DP-023W exam Dumps Source : Data Protection Admininstration for Windows using NetBackup 5.0
Test Code : DP-023W
Test denomination : Data Protection Admininstration for Windows using NetBackup 5.0
Vendor denomination : Veritas
: 86 existent Questions
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Sep 18, 2018Stephanie Simone
Veritas applied sciences, provider of enterprise statistics insurance scheme and utility-described storage solutions, is getting into a government-huge contract for the U.S. time-honored capabilities Administration (GSA), providing federal agencies with records governance and cloud information management software.
below the contract, executive organizations may maintain entry to Veritas facts protection and cloud solutions at negotiated fees to permit for more desirable facts management.
The contract is derived from the GSA IT schedule 70 and utterly supports the Federal suggestions expertise Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Enhancement software.
The settlement brings Veritas’ enterprise statistics management portfolio to outright eligible federal, state, local, and tribal govt companies.
These groups can build upon the statistics insurance policy basis of Veritas NetBackup and add extra records administration capabilities to accelerate their cloud initiatives.
one of the most initial choices include:
For extra assistance about this news, visit www.veritas.com.
MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif., Sept. 12, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Veritas applied sciences, the worldwide market share chief within the enterprise facts coverage and utility-described storage market, has entered into a government-large agreement for the U.S. accepted features Administration (GSA) to give federal agencies with statistics governance and cloud facts administration utility.
under the contract, govt groups may maintain entry to Veritas information insurance scheme and cloud options at negotiated costs to allow for improved records administration. The contract is derived from the GSA IT time table 70 and fully supports the Federal tips expertise Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Enhancement software.
The agreement brings Veritas' award-successful traffic data management portfolio to outright eligible federal, state, endemic and tribal executive groups. These corporations can construct upon the data insurance policy groundwork of Veritas NetBackup and add additional facts management capabilities to accelerate their cloud initiatives. one of the initial offerings consist of:
"The IT agenda 70 FITARA Enhancement software will give executive groups with greater flexibility in getting access to the imaginitive application solutions they want at a more robust cost to taxpayers," stated Alan Thomas, GSA Federal Acquisition provider (FAS) Commissioner. "providing these solutions through a govt-wide, commercial enterprise-degree contract is a very genial approach to prick back duplication in their procurement procedure."
"With the upward propel of cybercrime, the introduction of latest information laws, an upturn of records expand and escalation of digital privacy, federal businesses nowadays should breathe organized to design strategic decisions around statistics collection, facts storage, the location of that facts—and how it will besides breathe safeguarded," talked about Tom Kennedy, vp and accepted supervisor, Veritas Public Sector. "as the undisputed chief in information coverage and utility-defined storage, Veritas is providing govt corporations convenient entry to solutions that assist combat these pressures – to acquire note facts, maintain it included, ameliorate information availability, free up the vigour of assistance and garner insights to constrain improvements in executive classes."
in regards to the IT time table 70 FITARA Enhancement ProgramThe Federal assistance technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) is a GSA program designed to design it less complicated and extra inexpensive for federal corporations to purchase utility. FITARA changed into passed by Congress in 2014 and the workplace of management and funds (OMB) implemented counsel in 2016. It aims to prick back fees and bring imaginative technology to the federal executive.
About VeritasVeritas applied sciences is the chief in the international enterprise facts insurance policy and application-defined storage market. We aid essentially the most essential agencies on earth, including 86 percent of the international Fortune 500, returned up and win well their statistics, preserve it comfy and obtainable, guard in opposition t failure and obtain regulatory compliance. As corporations modernize their IT infrastructure, Veritas supplies the technology that helps them prick back dangers and capitalize on their data. breathe taught more at www.veritas.com or supervene us on Twitter at @veritastechllc.
Veritas and the Veritas brand are trademarks or registered logos of Veritas applied sciences LLC or its associates in the U.S. and different nations. other names could breathe logos of their respective homeowners.
Veritas TechnologiesDayna Fried +1 925 493 email@example.com
View regular content to down load multimedia:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/veritas-enters-new-executive-wide-cloud-statistics-management-contract-for-the-us-prevalent-functions-administration-300710751.html
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“a robust enforcement and compliance assurance software is basic to reaching nice public health and environmental results,” Susan Bodine, assistant administrator of the workplace of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance, pointed out in an announcement.
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Three of the grandiose headlines so far this year maintain been data growth, the economy and data deduplication in backup. The first headline, relentless data growth, is the root antecedent of most issues in the backup environment. In an exertion to meet service-level agreements (SLAs) for data backup and recovery, more and more organizations are deploying disk in the backup process. With disk, IT organizations can better meet backup windows and recovery objectives. But as IT "modernizes" its backup infrastructure with disk-to-disk backup, fresh problems emerge -- specifically, the cost of managing copies stored on disk, and the feasibility of taking disk-based backup copies and making them portable for offsite and/or long-term storage.
Deduplication addresses the first issue -- it changes the economics of disk-based backup, allowing more data to breathe stored in a smaller footprint. The second problem is the fresh throe point for discontinuance users that maintain adopted disk. How can they rapidly, securely, cost-effectively, and efficiently win data offsite for disaster recovery (DR) or long-term retention? Sure, most target devices with deduplication can replicate copies, but is the backup application's catalog awake of the copy? That's where Symantec Corp. Veritas NetBackup OpenStorage (OST) technology comes in.
Symantec announced its NetBackup OpenStorage initiative a few years ago. It is designed to allow NetBackup users to utilize third-party storage solutions without the requisite for tape emulation.
Available as an option for NetBackup 6.5 and higher, NetBackup OpenStorage gives NetBackup a common interface for third-party disk targets. NetBackup sees OST-enabled appliances as disk, enabling features such as bright capacity management, media server load balancing, reporting, and lifecycle policies. It besides delivers optimized duplication. Without OST, NetBackup media servers maintain to manage outright duplicate backup copies, which means that data must breathe transferred across the LAN, WAN, or SAN from the primary site secondary storage to a NetBackup media server and then to the disaster recovery site storage medium (i.e., another appliance of the very type or tape media). With OST, the OST-enabled device is doing the replication and the data path does not embrace NetBackup media servers. This means that only changed segments are replicated, creating savings in bandwidth and, importantly, time. NetBackup is awake of outright copies and those copies supervene established retention policies.
Symantec Technology Enabled Program (STEP) partners -- such as Data Domain, EMC Corp., FalconStor Software, and Quantum Corp. -- leverage the NetBackup OpenStorage technology API to create plug-ins for their storage systems. OST allows for backup data to breathe stored on disk with whatever protocol the target device uses, such as a Fibre Channel or TCP/IP. Based on NetBackup policies or commands, the OST-enabled device will create, duplicate or delete copies.
One of the more captivating byproducts of the utilize of the NetBackup OpenStorage interface is the performance improvement in backup. Several STEP partners with an OST-enabled solution pretense 50% to100% improvement in backup performance. Richard Nosal, a server administrator for lofty Point Regional Health System in Greensboro, N.C., implemented the NetBackup OST option with a Data Domain DD660 and saw his pre-OST 10-hour backup window with a virtual tape library prick in half.
Since the NetBackup catalog is awake of outright copies, recovery of data from a NetBackup OpenStorage-optimized duplicate copy is the very as recovery from another duplicate. Through NetBackup's Backup-Archive-Restore GUI, the OST-optimized duplicate copy can breathe designated as the primary copy and then a replete or granular recovery can breathe initiated. The potential time savings over recovery from a non-OST-optimized duplicate could breathe significant.
About this author:Lauren Whitehouse is an analyst with Enterprise Strategy Group and covers data protection technologies. Lauren is a 20-plus-year veteran in the software industry, formerly serving in marketing and software development roles.
NAS Advantages: A VAR`s View
Potential benefits of network-attached storage (NAS) embrace faster data access, easier administration, and no-brainer configuration.
Don Schrenk, a storage consultant with Direct Connect Systems, a value-added reseller in Marietta, GA, has specialized in providing network storage solutions to Fortune 1000 clients for more than four years. InfoStor recently talked with Schrenk to win his thoughts about the advantages of NAS and how it can breathe implemented in a compass of environments.
Why is NAS gaining popularity?
Network administrators are always on the lookout for dependable, expandable, and easy-to-install options to alleviate server storage overload. NAS fills the bill. Basically, NAS removes the file-server function from overloaded general-purpose servers. It does this via a specialized, high- performance network-attached file server, sometimes referred to as a "filer."
On a network, data-access time determines how rapidly you can execute your job. For instance, how snappily securities traders process orders, how quickly product designers can win their wares to market, and how promptly corporate intranet users can download a file depends, in part, on data-access time. NAS devices ensure users snappily and dependable access to data.
What are some of the factors to regard before implementing NAS?
The first thing you scrutinize at is how many users you maintain on the system. Are there enough users to justify [buying a NAS device]? Next, you scrutinize at what the users are doing when they log onto the server, because if you maintain 50 clients and outright 50 requisite to log onto the very Unix machine, they maintain to proceed through seven million lines of code essentially to win to their data. What that does is location an undue overhead on that machine. It`s supposed to breathe number-crunching, but it can`t because you maintain clients trying to access their data. That`s when you regard using a NAS device to offload those clients.
When is NAS not a genial idea?
If a customer tells us they requisite absolute 100% weakness tolerance, I may not recommend NAS. Instead, I`d probably utilize dual-redundant servers with more than one network interface so there is no single point of failure.
What makes NAS devices so light to install?
It`s a specialized dedicated appliance designed to accomplish one function only--file access and storage--so it`s not a complicated device. At Direct Connect Systems, we`re most chummy with Network Appliance`s NetApp Filer because we`ve used it as a storage solution for a number of their clients, but outright NAS devices are similar in this respect.
Filers near with their own circuit boards, embedded software, and power supplies. The NetApp Filer simply plugs into a 10-BASE-T, 100-BASE-T, FDDI, ATM and/or Gigabit Ethernet LAN. Once installed, the applications never notice it.
How execute you win it going?
It`s almost automatic in a Unix, Windows, or combination environment. Once plugged in, you wait a few minutes for the embedded software to detect and configure to your existing system. Then, it looks enjoy any other server on your network. We`ve found that NAS servers easily integrate into LANs as an extension of the main servers` hard-disk capacity. Because the NetApp filer does not maintain proprietary hardware (it`s based on Alpha or Intel processors and an EISA bus), has a simplified operating system designed just for file serving, includes a RAID storage configuration and component redundancy, its reliability approaches 100% uptime.
You mainly work with Fortune 1000 clients. What are these companies most concerned with once the NAS server is up and operating?
The questions they most often win concern backup, administration, and various application issues.
What are the appliance`s backup capabilities?
Reliable data backup is essential to any disaster prevention scheme and is a major concern to their clients. The NetApp Filer supports three file backup methodologies: the filer`s "dump" command, support for NDMP [Network Data Management Protocol], and backup across NFS or CIFS platforms. The "dump" command is similar to the chummy Unix "dump" command. NDMP is a standard by which an enterprise backup system--such as Veritas` Netbackup, IBM`s ADSM, or Legato`s Networker--can direct the backup of the NetApp Filer. The third backup manner supported is a straight NFS or CIFS backup. Here, the Filer is backed up as if it were local disk space to the NFS or CIFS client station.
How does a NAS server ease system administration issues?
This is another reason why these devices are so popular. As an instance of their simplicity, the NetApp Filer they install has just 39 commands and a small group of configuration files, making it extremely light to maintain and administer. Filer administration can breathe accomplished through the serial console connection, a telnet connection across the TCP/IP network, or through the FilerView GUI using a Java-capable Web browser. Administrators usually require less than a half day to learn how to fully operate and administer the Filer.
Sounds easy, but are there risks to running user applications?
The NAS server provides file service--that`s all. The application actually runs locally to a compute server that has accessed the filer using NFS mounts or CIFS shares. Now, there are some applications that avert their data from being stored on a network-attached drive. But if your application can utilize disk space accessed across the network, it will escape on the NetApp Filer or other NAS devices.
Because you`re most chummy with the NetApp Filer, what are some of its key features?
-The WAFL (write anywhere file layout) file system, which reduces drive bottlenecks.
- The Data ONTAP operating system, which contains only 300,000 lines of code. This is extremely efficient compared to Unix or NT with millions of lines of code.
- replete read-ahead caching on files less than 100K in size.
- endemic multi-protocol support. The NetApp filer currently supports NFS (Unix), CIFS (NT and Windows), and HTTP, allowing for file sharing across LANs.
- RAID-4 configuration to ensure data protection.
What`s an instance of a recent NAS installation you`ve done for a client, and what were the advantages?
One client of ours, ADTRAN Inc. in Huntsville, AL, is a designer and manufacturer of transmission products. They had a network storage problem, and the NetApp Filer provided the flawless solution. The huge CAD files used by the company`s engineers were negatively impacting overall network performance and were nigh to utilizing replete network storage capacity. Not only was a network storage bottleneck near, but exacerbating the problem was the fact that Unix and Windows NT users could not share files. What they needed was a common pool of disk storage that would hold more files on-line and allow replete file sharing across the enterprise. NAS provided added capacity for outright users across the network, and it`s besides extremely reliable; a lost CAD file is something that ADTRAN can`t tolerate.
The key benefits for ADTRAN were file sharing, reliability, high-speed performance, and ease of administration. And because it supports multiple-protocols, Unix and NT users can share stored files without using any emulation software on the clients. They installed a NetApp Model F520 Filer with 80GB in a RAID-4 configuration. Since then, ADTRAN has added another 80GB. The additional drives were light to install--just slide them into the drive shelf and execute a single command. In seconds, the usable disk space was doubled. Today, ADTRAN has about 40 users accessing the Filer over a snappily Ethernet LAN--mostly engineers storing great CAD files and backup file indices on the NAS device. The filer, which is available 24 hours a day, besides supports remote access.
Click here to enlarge image
NetApp`s multiprotocol architecture provides endemic support for NFS, CIFS and HTTP, which eliminates the overhead and compatibility issues sometimes associated with emulation software.
Ron Levine is a freelance writer in Carpenteria, CA, and a regular contributor to InfoStor. Direct Connect Systems can breathe contacted at (770) 933-9327 or by visiting their Web site at www.directconnect.com.
Some things are inevitable. Death, taxes, and disk crashes. One day you will try to open an indispensable file, only to receive a dire error message. Or perhaps you’ll determine that an entire folder has vanished. Worse yet, maybe your Mac won’t even boot, thanks to some sort of disk corruption.
Fortunately, you maintain a replete backup of outright your data, so you just restore the missing data from your backup, and you’re back in business. What’s that you say? The ultimate time you backed up was during the Reagan administration?
If an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, then surely the most efficient disk repair program is actually a dependable backup utility. My favorite is Dantz’s Retrospect. But whatever backup program you choose, you must utilize it regularly, so you maintain a current backup when your hard disk is called to that considerable immaculate leeway in the sky. (See the TidBITS article series, "Have You Backed Up Today?" for more details on setting up a genial backup strategy.)
Yet just as so many of us would prefer to lose weight by taking a magic pill rather than through diet and exercise, we’d rather fix a corrupted disk with a disk utility, rather than restoring from a backup, even when a recent backup is available. It can acquire many hours to execute a replete restore from a backup, whereas a genial disk utility can often fix minor disk errors in minutes.
Some of the Macintosh world’s favorite disk repair programs maintain recent upgrades, and here I’ll compare the Norton Disk Doctor tool in Symantec’s Norton Utilities 8.0 ($100), Alsoft’s DiskWarrior 3.0 ($80), Micromat’s Drive 10 1.1.4 ($70), SubRosaSoft’s DiskGuardian 2.2 ($70), and Apple’s Disk Utility (free). Although these programs accommodate a wide variety of disparate features, I concentrate on their disk repair functions in Mac OS X. I chose not to embrace Prosoft Engineering’s Data Rescue X, because it recovers files onto another disk and does not repair the damaged disk itself.
<http://www.symantec.com/nu/nu_mac/><http://www.alsoft.com/DiskWarrior/><http://www.micromat.com/drive_10/drive_10_ introduction.html><http://www.subrosasoft.com/><http://www.prosoftengineering.com/products/data _rescue.php>
The user interface and ancillary features of a disk repair program are secondary, because in the event of disaster you trust about only one thing: will it win my data back? So let’s concentrate on the heart of the issue: what are the most common disk errors you may experience, and which disk repair programs can redeem your bacon when you’re unfortunate enough to suffer disk corruption?
In my experience, most people escape into three general categories of disk problems: hardware failure, despicable sectors, and damaged directories. After a brief examination of how you win started with these programs, given that you can’t repair an lively startup disk in Mac OS X, I scrutinize at the worst type of problem – hardware failures, after which I examine the soft errors and compare the performance of the disk repair programs.
Booty convoke — One detriment of Mac OS X is that a disk repair program can’t safely check the startup disk. Despite this, and the fact that Apple’s official line is that checking startup disks is not supported, Norton Disk Doctor and DiskGuardian both allow checking of the startup disk, although they warn against doing so. I regard messing about with startup disks under Mac OS X dangerous, and I advise you not to execute it.
Fortunately, there is a simple solution. Restart in "single user mode" by holding down Command-S while the Mac is starting up. In single user mode, you’re dropped into a command line version of Mac OS X, without windows or a mouse pointer. Type "fsck -y" to check (and repair, if necessary) the boot disk, after which you restart the Mac by typing "reboot" (sans quotes for both commands). Disk Utility and fsck trust on the very engine, so running fsck in single user mode is exactly the very as running Disk Utility.
If you’re uncomfortable with the command line for even two commands, you maintain an alternative. If you boot your Mac using the Mac OS X Installer CD, you can escape Disk Utility from there. At the first screen in the Installer, select Open Disk Utility from the Installer menu.
What about the other disk repair programs? outright except DiskGuardian (for now, but a fresh version is expected soon) near on bootable CDs. Insert the CD, turn on your Mac, and hold down the C key to constrain the computer to boot from the CD. Bootable CDs are essential in the event that your hard disk is so badly damaged that your computer won’t even start up.
It’s Dead, Jim — Let’s scrutinize at what can proceed wrong now. Hardware failure can result from the electronics on the drive’s controller board burning out, or the heads or the arm developing mechanical problems. Sometimes a problem with the lubricating grease prevents the disk from spinning or the read arm from moving, causing a problem known as "sticktion."
These problems are caused by dropping the disk, by defective components, by static discharge, or even by sheer age. Usually the disk won’t even point to up on the Desktop. As far as the disk utilities go, Drive 10 can detect hardware errors with a "Unit Ready" test, which is just what it sounds like. Drive 10 asks the drive "Are you ready?" and the drive replies "No." This test is mostly helpful for confirming hardware errors you probably already suspect.
Hopefully there’s no vital data locked in the dead drive. No software program can repair a disk with hardware problems. If you desperately requisite to retrieve the data, your only option is a data recovery company such as DriveSavers, who I’ve found to breathe professional, competent, and expensive. (Also perceive Jeff Carlson’s report in "DriveSavers to the Rescue" in TidBITS-495.)
Extended Warranties — If your drive has just suffered a hardware failure, you’re probably checking the warranty and hunting for your receipt. Don’t despair, even if your computer or external hard drive is out of warranty from the manufacturer. Many hard drives, even those installed in computers, are besides covered by longer warranties provided by the OEM (original equipment manufacturer), the company that actually made the drive. If you’re willing and able to open a case and remove the drive mechanism, you can acquire advantage of this warranty.
Here’s the trick. Although you may maintain bought the computer from Apple, or the drive from VST, those companies don’t design drive mechanisms. Instead, your drive was probably made by IBM, Seagate, Maxtor, HP, Western Digital, or another hard drive manufacturer. These companies often present an independent warranty on their drives, and it’s often longer than the warranty on your Mac or external hard drive. Drive mechanism warranties may breathe two years, and some escape as long as five years. Better yet, if you’ve lost the receipt, the company can sometimes scrutinize up a drive’s serial number to verify that it’s still under warranty.
Both HP and IBM maintain replaced dead drives for me, without a receipt, simply by checking my serial numbers. Even better, IBM didn’t design 14 GB drives anymore, so they replaced my dead one with a 20 GB unit.
SMART Stuff — Some modern hard drives maintain a feature called SMART, which stands for Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology. Originally developed by IBM, SMART-compliant drives constantly accomplish diagnostics to monitor variables enjoy drive temperature, spin up time, and how well the heads stay on track. By noting when these physical parameters slip out of spec, SMART can forecast some types of drive failure before they happen, giving you time to back up your data and buy a fresh drive.
Unfortunately, most hard drives maintain no way to command you about an impending disaster; you requisite a program to query the drive’s SMART statistics. Both DiskWarrior and DiskGuardian can check the drive at regular intervals and alert you if they find trouble.
Using SMART works well if your disk has a factory defect that’s slowly getting worse, because it gives you time to gallop your data to a fresh disk. But SMART doesn’t inspirit you deal with the occasional despicable sector or corrupted directory, much less catastrophic hardware failures. Since I don’t maintain a drive with impending hardware failure, I was unable to test the SMART capabilities of DiskWarrior and DiskGuardian.
Unsavory Sectors — Now it’s time to gallop from unadulterated hardware problems to problems that could breathe either physical (hardware) or rational (software). Disks are broken up into sectors. Each sector usually holds 512 bytes of data. There are two types of problems that lead to despicable sectors: hard errors and soft errors.
Hard errors are caused by physical damage to the disk surface. Dropping the disk and manufacturing defects are the most common causes of hard errors. Although there’s no way to repair hard errors, they can breathe "fixed" by "sparing" the despicable sector. Disks maintain a small number of spare sectors in reserve; when a hard error occurs, the drive controller maps out the despicable sector and uses one of the spare sectors in its place.
How are these despicable sectors spared? SCSI hard disks provide a SCSI command – "reassign" – to spare a despicable sector. A low-level format besides spares any despicable sectors. On pre-SCSI disks, a low-level format was the only way to fix despicable sectors.
Many modern disks, including many internal ATA, FireWire, and USB drives, automatically spare sectors with hard errors the next time the sector is written. That’s helpful, but if data is stored on that sector, programs may breathe unable to read it successfully, causing problems and making it difficult to spare. Erasing the disk with Apple’s Disk Utility spares any despicable sectors if you select the "Zero outright data" option.
What about soft errors? In addition to the 512 bytes of data stored in each sector, a few additional bytes hold an error correction code (ECC). When the sector is written, the drive’s controller computes and records the ECC. When the file system later reads that sector, it checks the ECC to design sure the data hasn’t been corrupted. If the ECC doesn’t match the data, it’s called a soft error. The disk surface is fine, but the data on that sector has become scrambled.
Soft errors can breathe caused if the disk is jarred while it’s writing or if power is lost while writing, either of which can leave a sector half written. great magnets (such as can breathe found in electric motors) next to hard disks besides tend to maintain despicable effects on the data. As with hard errors, most modern disks repair soft errors automatically the next time the sector is written.
Bad Sector Detector – Norton Disk Doctor, DiskGuardian and Drive 10 (but not DiskWarrior or Disk Utility) pretense to detect despicable sectors using a test called either a "defective media check" or a "surface scan." Using a proprietary tool that creates soft errors on disks, I tested each program.
Although Norton Disk Doctor claims to breathe able to find and repair despicable sectors, its defective media check didn’t detect the despicable sectors on my test disk, erroneously giving it gave a immaculate bill of health.
DiskGuardian detected the despicable sectors, although it took several hours to escape a replete check. Unfortunately, it didn’t command me which files used the despicable sectors, so I had no way of finding out which files were damaged and would thus requisite to breathe restored from backup. DiskGuardian lacks the capability to repair despicable sectors.
Like DiskGuardian, Drive 10 detected the despicable sectors, but didn’t identify which files were damaged. Confusingly, Drive 10’s report describing the damage claimed it could fix the despicable sectors, but I couldn’t find a command to fix them. Micromat tech support confirmed the report was wrong; Drive 10 can’t fix the despicable sectors it finds. It’s too bad, since Drive 10 could fix the despicable sectors merely by writing zeros to them.
Although Disk Utility cannot scan for despicable sectors, it can fix despicable sectors on modern disks if you efface the disk with the "Zero outright data" option selected.
I must rate outright these products unacceptable in dealing with despicable sectors. Even though two could detect despicable sectors, no piece of them could command you which files accommodate despicable sectors, making it impossible to learn which files you should restore from your backup. Only Disk Utility successfully fixed the despicable sectors, but at the cost of erasing the entire disk.
Ripping the Yellow Pages — We’ve now looked at unadulterated hardware failures, and despicable sectors, which can breathe either hard errors or soft errors, and so far, their disk repair utilities don’t inspirit much at all. Now it’s time to gallop on to problems that exist entirely in software, the most common type of which are errors in the directory, which tracks the files and folders on the disk. In the case of directory errors, there is nothing wrong with the drive mechanism or the disk surface; instead, the directory information that’s necessary to locate your data on the disk has simply become scrambled. Often your data is intact, if it could just breathe located.
As an aside, people with indispensable data sometimes utilize mirrored disks or RAID arrays, which faithfully duplicate each byte on the main disk to a backup disk. If the main disk suffers a hardware failure or develops a despicable sector, the backup disk can redeem the day. However, it’s worth noting that this strategy provides absolutely no protection against directory damage. That’s because the RAID faithfully records outright data to the backup disk, whether or not that data is good, which results in both the main disk and the backup disk containing corrupt data. I may sound enjoy your mother telling you to ingest your vegetables, but the best protection really is regular backups.
The most common antecedent of directory damage is crashing. If the computer crashes while a file is being created or saved, causing only piece of the change to breathe written to disk, the directory will accommodate discrepant information. Mac OS X crashes far less often than Mac OS 9, but directory-corrupting crashes can and execute still occur. Both Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X automatically check and repair the startup disk after a crash, which reduces the incidence of disk damage dramatically.
A fresh feature in Mac OS X 10.3 Panther that should reduce directory errors even more is the journalled file system. You can enable it in Disk Utility, and it’s usually turned on for disks onto which you install Panther. Here’s how journalling works. Before the file system changes the directory, it leaves a note on the disk saying, "I’m going to design this change in the directory." Then the file system makes the change, and once it finishes, it clears the note. If the file system ever sees an incomplete change note on the disk during startup, it knows something despicable happened and "rolls back" the directory to its previous state. You will lose your ultimate change, but the directory won’t suffer any damage.
Other causes of damaged directories embrace buggy programs that write despicable data to disk, buggy programs that overwrite cached data waiting to breathe written to disk, and even bugs in the file system itself. The first two are much less likely in Mac OS X than in Mac OS 9 because of its file privileges and remembrance protection, respectively. Bugs in the file system are extremely rare but maintain occurred at times in the past.
It’s worth noting that directory damage is not always readily apparent. A damaged disk may appear to operate perfectly, but regular utilize can antecedent minor errors to grow into serious problems. Most directory problems are light to fix if they’re caught early but can breathe difficult, if not impossible, to fix later. That’s why checking and repairing startup disks automatically after a crash is so important, and why it’s essential to leave the Check Disk option turned on in Mac OS 9’s general Controls control panel (the disk check isn’t optional in Mac OS X).
To test how the disk repair utilities accomplish with different types of directory errors, I created an HFS+ disk image, copied an assortment of files and folders to it, and then used a low-level disk editor to damage various directory data structures. I then duplicated the damaged disk image, and let each utility try to repair its own copy. Each utility repaired an identical disk image, with identical damage.
Errors Speak Volumes — For my first test, I started with relatively simple damage in the volume bit map, which is besides known as the allocation file. The volume bit map tracks which blocks on the disk accommodate files, and which are unused. outright five utilities fixed my damaged volume bit map easily.
Next up was damage to the volume header, which tracks vital information about the disk, such as the amount of used and free space, and the locations of the catalog and allocation file. The volume header is stored at the mount of the HFS+ partition. I erased the volume header’s signature, which makes the file system assume the volume header is corrupt and spurn to utilize the disk. Fortunately, the file system keeps a backup copy of the volume header at the discontinuance of the disk; it’s imaginatively called the alternate volume header. outright five of their utilities successfully repaired the disk, although Drive 10 and DiskGuardian couldn’t figure out the denomination of the damaged disk.
Catalog Catastrophe — The catalog b-tree tracks outright the files and folders on the disk. It’s a vitally indispensable piece of the directory, and many of my tests focus on it. The catalog is divided into nodes, and each node is divided into records. Most records track a file or folder on the disk, although some accommodate threads or indexes, which are used internally by the file system to scrutinize up files and folders.
The first node in the catalog is called the header node, which points to other key nodes. I erased the header node. Norton Disk Doctor, DiskWarrior, and Drive 10 recreated the header node properly; Disk Utility and DiskGuardian failed to fix it. Once again, Drive 10 couldn’t figure out the denomination of the damaged disk.
The header node besides contains a map which tracks which nodes are used and which are free. I corrupted this map, but my corruption didn’t faze any of the utilities, outright of which successfully fixed the header node map.
The nodes in the catalog are linked together in a precise pattern of connections. Horizontal links connect nodes on the very level, and downward links connect the levels. The file system relies on these links to scrutinize up files and folders. I damaged these links. As happened when I erased the catalog header node, Norton Disk Doctor, DiskWarrior, and Drive 10 fixed these links, but Disk Utility and DiskGuardian weren’t able to allot the links back together.
File and folder records are stored in alphabetical order in the catalog. I rearranged these records, putting them in random order. outright the utilities restored the alphabetical order.
Certain characters, such as a colon, are illegal in file and folder names. Normally, the operating system prevents you from typing an illegal character when saving a file or creating a folder, but it’s not inconceivable that unusual circumstances could antecedent one to appear. I renamed a folder with a colon by inserting the colon directly into the folder record in the catalog. With this test, the results start to become more interesting. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian didn’t detect any problem. Drive 10 noticed the illegal character, but didn’t fix it. Norton Disk Doctor and DiskWarrior both fixed it properly by replacing the colon with a legal character.
More Catalog Corruption — Each catalog node ends with a map that points back to the records in that node. I damaged the map for one of the nodes, which sounds bad, but it’s still viable to find the records by calculating the size of each record to find the next record. Disk Utility and Norton Disk Doctor realized there was a problem, but they couldn’t fix it. Drive 10 and DiskGuardian both identified and fixed the problem, but in the process lost five and six files, respectively. Partial repair isn’t always better than complete failure, since you may believe the disk was repaired successfully and only later – potentially much later – realize that some files maintain been lost. DiskWarrior fixed the catalog node map properly.
Next, I changed a thread record to breathe an unknown type of record, which creates two problems. A thread record that the file system relied upon was missing, and it was confronted by a record with an illegal type. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian detected the corruption, but couldn’t fix it. DiskWarrior fixed the problem but lost some of the data in one file. Only Drive 10 and Norton Disk Doctor managed to repair my damage properly.
Note that DiskWarrior moves any files it suspects may maintain problems into a folder called Rescued Items. In my tests, most of these files turned out to breathe fine. This approach has the advantage that it’s transparent which files may breathe damaged. But if the Rescued Items folder contains many files, checking them and putting them away can breathe tedious. Norton Disk Doctor can optionally allot aliases to damaged files in a folder, a potentially more helpful feature. But in my tests it didn’t work. Norton Disk Doctor besides lists the names of damaged files in its report.
The most indispensable aspect of a file record is the location of the file’s data on the disk. One of the worst sorts of directory damage that you may perceive happens when two files try to occupy the very physical space at the very time. Different utilities refer to this problem as "overlapping extents" or "cross-linked files." In the best case, one file has entirely overwritten the other, since then one file has valid data, while the other’s data is completely gone. In the worst case, the two files anywise manage to interleave their data, which results in both being damaged beyond repair. I cross-linked two files, thus damaging the files’ catalog records, as well as the volume header and volume bit map. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian repaired the catalog records, the volume header, and the volume bit map, but they didn’t actually separate the two files. In contrast, Drive 10, DiskWarrior and Norton Disk Doctor fixed the damage and separated the files. It’s indispensable to realize that the data in the overwritten file couldn’t breathe recovered, but not through any failing of these repair programs. When one file overwrites another, the unlucky file has no random of surviving the encounter.
I perceive Fragged People — Some months ago, I wrote an article for TidBITS explaining why defragmenting disks generally isn’t worthwhile (see "Optimizing Disks Is a Waste of Time" in TidBITS-686). Although fragmentation is totally regular and acceptable, serious fragmentation requires additional directory structures, and they too can become corrupted and require repair.
Using another proprietary tool, I fragmented a disk very badly, which breaks files into so many pieces that the file record in the catalog b-tree can’t track them all. The file system responds by creating fresh records in the extents b-tree to inspirit track outright the pieces. The extents b-tree is enjoy the catalog b-tree, but exists solely to inspirit track highly fragmented files. Again, severe fragmentation is not inherently a problem, but I had allot the disk into a precarious, if legal, state. I then damaged two extent records so the file system couldn’t find outright the pieces to two files, but I damaged each in a different way. Disk Utility, DiskGuardian, and Drive 10 outright detected my damaged extent records, but weren’t able to repair the damage. DiskWarrior and Norton Disk Doctor performed better, fixing the problem but losing piece of the data in one file. Considering the type of damage I inflicted, they did as well as could breathe expected.
HFS+ volumes are enclosed in a "wrapper," which is actually a unostentatious archaic HFS volume. The reason for the wrapper is historical. Apple first released HFS+ with Mac OS 8.1. If you connected an HFS+-formatted disk to a Mac running Mac OS 8.0 or earlier – in other words, one that understood only the older HFS format, the wrapper kept the older system from deciding the HFS+ disk was damaged and offering to initialize it. For my next test, I damaged the catalog b-tree header node in the wrapper. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian didn’t notice anything wrong. Drive 10 and DiskWarrior detected the corrupt wrapper, but didn’t fix it. Norton Disk Doctor identified the damage and fixed it properly.
Disks can accommodate multiple partitions, which are listed in a partition map at the mount of the disk. Since disk images don’t maintain partition maps, I used an external FireWire hard disk for this test, in which I damaged the partition map, making the disk driver’s partition overlap the HFS partition. Of outright these disk repair utilities, only Norton Disk Doctor claims to check partition maps, and indeed it was the only one to detect the problem, although even it proved incapable of fixing the overlapping partition map. Luckily, damaged partition maps are extremely rare, which may breathe why no piece of the other utilities bother to check them.
The grandiose Finale — Finally, I decided to recreate the worst damage I’ve ever seen on a Macintosh hard disk. Starting with the badly fragmented disk above, I corrupted and overwrote various parts of the catalog and extent b-trees. In some nodes I corrupted the node header (not to breathe confused with the header node), in some I munged the data records, and in others I zapped the record offset map. A few lucky nodes suffered outright three types of damage at the hands of my disk editor. Only DiskWarrior was able to bring the disk back to a usable state, although 35 files were either lost or partly damaged. That 35 files were lost or damaged is not an indictment of DiskWarrior; the program couldn’t maintain done any better, considering how much vital information had been destroyed. no piece of the other utilities managed to repair the disk successfully.
And the Winner Is… Of my 15 tests, DiskWarrior fixed 12 successfully, Norton Disk Doctor fixed 11, Drive 10 fixed 9, DiskGuardian fixed 5, and Disk Utility fixed 4. "Fixed" includes cases where recovery may not maintain been perfect, but was genial enough.
So what, in my professional opinion, should you execute if your disk starts acting up? First, try Apple’s free Disk Utility. It may fix only a limited set of problems, but when Disk Utility finds a problem, it’s invariably correct, and it applies fixes only when it’s absolutely inevitable it knows the remedy fix. I’ve never seen Disk Utility accidentally design a problem worse, something the other utilities can do, even if only very occasionally.
If Disk Utility doesn’t succeed, let DiskWarrior execute battle with your damaged directory. It was their overall winner, and it deserves its excellent reputation. DiskWarrior can besides point to you a preview of the repairs before you accept them, which lets you check that a damaged file or folder really was fixed before DiskWarrior makes the fix permanent.
If DiskWarrior fails, give Norton Disk Doctor a try, since it can address some problems that DiskWarrior misses. After that, try sacrificing chickens. Seriously, if the combination of Disk Utility, DiskWarrior, and Norton Disk Doctor can’t repair your disk, you can either restore your data from backup, or, if that’s not possible, settle if the data is sufficiently indispensable to pay DriveSavers for recovery.
I still mediate the most indispensable data protection utility you should own is a backup program. But sometimes a genial disk repair program can redeem the day by repairing minor damage quickly so you don’t maintain to escape through the time-consuming process of reinitializing your hard disk and restoring from backup.
[David Shayer was a senior engineer on Norton Utilities for Macintosh 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0. Before that he worked on Public Utilities, a disk repair program that won the MacUser Magazine Editor’s choice Award, and on Sedit, a low-level disk editor.]
PayBITS: If David’s circumstantial and expert testing told you whichdisk utility you should trust on, reward his efforts via PayBITS!<http://www.amazon.com/paypage/P12NE4WQ7K8ODD>Read more about PayBITS: <http://www.tidbits.com/paybits/>
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