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BH0-007 ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing

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BH0-007 exam Dumps Source : ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing

Test Code : BH0-007
Test designation : ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing
Vendor designation : ISEB
: 25 real Questions

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ISEB ISEB Intermediate Certificate in

ISEB Practitioner business and solution structure | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This seller-specific Certification is obtainable by means of:British computing device Society (BCS)Swindon, Se UKPhone: forty four (0)1793 417417

skill stage: advanced                          fame: active

reasonable: now not attainable               

summary:For enterprise and solution Architects who exercise their intermediate stage learning to a case examine and might complicated on the organisation and tactics required to manipulate an architecture correctly. This certification is material for people that are engaged in any aspect of enterprise and solution architecture.

preliminary necessities:You ought to pass the ISEB Practitioner in business and solution structure exam. The exam has a one hour closing date and carries forty assorted-choice questions according to a case analyze. A passing ranking of 26/forty is required.Six years of IS/IT work event, together with some architecture definition is advised. it is additionally suggested you dangle the ISEB Intermediate degree certificate, or hold studied the ISEB Intermediate degree Syllabus and Reference mannequin, and hold both TOGAF 8 or TOGAF 9 smooth 2 certificate. practicing is attainable however now not required.

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e-checking out Brings ISEB courses In India | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

From March 2005 e-testing, one of the most UK’s main independent utility trying out consultancy organisations will now carry the ISEB groundwork and Practitioner utility trying out Certification classes in India.

“there's a growing to be hobby in British permitted training programmes in India. And what they exigency to present is a highly alluring, universally identified ISEB utility trying out qualification - now a twin certification with the ISTQB accreditation,” says David Rai, earnings and advertising director, e-checking out.

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January 14, 2002 08:28 ET | supply: TietoEnator

ESPOO, Finland, Jan. 14, 2002 (PRIMEZONE) -- TietoEnator is one of two Swedish companies authorized to certify testers in line with the ISEB basis certificate for software testing. The ISEB recognize at various training may be offered in Sweden and Norway from January.

TietoEnator has its personal examine academics and presents the course to customers and personnel. it is a three-day direction, and on the conclusion of day three the contributors can settle to purchase an examination and acquire the ISEB-certification.

- they hold observed an increasing claim for licensed testers, and considering the fact that there is not any Swedish medium for test, they hold chosen to deliver the ISEB groundwork certificates, says Thomas Klarbrant, Managing Director of TietoEnator examine solutions.

ISEB (tips techniques Examination Board) is a division within BCS (British laptop Society). ISEB presents certifications inside several distinctive IT areas. The purpose of ISEB is to raise the necessities within the IT company and to assist competence construction.

For extra suggestions, please contact: Kennet Osbjer, TietoEnator test solutions, Sweden, +46 706 24 65 33 Marit Saelemyr, TietoEnator Consulting AS, Norway, +47 553 64468

With over 10,000 personnel and annual net income of EUR 1.1 billion, TietoEnator is a number one service provider of unreasonable price-delivered IT capabilities in Europe. TietoEnator makes a speciality of consulting, building and hosting its valued clientele' business operations within the digital economic climate. The neighborhood's functions are in response to a combination of abysmal industry-certain talents and latest counsel expertise.

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SSL certificate revocation and how it is broken in exercise | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is the software system that allows to sign, validate certificate, retain a list of revoked certificates, deal CA public key. The goal of PKI is to enable secure communication among parties who hold never met before.

The most common consume case of the PKI are myriad of the websites secured with TLS/HTTPS and using SSL certificates to establish trust for particular domain name(s) and authenticate the server side. Once the certificate is signed by the CA (certificate authority), it remains valid for a specific duration. When it’s about to expire, usually you renew it or buy a modern one. But sometimes you exigency to revoke a certificate beforehand, usually due to a private key compromise.

Certificate revocation is a process of invalidating an issued SSL certificate. Ideally, browsers and other clients should be able to detect that the certificate is revoked in timely manner, point to the security warning, that certificate is no longer trusted, and avert user from further consuming such a website.

Let’s explore various approaches to address certificate revocation.

Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL)

Original design was for CAs to manage and publish lists of revoked certificates, so browser/clients can download them and compare against to check for certificate status. This worked powerful in the past when there were few websites and certificates, but given today’s scale of the Internet, it’s practically infeasible for CA to manage and for client to download these huge lists, whenever they exigency to check for revocation status.

CRL architecture introduces the dependency between client and CA infrastructure, making it prone to the CA server’s availability issues and downtimes.

Nowadays original CRLs are effectively ignored by just cease clients.

Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)

OCSP is an improvement to CRL and is a protocol for checking if a SSL certificate has been revoked. Instead of client downloading the complete powerful list of revoked certificates, it can just submit a request to a CA server, that returns a signed response with certificate current status. OCSP is much lightweight, as only one record is retrieved at a time, and it can provide more accurate information, as contradictory to CRLs lists, which are downloaded and cached on a client for some time.

Still, it suffers from many issues:

  • Additional dependency and query between client and CA servers during TLS handshake, that adds up latency.
  • Poor, unreliable CA infrastructure. prone to availability problems. The CA servers are targets for DoS attacks. gradual OCSP response adds up latency too.
  • Privacy compromise. Browser leaks what website is being accessed and who accesses it to CA servers.
  • Soft-fail behavior

    Given dependency to poor and not-reliable CA infrastructure, browsers/clients usually tend to consume soft-fail (ignore) behavior, when they don’t receive OCSP response in a timely manner or encounter some errors, assuming that certificate is valid and allowing to access the website. Some browsers just point to warning, that user can bypass. Chrome, for example, does not consume OCSP at all, and consume its own proprietary mechanism, called CRLSet. The understanding for such soft-fail behavior is because unavailable CA servers should not shroud access to every bit of websites, using their certificates.

    Soft-fail behavior gives us groundless sense of security — it’s OK when you acquire revocation warning, but when you don’t — you’re in doubt if cert is valid indeed or if there is an OSCP infrastructure related issue. For example, attacker can shroud OCSP traffic and cause revocation checks to pass.

    Here is firefox reaction with SEC_ERROR_REVOKED_CERTIFICATE error when it gets revoked status from OCSP responder.

    Firefox and revoked certificate

    Chrome does not consume OSCP at all, proverb cert is OK with a green “secure” badge, but if you dig a bit deeper, it tells certificate is revoked 😕

    Chrome and revoked certificate

    Right now there is no trustworthy way to switch to hard-fail behavior. Essentially, revocation is broken. There are pair of attempts to address this issue, enjoy proprietary mechanism (Chrome CLRSet, Firefox OneCRL) or OSCP must-staple extensions, but there is still no 100% working solution.

    OCSP Stapling

    OSCP Stapling moves the querying of the OCSP server from the client to the https server. The https server periodically polls OCSP server for revocation status of its own certificate(s), and sends OCSP response along with certificate (staples) to the client during TLS handshake in aServerCertificateStatus message.

    OCSP responses are short-lived (around a week). They are signed by CA, so client can trust them.

    OCSP stapling approach solves several issues, inherent to regular OCSP approach:

  • Removes dependency between client and CA servers. No additional query, faster TLS handshake.
  • Protect website visitors privacy. Since browsers don’t talk to CA servers any more, they don’t leak browsing activity.
  • More resistant to CA server availability issues, since web server caches OCSP responses which are valid for several days.
  • Less load on CA servers, since number of https servers is less than number of clients/visitors.
  • Still, the biggest problem with OCSP stapling is that stapled response is an option and not mandatory. Clients don’t know whether to expect/require stapled OCSP responses from a website or not. If an attacker has a stolen revoked certificate it can be used without stapling. Browsers will fallback to regular OCSP, which can again be blocked, and browser will accept the certificate. They still hold soft-fail behavior with a groundless sense of security.

    Nginx configuration

    To setup stapling on Nginx:

    ssl_stapling on;ssl_stapling_verify on;

    Configure DNS servers so Nginx can resolve OCSP server IP address:

    resolver valid=300s ipv6=off;resolver_timeout 5s;

    Also, some folks point that you exigency to supply root and intermediate certificates chain via ssl_trusted_certificate , but I’ve tried and it works fine without it — I just hold a ssl_certificate directive pointing to a chain of website certificate plus intermediate one (without root CA cert).

    ssl_certificate /var/ssl/; Nginx issues

    The acerbic truth is that Nginx is not that superb at handling and serving OCSP stapling. 😞

    First request handled by an nginx worker process never has a stapled OCSP response. Nginx initiates a sluggish OCSP query afterwards, and subsequent requests will most likely comprise OCSP response. Note, that OCSP stapling cache is per worker process, meaning you can acquire several initial requests without OCSP stapling, as soon as they processed by different worker processes with a gelid OCSP cache.

    There are workarounds enjoy warming up OCSP cache beforehand, but that’s too much crap.

    You can check OSCP stapling on your own with a following command:

    openssl s_client -host -port 443 -status < /dev/null

    Valid OCSP stapled response should recognize like:

    OCSP response:======================================OCSP Response Data:OCSP Response Status: successful (0x0)Response Type: Basic OCSP ResponseCert Status: goodThis Update: Jan 4 12:00:00 2018 GMTNext Update: Jan 11 12:00:00 2018 GMT

    There is yet another issue . When OCSP responder reports revoked certificate status, Nginx does not staple it at all, and they uncover it’s by design. Rather confusing to me 😕, because it completely breaks “must-staple” solution, described below.

    So you see, that current server-side implementation is far from being robust, and making otherwise superb feeling quite useless in practice.

    Chrome CRLset and Firefox OneCRL

    A CRLSet is Google’s own list of revoked certificates that it compiles and embeds inside Chrome. Lists are auto-updated by regularly crawling the CRLs from the major CAs around the world. Google does not consume OCSP servers or CRL lists, instead Chrome simply checks its own CRLSet for certificate status when visiting a secure website.

    It’s enjoy regular CRL approach, except that browser does not exigency contact CA’s servers and download a list, instead it already has the list embedded prerogative into the browser, which is updated in timely manner.

    Surely, such CRLsets cannot encompass every possible revoked certificate on the Internet. Instead of targeting end-server leaf certificates and DV certificates, they focus on high value intermediate CA certificates. This helps to quickly shroud intermediate CA certificates in case of emergency, when the private key is compromised to avert an attacker to impersonate any site they enjoy by signing their own child certificates.

    Also, such lists might comprise high value EV certificates.

    Firefox has analogue solution, which is called OneCRL. In addition, Firefox consume regular OCSP approach.

    Must-staple extension

    As said before, OCSP stapling is superb because it offloads OCSP requests from browser to the server, but it’s optional — browser hold no feeling if stapled response is expected or not, and therefore they consume soft-fail behavior, which is a seat belt, that pretends to protect you, but breaks in case of emergency. So, meet “must-staple” extension.

    Must-staple is simply a flag in the certificate, that puts a mandatory requirement on OSCP stapling presence and instructs the browser that the certificate must be served with a valid OCSP response or the browser should hard fail on the connection.

    This flag is set when CA generates certificate for you. If you’re using LetsEncrypt CA, clients enjoy certbot or support issuing certificate with “Must-Staple” extension:

    Example with (ocsp-must-staple flag):

    $ --issue --ecc --keylength ec-256 -d -d --standalone --staging --ocsp-must-staple

    Example with certbot (must-staple flag):

    certbot certonly --non-interactive --cert-name -d, -m --agree-tos --preferred-challenges http-01 --rsa-key-size 2048 --standalone --staging --must-staple

    To check if certificate has “Must-Staple” flag, recognize for extension ID:

    $ openssl x509 -in /var/ssl/ -text -noout X509v3 Subject Alternative, DNS:www.foobbz.site1. 0....

    Alternatively, consume Qualys SSL server test:

    Must staple support reported by Qualys SSL server test

    Now, given the certificate with “Must-Staple” extension, if I turn off stapling altogether in the Nginx, browser should shroud me with error failing to find OCSP stapled response during TLS handshake.

    ssl_stapling off;

    Firefox reports a cryptic error MOZILLA_PKIX_ERROR_REQUIRED_TLS_FEATURE_MISSING as expected. But Chrome tells cert is good — recall, Chrome does not result OCSP standard, even when it comes to stapling and must-staple stuff 😞

    Firefox and must-staple certificate without OCSP response

    Must-staple feeling is powerful and allows to switch to hard-fail behavior. Also, solution scales well and does not interject client-side performance hit. And it makes impossible for attacker to consume stolen revoked certificate.

    Despite being a substantial improvement over regular OCSP, it’s not a silver bullet and not a 100% working solution. Primarily, it suffers from server-side implementation issues and want of widespread client support. If server fails to reliably staple the OCSP response, or consume corrupted/erroneous response, or client is not gratified with stapled response, whatever goes wrong — you’d lock out the website completely due to browser hard-fail behavior. This is a huge risk, and web servers enjoy Nginx and Apache are not mature at OSCP stapling yet.

    Note, there is a experimental Except-Staple HTTP response header, which helps you to monitor how trustworthy you as a site owner can staple superb OCSP responses, and how clients are fine with those responses, before switching to hard-fail must-staple behavior.


    Given everything said above, there is no ready-to-go 100% working and trustworthy solution to build browsers detect revoked certificates in a timely manner and rebuff connecting to such websites.

    OCSP must-staple is powerful idea, but not practical due to server-side implementation issues, and puts a risk of blocking a website completely. Chrome’s CRLSet solution is good, but addresses only high-value intermediate CA certificates.

    When it comes to end-server certificates, you might settle to give up with revocation stuff enjoy OCSP stapling, must-staple altogether. Just result security best practices. Reduce the validity era of the certificate and renew it more frequently, to reduce the time-frame for an attacker to consume stolen certificate. And yes, it sounds trivially, but retain your private keys safe. consequence not allow CAs to generate private key for you, protect it with a password, etc.


    Revocation is broken —

    The current state of certificate revocation (CRLs, OCSP and OCSP Stapling) —

    HTTPS Certificate Revocation is broken, and it’s time for some modern tools | Ars Technica —

    OCSP Must-Staple —

    The Problem with OCSP Stapling and Must Staple and why Certificate Revocation is still broken — Hanno’s blog —

    ImperialViolet — Revocation checking and Chrome’s CRL —

    Google Chrome will no longer check for revoked SSL certificates online | Computerworld —

    Damn it, nginx! More bugs, this time with SSL OCSP stapling. —

    Exploring HyperLedger: undergo in Being a Framework Early Adopter | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Key Takeaways
  • Some time ago the OpenGift team explored deploying a HyperLedger-based blockchain within a production environment. This article presents a chronicle of their attempts to integrate it, the problems they encountered, and the tricks that helped us solve them. 
  • We believe that HyperLedger Fabric is potentially a better option for blockchain-based business applications than a private Ethereum network.
  • With HyperLedger you can build a system where clients consequence not exigency to trust other clients, and partners consequence not exigency to trust other partners (but clients consequence exigency to trust partners).
  • The network is easy to expand and can exist without a parent organization.
  • HyperLedger is not free of technical drawbacks, and so be prepared to write a lot of supporting scripts for maintaining HyperLedger in production.
  • Some time ago their team explored deploying a HyperLedger-based blockchain within a production environment. This article presents a chronicle of their attempts to integrate it, the problems they encountered, and tricks that helped us solve them. Several requisite updates hold been introduced into the HyperLedger framework, and so some of the challenges were overcome, while others still wait for a solution. 

    In the first piece of the article they justify why they decided to consume a blockchain to solve a  business problem and why they chose the HyperLedger framework over Ethereum. The second piece of the article is dedicated to HyperLedger-based blockchain architecture and technical aspects of the framework implementation. 

    Why consume blockchain?

    We initially believed that blockchain was unnecessary for their business. After all, most businesses resolve their trust issues by referring to centralized facilities or arbitrage centers. As a result, it took us a long time to settle whether in their case a blockchain solution was needed or not. 

    Our platform is a benign of web resource where companies can reduce their progress time and maintenance costs by working directly with open source teams. They identified that for some customers it might be difficult to establish working relationships with open source maintainers and key collaborators. The standard exercise of resorting to services of in-house developers or freelancers for fine-tuning open source code seemed sub-optimal, because of increased project time and price.  

    With their platform they aimed to resolve this inefficiency by providing an ‘entry point’ and simple interface for customers to request and co-finance developing modern features in OSS. For this system to be sustainable they needed to interject a tool that would incentivise developers to fulfill customers’ requests. After some deliberation, they near up with an feeling of ‘digital ownership’.

    The feeling was quite simple: a person who registers a project on their platform receives digital ‘shares’, which they may transfer to his fellow contributors at their own discretion. As the designation suggests, their shares enable holders to receive a share of a project income proportional to the share of ownership. On the top of that constraint, they added a rule that any ‘outsider’ developer could create  a requested piece of functionality, and if this solution is accepted by clients, receive a portion of the project’s shares. 

    We wanted developers to treat their project shares as a valuable long-term asset, which inherently implies that developers believe it won’t disappear. They basically had two options: they could either postpone introduction of this functionality until they gain the community’s trust, or they could build a trustless system. The latter path would require building a platform in such a way that would leave the assets untouched even if the parent organization exited the business.   

    We besides planned to integrate the platform with numerous ally organizations, which would outsource progress tasks to their platform and automatically receive a fee when they are completed.  In an standard scenario, they would just provide an access point for organizations into their network through some simple registration process, such as API integration. Their goal was to build the process as easy as possible to avoid every bit of the legal complications and paperwork. After some doubts, they decided that blockchain would abet us to realize this vision.

    Ethereum vs HyperLedger

    Ethereum was their first choice, even though they didn’t hold significant undergo with the platform. They hadn’t studied the documentation in detail; they just got prerogative to spiking the integration. At first glance, it seemed enjoy an easy choice. Several factors led us to give it a try:

  • It’s rather mature;
  • It’s stable;
  • it’s easy to integrate;
  • it’s easy to develop;
  • It has a big community;
  • It’s been rapidly developing;
  • It’s been used in numerous projects;
  • It gives an opportunity of private deploying in their private network.
  • One the other hand, there were a few factors that eventually convinced us that Ethereum was not the prerogative altenative for us: 

  • Non-determinacy of the consensus algorithm.
  • Proof-of-work (POW) is unpredictable. 
  • Non-existence of roles.
  • Uncontrollable access to the network.  
  • Transaction fee and high CPU workload even in a sleep mode (minor).
  • Some of these issues hold potential mitigations in progress in the Ethereum world. For example, the GHOST protocol modification may well help, but even in this case if owners of the major pools suddenly settle that their arm is longer than yours, while your tanker with tuna is in on its way to the destination point… well, the cancellation of the payment transaction may surprise you, if the transaction is being conducted over a public (or shared-use) Ethereum network.

    In an extreme case, they may even hold a ally whose node capacity allows them to outhash the whole network, so there would be no point in using blockchain. 

    It was besides very requisite to us to understand whether a network member is a client or a partner. They hold to know this for sure. The Ethereum network does not support this feature, so they would exigency to build this on top. They certainly could integrate their VPN into the blockchain. But if they provide access to partners, there, naturally, should be a way to open up such access. At the same time, they would enjoy to exercise control over who has access to their network and what they can acquire from it.

    A key takeaway is that it’s requisite to recall that within a business-use case corporate node capacities may significantly preponderate over private ones. This is why they opted for a private blockchain, using Hyperledger framework. 

    HyperLedger besides allowed us to avoid the minor inconveniences that they observed regarding the costs of transactions and CPU usage that they observed with Ethereum.

    At this time the HyperLedger Fabric was one of the most advanced and mature frameworks in the family. It besides has a few features that build it to stand out. The permissioned architecture ensures that if someone accessed your blockchain, you know whether they hold a certificate issued by a Certificate Authority (CA). They besides liked its deterministic PBFT algorithm, with which you can be 100% sure that a transaction is completed once your received such notification. Test launching on docker-containers is besides very simple.

    We tried to figure out whether they exigency Byzantine Fault-Tolerance. consequence they really trust their partners, and consequence they really trust us? Can they afford to expose ourselves to Byzantine Generals’ Problem, knowing that at any second any node could start sending incorrect data to the network? They eventually decided that they should hold such protection, and it was fairly easy with HyperLedger. 

    Still in doubt, they conducted some tests to compare HyperLedger Fabric and Ethereum in a private network.  We coded a trivial contract that generates a long array and then sorts it. You can espy the results on the graph below. They hold added two lines for 1 million and 10 million elements to the image just to point to that Hyperledger is here too. In fact, the contrast is such powerful that lines are actually invisible. 

    Y axis: Milliseconds.  

    Y axis: Megabytes 

    Now let’s consider the time required for reaching a consensus. They took a simple void transaction and allocate it in a cluster of 8 machines. The machines had to attain an agreement and return confirmation: they waited for six confirmations in the Ethereum private network and a confirmation from each node in the HyperLedger network.  The speed was still better in the HyperLedger cluster. 

    Y axis:  seconds

    We should note that they conducted the tests on version 0.6 of the HyperLedger Fabric framework; as of today the latest version is 1.2.0, which has a separate node liable for maintaining  transaction order. Back then, the network became frozen if you increased the number of nodes to 16 and the speed to 500 transactions per second. At such pace the network was not able to attain a consensus before receiving a modern transaction request. 

    HyperLedger architecture 

    Before they wobble forward, let’s consider the basic architecture of the Hyperledger blockchain. 

    Peer - the main node, which stores information about every bit of transactions (in version 1.0 it is divided into Endorser, a peer that confirms transactions, and Committer, a peer that records transactions to the register.)  

    App - the client initiating a transaction can be replaced with its own application on Hyperledger SDK

    CA - provides users with certificates that allow them to build transactions and read data from the registry

    Orderer - arranges transactions in shroud and transfer blocks to nodes for recording in the ledger

    HyperLedger can separate nodes by roles. In particular, there is a peer that stores the register. In the 1.2 version there are several subtypes of peers, but generally peers are liable for storing registers and validating incoming transactions. They store every bit of smart-contracts and chain-codes, and ratify incoming transactions and deliver them to the register. 

    The application they built is on the frontend. It can dispatch information about transactions to the blockchain, and it can login to blockchain with a member certificate. It is besides liable for consensus. 

    The CA issues certificates. By default, HyperLedger can distinguish nodes by organizational attribute; each organization has its own root certificate. With a membership certificate you can allocate rights on completing smart-contracts, rights on changing network configuration, and rights on adding modern peers – basically whatever you may want. In the newest versions of the framework, you can besides add any attributes you enjoy to certificates, so you can be even more elastic in providing different sets of rights to system participants. 

    An ordering service, or the “orderer”, is a set of nodes liable for a transaction order in a block. The orderer collects transactions into a shroud and sends this shroud to peers, so they can consign it to a register. It does not store smart contracts, though stores ledger data  in a binary file, which is used to bootstrap modern peer. Losing this file means losing every bit of blockchain data. The orderer besides performs some validation: it checks hashes and signatures.

    For example, their system consists of the following elements: 

  • A web application, 
  • A peer, 
  • An OpenGift organization, 
  • A root CA of the organization 
  • An intermediate CA, which was designed with an feeling of scaling up the system; 
  • A cluster of orderers on Apache Kafka to which every bit of ally peers refer 
  • At the present moment, their blockchain is deployed on four real peers, and they hold four orderers in Kafka. They ultimately exigency five, as it is recommended to consume an odd number of nodes for the ordering service in this mode. They hold approximately 100 client applications, 1 Root CA and 1 Intermediate CA. In the first several months of their work they hold conducted over 1000 transactions, but their system allows us to process the same quantity in 1 second. 

    Partners hold their own peers so that they can store a register and validate transactions, and customers can refer to any peer they enjoy to interact with the blockchain.  

    Client applications log in to the blockchain by providing a certificate, which can be issued by a Certification Authority intermediate server trusted by blockchain, for example, “organization one”. CA Intermediate servers are authorized by a CA Root server, which is kept aside of blockchain network.   Then the client application can interact with peers within the framework of available policies, in compliance with restrictions and permissions. Once any peer confirms a transaction submitted by the application, and if it uses any consensus algorithm, it sends the transaction to the orderer. The orderer commits these transactions to peers. After that, the application can wait for any number of confirmations from the peers to build sure that the transaction was recorded in the ledger. 

    What is it enjoy to implement HyperLedger Fabric in production?

    Perhaps the first thing you notice is an absence of any simple admin panel. It's very difficult to maintain it every bit of in production mode without Kubernetes or Swarm, so they had to write a lot of supporting scripts. Hopefully,  with the Cello project this will change for the better. 

    We faced several technical challenges while trying to implement this architecture. First, the orderer service can operate in two modes: solo mode and Apache Kafka mode. If you consume solo mode, you can’t switch to the scalable mode without re-creating the entire network. 

    Second, If you consume the orderer services on Kafka, you cannot scale it to other organizations. If other organizations already hold their own orderer services, you will exigency to attain an agreement on who will be in impregnate of arranging transactions in blocks. This means that only one organization can be liable for the order of transactions in a block, which leads to some vulnerability. However, in general, if transactions are valid, their order in a shroud is not of a particular importance. If someone changes the order of transactions and they become invalid, they will simply be marked as invalid in the block, and your request will return “fail”.

    CAs (certification authorities) are easily scalable. Each organization has a root CA, and it can issue any number of certificates to intermediate CAs. This is powerful because the CAs are liable for adding users to the network. However, the certificate revocation mode is not well configured. First, in order to request several parties to sign a revocation certificate, you exigency to write an additional chain code. Second, even when you add information about a revoked certificate in a blockchain, the certificate ex-holder can still connect to peers. You hold to generate the certificates manually and add them to folders of peers and orders. Controlling that type of process may be challenging in a decentralized structure.

    You besides exigency to retain in wit that until the orderer has created a modern block, every bit of queries to the register will return the previous state of the network, i.e. the register has transactional (versioned) semantics. This means that if you hold a business process that consists of multiple read queries and a write query prerogative after them that takes into account the result of the read queries, you had better build them asynchronous. Because in this case, your expectation of reading the registry will not be consistent with its real state. In general, you exigency to wait for the orderer to form a shroud and dispatch it to the ledger; only after that can you dispatch read queries, assuming that the state has already been changed. 

    Since the blocks are not created according to POW protocol, you can set any shroud creating frequency for the ordering service. In solo mode, you will not be able to create more than one shroud per second, and in Apache Kafka mode, you can configure this parameter quite flexibly. retain in wit though, if you subside waiting time for creating modern block, your network will multiply in size quite quickly. Disk space will besides be consumed very quickly, and so you always exigency to find a poise between a speed of transactions confirmation and your capacity. 

    The consensus mechanism is realized at the transaction level, so you can specify requirements that transactions will exigency to comply with to be valid in smart contract. For instance, when you interject a modern smart contract in the chain code, you set a procedure of its confirmation, how many participants hold to sign the transaction for it to remain valid. 

    Smart contracts can be written in several languages, Golang and Java being the main ones. A typical smart contract has the simplest structure. Only two simple methods are required to be used in smart contract: one  of the methods is called when a modern chain code is set up or upgraded (init) , and the other one when it is called(invoke). Different policies are configured to initialize a modern smart contract and to summon it. One group of users can be liable for updating of a smart contract; another group can be liable for its implementation. Here they consider the simplest function call, which takes a function and parameters of this function as an input dispute and depending on the designation of the function calls the needed method. 

    func (t *SimpleChaincode) add(stub shim.ChaincodeStubInterface, args []string) pb.Response { var cs clientState; clienState.Name = args[0] clientState.Balance = 0 strState, er := json.Marshal(clientState) err = stub.PutState(pName, []byte(strState)) if err ~= nil { return shim.Error("Failed to add Client state") } return shim.Success([]byte(“OK”)) }

    Data storage in HyperLedger may be considered as a key-value map, referred to as KV-storage.  Working with KV-storage is quite low-level.  With PutState() mode you can write in KV-storage, and with GetState() you read from it. But the most captivating thing is that you can work in a smart contract with the attributes of certificates. In this illustration you can espy how the hash of the public key of an authorized user is used as an identifier for his wallet. In the 395th line they acquire a hash and consume it as a key for KV-storage.

    func (t *SimpleChaincode) add(stub shim.ChaincodeStubInterface, args []string) pb.Response { pk, err := cid.GetX509CertificatePublicKey(stub) var cs clientState; clienState.Name = args[0] clientState.Balance = 0 strState, er := json.Marshal(clientState) err = stub.PutState(pName, []byte(strState)) if err ~= nil { return shim.Error("Failed to add Client state") } return shim.Success([]byte(pk)) } func (t *SimpleChaincode) query(stub shim.ChaincodeStubInterface, args []string) pb.Response { pk, err := cid.GetX509CertificatePublicKey(stub) strState, err :- stub.GetState(pk) if strState == nil { return shim.Error("Client not found") } var cs clientState err = json.Unmarshal(Avalbytes, &cs) return shim.Success([]byte(cs.Balance)) }

    Although, they are still using the 0.6 version of the framework, the newer versions hold some major improvements, which they hold to mention:

  • In the older versions, you needed to recreate every bit of blockchain to comprise a modern organization in a genesis block. Now it’s quite simple and you besides can change policies of working with blockchain for each organization. 
  • Starting with 1.2. version the system can hold its peers compute the requested information dynamically and present it to the SDK in a consumable manner. 
  • External applications can receive and process information about events from a chain. This feature may be helpful in a number of cases, for illustration - for notifying a controlling organization about suspicious activity.  
  • HyperLedger undergo in a nutshell

    From the technical perspective, the system is still developing (steadily but firmly.)  There are some technical issues, but hopefully that the community will find solutions for them. Still and all, they believe HyperLedger is one of the best options for companies looking to implement blockchain in real-world business. 

    On the business side, thanks to the framework they successfully realized the intended digital ownership functionality, which helps us to incentivize progress teams to work on open source projects. The network is easy to expand and can exist without a parent organization. If they disappear, the community agrees upon setting a modern ordering service, updates the channel and continue working.

    Based on a feedback we’ve received, this capability facilitates adoption of the platform, since their users don’t exigency to trust us and trust on their faculty to consequence business. They are actively looking for partners to hand over the nodes and procedure to undertake first technical integrations for their blockchain in early 2019. 

    About the Authors

    Yegor Maslov is the CEO of OpenGift Inc., platform for open source software monetization, Head of The Hive project, system empowering code reusability in organizations. Yegor has over 15 years of software progress undergo in web and mobile fields combined with an extensive background in technical entrepreneurship.

    Konstantin Erokhin is a DevOps engineer with over 10 years of professional experience. He worked in such companies as Kaspersky, Sberbank Technologies, Moscow Stock Exchange.

    Information security certification guide: Intermediate smooth | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Experience can be the best instructor, but security professionals may find that instruction coupled with more advanced...

    certifications can abet further their careers. While introductory certifications may abet novices acquire a foot in the door, an intermediate information security certification or two may abet them purchase the next step.

    This report comprehensively reviews the current state of intermediate security certifications, highlighting which are best for achieving goals specific to an information security career path. It's a companion to three other articles, which cover the vendor-specific information security certification landscape, vendor-neutral certification career paths and cloud security certifications in detail.

    Several changes hold been made for this updated cybersecurity certifications guide. The following table shows the number of certifications in the 2015 edition, as well as this 2017 edition. The overall numbers for vendor-neutral information security certifications increased by about 14%. Several certifications hold been discontinued, and 19 credentials hold been added. Some certifications hold been moved to modern categories to more accurately classify them.

    Some of the notable modern entries in this information security certification guide comprise the CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst certification and two modern EC-Council certs: the EC-Council Certified Network Defender and the EC-Council Certified Encryption Specialist.

    Part three of this information security certification guide offers advanced options for more experienced professionals. piece four includes certifications for forensics and anti-hacking, and piece five covers more specialized certifications.

    Editor's note: The credentials are listed in alphabetical order within each section.

    General Cybersecurity certifications -- Intermediate

    (ISC)2 Certified Authorization Professional (CAP) The (ISC)2 Certified Authorization Professional certification identifies individuals possessing "skills and abilities required for personnel involved in the process of authorizing and maintaining information systems," according to (ISC)2. "Specifically, this credential applies to those liable for formalizing processes used to assess risk and establish security requirements and documentation. Their decisions will ensure that information systems possess security commensurate with the smooth of exposure to potential risk, as well as damage to assets or individuals."

    In particular, this credential confirms that the holder has the knowledge, skill and undergo necessary to authorize and maintain systems within the Risk Management Framework described in the NIST SP 800-37 Rev 1 specification. Candidates must hold two years of full-time undergo in one or more of the seven domains of the CAP Common body of Knowledge. It's besides recommended that candidates possess one to two years of universal technical, database, systems progress and network experience, along with two years of universal systems experience.

    Candidates must besides prove technical or auditing undergo within the government, U.S. Department of Defense or specific industry sectors.

    (ISC)2 offers the Associate of (ISC)2 credential for candidates who pass the CAP, Certified Cyber Forensic Professional, Certified Cloud Security Professional, Certified Information Systems Security Professional, Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional, HealthCare Information Security and Privacy Practitioners, or Systems Security Certified Practitioner exam, but consequence not yet meet the undergo requirement.

    Source: (ISC)² Certified Authorization Professional

    Mile2 Certified Incident Handling Engineer (CIHE) The Mile2 CIHE certification recognizes security professionals who work to avert attacks on their organization's IT infrastructure, and those who participate in incident response to successful cyberattacks. Certification candidates are expected to be familiar with common hacking approaches and techniques, safeguards, incident handling procedures, and techniques for quickly recovering from attacks.

    Mile2 recommends that candidates hold at least 12 months of networking experience, as well as learning of TCP/IP, Microsoft packages and Linux before taking the associated course and exam.

    Source: Mile2 Certified Incident Handling Engineer

    EC-Council Certified Network Defender (CND) Holders of the EC-Council CND certification hold abysmal learning of network security controls and protocols, and know how to manage tackle and appliances -- firewalls, intrusion detection, etc. -- that protect networks from attack. Other skills comprise network traffic analysis, vulnerability scanning and assessment, network security policy maintenance, and creation of incident response plans.

    The skills required for this credential align with the National Initiative of Cybersecurity Education framework, and they map to Department of Defense job roles for system/network administrators. Candidates must purchase a course and pass the certification exam.

    Source: EC-Council Certified Network Defender

    CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst (CSA+) The CompTIA CSA+ certification is a vendor-neutral credential designed to certify professionals who hold three to four years of security and behavioral analytics experience. A CSA+ commonly works with data collected by network protocol analyzers, network intrusion detection systems, and security information and event management software.

    For candidates climbing the CompTIA certification ladder, the CSA+ is the next rung above Security+ and just below the advanced-level CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner.

    Source: CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst

    (ISC)² Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional (CSSLP) The (ISC)² CSSLP certification recognizes individuals who specialize in software security across the lifecycle, from conceptualization and design, through coding, testing and deployment.

    Candidates must hold at least four years of direct undergo in the software progress lifecycle in one or more of the eight domains covered in the CSSLP Common body of Knowledge, agree to adhere to a code of ethics, reply questions regarding their criminal history and background, and pass one exam.

    Candidates who want the requisite undergo may become an Associate of (ISC)2 by passing the CSSLP exam. Those obtaining the Associate credential hold five years to gain the required undergo in order to upgrade the certification.

    Source: (ISC)² Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional

    Mile2 Certified Wireless Security Engineer (CWSE) The Mile2 CWSE certification is geared toward network administrators, systems engineers, IT managers and security consultants who are liable for the security of one or more wireless local zone networks (WLANs). Certification candidates must be familiar with WLAN security concepts, legacy security, common attacks, WLAN auditing and more.

    Prerequisites for the CWSE certification are the Mile2 Certified Security Sentinel and Certified Information Systems Security Officer certifications, or at least 12 months of networking experience. Candidates must pass one exam to achieve certification.

    Source: Mile2 Certified Wireless Security Engineer

    CertiTrek Group Certified Wireless Security Professional (CWSP) Made available by the CertiTrek Certified Wireless Network Professional (CWNP) Wi-Fi certification and training unit, the CWSP credential recognizes individuals who can design, implement and manage wireless LAN security.

    To obtain this credential, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: CWNP Certified Wireless Security Professional

    EC-Council Certified Encryption Specialist (ECES) The EC-Council ECES recognizes IT professionals who can select and apply symmetric and asymmetric cryptography, common algorithms and hashing algorithms. A professional with the ECES credential can besides set up a virtual private network, select and implement digital certificates, encrypt a drive, and consume a variety of steganography tools.

    To obtain ECES certification, a candidate needs to complete a three-day course and pass one exam.

    Source: EC-Council Certified Encryption Specialist

    SANS Institute Global Information Assurance Certification Program (GIAC) SANS is well-known for timely, focused and useful security information and training courses. SANS offers regular in-person training, as well as online classes, and uses such classes to draw attendees to their frequent, well-situated, week-long conferences.

    SANS created the GIAC program to administer certifications related to SANS training. The GIAC program seeks to identify individuals who can demonstrate both learning of and the faculty to manage and protect requisite information systems and networks.

    Overall, the GIAC program aims at serious, full-time security professionals liable for designing, implementing and maintaining a state-of-the-art security infrastructure, which may comprise incident handling and emergency response team management. Available intermediate-level GIAC credentials comprise the following:

  • GIAC Security Essentials Certification
  • GIAC Information Security Professional
  • GIAC Certified Incident Handler
  • Global Industrial Cyber Security Professional
  • Source: SANS Global Information Assurance Certification

    Security University Qualified/Certification & Accreditation certification (Q/CA) Security University's Q/CA is for system certifiers and validators who exigency cybersecurity skills. The class identifies individuals who can assess security skills to certify and validate systems and manage the security threats within an organization, particularly in the government and enterprise sectors.

    The class has several labs on security controls and ends with a certification and accreditation validation practical. The Q/CA class meets the objectives of the National Security Agency's Committee on National Security Systems 4016A for a Fully Qualified Navy Validator.

    Source: Security University Qualified Certification & Accreditation certification

    Security University Qualified/Wireless Security Professional (Q/WSP) Security University's Q/WSP identifies and validates individuals who can architect and install wireless networks and manage and mitigate risk. Candidates must pass one exam. 

    Source: Security University Qualified/Wireless Security Professional

    About the author: Ed Tittel is a 30-plus year IT veteran who's worked as a developer, networking consultant, technical trainer, writer and expert witness. Perhaps best known for creating the Exam Cram series, he has contributed to more than 100 books on many computing topics, including titles on information security, Windows OSes and HTML.

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    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

    References :

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