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A2040-410 Assessment - IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition Application Development

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A2040-410 exam Dumps Source : Assessment - IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition Application Development

Test Code : A2040-410
Test denomination : Assessment - IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition Application Development
Vendor denomination : IBM
: 116 actual Questions

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IBM Assessment - IBM Notes

IBM acquires crimson Hat | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

developing Story

IBM has purchased open supply, cloud software company red Hat for $34 billion in cash and debt.  The deal sees IBM having a pot big on the cloud, particularly cloud features, that mix on-premises and cloud-based architectures. red Hat might live a discrete unit within IBM’s Hybrid Cloud group, and it will continue to headquarters of attention on open-supply application. The acquisition is anticipated to close within the latter half of 2019.

Assessing IBM’s $34 billion red Hat acquisition

As you emerge at the $34 billion IBM-purple Hat deal introduced yesterday, in case you comply with the business carefully, it looks enjoy a mighty move, as a minimum on its face. It may live years earlier than they tolerate in wit the genuine value of it for IBM (or want thereof, reckoning on how it in the stop goes). The questions stands then, is that this a savvy circulation, a desperate one or most likely slightly of each. It seems, it depends on whom you ask.

For starters, there's the sheer sum of money involved, a 63 p.c top class on Friday’s closing cost of just under $117 a share. IBM spent $a hundred ninety a share, but as Ray Wang, founder and chief analyst at Constellation analysis mentioned, crimson Hat didn’t always exigency to live sold, so IBM had to overpay to pick up their company.

Wang sees cloud, Linux and protection because the huge drivers on IBM’s part. “IBM is doubling down on the cloud, but they are too going for a grab in Linux for his or her greatest and most necessary open supply communities and a few of the newer tech on purple Hat protection,” he instructed TechCrunch. He acknowledges that it’s an necessary top rate for the inventory, but he believes IBM wants the M&A motion to drive down client acquisition fees and pressure up fade promote.

photo: Ron Miller

IBM is putting a ample wager perquisite here says Dharmesh Thakker, widespread associate at Battery Ventures, believing it to live worth 30x its latest salary in the next one year. “obviously, the hybrid cloud chance that they now believe been engaged on the ultimate few years, is trusty and IBM/Cisco/HP/Dell outright wish a piece of this motion going forward because the $300B in datacenter spend receives dislocated by using public and hybrid cloud companies,” Thakker defined in a press release.

He believes this deal may definitely trigger a fresh set of mega mergers between the typical tech carriers and cloud native, container and DevOps companies over the next few months.

IBM CEO Ginni Rometty was positively giddy on the potentialities of a combined IBM-crimson Hat in a denomination with analysts and press this morning, declaring that most efficacious 20 p.c of business workloads had been moved to the cloud. She sees a ample possibility, one she tasks to live cost $1 trillion by 2020. holding in wit you should prefer market projections with a grain of salt, this is absolutely a big market and one which Oracle and Microsoft believe additionally centered.

She notable that crimson Hat was a rare enterprise indeed. “pink Hat by itself has been a high value company and has done a very qualified job with potent increase, is incredibly profitable and generates money. There aren't many agencies available that look enjoy that during this area,” Rometty spoke of.

Slide: IBM

Dan Scholnick, universal partner at Trinity Ventures, whose investments believe included fresh Relic and Docker, changed into not terribly impressed with the deal, believing it smacked of desperation on IBM’s half.

“IBM is a declining company that in some way should become primary within the cloud era. pink Hat isn't the reply. red Hat’s company facilities around an working equipment, which is a layer of the technology stack that has been absolutely commoditized by using cloud. (in case you utilize AWS, that you can pick up Amazon’s OS for free, so why would you pay purple Hat?) pink Hat has NO fable for cloud,” he claimed in an announcement.

That could not live a wholly honest assessment. whereas purple Hat commercial enterprise Linux is a big fraction of the company’s revenue, it’s now not the handiest piece. Over the ultimate brace of years it has moved into Kubernetes and containerization and has grown the cloud indigenous facet of the enterprise alongside RHEL.

definitely, Forrester analyst Dave Bartoletti sees the cloud indigenous piece as being key here. “The combined company has a leading Kubernetes and container-primarily based cloud-native construction platform, and a lots broader open supply middleware and developer gear portfolio than both company one after the other. whereas any acquisition of this measurement will prefer time to play out, the mixed enterprise will manufacture unavoidable to reshape the open supply and cloud structures marketplace for years to return,” he observed.

image: IBM

Wang believes the deal may hinge on how lengthy crimson Hat CEO Jim Whitehurst, who had led the business for over a decade, stays with the unit. in line with IBM, they are going to hold the purple Hat manufacturer and office it as an independent entity internal massive Blue. “If Whitehurst doesn’t stick round for awhile, the deal could fade south,” he noted. however the company might dangle the CEO job when Rometty decides to fade away as incentive to reside.

Regardless, Wall highway became no longer entirely joyous with IBM’s circulate with their stock down outright day. for sure the sixty three % premium IBM paid for the inventory has pushed pink Hat better nowadays.

The deal should circulate shareholder muster, but given the top class IBM has offered, it’s arduous to believe they would turn it down. moreover, considering that these agencies operate internationally, they're subject to the international regulatory approval manner. They received’t officially further together except at the least the second half of next year on the soonest. That’s once they may start to study even if this was an excellent or determined circulation with the aid of IBM.

IBM is making a pot the farm on pink Hat, and it more desirable no longer mess up

Who expects a $34 billion deal involving two commercial enterprise powerhouses to drop on a Sunday afternoon, but IBM and pink Hat stunned us the day before today after they pulled the set off on a historically significant deal.

IBM has been a poster infant for a corporation affecting through a painful transformation. As sphere CEO (and IBM business partner) Aaron Levie apportion it on Twitter, every so often an organization has to manufacture a bold stream to push that variety of initiative forward:

They trust they could prefer their knotty mix of infrastructure/application/platform features and emerging applied sciences enjoy synthetic intelligence, blockchain and analytics, and blend outright of that with pink Hat’s profitable fusion of business open source equipment, cloud native, hybrid cloud and a alive to realizing of the commercial enterprise.

As Jon Shieber cited the day past, it became a tacit acknowledgement that company was now not going to pick up the results it was hoping for with emerging technologies enjoy Watson synthetic intelligence. It vital whatever that translated more at once into income.

crimson Hat can live that business sales engine. It already is an organization on a $3 billion salary flee fee, and it has a purpose of hitting $5 billion. while that’s rather small potatoes for a corporation enjoy IBM that generates $19 billion 1 / 4, it represents a crucial addition.

That’s because despite its iffy income studies over the ultimate five years, Synergy analysis reported that IBM had 7 percent of the cloud infrastructure market in its most recent file, which it defines as Infrastructure as a provider, Platform as a service and hosted deepest cloud. it is the latter that IBM is certainly decent at.

The company has the items in region now and a qualified quantity of marketshare, however pink Hat gives it a a whole lot extra solid hybrid cloud fable to inform. they can doubtlessly bridge that hosted inner most cloud business with their own public cloud (and most likely even those of their competitors) and utilize pink Hat as a cloud indigenous and open source springboard, giving their income groups a superior fable to tell.

IBM already has a lot of business credibility on its own, of path. It sells on perquisite of lots of the identical open supply tools as red Hat, but it surely hasn’t been getting the sales and income momentum that purple Hat has loved. in case you combine the ample IBM earnings engine and their capabilities business with that of pink Hat, you've got the knowledge to crank this into an necessary company.

photograph: Ron Mller

It’s value noting that the deal must pass shareholder muster and clear international regulatory hurdles before they could combine both groups. IBM has anticipated that it's going to prefer at least until the 2d half of subsequent yr to close this deal and it might prefer even longer.

IBM has to utilize that point accurately and well to live unavoidable after they tug the trigger, these two companies mix as easily as feasible throughout technology and tradition. It’s in no way handy to manufacture these mega deals work with so a lot money and coerce involved, but it surely is necessary that massive Blue no longer screw this up. This could very well characterize its final premiere possibility to preempt the ship as soon as and for all.

overlook Watson, the purple Hat acquisition may live the aspect that saves IBM

With its newest $34 billion acquisition of crimson Hat, IBM may believe found anything greater basic than “Watson” to retailer its flagging business.

although the acquisition of crimson Hat  is by way of no skill a unavoidable victory for the Armonk, N.Y.-based mostly computing company that has had extra downs than u.s.over the five years, it looks to live a higher wager for “massive Blue” than a man-made intelligence program that changed into outright the time extra hype than reality.

certainly, commentators are already noting that this can live a case where IBM at ultimate hangs up the Watson hat and returns to the business software and services enterprise that has always been its core competency (albeit one which has been weighted way more closely on consulting features — to the detriment of the enterprise’s business).

Watson, the company division focused on synthetic intelligence whose public claims had been outright the time extra marketing than definitely market-driven, has no longer performed as well as IBM had hoped and investors were dropping their endurance.

Critics — together with analysts on the investment bank Jefferies (as early as three hundred and sixty five days ago) — were skeptical of Watson’s means to deliver IBM from its business woes.

As they wrote on the time:

Jefferies pulls from an audit of a partnership between IBM Watson and MD Anderson as a case study for IBM’s broader issues scaling Watson. MD Anderson cleave its ties with IBM after wasting $60 million on a Watson project that became subsequently deemed, “now not competent for human investigational or medical use.”

The MD Anderson nightmare doesn’t stand on its own. I constantly hear from startup founders in the AI house that their own pecuniary services and biotech valued clientele believe had equivalent experiences working with IBM.

The narrative isn’t the made from any single malfunction, but rather the outcome of overhyped advertising, deficiencies in operating with deep researching and GPUs and intensive information preparation demands.

That’s not the simplest hardship IBM has had with Watson’s healthcare results. past this 12 months, the on-line clinical journal Stat pronounced that Watson changed into giving clinicians options for cancer remedies that believe been “hazardous and flawed” — in response to the training statistics it had bought from the business’s personal engineers and medical doctors at Sloan-Kettering who had been working with the know-how.

All of these woes believe been reflected within the business’s latest income muster the plot it reported falling revenues essentially from the Cognitive solutions enterprise, which comprises Watson’s synthetic intelligence and supercomputing functions. though IBM chief pecuniary officer pointed to “mid-to-excessive” single digit augment from Watson’s fitness business within the quarter, transaction processing application enterprise fell through 8% and the company’s suite of hosted software features is really an afterthought for enterprise gravitating to Microsoft, Alphabet, and Amazon for cloud features.

To manufacture certain, Watson is only one of the segments that IBM had been hoping to faucet for its future boom; and while it changed into a ample funding region for the company, the enterprise outright the time had its eyes partly fastened on the cloud computing environment because it searched for areas of boom.

It’s this region of cloud computing where IBM hopes that pink Hat can aid it gain ground.

“The acquisition of red Hat is a video game-changer. It adjustments every thing concerning the cloud market,” spoke of Ginni Rometty, IBM Chairman, President and Chief govt Officer, in a statement motto the acquisition. “IBM will turn into the realm’s number-one hybrid cloud issuer, providing organizations the only open cloud solution in an endeavor to free up the replete cost of the cloud for his or her businesses.”

The acquisition additionally puts an incredible quantity of advertising power behind pink Hat’s quite a few open source capabilities enterprise — giving outright of those IBM venture managers and consultants fresh initiatives to pitch and perhaps juicing open source software adoption a Little more aggressively within the enterprise.

As purple Hat chief government Jim Whitehurst told TheStreet in September, “The huge secular driver of Linux is that big facts workloads flee on Linux. AI workloads flee on Linux. DevOps and those platforms, just about solely Linux,” he talked about. “So tons of the internet fresh workloads which are being developed believe an affinity for Linux.”

The biggest application acquisition ever: IBM to purchase purple Hat for $34B

At a value usually reserved for semiconductor corporations, telecoms, and pharmaceutical giants, IBM introduced these days it would pay a list $34 billion in cash and debt to purchase commercial enterprise open source issuer red Hat. Eclipsing Microsoft’s $26.2 billion acquisition of LinkedIn, here's the largest software acquisition in history. It’s now not the largest tech acquisition ever, although, as that title belongs to Dell’s $sixty seven billion buyout of records storage company EMC.

that you would live able to study what IBM is buying red Hat to develop into a hybrid cloud company in TechCrunch editor Ingrid Lunden’s deep dive perquisite here:

So how does the IBM-crimson Hat deal (if it closes), stack up towards the different biggest acquisitions of outright time?

The crimson Hat deal is proof that the scalability of software can massively focus wealth. not enjoy industrial giants of ancient that smash up their fortunes with the physical resource suppliers that supplied and allotted their oil, chemical, or packaged first rate empires, application requires basically no cloth can freight to create or distribute. The aggregation of cost to software giants and their leaders offers both a mighty incentive to build an international-altering business, however additionally a drastic shift of capital out of the hands of labor. while it’s satisfactory to rejoice pink Hat’s accomplishment, society believe to inevitably grapple with the poverty and populism fueled by way of how software funnels funds to the few.

IBM to purchase purple Hat for $34B in money and debt, taking an even bigger jump into hybrid cloud

After rumors flew around this weekend, IBM nowadays tested that it would acquire open source, cloud utility company purple Hat for $one hundred ninety per share in cash, working out to a total cost of $34 billion. IBM mentioned the deal has already been accepted through the boards of directors of each IBM and crimson Hat however continues to live sphere to pink Hat shareholder and regulatory approvals. If outright goes as planned, the acquisition is anticipated to shut in the latter half of 2019.

The deal is outright about IBM, which has lengthy persevered to reckon on its legacy server company, taking a much bigger pot on the cloud, and very peculiarly cloud capabilities that mix on-premises and cloud-based architectures — something that the two companies believe already been engaged on together seeing that may additionally of this year (which now might live checked out as a explore at various power). crimson Hat should live a discrete unit within IBM’s Hybrid Cloud team — which is already a $19 billion company for IBM, the business pointed out — and it'll proceed to headquarters of attention on open-source software. 

“The acquisition of purple Hat is a online game-changer. It changes every Little thing in regards to the cloud market,” spoke of Ginni Rometty, IBM Chairman, President and Chief government Officer, in a statement. “IBM will turn into the world’s number-one hybrid cloud company, offering businesses the most efficacious open cloud retort for you to liberate the whole cost of the cloud for his or her corporations.”

The mixed organizations could live in a position to present utility in features spanning Linux, containers, Kubernetes, multi-cloud administration, and cloud administration and automation, IBM stated. IBM additionally delivered that together the groups will continue to build partnerships with discrete cloud providers, together with AWS, Microsoft’s Azure, Google Cloud, Alibaba and others, alongside the IBM Cloud.

As Josh Constine notes here, it’s one of the largest-ever tech acquisitions, and arguably the biggest that's committed basically to software. (Dell obtained EMC for $67 billion, to settle on up application but too a substantial hardware and storage enterprise.)

whereas businesses enjoy Amazon believe gone all-in on cloud, in many cases, a lot of businesses are making the stream regularly — IBM cites stats that estimate that some 80 percent of business workloads “have yet to stream to the cloud, held again by the proprietary nature of nowadays’s cloud market.” buying purple Hat will assist IBM improved faucet into an chance to tackle that.

“Most organizations today are most efficacious 20 p.c alongside their cloud event, renting compute power to cleave prices,” she persevered. “The next eighty percent is set unlocking trusty enterprise cost and riding boom. here's the subsequent chapter of the cloud. It requires affecting enterprise applications to hybrid cloud, extracting greater information and optimizing each a fraction of the company, from supply chains to sales.”

On perquisite of that, it'll supply IBM a a lot superior footing in open supply software, the core of what red Hat builds and deploys today.

“Open supply is the default option for contemporaneous IT options, and i’m totally pleased with the office purple Hat has played in making that a truth in the business,” spoke of Jim Whitehurst, President and CEO, red Hat, in an announcement. “joining forces with IBM will deliver us with a more desirable level of scale, resources and capabilities to accelerate the believe an result on of open supply as the groundwork for digital transformation and convey purple Hat to a honest wider audience –  all while protecting their exciting way of life and unwavering dedication to open source innovation.”

while IBM competes against the likes of Amazon, the organizations will see to stay partners with them with this acquisition. “IBM is dedicated to being an genuine multi-cloud issuer, and they can prioritize the utilize of crimson Hat technology throughout assorted clouds” observed Arvind Krishna, Senior vice chairman, IBM Hybrid Cloud, in a statement. “In doing so, IBM will aid open supply expertise wherever it runs, allowing it to scale vastly within business settings worldwide.”

IBM spoke of that pink Hat will add to its revenue increase, gross margin and free money circulation inside one year of closing.


IBM: cost trap Or deep value purchase? | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

some of the largest mistakes a value investor can manufacture is falling into a cost entice. every so often the market sees whatever thing an investor doesn’t, and a inventory is low cost for a rationale. the utilize of discounted adjusted money stream analysis may too support buyers manufacture a rational funding decision in line with a much better knowing of what form of earnings and margins the market is pricing into the inventory. This category of analysis, personally, is specially vital in a potential turnaround fable enjoy IBM. To live guaranteed they are becoming an excellent business at a qualified value, they deserve to examine the working company and credit score situations of the enterprise.

IBM’s existing inventory rate reflects expectations of at outright times lowering margins whereas asset growth remains flat. while IBM has lately turned the vogue in their revenue augment from highly terrible to pretty flat, i would enjoy to explore a brace of greater quarters of that style persisting and margins expanding before I believe the resurgence story.

The latest State of IBM

lower back in its heyday, IBM became considered a pioneer in the technological revolution. extra currently, that has now not been the case. IBM has seen imperfect revenue growth every year for the intuition that 2012, and its share rate declined well over -25% outright over the equal time.

whereas effects believe been under stellar, IBM’s working company appears a Little bit good. The Piotroski F-ranking (5) and Altman Z-scores (three.sixty one) both emerge safe. while the operating margins and debt metrics don't look to live as qualified as they traditionally were, here is understandable given IBM is a age business.

source: Gurufocus

furthermore, the company’s credit, after making the quintessential cash circulate adjustments to mentioned metrics, seems stable, and there may still live greater than adequate capital to pay maturing debts and the dividend, reduce the company’s leverage, and maintain reinvesting in the business.

supply: Valens-analysis

IBM’s newest Quarterly earnings name

On the latest quarterly revenue name, IBM’s senior vp and CFO Jim Kavanaugh talked about, “We proceed to see powerful customer demand in the rising, excessive-value segments of the IT industry. And their performance this quarter turned into driven by the choices in hybrid cloud, in protection, in digital, and in analytics and AI.”

IBM goes via a transformation from its typical hardware application enterprise to a cloud-primarily based provider business. afterward the name, Kavanaugh said, “We expected a headwind on product combine… And we’re greater than offsetting that with capabilities. They delivered their standard 12 months-to-year margin performance in the third quarter, led with the aid of capabilities up a hundred and sixty groundwork points 12 months-over-yr. The complicated work we’ve done round shifting to better cost, we’re starting to see the consciousness in their margin on that. The momentum that we’ve received on their hybrid cloud value proposition, we’re birth to see the dimensions efficiencies. And the productivity benefits are playing out as they glide ahead.” On revise of the a hundred and sixty-bps margin enlargement, cloud salary grew by 20% during the ultimate twelve months and now represents 24% of IBM’s salary.

while generic revenue boom for the latest quarter became flat, and has been negative given that 2012, the fee at which income were declining has more desirable. Jeff Saut of Raymond James commonly notes that the inventory market isn’t about whether issues are decent or unhealthy, but whether or not they are getting more suitable or worse. in the case of IBM’s profits boom, while it isn't superb, it has been getting “much less worse” on account that the lows of 2015.

source: Valens-research

management has made it very clear that it has been, and plans to continue, investing heavily into its excessive cost areas, as described above, and is infusing greater AI into its conventional company. Most lately, IBM elevated its capital expenses by using 21%, with the majority of it going into its high-margin hybrid cloud technologies. while this has been a auspicious signal, it is largely offset by using the declines in the usual product mix. earnings margins, on an adjusted cash stream groundwork, continue to live in a mild downtrend and below the as-mentioned EBITDA margins.

source: Valens-research

IBM’s 5 company Segments

five distinctive segments comprise IBM’s company: Cognitive options, technology features and Cloud platforms, world enterprise features, programs, and international Financing.

Revenues in the Cognitive solutions section declined by -5% for the quarter. This segment represents roughly 22% of IBM’s complete quarterly income and is damaged up into strategic vertices, horizontal domains, and transaction procession utility.

Strategic verticals encompass the health, analytics, safety, AI and block-chain groups. administration refers to this region of the enterprise as a “high-value segment.” it's the one by which I see essentially the most augment skills. The protection application factor can live necessary as greater corporations transition into IBM’s cloud company, and it would live a value driver for the enterprise going ahead. IBM is too investing in block-chain. It presently has over 75 energetic networks to tackle inefficiencies within the global give chain, with extra within the pipeline. The work it is doing with businesses enjoy Medtronic within the healthcare space to reduce the freight and enhance the efficiency of healthcare suggests plight as well.

The 2d area, horizontal domains, has mostly been a drag on the cognitive solutions segment as a whole. This enviornment comprises what Kavanaugh calls collaboration, commerce, and ability. IBM is working their Watson (NYSE:AI) expertise into these add-ons as, in response to administration, a longer-term funding. administration expects to see nice returns on its funding birth in 2019.

The third component of this segment is transaction procession software. On the newest quarterly call, management indicated that a very qualified pipeline of fresh enterprise is in region going into the fourth quarter and the enterprise expects growth, although it turned into now not viewed in the past quarter.

universal, the strategic verticals region of this company phase suggests promising increase, even though it become imperfect in the latest quarter and incorporates the high-margin business. The transaction procession application looks to note the least plight relocating forward as it leverages the hardware enterprise from which administration appears to live withdrawing. I reckon traders exigency to see augment within the strategic verticals enterprise to coerce IBM’s income growth and margin enlargement going ahead.

The expertise services and Cloud platforms section is the 2nd-greatest aspect, individually, for IBM’s growth going forward. This section already makes up the largest portion of IBM’s most fresh quarterly profits at $8.3 billion, or 44% of total revenue.

The hybrid cloud implementation enviornment of this section has grown over 20% year over year, and administration believes this trend can persist. It estimates that organizations are only 10-20% into the transition to the cloud and reckon it may too live a big cost driver for the top and bottom strains.

The weakness in technical lead capabilities, although, has offset optimism for IBM’s growth and skills boom. This has suppressed the phase’s tolerable performance, as revenues are down -3% for the quarter. This trend will probably persist, when you reckon that it is leveraged off the out-of-date conventional enterprise company. generally, the hybrid cloud implementations business has potential to proceed on its high-growth trajectory and greater than offset the declines within the greater-antiquated traditional commercial enterprise company. If management is apropos with its evaluation of the cloud transition being in its baby ranges, this may live a value driver for the company. it is already a huge factor of IBM’s tolerable profits.

Piggybacking on the outdated two company categories, the international business services phase has proven some increase. It represents one other 22% of IBM’s most recent quarterly revenue and grew at a +three% price. through the utilize of internal options, IBM helps organizations transmogrify from usual business programs to cloud computing. Consulting businesses transitioning to the functions that manufacture up Cognitive solutions/Strategic Vertices and Cloud structures generally generate the revenues for this section. The business has shown endured power during this observe, which has resulted in universal margins expanding by means of 270bps year over 12 months.

The fourth company section is programs, which represents $1.7 billion of quarterly profits, or roughly 9%. programs focuses largely on mainframe computers and government contracts. There is a few challenge about the income pipeline, but because of the quite low repercussion on revenue, I don’t locate it to live very material.

The fifth segment, which isn’t mentioned a mighty deal in the revenue call, is the world Financing section, which handiest represents 2% of quarterly revenue.

however these within IBM’s ranks categorical extreme optimism across the cloud business, declines within the usual hardware enterprise believe offset this growth, causing earnings and margins to continue to live flat in the newest quarter. there's plight within the fresh cloud and strategic imperatives investments made, and that trend should persist. IBM has shown temper margin expansion and has perceived to stabilize its income trajectory within the close term.

source: IBM income denomination Slides

what is the Market Pricing in?

at the moment, the ahead P/E is at 9.44, cost to free cash is 10.05, and value to operating money is 7.49—all of which might live at historic lows. in addition to these relative valuation metrics, the dividend yield sits at a 10-yr excessive of four.72% (the inventory is cheap in keeping with cash returned to shareholders). consequently, IBM looks within your budget by using most standard relative valuation metrics.

supply: Gurufocus

The regular analyst goal expense for IBM, in accordance with the opinions of fifteen Wall road analysts, is at the instant at $163.77, which gives the stock +25% skills upside. There are 5 buys, eight holds, and two sells.

based on my discounted adjusted cash circulation model, the latest market cost displays expectations of assets ultimate flat and adjusted margins declining to 19.2% over the subsequent five years. to apportion that into context, analysts are at the instant projecting adjusted margins to live around 26% via 2019.

source: Valens-research

trap or buy?

ordinary, IBM looks to live in respectable economic form. Their Piotroski and Altman rankings result not raise any purple flags and there doesn't emerge to live any liquidity hardship around paying their debt obligations and holding their dividend. additionally, even with their troubles over the closing few years, IBM is still incomes a positive return above their cost of capital (ROIC and adjusted ROA' continue to live more desirable than WACC).

while administration sounds optimistic concerning the future (they at outright times do), they believe not viewed the transition to larger margin company translate to overall EBITDA, or adjusted money move, margin enlargement. while IBM looks most economical by most typical relative valuation metrics, i want to see a number of greater a hit quarters of IBM’s transition, and tolerable EBITDA margins stabilize, before I’m purchasing the turnaround story.

Disclosure: I/we believe no positions in any shares outlined, and no plans to rouse any positions in the subsequent 72 hours.

I wrote this text myself, and it expresses my own opinions. i am not receiving compensation for it (aside from from seeking Alpha). I believe no enterprise relationship with any company whose inventory is outlined listed here.


IBM Named a frontrunner in latest IDC worldwide MarketScape | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM Named a leader in newest IDC worldwide MarketScape September 20, 2017  |  by John Wheeler A person holding a small globe.

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Many CISOs inform us considered one of their most complicated challenges is settling on, hiring and conserving trusty protection skill with the advantage, event and fervour to protect their businesses’ positive brand against the dynamic cyberthreat panorama. It’s due to this CISOs regularly turn to managed protection services suppliers as a methodology to accomplice and complement knowledge, which builds a stronger safety program able to working 24/7/365 with high resilience.

At IBM safety, their global Managed protection functions has been partnering with purchasers for more than two decades to bring world-type protection insurance way in over 133 countries around the world. And, their newest achievement is one they are arrogant and delighted to share, being that they were identified as a pacesetter within the “IDC MarketScape: worldwide Managed protection features 2017 vendor evaluation” (doc # US41320917, August 2017). The report notes that IBM is considered one of just a few study individuals whose MSS birth will too live considered truly world, partially as a result of its skill to integrate MSS and security services international.

read the IDC MarketScape: global Managed security functions 2017 supplier assessment

starting to live global Threats demand Managed security services Transformation

With the evolution of the MSS market and advanced security capabilities required to support client corporations prefer trust of shift and the frequency of cyberthreats, no single approach or service will suffice. although IBM has been delivering managed protection functions for greater than twenty years, they believe invariably transformed to serve their shoppers’ needs, enhance their safety intelligence and innovation, and create an ecosystem geared toward collaborating and sharing with other protection intelligence corporations and purchasers world wide.

fresh months believe proven agencies exigency vigilant, round-the-clock managed safety, sophisticated intelligence operations and international response teams ready to deal with cyberthreats. each the WannaCry and Petya/NotPetya attacks believe been peculiarly difficult for many companies everywhere.

As notable within the record, IBM has committed to the advancement of their managed security services offerings with improved investments in people, who're supported with the aid of cognitive improvements such as Watson for Cyber safety, and a global network of security operations facilities (SOCs). This, along side their X-force Incident Response and Intelligence features (IRIS) group, can provide faster, greater concise information to shoppers to manufacture decisions and prefer evasive action when indispensable.

MSS Helps address altering Jurisdictional necessities

With a lot of statistics coverage rules and subsequent customer wants, a different key skills that their global community of X-drive Command facilities offers is the localization and management of facts inside a selected jurisdiction, however retaining the fluidity of seeing and responding to world safety hobbies as they ensue.

We lately unveiled their European X-force Command middle in Wroclaw, Poland, which is designed to support their clients whose corporations drop inside numerous jurisdictional obligations, however nonetheless require the oversight and intelligence of a replete international community monitoring cyber incidents and hobbies.

We’re outright in this together: world Threats Require a world Response

earning revise spot in an business analyst report is not any small accomplishment, and here is testomony to their complicated work and the awareness of the IBM imaginative and prescient over a few years. international managed security services, along with innovation and subsequent incident and intelligence functions, has turn into a critical necessity for a brace of industries that wouldn't believe the time, the expertise or the people to exploit the deluge of threats and attacks.

At IBM security, they are lucky to believe teams of like-minded americans everywhere who awaken daily ready to collaborate with their colleagues in far off areas to assist serve their consumers. however more importantly, they are grateful to their many shoppers everywhere, and thru their loyalty and perception in IBM protection, this exotic accolade was made viable.

For more counsel, read the complete IDC evaluation.

examine the IDC MarketScape: global Managed safety features 2017 supplier evaluation

Tags: IBM Managed security services (MSS) | IDC | Managed security capabilities (MSS) | Managed security features provider (MSSP) | security solutions John Wheeler

vice chairman, features approach, offerings, Engineering and company Operations, IBM safety

John Wheeler has greater than 20 years in the IT application and services industry and 17 years of specialization in... 9 Posts celebrate on What’s new
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  • protection Intelligence Podcast Share this text: Share IBM Named a pacesetter in latest IDC international MarketScape on Twitter Share IBM Named a pacesetter in newest IDC worldwide MarketScape on facebook Share IBM Named a leader in newest IDC worldwide MarketScape on LinkedIn extra on safety capabilities IBM X-Force Red team member and penetration testing expert Dimitry Snezhkov ArticleHow Dimitry Snezhkov Balances the Yin and Yang of Penetration trying out PodcastX-drive red in motion: spotlight on Vulnerability management With Krissy Safi Illustration of a magnifying glass with a skull and crossbones. ArticleIs Malware evaluation perquisite to your company? IBM security consultant Ben Goodrich ArticleHow security advisor Ben Goodrich makes utilize of Physics to Navigate the State of consistent alternate in Cybersecurity

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    IBM Drops Lotus Brand, Takes Notes and Domino Forward | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    KMWorld Trend-Setting Products of 2012 | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Sep 1, 2012

    Hugh McKellar

    This marks the tenth anniversary of their Trend-Setting Products list, and as in years past, it has been assembled through consultation and collaboration with editorial colleagues, analysts, system integrators and a select group of users. They conscientiously compile the list to serve KMWorld's core constituency, their readers, and focus completely on elegant, workable, sustainable business value. They disregard the gimmicky software that might feature a clever thought but has only ephemeral importance. And although a number of the products listed here are especially well-suited, if not specifically designed, for particular vertical markets, they selected those whose benefits can live realized in their readers' widely diverse environments.

    The judging process is a collaborative endeavor that takes many months. This year more than 700 products/product families were whittled down to the 89 listed in these pages. Each company whose products are listed below helped to define and enhance a market critically necessary to their readership by listening to and working with customers. They outright limn a commitment to innovation and their customers.

    We hearten readers to send your thoughts and suggestions to the judging panel at judging@kmworld.com.

    5280 Solutions: Dynamic Payables—Web-based invoice automation solution for SharePoint.

    A9, an Amazon company: Amazon CloudSearch—cloud service allowing customers to integrate scalable search into applications.

    Abbyy USA: FlexiCapture 10—data capture and document processing software for turning hard-copy forms and documents into business-ready data.

    Accellion, Inc.: Accellion Mobile Apps-secure, enterprise—class mobile file sharing solutions. Click here for more product details.

    Access Innovations: Data Harmony 3.8—software tools for metadata management, including automatic indexing and taxonomies. Click here for more product details.

    Accusoft: Prizm Content Connect—customizable, scalable content viewer. Click here for more product details.

    Acquia: Dev Desktop—package that installs Acquia Drupal on Windows and Mac OS X.

    Acrolinx: Acrolinx IQ—natural language processing engine enabling creation of search-ready content.

    Alfresco: Alfresco in the Cloud—allows users to collaborate and share files both inside and outside the organization securely on any device.

    Altep: Inspicio—legal electronic document review platform with integrated concept searching, clustering and categorization. Click here for more product details.

    AnyDoc Software: CAPTUREit—standalone document capture application and fraction of either end-to-end OCR or AnyDoc automated document and data capture. Click here for more product details.

    Appian: Appian BPM Suite—mobile, cloud and social process improvement.

    ASG Software Solutions: ASG CloudFactory—comprehensive cloud management. Click here for more product details.

    Attensity: Attensity Pipeline—real-time, semantically annotated social media data stream for big organizations.

    Attivio: dynamic Intelligence Engine 3.0—accessible, standards-based unified information access platform.

    Autonomy: IDOL 10—a single processing layer for audio, video, social media, e-mail, Web content and structured data.

    AvePoint: DocAve Content Shield for SharePoint—automating enforcement of information governance policies for tagging and classifying content. Click here for more product details.

    BA Insight: Longitude Enterprise Search for SharePoint and FAST—integrated SharePoint solution that provides replete previews of search result content regardless of type or location.

    Bamboo Solutions: Web Parts and Tools—portfolio to accelerate portal deployment and facilitate adoption and continued usage. Click here for more product details.

    Birst: Birst Enterprise Edition—self-service business intelligence.

    BP Logix: Process Director Cloud Edition—business intelligence to support users anticipate and foretell potential problems in business processes.

    Bridgeline Digital: iAPPS Content Manager V. 4.7—Web experience management with internationalization capabilities for e-commerce. Click here for more product details.

    Citrix: XenDesktop—desktop virtualization for on-demand service on any device.

    Clarabridge: Clarabridge Enterprise—voice of the customer platform for data acquisition with linguistic processing and enterprise reporting.

    Colligo Networks: Colligo Desktop for SharePoint—document, e-mail and records management solution.

    Comperio Search: Comperio Front—business logic software for search solutions. Click here for more product details.

    Concept Searching: Smart Content Framework—software to identify and tag content with semantic metadata and then classify it to organizational taxonomies.

    Connotate: Agent Community—software and services provide an interface for highly accurate data collection.

    Consona, which recently merged with CDC Software to form Aptean: CRM Suite—knowledge management, enterprise customer relationship management, e-service and network management software.

    Content Analyst: Content Analyst Analytical Technology (CAAT) V. 3.11—deep analytics for unstructured data applications, including legal document review.

    Coveo: Insight Solutions—combining enterprise search and knowledge management with extensive industry expertise and best practices.

    Digital Reef: Digital Reef eDiscovery—enterprise-scale e-discovery platform for managing legal matters, regulatory inquiries and corporate investigations.

    Discover Technologies: DiscoverPoint—automated expertise location for enterprises with big workforces.

    eGain: eGain 10—complete suite of customer service and contact headquarters software to support organizations transform their traditional muster centers into multichannel customer interaction hubs. Click here for more product details.

    Ektron: Ektron 8.5—.NET Web content management, marketing optimization, social community and e-commerce platform.

    EMC: Atmos Cloud Delivery Platform—software used to deliver and manage storage-as-a-service to an Atmos storage cloud.

    EntropySoft: Content Hub Platform—content connectors providing a central point of access to outright company documents, both on-premise or in the cloud. Click here for more product details.

    EXSYS: Corvid—development software allowing non-programmers to easily build interactive Web applications.

    Exterro: Fusion Platform—workflow-driven suite including identification, legal hold and early case assessment, collection, processing, analysis, review and production.

    Findwise: Hydra—open source content processing framework for search-based applications.

    FTI Technology: Ringtail 8.2—a complete e-discovery platform with integrated visual analytics and redesigned interface. Click here for more product details.

    HiSoftware: Compliance Sheriff—enterprise compliance automation enabling repeatable and enforceable processes for outright types of content governance.

    IBM: Content Navigator—allows users to access, manage, work and collaborate with enterprise content directly from mobile devices and tablets.

    IGLOO Software: Igloo Platform—integrated suite of content management, collaboration and enterprise social networking tools.

    Infotrieve: Mobile Library—fully secure, cloud-based access to enterprise content.

    Integrify: Integrify 5.5—robust, scrawny business process management solution available as both an on-premise solution or hosted service.

    IntelliResponse: IntelliResponse retort Suite—customer experience across a variety of interaction channels, including corporate websites, agent desktops, social media platforms and mobile devices.

    IntraFind: iFinder—solutions and consultancy services for enterprise search, information access and text mining.

    IntraLinks: IntraLinks Connect—out-of-the-box solutions to share content across the enterprise while maintaining  security, control and transparency. Click here for more product details.

    Jive Software: Social business Platform—comprehensive, enterprise-class tools for communication, collaboration, content creation and sharing.

    K2: K2 blackpearl—BPM software for automating enterprise business processes and structure SharePoint applications and integrating Microsoft solutions into SAP.

    KANA: KANA Enterprise Agent Desktop—allows contact headquarters agents to access the information and functionalities required to see customer information in a single, unified desktop.

    Kapow Software: Katalyst 9.0—enables integration of applications and/or data sources without coding or APIs.

    kCura: Relativity 7—Web-based platform providing analysis, review and production stages of the electronic discovery reference model (EDRM). Click here for more product details.

    KnowledgeLake: Unify for SharePoint—permits users to stay within indigenous applications while interacting with SharePoint. Click here for more product details.

    Kofax: Kofax Web Capture—toolkit for creating Web-based applications with image viewing/scanning capabilities.

    M-Files: M-Files ECM—document management integrated with Windows applications.

    MarkLogic: MarkLogic 5—database for structure and deploying ample data applications with structured, semi-structured and unstructured information.

    Metalogix: Replicator for SharePoint 5.0—enables multiserver SharePoint content synchronization. Click here for more product details.

    Mindbreeze: InSite—secure, semantic software for Web search. Click here for more product details.

    Moxie Software: Spaces Platform—communication and collaboration designed to connect customers and employees.

    NewsGator: Social Sites for SharePoint 2010—social networking for SharePoint integration.

    Noetix: NoetixViews Workbench—automates the creation and management of customizations to Noetix views through an intuitive user interface. Click here for more product details.

    OpenText: Exceed onDemand for iPad—managed application access solution designed for enterprises.

    Oracle: Oracle RightNow CX Cloud Service—combines Web, social and contact headquarters experiences for unified, cross-channel service.

    Pegasystems: Unified Marketing Solution—inbound present management and outbound marketing combining predictive and adaptive analytics with business process management.

    Percussion Software: CM1 Version 2—pure WCM software that provides users with replete functionality delivered as an easily upgradeable product.

    Proofpoint: Enterprise Governance—tracks, classifies, monitors and applies policy to unstructured information across the enterprise where stored.

    Q-Sensei: Q-Sensei Enterprise—multidimensional search and indexing designed to develop and deploy search-based applications. Click here for more product details.

    Quest Software: Spotlight on SQL Server Enterprise—in-depth physical, cloud and virtual SQL diagnostics.

    Raytion: Enterprise Search Connectors for hasty Search Server 2010 for SharePoint—native integration with SharePoint's security trimming.

    Recommind: Decisiv Search—crawls and indexes information from any source, including document management systems, intranets, e-mail archives, contact management databases and websites.

    Reprints Desk: Article Galaxy—journal article platform for evidence-based promotions, medical information responses, as well as scientific, technical and medical research.

    RightAnswers: Unified knowledge Platform—knowledge management automation and service.

    Rivet Logic: Crafter Rivet Version 2.0—an end-to-end Web content and experience management and delivery platform. Click here for more product details.

    RSD: RSD GLASS—platform for managing global corporate information governance programs for electronic and physical records.

    SAP: StreamWork—social software enabling information analysis to drive action through collaboration with people, data and structured business tools.

    SAS Text Analytics: Predictive Analytics and Data Mining—suite of integrated predictive modeling processes.

    SDL: SDL Tridion—complete, global Web content management solutions. Click here for more product details.

    Search Technologies: Aspire—content processing system designed for search environments enabling content to live acquired, cleaned, restructured, enriched and normalized. Click here for more product details.

    Sherpa Software: Discovery Attender for Notes—federated search functionality across outright Domino databases.

    Smartlogic: Semaphore—combines ontology management, classification, text mining and semantic analysis in a search application framework.

    SpringCM: Mobile apps for iPad, iPhone and Android—cloud-based content and document management solutions.

    StoredIQ: dynamic Information Management Platform—open platform for in-place dynamic indexing and analysis of data.

    Symantec: Endpoint Protection—antivirus software virtual and physical systems that integrate into other virus protection tools with a single console.

    Synaptica: Synaptica Enterprise—taxonomy and metadata management software.

    Traction Software: TeamPage—action tracking, Twitter-style status, threaded discussion, collaboration, social networking and deep search.

    Vivisimo, an IBM company: CXO—customer experience optimization connecting customer-facing agents with information required for sales/support.

    Wall Street Network: WSN Insight—knowledge management for SharePoint.


    Skeletal pathology and variable anatomy in elephant feet assessed using computed tomography | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Introduction

    Elephants not only provide education and entertainment as zoological attractions, but too believe ecological significance as umbrella (or keystone) species, whose conservation indirectly protects others (Choudhury et al., 2008). They too believe economic import as tourist attractions and working animals. Welfare of elephants is an dynamic region of discussion, both in professional fields and in generic society. Although the welfare of captive elephants has been improving through husbandry initiatives and advances in knowledge of veterinary trust for these species, there remain several areas that continue to live obstacles to optimum welfare.

    Pathological foot conditions are one such problem area, thought to constitute the single most necessary health problem of captive elephants, with up to 50% of elephants in captivity suffering from foot problems, although the actual prevalence of carious conditions remains unknown (Fowler, 2006). Accurate diagnosis is challenging, treatment is expensive and time-consuming (Lewis et al., 2010) and confirmed unresponsive conditions of the feet are a major intuition for euthanasia in captivity (Csuti, Sargent & Bechert, 2008).

    Some foot problems are visible externally (e.g., solar pad or cuticle lesions), result not require diagnostic imaging, and look to live improving with the near-universal adoption of daily examination and foot trust routines in elephants (Lewis et al., 2010). However, other pathological lesions—particularly those affecting the osseous structures—are challenging to identify and monitor. Originally superficial lesions may lead to further problems through ascending infection, resulting in osteomyelitis and/or infectious arthritis. Osteoarthritis (OA, too called degenerative joint disease/DJD) is commonly encountered and other problems are described.

    Management conditions are thought to live the one of the most necessary factors in the development of distal limb osseous pathologies (Fowler, 2006; Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016). Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis are generally an extension of a soft tissue infection or penetrating solar trauma. arduous floors, want of exercise, and repeated concussive forces (potentially including stereotypic behaviour; Haspeslagh et al., 2013) believe outright been proposed to contribute to the development of OA (Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000) or generic musculoskeletal foot health (Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016) . Additionally, the conformation of the big and relatively straight limbs of elephants may predispose them to pathology (Fowler, 2006), as might the inherent biomechanics of the feet. Pathological changes believe been speculated to occur more frequently in regions that normally experience high pressures (i.e., mechanical stresses) during walking; namely the distal structures of the lateral digits (Panagiotopoulou et al., 2012).

    Lameness is not always an obvious feature in elephants with foot problems (Lewis et al., 2010), and radiography of the distal limb has been described to diagnose and monitor foot problems (e.g., Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000; Siegal-Willott et al., 2008; Kaulfers et al., 2010; Mumby et al., 2013). Over the recent years advanced imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) believe been more commonly used in veterinary practice for musculoskeletal and other problems, but their utilize for elephants is precluded by carcass size and transport issues. As a result of the limited availability of imaging, the frequencies of these bony conditions in captive elephants are unknown and they are almost certainly under-reported based on what they know in other big animals such as cows (Nigam & Singh, 1980; Kofler, Geissbühler & Steiner, 2014) or rhinoceroses (Regnault et al., 2013; Galateanu et al., 2013).

    The aims of this study were to identify pathological bone lesions in the feet of captive African (Loxodonta africana Blumenbach 1797) and Asian (Elephas maximus Linnaeus 1758) elephants using post-mortem CT. They hypothesise that when there is pathological change, it will live present in multiple feet of the selfsame individual and too that there will live multiple kinds of pathological change, which may live due to shared predisposing factors (e.g., management conditions, as above) and/or altered use. By exploring the locations of pathological changes, they further hypothesise that foot regions typically exposed to high pressures (i.e., lateral digits) are predisposed to developing lesions. When assessing any structures for pathology it is essential that the clinician is vigilant of conventional anatomical variation, therefore, they too record other osseous features that likely limn non-pathological, variable distal limb anatomy.

    Materials and Methods

    CT scans of 52 cadaver feet (16 perquisite fore, 12 left fore, 14 perquisite hind, 10 left hind) from 21 captive elephants (seven African Loxodonta africana, and 14 Asian Elephas maximus) were evaluated for evidence of pathology. outright elephants were adult or near-adult: ranging from 17 to 61 years old. Feet or CT scans were donated to the Royal Veterinary College from various sources (zoos and safari parks) in the European Union. Data on morbidity and mortality was later compiled from an online database (http://www.elephant.se/) as well as from donating institutions, and details on the individual elephants are summarised in Table 1.

    Table 1:

    Details of seven African (Loxodontaafricana) and 14 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in this study.

    Asterisks betoken elephants known to believe foot or locomotor problems. ‘Feet scanned’ indicates how many feet had available CT scan data, ‘Reason for death/euthanasia’ details the antecedent of death (from donating institutions or the online database http://www.elephant.se/). Elephant Feet scanned Reason for death/euthanasia Sex Age (years) African1 4 ? M 19 African2 4 Euthanasia (vaginal/urogenital tract disease) F 24 African3 1 ? M 27 African4 1 Disease (infection, gastrointestinal, unspecified mechanical abnormality) M 28 African5 1 ? F 30 African6 4 Disease (suspected cardiac disease) F 32 African7 2 Disease (unspecified) M 32 Asian1 2 ? M 17 Asian2* 1 Euthanasia (forelimb lameness) M 17 Asian3* 4 Euthanasia (arthritis and aggression) F 26 Asian4 3 ? F 40 Asian5* 4 Euthanasia (foot abscess) F 35 Asian6 2 ? M 40 Asian7* 1 Euthanasia (chronic arthritis) F 40 Asian8 3 ? F 42 Asian9* 2 Disease (osteomyelitis and foot disease) F 52 Asian10 2 Euthanasia (unspecified illness) M 50 Asian11 1 Euthanasia (unspecified) F 50 Asian12 4 Euthanasia (unspecified) F 55 Asian13 2 Sudden collapse F 61 Asian 14 4 ? ? ?

    The following distal limb structures were assessed on the CT scans for outright five digits (denoted DI to DV by convention); the carpometacarpal (CMC) or tarsometatarsal (TMT) joints, metapodial (metacarpal/metatarsal) bones, paired proximal sesamoids, metacarpophalangeal (MCP) or metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints, proximal and distal interphalangeal (PIP and DIP) joints, phalangeal bones, and surrounding soft tissues. Lesions were identified and interpreted by a big animal veterinary radiologist and resident (J.D. and R.W.), and categorised in consensus using an established scheme previously used for elephants and rhinoceroses (Regnault et al., 2013). This grading scheme is provided in Table 2. Severity of each lesion was graded as slight, moderate, or severe (grades 1, 2 or 3 respectively; see Table 2 for grading criteria).

    Table 2:

    Grading scheme used for categorising pathological changes in this study.

    Lesion type Changes observed Severity Mineralisation Mineral opacity within soft tissues at a site faraway to other osseous structures Slight = solitary short linear foci, occasionally coalescing temper = multiple linear or irregularly shaped mineral attenuating areas Severe = extensive mineralisation, frequently linear coalescing mineral structures, elongated Osteitis Disruption of conventional trabecular bone pattern, mottled appearance, multiple hypoattenuating foci, loss of parts of bone, destruction of conventional bone outline, periosteal fresh bone formation Slight/Moderate/Severe based on extent of changes Enthesopathy Discrete fresh bone formation at attachment sites of tendons and ligaments Slight/Moderate/Severe: based on size and extent of the mineral attenuation at the site of the soft tissue structures insertion onto the bone, if multiple sites affected in the selfsame bone then interpretation based on outright affected sites for overall grade. Cyst-like lesions Well-defined radiolucencies (with hyperattenuating rim) Grade based on size (not measured), small/medium/large (observer experience-based only) Fractures Sclerotic linear areas, may live with fresh bone formation at bone surface (old), linear hypoattenuation (acute) Not graded (just present/absent) Osteoarthritis Discrete fresh bone at periarticular surface, subchondral bone sclerosis, narrowing or obliteration of joint space, subchondral lysis, widening of joint space Mild: small pointed periarticular osteophytes, mild increased bone attenuation or thickening of the subchondral bone plate Moderate: Multiple medium sized periarticular osteophytes, evidence of widening or narrowing of the joint space not considered to live related to limb position only, thickening of the subchondral bone and adjacent increased mineral attenuation. Severe: Numerous and extensive periarticular osteophytes, marked narrowing of the articular space, marked subchondral bone thickening/hyperattenuation. Infectious arthritis Florid fresh bone formation at periarticular surface, subchondral bone lysis, widening of joint space, subchondral bone sclerosis, narrowing or obliteration of joint space Slight/Moderate/Severe based on extent of changes Remodelling Enlargement of vascular channels and synovial fossae, irregular contour to the osseous structures away from the joint surfaces and not considered entheseophyte formation, sometimes deep excavations in the bone, alterations in shape of a bone. Subjective scale of the overall shape of the bone, degree of periosteal change identified, alterations in the cortices. No fixed categorical variables. Subluxation Loss of articular surface contact between the bones forming a joint Not graded (just present/absent)

    The degree of ossification of “predigits” (prepollex/prehallux, or radial/tibial sesamoids; e.g., Hutchinson et al., 2008; Hutchinson et al., 2011) was too noted, and categorised as: non-ossified (code 0), minimally ossified (code 1), temper ossification embedded in (presumably) cartilaginous soft tissue (code 2), or extensively ossified single structure (code 3). Anatomical variability in the proximal sesamoid bones was described.

    For analysis, each pathology category was expressed as the number of affected structures per foot e.g., if osseous cyst-like lesions were observed only in metacarpals III and IV, the foot would believe two affected structures. For the more frequently observed pathological categories (remodelling, enthesopathy, osseous cyst-like lesions and osteoarthritis), a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was used to test age, sex, foot type (fore or hind), and species (Asian or African) as predictors on the amount of observed pathology (modelled as count data with a negative binomial distribution). The models ran as multi-variable negative binomial regressions with backwards selection. For statistical assessment, significance was set at p = 0.05. Multiple feet from the selfsame elephant were treated as repeated measures. Similar GEE models were flee for sesamoid fusion, and atypically-shaped and multipartite phalanges (though only with Asian elephants for the latter, as no African elephants had multipartite phalanges). A GEE (ordinal logistic) model was too used to test whether species was a significant predictor of degree of predigit ossification (modelled as categorical data), and then separately within each species as bi-variable models to test if age and foot type were significant predictors. Statistical analyses were performed in IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 24.0).

    To examine whether elephants with pathological lesions in one foot were more likely to believe lesions in other feet, they compared the balance of elephants with one vs. two or more feet diagnosed with pathology (only for the 15 elephants with scans of multiple feet, and pathology in at least one foot) for outright categories.

    Results Pathological changes

    All of the elephant feet in this study (i.e., outright adults and near-adults) were observed to believe pathology of some type under their grading scheme. However, the majority of these lesions (63%) were grade 1, thus considered to live clinically insignificant or anatomical variants. They considered lesions of grade 2 or 3 (moderate and marked/severe) likely to limn clinically significant pathology. Based on this assessment, only grade 2 and 3 lesions were analysed further below. Forty seven of 52 feet (21/21 elephants) were found to accommodate pathological changes graded temper (2) or greater. Percentages are reported for descriptive purposes.

    The most frequent change observed was remodelling, especially observed as bone surface irregularities (Figs. 1A and 1D), representing 31% of outright pathologies observed (see Table 3 for breakdown). Remodelling was present in 18 out of 21 elephants (39/52 feet). Commonly remodelled bones were the metapodials (with 31% of outright remodelling observed here), proximal phalanges (30%), sesamoid bones (16%) and middle phalanges (8%). Commonly affected digits were DIII (27% of remodelling), DIV (25%), DV (21%) and DII (17%), whilst DI appeared least affected (10%). A GEE (negative binomial model) found that observed remodelling increased with age (p = 0.01 in the final univariate model); age remained significant (p = 0.03) after accounting for species (p = 0.2), sex (p = 0.8), and foot type (fore vs. hind; p = 0.7) in the multivariable modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, remodelling was commonly observed in multiple feet (10/13 elephants with two or more affected feet, with only three elephants having a single foot affected).

    Figure 1: Sagittal CT slices of digits in elephant feet, exhibiting pathological changes. (A) Remodelling of the metacarpal (arrow) and fracture of the middle phalanx (filled arrowhead) in DIV of the perquisite hind foot of ‘Asian8’. (B) Enthesopathy of the proximal sesamoid (filled arrowhead) and evidence of DJD (osteophytes, altered joint spacing) at the proximal and middle interphalangeal joints (arrows) in DIV of the perquisite forefoot of ‘Asian10’. (C) Focal hyperattenuating region (arrow) and misshapen, scalloped proximal phalanx (filled arrowhead) in DII of the perquisite forefoot of ‘Asian13’. (D) Remodelling of the bones (arrow), subluxation of the proximal interphalangeal joint (unfilled arrowhead) and soft tissue mineralisation (filled arrowheads) in DIII of the perquisite hind foot of ‘Asian4’. Table 3:

    Summary of Grade 2 + pathological lesions detected in this study.

    In the first column, “Af” and “As” with numbers correspond to their elephant subjects from Table 1; too “Path,” number of unique pathology categories observed per individual elephant, and asterisks betoken elephants known to believe foot or locomotor problems. Second column: “Foot”: LH, left hind; LF, left fore; RH, perquisite hind; RF, perquisite fore. Elephant Foot Calcification Osteitis Enthesophyte Cyst Fracture OA Infectious OA Remodelling Subluxation Misc. Af1 Path: 2 LF 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 LH 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Af2 Path: 2 RH 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 RF 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LF 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 LH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Af3 Path: 7 RH 6 3 7 3 0 6 2 8 0 0 Af4 Path: 1 RF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Af5 Path: 5 LF 4 0 6 6 0 7 0 9 0 0 Af6 Path: 5 LF 0 0 1 3 0 2 0 3 0 0 LH 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 RF 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 RH 0 1 2 6 0 1 0 3 0 0 Af7 Path: 3 RF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LF 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 3 0 0 As1 Path:3 RF 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 LF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 As2* Path: 6 RH 2 0 8 1 1 1 0 8 0 0 As3* Path: 4 LF 0 0 8 2 0 0 0 9 0 0 LH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 RF 0 0 8 1 0 1 0 4 0 0 RH 0 0 3 3 0 4 0 2 0 0 As4 Path: 8 LF 0 1 4 3 0 3 0 4 0 0 RF 9 0 7 3 0 4 0 4 0 0 RH 6 5 10 11 0 9 2 12 1 0 As5* Path: 4 LF 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 LH 0 0 9 1 0 2 0 6 0 0 RF 0 0 9 1 0 0 0 6 0 0 RH 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 As6 Path: 3 LF 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 RF 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 As7* Path: 6 RF 0 2 4 1 0 1 1 5 0 0 As8 Path: 7 LH 0 0 12 6 0 7 0 12 0 0 RF 3 2 7 2 0 3 1 5 0 0 RH 0 0 4 4 0 3 0 7 0 0 As9* Path: 8 LH 6 1 3 2 0 2 1 6 1 0 RH 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 4 1 0 As10 Path: 4 RF 0 0 12 3 0 10 0 20 0 0 RH 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 As11 Path: 2 RH 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 4 0 0 As12 Path: 6 LF 1 0 6 0 0 3 0 9 2 0 LH 4 0 5 0 0 1 0 8 1 0 RF 2 0 13 2 0 3 0 13 0 0 RH 2 0 2 1 0 0 0 5 1 0 As13 Path: 9 LH 3 0 5 3 1 1 0 4 0 0 RF 1 0 7 6 0 6 1 8 1 2 As14 Path: 7 LF 3 4 9 5 0 6 3 14 0 0 LH 0 0 3 3 0 1 0 5 0 0 RF 3 2 7 4 0 6 2 11 0 0 RH 0 0 1 7 0 1 0 4 0 0 Total: 55 21 204 113 2 98 13 237 9 3 755 observations (7%) (3%) (27%) (15%) (0.3%) (13%) (2%) (31%) (1%) (0.4%)

    The second most commonly identified pathology was enthesopathy (Fig. 1B), representing 27% of outright pathologies observed (Table 3). Enthesopathy was present in 18/21 elephants (43/52 feet). Commonly affected regions were the metapodial bones (32%), proximal phalanges (27%), sesamoids (21%) and CMC/TMT joints (18%). Commonly affected digits were DIII (27%), DIV (24%), DV (23%) and DII (19%), whilst DI appeared least frequently affected (6%). A GEE (negative binomial model) found enthesopathy was more commonly observed in Asian compared to African elephants (p = 0.001 in the final univariate model); species remained significant (p = 0.03) after accounting for age (p = 0.3), sex (p = 0.6), and foot type (p = 0.8) in the multivariable modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, enthesopathy was almost always observed in multiple feet (13/14 elephants with two or more affected feet versus one elephant with only a single foot affected).

    Figure 2: Transverse CT slices of digits in elephant feet, exhibiting pathological changes. (A) Multiple osseous cyst-like lesions in metacarpal (filled arrowhead) in DV of the perquisite hind foot of ‘African2.’ (B) Solitary osseous cyst-like lesions in the proximal phalanges (filled arrowheads) of DIII and DIV of the left forefoot of ‘African6.’ (C) Soft tissue mineralisation on the palmar aspect of digits (filled arrowheads) in the perquisite forefoot of ‘Asian4’. (D) Osteitis of the proximal phalanx (arrow) and infectious osteoarthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint (filled arrowhead) in DIV of the left forefoot of ‘Asian14.’

    Osseous cyst-like lesions of bone (Figs. 2A and 2B) represented 15% of outright pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 20/21 elephants (39/52 feet). Commonly affected structures were the metapodial (56%) and proximal phalangeal bones (28%). Commonly affected digits were DIV (27%), DIII (24%), DII (21%) and DV (19%), whilst DI appeared least affected (10%). A GEE (negative binomial model) found that osseous cyst-like lesions were more commonly observed in females compared to males (p = 0.01 in the final univariate model); sex remained significant (p = 0.03) after accounting for species (p = 0.3), age (p = 0.5) and foot type (p = 0.2) in the multivariate modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, osseous cyst-like lesions were generally observed in multiple feet (10/15 elephants with two or more affected feet, versus five elephants with only a single foot affected).

    Osteoarthritis (OA; Fig. 1B) represented 13% of outright pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 14/21 elephants (28/52 feet). Commonly affected joints were the carpometacarpal/tarsometatarsal joints (46%), metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joint (36%), and proximal interphalangeal joint (10%). Commonly affected digits were DIII (28%), DIV (25%), DII (24%) and DI (12%), whilst DV appeared least affected by OA (11%). A GEE (negative binomial model) found that OA increased with age (p = 0.02 in the final univariate model); age remained significant (p = 0.05) after accounting for foot type (p = 0.6), sex (p = 0.6), and species (p = 0.9) in the multivariate modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, OA was almost always observed in multiple feet (9/10 elephants with two or more affected feet, versus one elephant with only a single foot affected).

    Soft tissue mineralisation (Figs. 1D and 2C) represented 7% of outright pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 9/21 elephants (17/52 feet). These mineralisations were identified having similar interdigital, frequently linear structure in outright limbs. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, mineralisation was generally observed in multiple feet (4/6 elephants with two or more feet affected, versus two elephants with only a single foot affected).

    Osteitis (Fig. 2D) represented 3% of outright pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 7/21 elephants (9/52 feet). Commonly affected regions were the proximal and middle phalanges (33% and 29% of observations, respectively), metapodials (24%), and sesamoids (14%). Commonly affected digits were DIV (48% of osteitis observed here), DIII (38%), whilst DV (10%) and DII (5%) appeared least affected. DI was not affected in any limb studied. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, osteitis was observed roughly equally affecting multiple feet versus just one foot (2/5 elephants versus three elephants, respectively).

    Infectious osteoarthritis (Fig. 2D) represented 2% of outright pathology observed (Table 3), present in 7/21 elephants (8/52 feet), or 13 joints in total. In 7/8 feet, bone(s) adjacent to the affected joints were too observed with osteitis. Commonly affected joints were the MCP/MTP (46%), PIP (38%) and duck joints (15%). Commonly affected digits were DIV (54%), DIII (38%) and DV (8%). DI and DII were unaffected in any limb. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, infectious OA was generally only observed in one foot (5/6 elephants with a single affected foot, versus only one elephant with multiple feet affected).

    Subluxation (Fig. 1D) of a joint represented 1% of outright pathology observed (Table 3), present in five out of 21 elephants (8/52 feet). The MCP/MTP, PIP and duck joints were equally affected. Digits were too fairly equally affected. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, subluxation was observed roughly equally affecting multiple feet versus just one foot (two elephants versus three elephants, respectively). Complete luxation was not observed in any joint in this study.

    Fractures (Fig. 1A) represented <1% of outright pathology observed (Table 3), present in only 3/21 elephants (3/52 feet). Two of the fractures were identified in the distal phalanx of DIII, and one was of the middle phalanx of DIV.

    In addition to the categories of pathology listed in Table 2, they observed focal hyperattenuating (i.e., highly dense) regions within the medullary cavities of long bones (Fig. 1C) in two out of 21 elephants (2/52 feet). Three hyperattenuating regions were observed in total: two in the metacarpals of digit III (different feet of different elephants), and one in the proximal phalanx of digit II.

    In this study, multiple types of pathology were identified in most feet: out of 52 feet, two were observed with outright nine pathological categories listed in Table 2, two feet with eight categories, three feet with seven categories, seven feet with six categories, 12 feet with five categories, six feet with four categories, three feet with three categories, and eight feet with two categories. Only three feet were observed with a single category of pathology, and six feet (11.5% of limbs) had no evidence of pathology.

    Anatomical variations

    In the CT images evaluated, the configuration of the proximal sesamoid bones was variable: they were sometimes present as a pair, commonly fused together (appearing as a single bone), and occasionally absent from scans altogether (i.e., not visible as either an ossified bone or as an obvious soft tissue structure; Figs. 3A and 3D).

    Figure 3: Transverse CT slices of elephants’ feet, showing the sesamoids. (A) Completely unossified prepollex (red box) in the perquisite forefoot of ‘Asian4.’ Note too the single sesamoid of DI (arrow) and the paired proximal sesamoids of other digits (filled arrowheads). (B) Sparsely mineralised prepollex (red box) in perquisite forefoot of ‘African6.’ (C) Medium-sized, discrete ossification of the prepollex (red box) in perquisite forefoot of ‘African2.’ Note too the larger lateral sesamoid of DV (filled arrowhead) compared to the medial sesamoid. (D) big ossification bounding the outer edges of the prepollex (red box) in perquisite forefoot of ‘Asian12.’ Often, the middle of the predigit will remain partially unossified resulting in a rod-like appearance. Note too fusion of the paired proximal sesamoids (filled arrowheads) in DII–DIV, compared to the unfused sesamoids in (A).

    In digit I, the sesamoids often had the appearance of a single bone (42/52 feet); very occasionally they appeared as a fused pair (3/52 feet), and in only one foot appeared as an unfused pair. The digit I sesamoids were always present in African elephants, but were sometimes missing in the hind feet of Asian elephants (absent in 6/14 Asian elephants, or 8/35 hind feet).

    In their sample of African elephants, the sesamoid bones in the other digits were almost always paired; only two feet out of 17 had fused sesamoids (in digits III and IV in one hind foot, and digit V in another elephant’s forefoot). In Asian elephants the appearance of sesamoids in the other digits varied much more. In digit II, 22 were fused, 12 were paired, and one appeared single. In digit III, 26 were fused, eight were paired, and one was lytic and difficult to assess. In digit IV, 24 were fused, 10 paired, and one absent. In digit V, 12 were fused, 22 paired, and one appeared single. In both species, the lateral sesamoid of digit V was sometimes appreciably larger than the medial sesamoid (Fig. 3C). A GEE (negative binomial model) found that species was a statistically significant predictor (p < 0.0005 in both the multivariate and final univariate model) of amount of sesamoid fusion (i.e., number of fused pairs per foot, not distinguishing which pairs), with Asian elephants possessing more fused sesamoids than African elephants. Sex (p = 0.9), foot type (p = 0.4), and age (p = 0.7) were not significant.

    Ossified predigits (i.e., radial/tibial sesamoids associated with digit I) were more frequently identified in Asian than African elephants. In African elephants, 9/17 feet (3/7 elephants) had evidence of ossified predigits, compared to 27/35 feet (13/14 elephants) in Asian elephants. The extent of ossification was lower in African elephants: seven predigits were minimally ossified and two had intermediate ossification, versus one minimally ossified predigit, six with intermediate ossification, and 20 extensively ossified predigits in Asian elephants. design 3 shows the different degrees of predigit ossification observed. A GEE (repeated measures ordinal logistic model) found that species was a statistically significant predictor of presence and extent of predigit ossification (p = 0.009). Within each species, neither age (p < 0.9 in African elephants and p = 0.5 in Asian elephants) nor foot type (fore versus hind; p < 0.9 for African elephants and p = 0.7 for Asian elephants) were found to live statistically significant predictors of predigit ossification.

    We observed multipartite distal phalanges (Fig. 4) in 36 digits of 23 feet (12 elephants; outright Asian). Most were bipartite (27/36), but some were tripartite (9/36). Multipartite distal phalanges were most frequently identified in DV (16/36), DIII (9/36), DIV (6/36), and DII (5/36). DI had none. A GEE (negative binomial model) found that, within Asian elephants, neither age, sex nor foot type were statistically significant predictors of multipartite distal phalanges (p = 0.3, p = 0.1, p = 0.1 respectively).

    Figure 4: Three-dimensional reconstructions from CT scans. (A) Dorsal view of the left forefoot of ‘Asian5’, showing tripartite distal phalanx of DIII (arrows; too CT appearance inset) and misshapen middle phalanges of DII and DIV (unfilled arrowheads). The middle phalanx of DII is wedge shaped, whilst that of DIV is wedged-shaped with a scalloped distal aspect and missing distal phalanx (filled arrowhead). (B) Dorso-lateral view of the perquisite hind foot of ‘Asian9’ showing the bipartite distal phalanx (arrow) and missing middle phalanx (filled arrowhead) of DV.

    We observed 25 atypically shaped phalanges in 17 feet of 11 elephants (10 Asian and one African). Affected bones were most often middle phalanges (23/25 bones), but one proximal and one distal phalanx were too observed to believe atypical shapes. The shape of the bones varied, but most appeared wedge-shaped (Fig. 4A) due to relative shortening of the bone’s abaxial aspect and/or mediolateral narrowing (18/25 bones). Others appeared very rounded with loss of the typical rhomboidal shape (5/25 bones), and occasionally bones had a scalloped appearance of the articular surface (2/25 bones; see Figs. 1C and 4A). Atypically shaped phalanges were most often observed in DIV (11/25 bones) and DII (9/25 bones), with fewer seen in DI (3/25 bones) and DV (2/25 bones). No atypically shaped bones were observed in DIII. A GEE (negative binomial model) found age (p = 0.002), species (p = 0.02) and foot type (p = 0.01) to live statistically significant predictors of atypically-shaped phalanges, being more frequent in younger elephants, Asian elephants, and hind feet (20 bones in 12 hind feet vs five bones in five forefeet) in multivariate modelling. Sex was not significant (p = 0.8).

    Phalangeal number varied between digits and feet. outright African elephants had only the proximal phalanx in DI of their forefeet, and no phalangeal bones visible in DI of their hind feet. The distal phalanx of DII was occasionally absent (2/10 African forefeet and 3/7 hind feet). The distal phalanx was always absent from DV in outright African elephant feet. Subjectively, Asian elephants appeared to exhibit slightly more variability in phalangeal number. outright Asian elephants lacked at least the middle phalanx in DI of their forefeet, however some too lacked the distal phalanx (9/18 Asian forefeet), and one foot lacked outright phalanges in DI. In the hind feet of Asian elephants, some lacked only the distal phalanx from digit I (2/17 hind feet), some too lacked the middle phalanx (4/17), and most lacked outright three (11/17). In DII, 1/17 hind feet was missing a middle phalanx and 1/17 was missing a distal phalanx. In DIII, 1/18 forefeet was missing a distal phalanx. In DIV, 4/18 forefeet were missing the distal phalanx and 1/18 forefeet was missing outright three phalanges (suspected digital amputation, given the CT appearance). In DV, 3/18 forefeet and 11/17 hind feet were missing the middle phalanx (Fig. 4B), whilst 1/17 hind feet was missing both middle and distal phalanges.

    Discussion

    All elephants and almost outright feet in this study were found with lesions likely to limn clinically necessary pathology. The elephants in their study are a biased population in this regard—though antecedent of death was not always clearly specified, it appears at least five of the 21 elephants died or were euthanised in fraction due to foot or joint problems. Despite this, their findings reinforce the longstanding concern that foot problems are frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in captive elephants (Steel, 1885; Fowler, 2001; Luikart & Stover, 2005; Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012).

    In addition to foot problems that are widely acknowledged in the literature on elephant pathologies (OA, infectious OA, osteitis, fractures and subluxation), they believe observed remodelling of bones, enthesopathy, osseous cyst-like lesions, soft tissue mineralisation and hyperattenuating bone foci. They too found atypically shaped and absent phalanges, though any pathological significance of these features is unclear. Most of the elephant feet in this study had several pathological diagnoses (Table 3), supporting the notion that the different types of pathology believe common causes, and/or that the establishment of one disease process may predispose elephants to developing others. For many types of pathology, multiple feet from the selfsame elephant were affected, consistent with a generalised predisposition (e.g., husbandry, obesity; see too Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016) rather than singular cause. Most of their findings generally drop into three (sometimes overlapping) categories: lesions related to weight-bearing and loading of tissues, lesions related to ascending infection, and variable anatomy with unclear pathological significance.

    Loading appears to believe a significant influence on the development of pathology. A big balance of the identified pathology was concentrated on the lateral three digits (remodelling, enthesopathy, osteitis, and infectious OA) or middle three digits (OA and osseous cyst enjoy lesions); digits III and IV being the common denominator in both cases. The carcass weight of elephants is thought to live principally borne by the middle three digits (DII, DIII, and DIV) (Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012), with the lateral three digits (DIII, DIV, DV) typically experiencing the greatest pressures during walking (Panagiotopoulou et al., 2012). perverse to expectations, they did not find the forelimbs to live significantly more affected by pathology than the hind limbs (Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000), despite bearing a greater balance of bodyweight (−60%; Genin et al., 2010). However, pressures on the forefeet are only higher in some instances and regions (Panagiotopoulou et al., 2012). Additionally, the digital cushions and predigits differ between fore and hind feet (Weissengruber, 2006; Hutchinson et al., 2011), and the limbs may live used differently in different styles of locomotion or other behaviours, potentially resulting in different patterns of loading between feet.

    In OA, the link to increased or altered loading (via obesity or impoverished conformation) is fairly well established, though other factors (including trauma) may live involved (Fowler, 2006; Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012). For other (putative) types of pathology, such as remodelling, enthesopathy and soft tissue mineralisation, the link to big or abnormal loads is hypothesised from other species. Enthesopathy in humans can live seen in degenerative, inflammatory or metabolic diseases (Ruhoy, Schweitzer & Resnick, 1998), and with aging (Shaibani, Workman & Rothschild, 1993). But animal models note that enthesopathy can too occur without tendon microtears or inflammation and may live an adaptive response to loading (Benjamin, Rufai & Ralphs, 2000). Remodelling and enthesopathy are both frequently observed in rhinos and thought to reflect tissue loading (Regnault et al., 2013; Galateanu et al., 2013; Stilson, Hopkins & Davis, 2016). The linear appearance and the location of soft tissue mineralisation in their elephants suggest that the digital flexor tendons are the affected structures. Mineralisation of the deep digital flexor tendon in horses has been observed as a response to confirmed injury (Dyson, 2003b), and generic mineralisation has been described as a feature of tendinopathy (tendon disease arising from overuse) and following trauma in other species (O’Brien et al., 2012). The magnitude of load experienced by structures may live a factor (especially in OA and remodelling, which both augment with increasing age and therefore presumably carcass weight), as might the type of loading; e.g., altered locomotion or long periods of standing. As elephants are both very big and long-lived, they may live more predisposed to loading-associated pathology and/or bone remodelling (perhaps including the variable sesamoid and phalangeal bone appearances described below) compared with other species. Indeed, as ossification of the foot and other limb bones tends to open relatively late in elephants (Hautier et al., 2012) and their growth plates too tend to close late in life (uncertain and variable timing but roughly at 8–20 years of age; Roth, 1984; Siegal-Willott et al., 2008), the growth patterns of elephant feet (and perhaps limbs more generally) may leave them more vulnerable to accumulation of pathologies, although much more research is required to test this speculation.

    Osteitis and infectious OA often result from spreading soft tissue infections, or penetration of a strange protest into the foot (Fowler, 2006). Their study found the proximal bones and joints to live more affected, compared to the distal and middle phalanges more often reported in other studies (Fowler, 2006 citing Gage, 1999 and Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000); this patent discrepancy might live best explained by variability and sample sizes in both cases.

    We observed subluxation and fracture, which may result from trauma but may too sometimes live incidental findings (for example, fracture of the distal phalanx in elephants; Fowler, 2006). Post-mortem fracture or manipulation of bones out of congruency too cannot live ruled out. Interestingly, they frequently observed multipartite distal phalanges that emerge very similar to fractured phalanges but that they inferred to live a discrete entity, based on the want of callus or bone reaction. The phalanges resembled the incompletely ossified distal phalanges observed radiographically in juvenile Asian elephants (Siegal-Willott et al., 2008). The affected elephants in their study were too outright Asian (no African), and the distal phalanges of the lateral digits (DV and to a lesser degree, DIV) were most frequently observed to live multipartite. enjoy Siegal-Willott et al. (2008), they found bipartite phalanges (called ‘unilateral wing lucencies’) more common that tripartite phalanges (‘bilateral wing lucencies’). They observed multipartite distal phalanges in elephants up to 55 years old, and so it seems that the ossification centres of these bones may not always fuse with age (similar to multipartite sesamoids). They concede that the distinction between fracture and a congenitally multipartite bone can live subtle (or even impossible with confirmed fractures; Morandi, 2012), and that the pathological significance of either condition appears negligible in the distal phalanx.

    It is necessary that veterinarians and radiologists are vigilant of such apparently conventional anatomical variations and incidental lesions when evaluating pathology in the feet. Best-known amongst these is variable phalangeal number, especially in DI and DV (Ramsay & Henry, 2001; Fowler, 2006; Hutchinson et al., 2008; Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012). Their data too support this longstanding observation of elephants, and confirm that digits II, III and IV generally believe three phalanges (although exceptions existed, especially amongst Asian elephants). Atypically shaped phalanges are another source of anatomical variation observed in this study.

    Sesamoid bones too had variable appearances—not only the proximal sesamoid bones (generally paired bones in other species but which may live fused or asymmetrical in elephants), but too the predigits. These wrong ‘sixth toes’ look to live modified sesamoids that start out as cartilaginous rods but may later ossify (Hutchinson et al., 2011). In their elephant sample (with sample overlap from those of Hutchinson et al., 2011), the predigits ranged from completely non-ossified (visible as a hollow cartilaginous rod), to small and patchy regions of mineral attenuation, to big discrete pieces of bone, to long, complicated and jointed structures curving around to the back of the foot. Within the selfsame animal, the degree of mineralisation in pairs of forefeet or hind feet was consistent, but could vary between fore and hind limbs.

    We found that Asian elephants showed a greater tendency towards ossification of the predigits. Presence of sesamoid bones at joints has been linked to increased OA by some studies (e.g., Pritchett, 1984; Hagihara et al., 1993), though not others (e.g., Muehleman, Williams & Bareither, 2009). The workable link to OA in humans has prompted the hypothesis that sesamoids may predispose joints to developing disease, or that both OA and sesamoids are linked by an underlying process (i.e., tendency for endochondral ossification; Sarin et al., 1999). Although they did not find significantly more OA in Asian compared to African elephants, they did find more enthesopathy, more sesamoid fusion, and multipartite distal phalanges (indicating multiple unfused ossification centres). Along with their greater predigit ossification, these findings lead us to speculate that Asian elephants might believe an increased tendency for endochondral ossification (in their distal limbs) than African elephants. This could define some differences in disease prevalence and bone anatomy.

    Of their findings, only the osseous cyst-like lesions and hyperattenuating regions result not clearly appropriate into the categories of lesions related to loading, infection, or incidental finding/variable anatomy. Osseous cyst-like lesions may live secondary to OA, osteochondrosis (particularly if subchondral), ischaemic necrosis, haemorrhage, or vascular malformation (Carlson & Weisbrode, 2006). enjoy their elephants, sex-based biases in cyst prevalence believe been notable in humans (O’Donnell, 2009) and some other animals (Craig, Dittmer & Thompson, 2016). The hyperattenuating regions resemble enostoses (benign foci of dense bone), which are sometimes associated with lameness in horses (Dyson, 2003a). The antecedent is unknown, but contributing factors may involve excess dietary calcium (Carciofi & result Prado Saad, 2008).

    Conclusions

    Though a small balance of their elephants were previously known to believe foot or joint problems, the generally high level of pathology found in their study highlights the exigency for continuing vigilance regarding elephant foot health. They should not live complacent with want of lameness or externally patent signs. A comprehensive evaluation of foot health in elephants should therefore involve ‘baseline’ foot radiographs to establish the ‘normal’ anatomy for that individual, and annual assessment thereafter using radiographic protocols with standard views optimal for the detection of pathological lesions (Mumby et al., 2013). In addition, weight management, regular exercise, a antiseptic and preempt environment (with minimal time spent on arduous surfaces; Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016), and other measures to forestall over-loading, injury and infection should not live overlooked.

    Supplemental Information Raw data (lesions graded from CT scans)

    Sheet 1 is the raw collected data, sheet 2 contains a summary of the elephants, predigits, sesamoids and grade 2 + pathology, sheet 3 contains the raw data for misshapen or missing phalanges.



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