators, the passersby don't need to ask questions; the information simply hits them as they pass.
Two characteristics are key to a good information radiator. The first is that the information changes over time. This makes it worth a person's while to look at the display. This characteristic explains why a status display makes for a useful information radiator and a display of the company's development process does not.
The other characteristic is that it takes very little energy to view the display. Size matters when it comes to information radiators—the bigger the better.
Hallways qualify very nicely as good places for information radiators. Web pages don't. Accessing the Web page costs most people more effort than they are willing to expend, and so the information stays hidden. The following story contributed by Martin Fowler, at Thoughtworks, reports an exception: This team found that a particular report worked best on a Web page.
Automated Build Report
A program auto-builds the team's system every 15 minutes. After each build, it sends e-mail messages to each person whose test cases failed and posts the build statistics to a Web page.
The information about the system is updated every 15 minutes on the Web page. Martin reports that a growing number of programmers keep that Web page up on their screen at all times and periodically just hit the Refresh button to check the recent system build history.
Figure 3-6 Hall with information radiators. (Courtesy of Thoughtworks, Inc.)
Figure 3-7 Status display showing completion level and quality of user stories being implemented. (Courtesy of Thoughtworks, Inc.)
The first information radiators I noticed were at Thoughtworks, while talking with Martin Fowler about Thoughtworks' application of XP to an unusually large (40-person) project (Figure 3-6 and Figure 3-7).
Martin was describing that the testing group had been worried about the state of the system.
To assuage the testers' concerns, the programmers placed this poster in the hallway (Figure 3-6) to show their progress.
The chart shows the state of the user stories being worked on in the iteration, with one Post-It note per story. The programmers moved the notes on the graph to show both the completeness and the implementation quality of the user stories they were working on. They moved a note to the right as a story grew to completion and raised it higher on the poster as its quality improved. A note might stop moving to the right for a time while it moved up.
The testers could see the state of the system without pestering the programmers. In this case, they saw that the work was further along than they thought and soon became less worried about the state of the project.
The best thing was that they could see the progress of the work daily, without asking the programmers a question.
Just as a heating duct blows air into a hall-way or a heater radiates heat into a room, these posters radiate information into the hallway, onto people walking by. They are marvelous for passing along information quietly, with little effort, and without disturbing the people whose status is being reported.
A second use of information radiators, suited for any project using increments of a month or less, is to show the work breakdown and assignments for the next increment (Figure 3-8). The following example also comes from Thoughtworks.
Figure 3-8 Large information radiator wall showing the iteration plan, one flipchart per user story. (Courtesy of Thoughtworks, Inc.)
Displaying Work Breakdown
The team created a flipchart for each user story. They put Post-It notes on the flipchart for the tasks they would need to do for that story.
They would move notes below a flipchart to show tasks being taken out of scope of the current iteration in order to meet the delivery schedule.
Figure 3-9 Detail of an XP task signup and status for one iteration (nicknamed "Mary Ann"). (Courtesy of Evant Solutions Corporation)
Evant's XP team also used whiteboards and flipcharts as information radiators. Figure 3-9 shows the tasks for iteration "Mary Ann" (each iteration was nick-named for someone on the Gilligan's Island TV series).
A third use of flipcharts as information radiators is to show the results of the project's periodic reflection workshop (Figure 3-10). During these one- to two-hour workshops, the team discusses what is going well for them and what they should do differently for the next period. They write those on a flipchart and post it in a prominent place so that people are reminded about these thoughts as they work.
The wording in the posters matters. One XP team had posted "Things they did wrong last increment." Another had posted, "Things to work on this increment." Imagine the difference in the projects: The first one radiated guilt into the project room and was, not surprisingly, not referred to very much by the project team. The second one radiates promise. The people on the second team referred to their poster quite frequently when talking about their project.
Figure 3-10 Reflection workshop output. (Courtesy of Joshua Kerievsky, Industrial Logic, Inc.)
Periodic reflection workshops such as these are used in Crystal Clear and XP projects.
A fourth use of information radiators is to show everyone the user stories delivered or in progress, the number of acceptance tests written and met, and so on. (Figure 3-11).
The systems operations team at eBucks.com constructed a fifth use of information radiators, this time to keep the programmers from pestering them.
Displaying System Status
The programmers kept asking, "Is system A up? Is system B up? Is the link to the back end up?"
The maintenance team wrote the status of each system and link on the whiteboard outside their area. Each day, they updated the status. It looked rather like a ski area posting the status of lifts and runs (so skiers don't keep asking the ski resort staff).
Figure 3-11 Graph showing growing completion. (Courtesy of Ron Jeffries)
Displaying Work Progress
The programmers were being asked about the status of their work every hour or two, which caused them no end of frustration.
They wrote on the whiteboard outside their office their intentions for the current week. As they completed their tasks, carefully sized to be of the half-day to two-day variety, they marked the tasks complete.
After these boards had been tried by the programmers, several other groups started using them to broadcast their own priorities and progress.Applying the Theory of Hot Air
Gerald Weinberg discussed the damaging effect of removing a soda machine from a computer help-desk area (Weinberg 1998). Thomas Allen, of MIT's Sloan School of Management, discussed the effect of building design on R&D organizations (Allen 1984). IBM and Hewlett-Packard have incorporated such research in their R&D buildings since the late 1970s.
As a result of these and others' work, it seems natural that research and development groups have whiteboards in the hallways or near coffee machines. What they have forgotten, though, is the significance of actually being within sight and earshot of each other.
Here are several examples. The first is from a Crystal Orange project. The second is from a project unsuccessfully trying to apply Crystal Clear. Next comes a discussion of the "caves and common" room design recommended by XP. The final example is a success story from Lockheed's Skunk Works group.
Repairing Design Discussions
On project "Winifred" (Cockburn 1998), the lead programmer announced at regular intervals that design was unnecessary and that code simply grew under his fingertips.
As a predictable result, the young programmers working in the room with him also felt it unnecessary to design. The code looked that way, too.
He eventually left and I took his place. To reverse the situation, I arranged for us to design by having conversations at the whiteboard. After some period of doing this, I started getting questions like, "Could you look at the responsibilities (or communication patterns) of these objects?"
By setting an audible tone in the room and making these design discussions legitimate and valued, the programmers started to converse about design together.
Colocation is considered a critical element in Crystal Clear, a light methodology for small teams. (See "Crystal Clear" on page 202.) A rule of Crystal Clear is that the entire team must sit in the same or adjacent rooms, in order to take advantage of convection currents of information and osmotic communications.
"Pat" asked me to visit his Crystal Clear project. When I arrived, he wasn't at his desk. The secretary said he was with his teammate.
I offered to go to that office, but she said, "You can't. There is a combination lock in the hallway over to that section."
"!! . . . ?"
Each time a team member wanted to ask a question, he had to stand, walk across the hall, punch in the lock combination, and walk to the teammate's office. Clearly, this team was not getting the benefit of osmotic communication or the low cost of information transfer. Fortunately, changing the team seating was a simple matter to arrange.Caves and Common
The "caves and common" room arrangement recommended in XP makes use of all three information-exchange mechanisms. It is shown in action in Figure 3-12 and diagrammed in Figure 3-13.
"Caves and common" is very effective, but as Tom DeMarco correctly warns, it can easily be abused to become just a programming sweatshop. Therefore, not only the room layout is described in this section but also the social presuppositions that accompany its use: a single project team, good team dynamics, and provision for both private and project space.
The phrase caves and common refers to the creation of two zones in the room. The "common" area is organized to maximize osmotic communication and information transfer. For this to make sense, the people in the room must be working on the same project. It is perfect for XP's single team of up to 12 people programming in pairs (Figure 3-12).
Figure 3-12 The RoleModel Software team at work. (Photo courtesy RoleModel Software)
Figure 3-13 The "caves and common" room layout used at RoleModel Software. (Picture courtesy of RoleModel Software)
The ÒcavesÓ portion of the room is organized to give people a private place to do e-mail, make phone calls, and take care of their need for separation. In RoleModel SoftwareÕs office, private workstations are set up along one wall (Figure 3-12). At Evant, a table came out from the walls on two sides of the room.
People who have worked in "caves and common" facilities say that there needs to be ample wall space for whiteboards and posted flipcharts, and two more types of rooms for the team to use: a food-preparation room and areas for small discussions to take place.
You can see from the picture that while the "caves and common" room is very efficient for transmitting information, it is also very efficient for transmitting coughs and colds. People who work in this sort of room encourage their colleagues to stay home if they don't feel well and to return after they have recovered.
You can also see that it is drafty (in an information sense): The people sitting in this configuration should really need to overhear each other.
Finally, you can see that it is very effective as long as the morale of the group is good. If the social chitchat degenerates into negative chatter, the highly osmotic communication again magnifies its effect.Skunk Works
It is useful to compare the above discussions against a group performing classical "engineering," one of the most effective aero-engineering groups: Lockheed's "skunk works" team. This team achieved fame for its rapid development of a series of radical new airplane designs in the second half of the 20th century, under the guidance of Jim Kelly and his successor, Ben Rich. Ben Rich wrote about their experiences in the book Skunk Works (1994).
Rich highlights that, among the rules of the group, Kelly insisted on people taking accountability for decisions from design through testing, and on their sitting close together. The following quotation is from that book:
Skunk Works Rooms
"Kelly kept those of us working on his airplane jammed together in one corner of their [building] . . . My three-man thermodynamics and propulsion group now shared space with the performance and stability-control people. Through a connecting door was the eight-man structures group. . . . Henry and I could have reached through the doorway and shaken hands.
". . . I was separated by a connecting doorway from the office of four structures guys, who configured the strength, loads, and weight of the airplane from preliminary design sketches. . . . [T]he aerodynamics group in my office began talking through the open door to the structures bunch about calculations on the center of pressures on the fuselage, when suddenly I got the idea of unhinging the door between us, laying the door between a couple of desks, tacking onto it a long sheet of paper, and having all of us join in designing the optimum final design. . . . It took us a day and a half. . . ."
"All that mattered to him was their proximity to the production floor: A stone's throw was too far away; he wanted us only steps away from the shop workers, to make quick structural or parts changes or answer any of their questions."
Every project team should be on a quest to reduce the total energy cost of detecting and transferring needed ideas. That means noticing and improving the convection currents of information flow, getting the benefits of osmotic communication, watching for sources of drafts, and using information radiators. The end goal is to lower the erg-seconds required for team members to exchange information, whatever constraints their organization places on their seating, and with or without technology.
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