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922-090 Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 and IP Networking Design

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922-090 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 and IP Networking Design

Test Code : 922-090
Test name : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 and IP Networking Design
Vendor name : Nortel
: 30 real Questions

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Nortel Nortel Communication Server 1000

Nortel Builds on its Unified Communications vision, solutions Portfolio | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Nortel

NYSE : NTTSX : NT

Nortel

March 05, 2007 09:02 ET

CEO Mike Zafirovski Outlines Nortel UC imaginative and prescient at VoiceCon 2007

ORLANDO, FLORIDA--(CCNMatthews - March 5, 2007) - At VoiceCon Spring 2007 this week, Nortel(1) (TSX:NT)(NYSE:NT) is outlining its vision for unified communications (UC) and unveiling current options designed to supply organisations with basic and authentic methods to bring voice, video and information over IP and enable advanced unified communications.

Nortel President and CEO Mike Zafirovski could exist a keynote speaker on Tuesday, and should dispute how unified communications options and converged purposes are poised to transform trade communications.

"Unified communications fundamentally changes the way firms speak, simplifying the deluge of communications with a single, seamless interface," referred to Zafirovski. "Nortel and their companions are working to create a UC event that makes workers greater productive and responsive, with a prosperous communications adventure within the workplace or on the go."

Nortel's unified communications vision specializes in featuring solutions that align to the company ambiance the trade makes consume of today. These solutions enable clients to journey streamlined communications inside their trade utility whereas leveraging their current IT investments - basically UC your approach.

As allotment of its expanding unified communications portfolio, Nortel is introducing several current options that carry a richer set of UC tools whereas making inescapable the resiliency of the communications network.

Nortel's cornerstone IP Telephony answer, the communique Server (CS) a thousand will convey current capabilities and enhancements to additional strengthen this leading VoIP platform. a brand current free up of CS one thousand will provide better reliability and redundancy, better network and voice convene security and current E911 capabilities, sum aimed at guaranteeing companies can signify on their network for vital communications needs. through deliberate interoperability with Microsoft office Communications Server 2007, this current unencumber will convey unified communications capabilities as allotment of the creative Communications Alliance roadmap.

the current CS 1000 structure will prolong its aid for open requirements, with mitigate for an open working gadget and birth on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware from IBM and different suppliers, to enrich deployment flexibility and manageability of the network. huge simplification of the portfolio facets and pricing bundles will profile it simpler for partners and resellers to cite and sell. This current liberate is planned for availability in 2Q07.

additionally today Nortel introduced the regular availability of a current unencumber of the award-profitable Multimedia communique Server (MCS) 5100. This current unlock improves productivity with the aid of proposing users with tight integration of telephony and multimedia functions inside IBM Lotus Notes. It additionally points a number of tremendous enhancements, together with better and simplified collaboration capabilities that enable a complete latitude of voice, video, conferencing, e-mail, IM and presence capabilities at the click on of a mouse, together with more advantageous mobility capabilities that give a prosperous communications sustain for cellular laborers. the current MCS 5100 free up additionally introduces assist for brand current SIP-primarily based IP phones improving usability and suppleness and improves the familiar security, reliability, manageability and scalability of the core platform, which now operates on IBM servers with a Linux operating gadget.

Nortel is additionally introducing Unified Messaging (UM) 2000, a characteristic-prosperous, carrier-grade admit assisting as much as 1000000 clients that makes it feasible for voicemail, fax and e mail to exist accessed together via tolerable email applications and integrates with Microsoft's energetic directory®. UM 2000 is requisites-based mostly in order that it might operate in a multivendor voice community, and is targeted to global agencies in addition to carriers that present their consumers unified messaging solutions.

To aid agencies set up UC-optimized networks, Nortel is also unveiling converged records networking enhancements to its North American marketing campaigns, which build on the successful IPT 1-2-three crusade launched closing yr. These crusade enhancements encompass accomplice equipment, focused claim generation actions, pre-engineered information applications, and optional functions that profile it less complicated and extra competitively priced for authorized channel partners to deploy a LAN that supports shoppers' VoIP and UC needs.

These information programs and features may also exist quoted starting in April 2007 and encompass options to enable the entire deployment of power over Ethernet, VoIP-Optimized relaxed Routing for WAN access, and WLAN for mobility and optional renovation, setting up and technical assist services. Nortel's North American crusade also contains promoting and incentive courses accessible today through authorized Nortel channel companions for agencies who are customizing their community for unified communications.

About Nortel

Nortel is a recognized chief in offering communications capabilities that profile the pledge of trade Made basic a truth for their purchasers. Their subsequent-technology applied sciences, for each service company and enterprise networks, assist multimedia and enterprise-crucial applications. Nortel's applied sciences are designed to assist dispose of modern-day obstacles to efficiency, speed and performance via simplifying networks and connecting people to the counsel they want, after they want it. Nortel does trade in more than 150 countries world wide. For more counsel, visit Nortel on the web at www.nortel.com. For the latest Nortel news, talk over with www.nortel.com/news.

definite statements during this press unlock may comprise phrases similar to "may", "expects", "can also", "anticipates", "believes", "intends", "estimates", "pursuits", "envisions", "seeks" and different equivalent language and are regarded ahead-looking statements or suggestions beneath applicable securities legislation. These statements are in line with Nortel's latest expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections concerning the operating environment, economies and markets in which Nortel operates. These statements are area to vital assumptions, hazards and uncertainties, which are difficult to foretell and the actual influence could exist materially diverse. further, exact results or movements may scope materially from these pondered in ahead-searching statements as a result of prerogative here(i) hazards and uncertainties regarding Nortel's restatements and connected concerns together with: Nortel's most recent restatement and two previous restatements of its monetary statements and related events; the noxious repercussion on Nortel and NNL of their most recent restatement and prolong in submitting their monetary statements and linked fitful reviews; prison judgments, fines, penalties or settlements, or any giant regulatory fines or different penalties or sanctions, involving the ongoing regulatory and criminal investigations of Nortel within the U.S. and Canada; any large pending civil litigation moves not encompassed by Nortel's proposed classification motion agreement; any vast cash payment and/or huge dilution of Nortel's existing fairness positions due to the approval of its proposed type action settlement; any unsuccessful remediation of Nortel's cloth weaknesses in inner manage over fiscal reporting leading to an inability to file Nortel's results of operations and fiscal circumstance precisely and in a well timed method; the time required to build into result Nortel's remedial measures; Nortel's inability to access, in its current kind, its shelf registration filed with the us Securities and exchange fee (SEC), and Nortel's below investment grade credit rating and any extra adverse result on its credit rating as a result of Nortel's restatements of its fiscal statements; any adverse maintain an result on on Nortel's trade and market cost of its publicly traded securities arising from carrying on with noxious publicity involving Nortel's restatements; Nortel's abilities lack of talent to attract or hold the personnel requisite to achieve its enterprise aims; any breach via Nortel of the persevered record necessities of the NYSE or TSX inflicting the NYSE and/or the TSX to commence suspension or delisting strategies;(ii) hazards and uncertainties relating to Nortel's company together with: each year and quarterly fluctuations of Nortel's working effects; decreased claim and pricing pressures for its products because of world fiscal circumstances, tremendous competitors, competitive pricing practice, cautious capital spending by consumers, multiplied trade consolidation, impulsively altering technologies, evolving trade requirements, standard current product introductions and brief product life cycles, and other traits and industry qualities affecting the telecommunications business; the sufficiency of lately introduced restructuring moves, including the competencies for higher actual charges to exist incurred in reference to these restructuring movements in comparison to the estimated fees of such moves and the capability to obtain the centered can imbue reductions and discount rates of Nortel's unfunded pension liability deficit; any material and adversarial influences on Nortel's performance if its expectations concerning market claim for particular products prove to exist wrong or on account of inescapable limitations in its efforts to extend internationally; any reduction in Nortel's working consequences and any linked volatility available in the market cost of its publicly traded securities arising from any decline in its crude margin, or fluctuations in exotic foreign money change prices; any terrible trends linked to Nortel's provide compress and compress manufacturing agreements together with on account of the consume of a sole organisation for key optical networking options components, and any defects or mistake in Nortel's current or deliberate products; any noxious touch to Nortel of its failure to obtain its enterprise transformation goal; additional valuation allowances for sum or a portion of its deferred tax property; Nortel's failure to give protection to its intellectual property rights, or any adverse judgments or settlements bobbing up out of disputes related to highbrow property; adjustments in rules of the cyber web and/or other points of the industry; Nortel's failure to effectively operate or integrate its strategic acquisitions, or failure to consummate or exist triumphant with its strategic alliances; any negative result of Nortel's failure to adapt correctly its fiscal and managerial handle and reporting programs and tactics, manage and grow its business, or create a superior risk administration strategy; and(iii) hazards and uncertainties relating to Nortel's liquidity, financing preparations and capital together with: the maintain an result on of Nortel's most fresh restatement and two outdated restatements of its monetary statements; any inability of Nortel to maneuver money circulate fluctuations to fund working capital necessities or obtain its company aims in a well timed mode or acquire extra sources of funding; unreasonable degrees of debt, barriers on Nortel capitalizing on enterprise opportunities as a result of mitigate facility covenants, or on acquiring further secured debt pursuant to the provisions of indentures governing inescapable of Nortel's public debt issues and the provisions of its assist facility; any raise of constrained money necessities for Nortel whether it is unable to at ease altenative support for duties coming up from separate commonplace path company actions, or any lack of talent of Nortel's subsidiaries to deliver it with enough funding; any terrible repercussion to Nortel of the should profile better defined advantage plans contributions in the future or publicity to consumer credit score risks or lack of talent of purchasers to fulfill imbue obligations below client financing preparations; any impoverished touch on Nortel's potential to profile future acquisitions, elevate capital, problem debt and continue personnel coming up from stock expense volatility and additional declines available in the market expense of Nortel's publicly traded securities, or the proportion consolidation leading to a lower complete market capitalization or adversarial result on the liquidity of Nortel's typical shares. For additional information with respect to inescapable of those and other components, observe Nortel's Annual record on Form10-k/A, Quarterly reports on benign 10-Q and different securities filings with the SEC. except otherwise required by means of applicable securities laws, Nortel disclaims any purpose or duty to update or revise any forward-searching statements, whether as a result of current tips, future events or otherwise.

(1)Nortel, the Nortel emblem and the Globemark are emblems of Nortel Networks.


Microsoft and Nortel existing Alliance Roadmap | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

news

Microsoft and Nortel current Alliance Roadmap Six months after announcing a telecommunications alliance, Microsoft and Nortel this week presented some early outcomes of their efforts and outlined a roadmap for future tasks.

both businesses first introduced their collaboration closing summer time.

The highway map includes three current joint solutions “to dramatically help trade communications via breaking down the limitations between voice, electronic mail, quick messaging, multimedia conferencing and other types of communication,” in accordance with a press release by way of both companies.

also included within the announcement are eleven current implementation services from Nortel and the opening of greater than 20 joint demonstration facilities the dwelling shoppers can event the know-how, the statement persevered.

furthermore, the two businesses preeminent they've signed agreements with dozens of consumers, and maintain developed a “pipeline of a whole bunch of prospects who need to recognise the advantages of unified communications.”

From Microsoft's point of view, it is sum a allotment of the business's lengthy-term play to merge sum kinds of communications and messaging prerogative into a single framework. A yr in the past, the company introduced that it turned into merging its change Server community with its precise-Time Collaboration (RTC) group, and that it had begun to feel of both applied sciences comprising a "platform."

the brand current community changed into named the Unified Communications group (UCG) and resides in Microsoft's trade Division. The conception for the current community emanated from a imaginative and prescient of including continuity to a myriad of communications gadgets, technologies and modes -- from electronic mail and immediate messaging to Voice over cyber web Protocol (VoIP), audio/video and internet conferencing -- in a unified method.

The three current joint solutions introduced through the alliance this week are named Unified Communications integrated department, Unified Messaging, and Conferencing.

When it's purchasable within the fourth quarter, UC built-in branch will comprehend Nortel and Microsoft technology on a single piece of hardware that offers VoIP and unified communications in far off offices.

Coming slightly previous within the 2d quarter, Unified Messaging will purpose to simplify consumer deployments, native session initiation protocol (SIP) interoperability between the Nortel communication Server 1000 and Microsoft change Server 2007. The solution contains Nortel expert features for design, deployment and help.

also coming within the fourth quarter, Conferencing will extend Nortel Multimedia Conferencing to Microsoft workplace Communicator 2007. It aims to provide a single customer journey constant throughout purposes equivalent to voice, speedy messaging, presence, and audio- and videoconferencing.

This yr, the agencies additionally plot to extend their latest unified communications solution — a unified computer and smooth cellphone for VoIP, electronic mail, immediate messaging and presence — to the Nortel communication Server 2100, a carrier-grade commercial enterprise telephony product assisting up to 200,000 clients on a single system, in line with trade statements.

As for the highway map, the two companies maintain fitted greater than 20 joint demonstration centers in North the us, Europe and Asia, with more than 100 extra facilities scheduled to open by means of midyear.

Nortel has additionally added eleven core integration capabilities to mitigate shoppers construct, deploy and mitigate joint unified communications solutions, including end-to-end mission administration. Nortel claims it has already trained greater than 2,200 VoIP experts to carry these functions and should add extra as deployment ramps up.

about the creator

Stuart J. Johnston has lined expertise, notably Microsoft, seeing that February 1988 for InfoWorld, Computerworld, information Week, and pc World, as well as for trade Developer, XML & web services, and .web magazines.


Nortel and Microsoft CEOs contour Transformation of trade Communications | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

big apple — Jan. 17, 2007 — today, Microsoft Corp. CEO Steve Ballmer and Nortel* CEO and President Mike Zafirovski introduced a joint road map to deliver their shared vision for unified communications. The highway map is the result of an alliance between Microsoft and Nortel announced in July 2006, and contains three current joint options to dramatically enhance trade communications by using breaking down the boundaries between voice, e-mail, immediate messaging, multimedia conferencing and other styles of communication.

speakme at an adventure at Studio 8H in Rockefeller core to greater than a hundred customers together with journalists and analysts, Ballmer and Zafirovski outlined how groups can augment worker productiveness and effectiveness and lop back the expenses and complexity of communications. They also introduced 11 current implementation features from Nortel and the hollow of more than 20 joint demonstration centers the dwelling valued clientele can adventure the technology firsthand.

in barely six months on account that the alliance become formed, both groups maintain signed agreements with dozens of shoppers, and maintain developed a pipeline of lots of of prospects who are looking to understand the merits of unified communications.

“we are executing forcefully on the imaginative and prescient of this alliance and maintain made giant growth,” Zafirovski pointed out. “We achieved the planning stages and are now offering unified communications options to companies everywhere. Their purpose is to shut the gap between the gadgets they consume to communicate and the trade purposes they consume to run their organizations, giving employees the energy to profile consume of information more straight away and without problems.”

“The standard worker gets greater than 50 messages every day1 on as much as seven separate devices or purposes,” Ballmer introduced. “application can and should support handle the continuing challenge of managing communications and this problem is the driving understanding behind their alliance with Nortel. collectively, they will evolve VoIP and unified communications to integrate sum the methods they contact each and every different in an facile environment, the usage of a single identity across telephones, PCs and other gadgets.”

New solutions to help Communications and Collaboration

Microsoft and Nortel fashioned the imaginative Communications Alliance to mitigate organizations seriously change company communications by using dashing up the transition to voice over web protocol (VOIP) and unified communications. offering on the imaginative and prescient they outlined in July, Microsoft and Nortel nowadays brought three current options:

  • UC built-in branch. This current product from the alliance will comprise Nortel and Microsoft® technology on a single piece of hardware that provides low cost, much and straightforward-to-install VoIP and unified communications in far flung offices. The UC built-in branch is deliberate to exist available in the fourth quarter of 2007.

  • Unified Messaging. To simplify client deployments, native session initiation protocol (SIP) interoperability between the Nortel conversation Server a thousand and Microsoft alternate Server 2007 Unified Messaging is deliberate to exist obtainable in the 2nd quarter of 2007. The admit contains Nortel expert functions for design, deployment and assist.

  • Conferencing. This current solution will lengthen the wealthy feature set of Nortel Multimedia Conferencing to Microsoft workplace Communicator 2007, providing a single, everyday client journey consistent across applications comparable to voice, posthaste messaging, presence, and audio- and videoconferencing. The on-premise solution is deliberate to exist obtainable within the fourth quarter of 2007.

  • In 2007, the organizations additionally plot to extend their existing unified communications solution — a unified computer and elegant mobile for VoIP, e mail, speedy messaging and presence — to the Nortel communication Server 2100, a carrier-grade commercial enterprise telephony product aiding as much as 200,000 clients on a single system.

    furthermore, Nortel and Microsoft offered a street map for 2008 and past for relocating company communications onto a utility platform designed to power a much better-satisfactory user sustain and reduce total can imbue of ownership. The street map outlines a number of key functions and expertise trends together with a unified communications contact core, Nortel characteristic server, expanded hosted UC options, mobility and customer solutions, and software-aware networking enhancements.

    “imaginative communications and collaboration applied sciences are vital to wholly enabling Royal Dutch Shell’s world work force, and key to operating at correct quartile in their trade. They reckon in and support the imaginative and prescient Nortel and Microsoft maintain outlined,” pointed out Johan Krebbers, community IT architect at Royal Dutch Shell, who joined Ballmer and Zafirovski onstage for nowadays’s adventure. “Over the subsequent a number of years, they plot to migrate their network to a software-based mostly communications gear constructed on applied sciences represented by way of the Nortel and Microsoft alliance.”

    Experiencing VoIP and Unified Communications solutions

    The groups announced that they maintain got outfitted more than 20 joint demonstration centers in North the us, Europe and Asia, with greater than a hundred additional facilities scheduled to open by way of midyear.

    In a connected announcement, Nortel added eleven core integration services to support valued clientele build, install and mitigate joint unified communications options, together with conclusion-to-end assignment administration. Nortel already has greater than 2,200 VoIP consultants to bring these functions and may add greater as deployment ramps up. This group is supported by way of the ten,000-potent Nortel global functions group and a huge ecosystem of functions partners.

    About Nortel

    Nortel is a recognized chief in delivering communications capabilities that raise the human experience, ignite and vigour international commerce, and secure and protect the world’s most faultfinding guidance. Their next-technology applied sciences, for both service providers and organisations, span access and core networks, guide multimedia and business-crucial functions, and support dispose of nowadays’s boundaries to effectivity, speed and performance via simplifying networks and connecting americans with assistance. Nortel does enterprise in more than 150 international locations.

    About Microsoft

    based in 1975, Microsoft (Nasdaq “MSFT”) is the worldwide leader in application, features and solutions that mitigate individuals and organizations recognize their complete expertise.

    note to editors: if you are interested in viewing additional info on Microsoft, please consult with the Microsoft internet page at http://www.microsoft.com/presspass on Microsoft’s corporate assistance pages. internet links, mobilephone numbers and titles had been usurp at time of publication, however may additionally because maintain changed. For extra information, journalists and analysts may additionally contact Microsoft’s quick Response group or different acceptable contacts listed at http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/contactpr.mspx .

    imaginative Communications Alliance client help

    BT

    BT international capabilities is the division of BT group that gives networked IT capabilities global that permit multinational, multisite organizations to thrive and develop within the digital networked fiscal system

    “The Nortel and Microsoft alliance has the knowledge to accelerate and simplify the cognizance of unified communications for a significant a allotment of their customer base. BT leads by way of instance, and they are already the usage of exchange Server 2007 Unified Messaging with their Nortel telephony equipment. From this journey and from their dwelling as a leading service provider of networked IT capabilities, they harmonize with that the native, standards-based SIP interoperability that Microsoft and Nortel announced nowadays may still simplify deployments and reduce complete imbue of possession.”

  • Tom Craig President, IP Networking BT global functions

  • CLSA

    With operations in eleven international locations within the Asia-Pacific region and the economic facilities of ny and London, CLSA is one of the main monetary powerhouses global. Hong Kong-based CLSA is an award-profitable enterprise that provides capabilities in brokerage, funding banking and personal equity.

    “We needed to connect their regional workplaces and headquarters, with more than 1,000 personnel, with a system that more suitable their potential to execute trades and supply reporting data. The innovative Communications Alliance is supplying a unified communications system that brings the energy of Nortel’s IP telephony along with the collaboration of Microsoft office reside Communications Server to deliver an admit superior to anything on the market. it's going to allow us to fulfill the needs of their purchasers, meet their regulatory necessities across many countries and simplify communications for their employees. since the ingenious Communications Alliance allows for us to leverage their existing infrastructure, it is the most comparatively cheap admit available.”

  • T. Rajah Chief suggestions Officer CLSA

  • Fred Weber Inc.

    Fred Weber Inc. is the St. Louis area’s leader in massive and highway development. based in Maryland Heights, Mo., this $300 million-a-yr, worker-owned enterprise focuses on full-provider concrete and asphalt paving projects and is the vicinity’s largest materials agency. The enterprise’s work philosophies nowadays are the identical as these of founder Fred Weber 78 years in the past. of those, “The deserve to continually feel and alter company practices to more suitable serve valued clientele” led Fred Weber Inc. to leverage the Nortel and Microsoft relationship.

    “At Fred Weber, their wants are diverse than other companies. Their trade exists past 4 walls and a familiar workplace complicated. This creates a faultfinding need for advantageous and respectable built-in communications. Orchestrating 1,200 employees throughout their 25 building and substances places in addition to their various subsidiary corporations can exist a logistical nightmare. The creative Communications Alliance solution supplied with the aid of Nortel and Microsoft helps transparent up this problem, and allows us to spend greater time with their shoppers and reply in true time to their wants.”

  • Phillip Hagemann Chief tips Officer Fred Weber Inc.

  • foreign SOS

    foreign SOS is the area’s main issuer of medical suggestions, overseas healthcare and protection capabilities. With operations in 65 nations and a four,500-mighty work force, exotic SOS helps companies and corporations control the health and safety hazards their tourists, expatriates and global work force face.

    “featuring terrific features to their consumers globally requires helpful communique internally and externally. attractive Nortel and Microsoft’s resourceful Communications Alliance relationship gives us the chance to build in force a blended technology solution that allows us to enhance their core company of offering healthcare and security features sum over.”

  • Todd Schofield Chief expertise Officer overseas SOS

  • Thomas faculty

    Thomas college, a private faculty in Waterville, Maine, is dedicated to profession working towards with a practice of educating college students in company, know-how and schooling. With more than 950 undergraduate and graduate students, and a school of 66, Thomas is adopting slicing-aspect Microsoft and Nortel assistance know-how under the aegis of the ingenious Communications Alliance.

    “while they are a small faculty, they maintain the goal of enforcing unified communications capabilities to serve their college students and faculty on par with universities that maintain larger enrollments and larger budgets. they maintain used the Nortel telephony infrastructure for two decades and are now using Microsoft office are animated Communications Server, so the resourceful Communications Alliance unified communications suite is a natural extension. The plot is to set up the imaginative Communications Alliance solution to integrate communications, augment online coursework, and supply a customized, campuswide speedy messaging means and a collaborative electronic blackboard skill. The net influence is that they are a 113-yr-historic institution that is making ready their students for success of their own and skilled lives, and for leadership and repair in their communities.”

  • Chris Rhoda vice chairman of suggestions amenitiesThomas faculty

  • related Posts Redline Communications and Microsoft advertise partnership to lessen the imbue of tv White area answersMicrosoft build highlights current chance for developers, on the side and within the cloud Microsoft Dynamics 365 and Adobe journey Cloud chosen by means of 24 Hour fitness to radically change customer engagement Microsoft launches Azure dwelling primarily based capabilities for geospatial needs throughout industries Microsoft and SAP exist a allotment of forces to provide consumers a depended on course to digital transformation within the cloud

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  • Nortel CEO and President Mike Zafirovski (left) and Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer (appropriate) discussing the companies’ shared vision for unified communications. ny, spacious apple. Jan. 17, 2007


    922-090 Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 and IP Networking Design

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    922-090 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 and IP Networking Design

    Test Code : 922-090
    Test name : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 and IP Networking Design
    Vendor name : Nortel
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    References Industrial control systems and other operational technology (OT) profile up the majority of industrial systems and faultfinding infrastructure that are used to control the distribution of power, manufacture cars, control water flux in hydro power plants and control trains and subways. These systems are the core of their modern digitalized society, and, without the proper functioning of these systems, trains could collide, they could exist without electricity, water dams could overflow, and robots could demolish the car during manufacturing.

    Trillions of insecure industrial control systems and OT systems exist around the world, and a many of these systems are made up of programmable logic controllers (PLCs). PLCs are the components that manage and control the various steps in a manufacturing process and massive machinery such as the top drive on an offshore drilling rig. PLCs are essential for industrial control systems and OT systems. From a cybersecurity perspective, what is enthralling is whether it is feasible to grasp control of a PLC and what damage it would exist feasible to inflict by doing so. Additionally, would it exist feasible to grasp control of the PLC remotely via the Internet?

    The Stuxnet worm

    To illustrate both how to assail a PLC and what the consequences of such could be, let us notice at the Stuxnet worm. Stuxnet is a stand-alone computer worm, which only targeted Siemens’ supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The worm was designed to assail specific Siemens PLCs and made consume of four zero-day vulnerabilities. The final version of Stuxnet was first discovered in Belarus in June 2010 by Sergey Ulasen from Kaspersky Labs. An earlier version of Stuxnet had already been discovered in 2009. However, the worm was developed much earlier, possibly even as early as 2005. Stuxnet was mainly designed to harm a nuclear plant located in Natanz, Iran. Unfortunately, Stuxnet spread to more than 115 countries, which illustrates how even a targeted assail could spread and cause damage outside of its core purpose.

    The worm was specially constructed to change the rotor speed of the centrifuges inside the Natanz nuclear plant, eventually causing them to explode. What is enthralling with Stuxnet is that it was a targeted worm, carefully designed to only cause harm if inescapable criteria were met, which means that most infected plants would not exist harmed. In fact, Stuxnet would augment the rotor speed of the centrifuges only if the industrial control system’s architecture matched the nuclear plant in Natanz. Due to its design and complexity, Stuxnet has been defined as an advanced persistent threat (APT). An APT collects data and executes commands continuously over a long epoch of time without detection. This also is known as a “low and slow” attack.

    The Stuxnet worm was brought into the Natanz facility through a USB shimmer drive, enabling it to assail the system from the inside. This was necessary and a prerequisite for the assail as the Natanz facility was not directly accessible from the Internet because there is no remote connection. Once the Natanz facility was infected, the worm first executed locally on the infected host, although it did not actually result anything to the infected host.

    After execution, the worm spread to the entire network, until it found a Windows operating system running STEP 7. STEP 7 is the Siemens programming software designed for Siemens PLCs. The computer running STEP 7 is known as the control computer and directly interacts with and gives commands to the PLC. Once successfully arrived at the STEP 7 control computer, Stuxnet manipulated the code blocks sent from the control computer, executed hazardous commands on the PLC and made the centrifuges spin at a higher frequency than originally programmed. The attacks on the PLC were only executed approximately every 27 days to profile the assail stealthy and difficult to detect, which indeed is a central allotment of an APT. Stuxnet also took over the control computer and displayed fraudulent output on the STEP 7 software. This assail step was a core allotment of the assail and known as deception. In this case, the engineers located at the nuclear plant did not receive any indication of errors, assuming the centrifuges were spinning at the correct frequency. By receiving fraudulent output in STEP 7, the engineers would assume the meltdown was caused by human error, rather than malware, and acted accordingly. Stuxnet also hid code directly on the PLC after infection and has therefore also been defined as a PLC rootkit.

    One of the zero-day vulnerabilities used by Stuxnet targeted Windows operating systems. It was spread through the server-message-block (SMB) file-sharing protocol as documented in the vulnerability report CVE-2008-4250 in the National Vulnerability Database. The vulnerability allowed remote code execution, spreading aggressively across the local network. The worm had several other features, such as self-replication, updated itself using a command and control center, contained a Windows rootkit, which hid its binaries, and attempted to bypass security products.

    Stuxnet is known as the world’s first digital weapon and destroyed approximately 1,000 centrifuges inside the Natanz power plant. Having cyber attacks causing physical damage revolutionized how cybersecurity experts accomplish threat analysis, as well as how PLC vendors design PLCs.

    Ebook: What manufacturers really reflect about the Industrial Internet of Things

    Hacking PLCs

    “Due to the lack of integrity checks, older PLCs execute commands whether or not they are delivered from a legitimate source.”

    Part of Stuxnet was to consume the targeted PLCs as a hacker tool by means of a PLC rootkit and by manipulating the communication between the control computer and the PLC. By targeting both the control computer and the PLC, Stuxnet succeeded in achieving its goal and at the identical time deceived the operators, buying enough time to demolish the centrifuges. Stuxnet as an APT is a sophisticated assail that requires both significant intelligence-gathering and resources to execute. It is also necessary to maintain insights into the proprietary communication protocols in consume and insights into the architecture of the targeted PLCs, especially for crafting the PLC rootkit.

    What makes Stuxnet so enthralling is that its code is now publicly available and can exist reused in other attacks. Stuxnet has also led to a significant augment in the number of available hacking courses for PLCs and industrial control systems. It is feasible to grasp a course and learn how to hack PLCs and industrial control systems, in addition to how to consume publicly available hacking tools such as the Metasploit framework.

    An industrial control system (ICS) and a PLC profile consume of multiple communication protocols. Some of the most common protocols used are Profinet, Profibus and Modbus. Most protocols designed for ICS maintain been designed without any security measures built in, which could allow remote code execution, packet sniffing and replay attacks, due to the lack of authentication and encryption.

    Profinet, or industrial Ethernet, uses the traditional Ethernet hardware, which makes it compatible with most equipment. Profinet is widely used in the automation industry, and its design is based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. Profinet enables bi-directional communication and is the preferred communication protocol for the Siemens Simatic PLCs.

    Profibus is an international fieldbus communication standard. It is used to link several devices together and allows bi-directional communication. There are two types of Profibus—Profibus Decentralized Peripherals (DP) and Profibus Process Automation (PA). One limitation with Profibus is that it is only able to communicate with one device at a time. The current version of Profibus is standardized in IEC 61158.

    Modbus is a serial communications protocol that was designed and published by Modicon (Schneider Electric) in 1979. Modbus is referred to as master- and-slave communication, since one master can hold up to 247 slave devices. The control computer—HMI/engineering workstation—would typically exist the master, while the automation devices, or PLCs, are the slaves. It was originally designed as a communication protocol for PLCs and later became an international standard for connecting together multiple industrial devices. Modbus is facile to deploy, cheap and designed for SCADA systems. There are three variations of the Modbus protocol: American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), remote terminal unit (RTU) and transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP).

    Modbus uses user datagram protocol (UDP) by default at port 502 and is mostly used by Schneider Electric. There are several Metasploit scanners that allow detection and exploitation of Modbus. Furthermore, there are also Profinet scanners available in the Metasploit framework. Similar scanners coded in Python can also exist found on GitHub. In 2011, Dillon Beresford, senior vulnerability research engineer at Dell, released remote exploits towards Siemens’ Simatic PLC series. These exploits were related to Profinet, which communicates using TCP port 102.

    What is enthralling with these exploits is that they dump and view memory, and they even execute on and off commands to the PLC’s central processing unit (CPU). An specimen is the remote-memory-viewer exploit, which authenticates using a hard-coded backdoor password in Siemens’ Simatic S7-300 PLC. In this exploit, the CPU start/stop module executes shellcode toward the PLC and turns it on/off remotely. The identical start/stop exploit can exist found for the S7-1200 series. Furthermore, by injecting shellcode, it is also feasible to gain remote access to the PLC.

    Due to the lack of integrity checks, older PLCs execute commands whether or not they are delivered from a legitimate source. The intuition for this is that there are no checksums on the network packages. A scope of replay attacks has been shown to work against a large number of PLCs, which allows the attacker to route execution commands remotely. Therefore, exploiting PLCs remotely with open-source tools is a major threat to SCADA systems. One of many reasons this is a huge problem is, if SCADA systems are suddenly turned off, the consequences can exist severe for faultfinding infrastructure. Different SCADA systems are conditional on soft and controlled shutdowns to not cause any damage to the mechanical equipment. On the bright side, these exploits maintain helped to raise awareness toward cybersecurity in faultfinding infrastructure.

    During Black Hat USA in 2011, Beresford introduced a live demo created for Siemens’ Simatic S7-300 and 1200 series. The exploits used during his demo are programmed in Ruby, which was made compatible with the Metasploit Framework. Other open-source tools such as “PLC scan” are also available for anyone to download and consume in industrial control systems.

    Remote exploits on ICS were an essential allotment of the Stuxnet worm. However, Beresford introduced how it is feasible to gain remote access to a PLC by using the hardcoded password integrated into the software, which is taking things one step further than what was done in Stuxnet.

    This is not purely a Siemens issue; Rockwell Automation has also experienced a stack-based overflow that could allow remote access to the system by injecting capricious code, according to CVE-2016-0868 of the National Vulnerability Database. The vulnerability was reported January 26, 2016, and was targeted toward the MicroLogix 1100 PLC. In addition, there are several other exploits and scanners available in the Metasploit project that can exist used to remotely execute commands to different PLC models.

    When it comes to the control computer, it can also exist used as a hacker tool, mainly because of various software exploits, of which some will enable to grasp control of the engineering workstation in a SCADA system or ICS. This enables the attacker to pivot or maneuver the data sent to the PLC. An exploit created by James Fitts, contributor to the Exploit Database, allows a remote attacker to inject capricious code into Fatek’s PLC programming software, WinProladder, as documented CVE-2016-8377 of the National Vulnerability Database.

    Even though the attacker could trigger the exploit remotely, it does still require user interaction, such as a visit to a malicious Web page or opening an infected file, to successfully grasp advantage of the exploit. The exploit is a stack-based overflow that is available in Ruby for Metasploit import. Applications programmed in C are often more vulnerable to buffer overflows than other programming languages, and there are many C-based software packages in consume in industrial control systems. For example, injecting shellcode through a buffer overflow vulnerability can concede remote access to the system. It can also exist used for privilege escalation.

    Shodan and Internet-facing PLCs

    Shodan is a search engine that is widely used by security experts and hackers to find different devices on the Internet. By using inescapable search terms, it is feasible to find PLCs connected directly to the Internet. During a search for “Simatic” performed March 2, 2018, a total of 1,737 ICS devices were found.

    Having an ICS reachable from the Internet represents a severe risk of exploitation, which could lead to remote access, sabotage and espionage. For example, an automated scanning based on search results from Shodan could identify sum potential targets and eventually provide a suitable target into a specific faultfinding infrastructure system or ICS. Furthermore, combining a Shodan search script with code from Stuxnet could potentially exist a major risk for anyone with PLCs reachable either indirectly or directly from the Internet.

    Are they screwed?

    The lack of security in industrial control systems is a major concern to national security. A PLC was originally designed to only function as an automatic operator in an industrial control system and not to exist connected to external components and reachable from the Internet. However, the evolution in ICS design has started to expose PLCs to the Internet, which can exist shown through searches using tools such Shodan. PLCs trust on air-gapped networks and restricted physical access as a security measure.

    Air-gapped networks maintain multiple times been shown to exist a flawed design and are in no circumstance a legitimate security dispute in modern ICS. This was proven by the Stuxnet attack, which spread to more than 115 countries, infecting faultfinding infrastructure worldwide, even though most control systems were in principle designed as air-gapped. This change in ICS and critical-infrastructure environments means PLCs are exposed to a larger security threat than earlier.

    Penetration testing

    Securing an ICS environment, including the PLCs, is nontrivial, as these systems are not designed to exist cyber-resilient. This means that one has to someway integrate cybersecurity resilience measures into and around the ICS. Such measures include, for example, perimeter defense such as firewalls to reduce the risk of unwanted network traffic; network monitoring and preferably non-intrusive, ICS-specific, anomaly-based network monitoring as such systems are designed to not pose any additional load on ICS networks; and last but not least endpoint protection and monitoring to reduce the exposure PLCs maintain to attacks via remote connections and to detect any sign of attacks as early as possible. The latter requires some sort of ICS-specific endpoint protection and monitoring. But another very essential aspect is to identify and understand the risks. What are the assail interfaces, assail methods and attacks and potential consequences? Additionally, it is essential to evaluate and continuously re-evaluate the likelihood of potential attacks.

    One mode to gain insight into the risk exposure is penetration testing where the goal is to identify assail vectors and to test these assail vectors either on paper or in practice—so, assail the system. However, penetration testing in an ICS environment requires a careful approach that is significantly different than standard penetration testing techniques for IT systems. Industrial control systems hold sensitive equipment, such as PLCs. These devices maintain a sensitive processing unit, which may lead to freezing, configuration resets and faulting if stressed due to low stack handling.

    Standard penetration testing such as a simple port scan performed by tools such as Nmap might exist enough to overload the processing unit. Due to weak network stack handling, inescapable devices cannot handle the number of network packages generated by Nmap and similar tools. Therefore, it is best practice to not accomplish penetration testing on a live ICS environment. ICS penetration testing should exist performed only in a controlled lab environment.

    There are many penetration testing methodologies to choose from, although few tailored for ICS. One ICS-friendly methodology is the zero-entry methodology for penetration testing. The zero-entry methodology is comprised of four steps: reconnaissance, scanning, exploitation and post-exploitation.

    Post-exploitation might involve maintaining access to the system, which is what an APT does when establishing a path for the control-and-command-center communication, which is used to route intelligence information on the target system and to upload current exploits/malware. Furthermore, covering your tracks to veil your assail steps are in many sophisticated attacks the fifth step.

    Reconnaissance focuses on gathering information about the target, such as IP address and domain-name-system (DNS) records, and reading about common vulnerabilities for the target PLCs. Scanning involves actively scanning the target for open ports, detecting operating system and running services.

    Nmap, including the Nmap Script Engine (NSE), is an specimen of a tool that is often used for scanning. In case a vulnerability is found, the assail moves forward to exploitation. In most cases, such vulnerabilities are used to gain access to the system through different services running on the PLC. After exploiting the vulnerability, it is preferable to profile the access persistent. However, not sum services give the chance to create a persistent backdoor.

    For many PLCs, it is feasible to extract details about the PLC using a controlled Nmap scan toward the PLC. This must exist performed with custody to avoid interrupting the PLC. They maintain a lab setup where they accomplish controlled penetration testing on PLCs and other ICS equipment.

    In one of their penetration tests, the Nmap scan revealed MAC address, hardware and firmware information (Figure 1). Also, the scan revealed that Port 80, 102 and 443 were open. By using different scripts in the Nmap Script Engine (NSE), they were able to extract minute information about the firmware, hardware, MAC address and serial number. This minute information can exist used to develop exploits and to investigate vulnerabilities toward the specific PLC series.

    Figure 1: minute information can exist used to develop exploits and to investigate vulnerabilities toward the specific PLC series.

    We used the result from the Nmap scan to investigate vulnerabilities, for which many are reported and discussed in the National Vulnerability Database. After discovering and exploiting vulnerabilities, it is in many cases feasible to crack the password and also to gain access to the PLC and shut it down.

    ALSO READ: How safe are your controllers?

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    Igure, V. M. Laughter, S. A. and Williams, R. D. 2006. Security issues in SCADA networks. Computers & Security, 25, 498-506. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ea0d/2e22439c0dac5c667bdb9b8344e281cc7dac.pdf

    Profibus. 2017. Profibus standardized in IEC 61158. https://www.profibus.com/technology/profibus/

    Panchal, P. and Patel, A. 2015. Interfacing of PLC with NI-LabVIEW using Modbus Protocol. ETCEE–2015, 54.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Alpesh_Patel16/publication/282986115_PI_control_of_level_control_system_using_PLC_and_LabVIEW_based_SCADA/links/570e117608ae3199889cb0d4.pdf

    Bodungen, C. S., Aaron; Wilhoit, Kyle; Hilt, Stephen; Singer, Bryan L. 2016. Hacking Exposed Industrial Control Systems: ICS and SCADA Security Secrets & Solutions, McGraw-Hill Education.

    Kennedy, D. O'Gorman, J., Kearns, D. and Aharoni, M. 2011. Metasploit - The Penetration Tester's Guide. No starch press.

    Wilhoit, K. 2013. Who’s Really Attacking Your ICS Equipment? Trend Micro, 10.http://www.trendmicro.com.hk/cloud-content/apac/pdfs/security-intelligence/white-papers/wp-whos-really-attacking-your-ics-equipment.pdf

    National Vulnerability Database. 2016. CVE-2016-0868 Detail. https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2016-0868

    National Vulnerability Database. 2016. CVE-2016-8377 Detail. https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2016-8377

    Black, P. E. and Bojanova, I. 2016. Defeating Buffer Overflow: A Trivial but hazardous Bug. IT professional, 18, 58-61. htps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5455784/

    Shodan. 2017. What is Shodan? Shodan. https://help.shodan.io/the-basics/what-is-shodan

    Ercolani, V. 2017. A Survey of Shodan Data. University of Arizona. https://msmis.eller.arizona.edu/sites/msmis/files/documents/sfs_papers/vincent_ercolani_sfs_masters_paper.pdf

    Engebretson, P. 2013. The basics of hacking and penetration testing, Waltham, Syngress.

    Regalado, D. Harris, S. Harper, A. Eagle, C. Ness, J. Spasojevic, B. Linn, R. and Sims, S. 2015. Gray Hat Hacking - The Ethical Hacker's Handbook. McGraw-Hill Education Group.

    Houmb thumbDr. Siv Hilde Houmb is associate professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Gjøvik, Norway. She has a Ph.D. in computer science, focusing on cybersecurity and conclusion theory, and is the CTO of Secure-NOK, which she founded in 2010. She has an extensive background in controls security and cybersecurity, including penetration testing, risk assessment, security protocol development and ethical hacking. She’s published more than 50 scientific papers and articles on cybersecurity and risk assessment.

    Dr. Houmb worked as a security specialist and risk analyst in Telenor from 1999 to 2011, was a guest researcher at Colorado State University from 2004 to 2006 and held a post-doctoral at the University of Twente in the Netherlands from 2007 to 2008. She has served as a security specialist for the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) and the European Commission (EC) on topics such as RFID, car-to-car communications, privacy repercussion assessments, risk assessment and security evaluations of current and emerging ICT technologies. Dr. Houmb leads the cybersecurity committee at the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC) and works with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and the National Institute for Standards and Technologies (NIST) on cybersecurity standardization and regulation of oil and gas, maritime and faultfinding manufacturing. Dr. Houmb also is the editor of the two first international cybersecurity guidelines for the drilling industry, published by IADC.

     

     

    Erik David Martin thumbErik David Martin is an IT security student at Noroff Education located in Stavanger, Norway. He is currently working on a bachelor’s degree in computer security and will finish his degree at the University of South Wales. He collaborated with Dr. Houmb during his end-semester thesis in 2018 where hacking and exploitation of PLCs was in focus. Martin had a summer internship at Secure-NOK AS shortly after finishing the thesis. The internship involved further security research of PLCs and building a demo kit, which should exist used for demonstrations during security conferences and stands. The demo kit involved a Python-based GUI program that automatically attacked a PLC by using the graphical interface and different communication libraries. He has also contributed to Exploit Database by finding a vulnerability and submitting a Python-based exploit.


    Asynchronous Communication — Methods and Strategies | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Asynchronous communication is a widely-used communication mode between different processes and systems. In an asynchronous communication, the client sends a request to the server (which requires lengthy processing) and receives a delivery acknowledgment prerogative away. Different from the synchronous communication, this response does not maintain the required information, yet.

    After the client receives the acknowledgment, it continues to result its other tasks, assuming it will eventually exist notified when the required information is ready on the server side.

    The biggest profit of asynchronous communication is the increased performance. Since the client does not block its valuable CPU cycles just for waiting, it can deliver more within the identical timeframe. Increased decoupling between the client-server interaction will also lead to better scalability.

    We observe asynchronous communication patterns everywhere. Here are some examples:

  • A “Design and Assign” request is submitted to the Inventory Management Application, from the Order Management Application.
  • A “full dump” is requested from an Inventory Management Application.
  • Monitoring Application sends 1000 SMS’s to the service impacted customers via an SMS Gateway.
  • Examples can exist multiplied, but the principle is the same: Notify the caller when the lengthy process is finished, and the information can exist consumed.

    There are three methods to implement an asynchronous communication:

  • Asynchronous Callbacks
  • Using Pub-Sub messaging using a Message Broker (or MoM)
  • Polling for State Changes
  • In this article, they will intricate these methods and some strategies that can profile them effective.

    Method 1: Asynchronous Callback

    In an asynchronous callback mechanism, following steps occur:

  • The client authenticates to the server.

  • The client calls the server operation. (Web service, RPC, Local mode call, etc.)

  • The client also subscribes with its “callback endpoint address” to the server. (explained below)

  • The server acknowledges the receipt of the request synchronously.

  • Client waits for the reply from another pre-defined channel (A Servlet, PHP page, Local handle, etc.)

  • Server finishes the required work and notifies the client from the channel.

  • The client fetches the information and processes it.

  • Method 2: Broker-based Publish/Subscribe

    In this method, a “topic” is created to enable the Client-Server communication. The steps are similar to Asynchronous Callback, but here, the medium differs. The server never notifies the client directly. It does this through a buffer, which is the Broker.

  • The client authenticates to the server.

  • The client calls the server operation. (Web service, RPC, Local mode call, etc.)

  • The client subscribes to the broker and starts listening to the topic from a different thread.

  • Server finishes the required work and publishes a message to the topic.

  • The client fetches the information and processes it.

  • Since they trust on a different broker component that will result the mediation between the systems, they should maintain a solid understanding of the inner workings of that broker. Features fancy message durability, TTLs, and routings need to exist elaborated thoroughly.

    Method 3: Polling

    Polling should exist the least preferred mode from the performance and scalability point of view as it puts extra strain on both client and server side. However, in some conditions, (especially when you maintain no control over the legacy server application’s code or repository), you may exist forced to implement it. Here are the typical steps of polling:

  • The client authenticates to the server.

  • The client calls the server operation. (Web service, RPC, Local mode call, etc.)

  • Server acknowledges the receipt of the request synchronously. Server puts the request in its database or exposes its state via an external service (such as web service)

  • Every X seconds, client polls the state of the request by connecting to the repository or the exposed interface.

  • If request’s state transitions to “ready”, the client fetches the information and processes it.

  • There are inescapable strategies you need to reckon while designing asynchronous communication architectures.

    Key Strategy

    The participants should exist able to uniquely identify each request. That is to say, if the client asks the server to dump its database to an FTP server, the server should revert its acknowledgment with a key that identifies this individual request.

    The client can, then, wait for this particular key in its listening channel and correlate the incoming notification to the original request. Ideally, this key should exist generated by the server. However, in some situations (cloud trailing requirement or legacy application involvement), the client provides a unique key attached to the request. It is then the server’s responsibility to respond back with the identical key when the callback time comes. The drawback to this second approach is key collisions. If a separate client also provides the identical key at the identical time, the server will need to reject the request.

    Broker-based Publish/Subscribe mode normally uses one shared topic for sum clients. Key Strategy becomes extremely essential especially when this mode is chosen.

    Retry Strategy

    Imagine you are implementing the callback approach with an external URL. The remote client has passed the request, got its acknowledgment and waiting for the callback event to exist delivered. What if the clients’ endpoint is not available at that instant due to some reason? (Network outage, rebooting due to patch deployment, etc.)

    If the server simply ignores this callback, when the client comes back up, it will never receive the callback. Therefore the request will never exist fulfilled; client resources would exist unnecessarily consumed.

    To avoid this situation, Server should implement retries. It should retry the callback multiple times, waiting for fixed/increasing intervals in between. If the remote allotment never comes alive, then the callback message can exist build in a repository that can exist “re-played” manually by the support personnel.

    With the broker approach, retry strategy can exist even more challenging. There is a sad side of the publish/subscribe model. When you publish a message, it will exist delivered to sum of the subscribers. If the subscriber is not listening at that instant though, the message is lost! There are some workarounds to avoid this situation, such as durable application server topics, attached queues, or some tools fancy Apache Kafka. please note that these workarounds can near with increased costs of maintainability, so feasibility studies should exist performed before the rollout.

    Subscription Strategy

    Asynchronous Callback mode requires a subscription strategy. The client should provide the server its address. For webhooks, this is a URL hosted on the client’s web server. For other cases, it could even exist a hostname and port number.

    Rather than putting client URLs to a central database before the integration starts, they should implement a dynamic endpoint subscription methodology. The modern way to result this is to provide a Restful web service endpoint which accepts a request id, URL, and a key. “request id,” comes from the initial synchronous request they made, which will exist used as the correlation key. “URL” is the client’s callback address. “key” is the password that should exist passed to the client along with the URL callback.

    Before the callback happens, the server can notice up a “request id” from a lookup table (fed previously by a subscription) and find out the endpoint address to call. If this is a one-off request/response pair, the lookup row can exist deleted from the repository on the spot.

    Payload Strategy

    Generated response on the server side can represent any information. It can exist a ten digit number or a ten terabyte file. Payload strategies depict how this information is passed to the client side.The payload can exist directly passed inside the asynchronous notification itself. If the size is expressed in kilobytes, they can pass the information along to the callback. If this is not the case, the pointer to the file should exist passed in the notification. If the information is captured in a, say, ten terabyte file, a file name, and an FTP server IP address can exist passed within the notification. It would exist then the client’s responsibility to depart ahead and fetch that file.

    Designing asynchronous systems require careful design. The first question they need to inquire of ourselves is “Will it exist more feasible to result this synchronously?”. If the non-functional requirements allow, they should stick to the synchronous way of doing things. If you discontinuance up deciding the asynchronous path though, methodologies and strategies that are mentioned in this article can profile your journey smoother.

    Topics:

    performance ,asynchronous communication ,asynchronous ,asynchronous programming ,asynchronous methods


    The Best VPN Services of 2018 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    VPNs retain You Safe Online

    Are you so used to your data traveling via Wi-Fi that you've stopped worrying about the safety and security of that data—and about who else might exist spying on it, or even stealing it for nefarious purposes? If so, you are—sadly—in the majority, and you ought to reckon using a viritual private network, or VPN. In fact, when PCMag ran a survey on VPN usage, they found that a shocking 71 percent of the 1,000 respondents had never even used a VPN. Even among those who support net neutrality—who you might reflect would tend to exist well informed on technology and privacy issues—55 percent had never used a VPN.

    That attitude to the safety and privacy of personal data creates an tremendous risk when it comes to online security. Public Wi-Fi networks, which are ubiquitous and convenient, are unfortunately also highly convenient for attackers looking to compromise your personal information. How result you know, for example, that "starbucks_wifi_real" is actually the Wi-Fi network for the coffee shop? Anyone could maintain created that network, and they may maintain done so in order to entice victims into disclosing personal information over it. In fact, a well-liked security researcher prank is to create a network with the identical name as a free, well-liked service and observe how many devices will automatically connect because it appears safe.

    Even if you're inclined to trust your fellow humans (which I result not recommend), you still shouldn't trust your internet service provider. In its illimitable wisdom, Congress has decided that your ISP is allowed to sell your browsing history.

    In short, it's time to start thinking about protecting your personal information. That's where virtual private networks, or VPNs, near in. These services consume simple software to protect your internet connection, and they give you greater control over how you appear online, too. While you might never maintain heard of VPN services, they are valuable tools that you should understand and use. So who needs a VPN? The short admit is that everyone does. Even Mac users can profit from a VPN.

    What Is a VPN?

    In the simplest terms, a VPN creates a secure, encrypted connection—which can exist thought of as a tunnel—between your computer and a server operated by the VPN service. In a professional setting, this tunnel effectively makes you allotment of the company's network, as if you were physically sitting in the office.

    While you're connected to a VPN, sum your network traffic passes through this protected tunnel, and no one—not even your ISP—can observe your traffic until it exits the tunnel from the VPN server and enters the public internet. If you profile sure to only connect to websites secured with HTTPS, your data will continue to exist encrypted even after it leaves the VPN.

    Think about it this way: If your car pulls out of your driveway, someone can succeed you and observe where you are going, how long you are at your destination, and when you are coming back. They might even exist able to peek inside your car and learn more about you. With a VPN service, you are essentially driving into a closed parking garage, switching to a different car, and driving out, so that no one who was originally following you knows where you went.

    VPN services, while tremendously helpful, are not foolproof. There's no magic bullet (or magic armor) when it comes to security. A determined adversary can almost always breach your defenses in one way or another. Using a VPN can't mitigate if you unwisely download ransomware on a visit to the sad Web, or if you are tricked into giving up your data to a phishing attack.

    What a VPN can result is to protect you against mass data collection and the casual criminal vacuuming up user data for later use. It can also protect your privacy by making it harder for advertisers to design out who and where you are. That's why VPNs are important, even when you're browsing from the comfort and (relative) safety of your home.

    Who Needs a VPN?

    First and foremost, using a VPN prevents anyone on the identical network access point (or anywhere else) from intercepting your web traffic in a man-in-the-middle attack. This is especially handy for travelers and for those using public Wi-Fi networks, such as web surfers at hotels, airports, and coffee shops. Someone on the identical network, or the person in control of the network you're using, could conceivably intercept your information while you're connected.

    VPNs also cloak your computer's actual IP address, hiding it behind the IP address of the VPN server you're connected to. IP addresses are distributed based on location, so you can evaluate someone's location simply by looking at their IP address. And while IP addresses may change, it's feasible to track someone across the internet by watching where the identical IP address appears. Using a VPN makes it harder for advertisers (or spies, or hackers) to track you online.

    Many VPN services also provide their own DNS resolution system. reflect of DNS as a phone bespeak that turns a text-based URL fancy "pcmag.com" into a numeric IP address that computers can understand. Savvy snoops can monitor DNS requests and track your movements online. Greedy attackers can also consume DNS poisoning to direct you to bogus phishing pages designed to steal your data. When you consume a VPN's DNS system, it's another layer of protection.

    VPNs are necessary for improving individual privacy, but there are also people for whom a VPN is essential for personal and professional safety. Some journalists and political activists trust on VPN services to circumvent government censorship and safely communicate with the outside world. Check the local laws before using a VPN in China, Russia, Turkey, or any country with with repressive internet policies.

    What about using a VPN for BitTorrent? Some services, such as TorGuard and NordVPN, allow peer-to-peer file sharing and the consume of BitTorrent sharing. Others restrict such activity to specific servers. exist smart: Learn the company's terms of service—and the local laws on the subject. That way you can't complain if you run into trouble.

    VPNs and Net Neutrality

    It is feasible (emphasis on "possible") that VPNs may exist able to rescue net neutrality repeal. benign of.

    For those who are unaware, net neutrality is the much-discussed concept that ISPs treat web services and apps equally, and not create posthaste lanes for companies that pay more, or require consumers to sign up for specific plans in order to access services fancy Netflix or Twitter. Federal net neutrality rules would ensure that the internet effectively continues to operate the way it has for its entire existence.

    Depending on how ISPs respond to a newly deregulated environment, a VPN could tunnel traffic past any choke points or blockades thrown up by ISPs. That said, an obvious response would exist to block or throttle sum VPN traffic. Or perhaps ISPs will near up with an entirely novel way to monetize the letitude given them by the current lack of net neutrality legislation.

    We'll maintain to observe how this plays out, but this isn't really a problem that VPNs should maintain to fix. It's up to Congress and, by extension, the voters. So prerogative after you purchase a VPN subscription, maybe give your reps and senators a call.

    How to choose a VPN Service

    The VPN services market has exploded in the past few years, and a small competition has turned into an all-out melee. Many providers are capitalizing on the generic population's growing concerns about surveillance and cybercrime, which means it's getting arduous to declare when a company is actually providing a secure service and when it's throwing out a lot of fancy words while selling snake oil. In fact, since VPN services maintain become so well-liked in the wake of Congress killing ISP privacy rules, there maintain even been fake VPNs popping up, so exist careful. It's essential to retain a few things in intellect when evaluating which VPN service is prerogative for you: reputation, performance, type of encryption used, transparency, ease of use, support, and extra features. Don't just focus on expense or speed, though those are essential factors.

    Some VPN services provide a free trial, so grasp advantage of it. profile sure you are satisfied with what you signed up for, and grasp advantage of money-back guarantees if you're not. This is actually why they also recommend starting out with a short-term subscription—a week or a month—to really profile sure you are happy. KeepSolid VPN Unlimited offers a one-week Vacation subscription, for example. Yes, you may find a discount by signing up for a year, but that's more money at stake should you realize the service doesn't meet your performance needs.

    Most users want a complete graphical user interface for managing their VPN connection and settings, though a few would rather download a configuration file and import it into the OpenVPN client. Most VPN companies they maintain reviewed support sum levels of technological savvy, and the best maintain robust customer support for when things depart sideways.

    Free Vs. Paid VPNs

    Not sum VPN services require that you pay. There are, in fact, many excellent free VPNs. But sum of the free VPNs we've tested maintain some benign of limitation. Some confine you to just a few simultaneous connections or devices on an account. Others restrict you to a few hundred MBs of data per day or per month. Others confine you to just a handful of servers. Still others result sum of the above.

    Finding the best free VPN is an exercise in balancing those restrictions. TunnelBear, for example, lets you consume any server on its network but limits you to 500MB-1GB per month. Avira Phantom VPN lets you consume as many devices as you fancy and any server you like, but also restricts you to 500MB per month. AnchorFree Hotspot Shield also places no limits on the number of devices, but restricts you to 500MB per day and only US-based servers. Kaspersky Secure Connection also doesn't confine your devices but doesn't let you choose a VPN server—the app does it automatically.

    ProtonVPN has the unique distinction of placing no data restrictions on free users. You can browse as much as you want, as long as you want. You will exist limited to just one device on the service at a time and can only choose between three server locations, but the unlimited data makes up for sum that. It doesn't damage that ProtonVPN, from the identical people that brought you super-secure ProtonMail email, is very concerned about security and customer privacy. For sum that, ProtonVPN is their Editors' altenative for free VPN.

    Can You Trust Your VPN Service?

    If you're using a service to route sum your internet traffic through its servers, you maintain to exist able to trust the provider. Established security companies, such as F-Secure, may maintain only recently near to the VPN market. It's easier to trust companies that maintain been around a puny longer, simply because their reputation is likely to exist known. But companies and products can change quickly. Today's unhurried VPN service that won't let you cancel your subscription could exist tomorrow's poster child for excellence.

    We're not cryptography experts, so they can't verify sum of the encryption claims providers make. Instead, they focus on the features provided. premium features fancy ad blocking, firewalls, and execute switches that disconnect you from the web if your VPN connection drops, depart a long way toward keeping you safe. They also prefer providers that support OpenVPN, since it's a standard that's known for its speed and reliability. It's also, as the name implies, open source, import it benefits from many developers' eyes looking for potential problems.

    Since they last tested VPNs, we've given special attention to the privacy practices of VPN companies and not just the technology they provide. In their testing, they read through the privacy policies and dispute company practices with VPN service representatives. What they notice for is a commitment to protect user information, and to grasp a hands-off approach to gathering user data.

    As allotment of their research, they also profile sure to find out where the company is based and under what legal framework it operates. Some countries don't maintain data-retention laws, making it easier to retain a pledge of "We don't retain any logs." It's also useful to know under what circumstances a VPN company will hand over information to law enforcement and what information it would maintain to provide if that should happen.

    The best VPN services maintain a privacy policy that clearly spells out what the service does, what information it collects, and what it does to protect that information. Some companies warrant that they collect some information, but don't inform you about how they intend to consume that information. Others are more transparent.

    While a VPN can protect your privacy online, you might still want to grasp the additional step of avoiding paying for one using a credit card, for virtuous or security reasons. Several VPN services now accept anonymous payment methods such Bitcoin, and some even accept retailer gift cards. Both of these transactions is about as nearby as you can find to paying with cash for something online. That Starbucks gift card may exist better spent on secure web browsing than a mediocre-at-best latte.

    Understanding the Limitations of a VPN

    VPNs are great, but it's just as essential to know what a VPN can and cannot do. A tool is only useful when it's used correctly, after all.

    While it hides your IP address, a VPN is not a true anonymization service. For that, you'll want to access the Tor network, which will almost certainly unhurried down your connection. While a VPN tunnels your web traffic to a VPN server, Tor bounces around your traffic through several volunteer nodes making it much, much harder to track. Using Tor also grants access to hidden sad Web sites, which a VPN simply cannot do. That said, some services, such as NordVPN, present Tor access on specific servers. IVPN offers a similar feature called multi-hop VPN, which lets you route your web traffic in tricky ways.

    Using a VPN will obviate most kinds of DNS attacks that would redirect you to a phishing page, but a regular old-fashioned page made to notice fancy a legit one in order to trick you into entering your data can still work. Some VPNs, and most browsers, are pretty fine about blocking phishing pages, but this assail still claims too many victims to exist ignored. consume common sense and exist sure to verify that websites are what they shriek they are by looking carefully at the URL and always visiting HTTPS sites.

    In addition to blocking malicious sites and ads, some VPNs also pretension to block malware. They don't test the efficacy of these network-based protections, but most appear to exist blacklists of sites known to host malicious software. That's great, but don't assume it's anywhere near as fine as standalone antivirus. consume this feature to complement, not replace, your antivirus.

    Lastly, retain in intellect that some security conscious companies fancy banks may exist confused by your VPN. If your bank sees you logging in from what appears to exist another US state or even another country, it can raise red flags. anticipate to observe captchas and more frequent multifactor requests when your VPN is on.

    VPNs by the Numbers

    Some essential things to notice for when shopping for a VPN are the number of licenses for simultaneous connections that near with your fee, the number of servers available, and the number of locations in which the company has servers. It sum comes down to numbers.

    Most VPN services allow you to connect up to five devices with a single account. Any service that offers fewer connections is outside the mainstream. retain in intellect that you'll need to connect every device in your home individually to the VPN service, so just two or three licenses won't exist enough for the tolerable nested pair. Note that many VPN services present native apps for both Android and iOS, but that such devices signify toward your total number of connections.

    Of course, there are more than just phones and computers in a home. Game systems, tablets, and smart home devices such as light bulbs and fridges sum need to connect to the internet. Many of these things can't run VPN software on their own, nor can they exist configured to connect to a VPN through their individual settings. In these cases, you may exist better off configuring your router to connect with the VPN of your choice. By adding VPN protection to your router, you secure the traffic of every gadget connected to that router. And the router—and everything protected by it—uses just one of your licenses. Nearly sum of the companies they maintain reviewed present software for most consumer routers and even routers with preinstalled VPN software, making it even easier to add this flush of protection.

    When it comes to servers, more is always better. More servers carry weight that you're less likely to exist shunted into a VPN server that is already filled to the brim with other users. NordVPN, Private Internet Access, and TorGuard currently lead the pack with well over 3,000 servers each—NordVPN is at the forefront with 4,875 servers. But the competition is nascence to heat up. last year, only a handful of companies offered more than 500 servers, now it's becoming unusual to find a company offering fewer than 1,000 servers.

    The number and distribution of those servers is also important. The more places a VPN has to offer, the more options you maintain to spoof your location! More importantly, having numerous servers in diverse locales means that no matter where you depart on Earth you'll exist able to find a nearby VPN server. The closer the VPN server, the better the speed and reliability of the connection it can present you. Remember, you don't need to connect to a far-flung VPN server in order to gain security benefits. For most purposes, a server down the street is as safe as one across the globe.

    In the most recent round of testing, we've also looked at how many virtual servers a given VPN company uses. A virtual server is just what it sounds like—a software-defined server running on server hardware that might maintain several virtual servers onboard. The thing about virtual servers is that they can exist configured to appear as if they are in one country when they are actually being hosted somewhere else. That's an issue if you're especially concerned about where you web traffic is traveling. It's a bit worrisome to choose one location and determine you're actually connected somewhere else entirely.

    Related StorySee How They Test VPNs

    What's the Fastest VPN?

    We maintain often said that having to choose between security and convenience is a fraudulent dichotomy, but it is at least relatively true in the case of VPN services. When a VPN is active, your web traffic is taking a more circuitous route than usual, often resulting in sluggish download and upload speeds as well as increased latency. The fine news is that using a VPN probably isn't going to remind you of the dial-up days of yore.

    Most services provide perfectly adequate internet speed when in use, and can even handle streaming HD video. However, 4K video and other data-intensive tasks fancy gaming over a VPN are another story. Some VPN services, such as NordVPN, maintain started to roll out specialty servers for high-bandwidth activities. And nearly every service they maintain tested includes a tool to connect you with the fastest available network. Of course, you can always confine your VPN consume to when you're not on a trusted network.

    When they test VPNs, they consume the Ookla speed test tool. (Note that Ookla is owned by PCMag's publisher, Ziff Davis.) This test provides metrics for latency, download speeds, and upload speeds. Any one of these can exist an essential measurement depending on your needs, but they tend to view the download speed as the most important. After all, they live in an age of digital consumption.

    Our speed tests stress comparison and reproducibility. That means they stand by their work, but your individual results may vary. After all, perhaps you live on top of a VPN server, or just chance to maintain a super-high bandwidth connection.

    What follows are the results from their top-rated VPNs as of May, 2018.

    All that being said, they currently name TorGuard as the fastest VPN service. It doesn't grasp the top spot in sum of their tests, but has remarkably low latency and had the best performance in the all-important download tests. Fittingly, it offers many add-ons such as dedicated IP addresses that, along with its speed, will appeal to the BitTorrent users it is designed to protect.

    Can I consume a VPN for Netflix?

    Borders still exist on the web, in the profile of geographic restrictions for streaming content. The BBC iPlayer, for example, lets UK residents watch the Beeb to their heart's content. The comfort of the world, not so much. But if you were to select a VPN server in the UK, your computer's IP address would appear to exist the identical as the server, allowing you to view the content.

    The pains is that Netflix and similar video streaming services are getting wise to the scam. In their testing, they found that Netflix blocks streaming more often than not when they were using a VPN. There are a few exceptions, but Netflix is actively working to protect its content deals. VPNs that work with Netflix today may not work tomorrow.

    Netflix blocking paying customers might seem odd, but it's sum about regions and not people. Just because you paid for Netflix in one dwelling does not carry weight you're entitled to the content available on the identical service but in a different location. Media distribution and rights are messy and complicated. You may or may not harmonize with the laws and terms of service surrounding media streaming, but you should definitely exist alert that they exist and understand when you're taking the risk of breaking them. Netflix, for its part, lays out how that it will attempt to verify a user's location in order to provide content in section 6c of its Terms of consume document.

    What's the Best VPN For Kodi?

    If you don't know what Kodi is, you're not alone. However, an analysis of searches leading to their site reveals that a surprising number of you are, in fact looking for VPN that works with the esoteric Kodi. Dictionary.com defines Kodi as a feasible misspelling of "Jodi," but PCMag analyst Ben Moore clarified for me that Kodi is "free, open-source software for managing your local collection of movies, television shows, music, and photos."

    With Kodi, you can access your media over a local connection (LAN) or from a remote media server, if that's your thing. This is, presumably, where concerns about VPN enter the picture. A device using a VPN, for example, will maintain its connection encrypted on the local network. You might maintain pains connecting to it. Using Chromecast on a VPN device just doesn't work, for example. Kodi users might maintain the identical issue.

    For local VPN issues, you maintain a couple of options. First, reckon installing VPN software on your router and not using a VPN on your local machines. Alternatively, many VPN services present browser plug-ins that only encrypt your browser traffic. That's not exemplar from a security perspective, but it's useful when sum you need to secure is your browser information.

    Some, but not all, VPN services will let you designate specific applications to exist routed outside the encrypted tunnel. This means the traffic will exist unencrypted, but also accessible locally.

    If you're trying to connect to a remote media source with Kodi, a VPN would likely play a different role. It might, for example, obviate your ISP from determining what you're up to. It might also exist useful if you're connecting to a third-party service for Kodi that allows streaming of copyright-infringing material. retain in mind, however, that some VPN services specifically proscribe the consume of their services for copyright infringement.

    VPN for Windows 10 and Beyond

    When they test VPNs, they generally start with the Windows client. This is often the most complete review, covering several different platforms as well as the service's features and pricing in depth. That's purely out of necessity, since most of their readers consume Windows (although this writer is currently using a MacBook Air). They currently consume a Lenovo ThinkPad T460s laptop running the latest version of Windows 10. They periodically upgrade to a newer machine, in order to simulate what most users experience.

    But as you can observe from the chart at the top, however, Windows is not the only platform for VPNs. The Android mobile operating system, for example, is the most widely used OS on the planet. So it makes sense that they also test VPNs for Android.

    That's not to ignore Apple users. They also review VPN clients for macOS and iOS.

    Using a VPN is a puny trickier for ChromeOS users, however. While Google has worked to profile it easier to consume a VPN with a Chromebook or Chromebox, it's not always a walk in the park. Their guide to how to set up a VPN on a Chromebook can profile the task a bit easier, however. In these cases, you might find it easier to install a VPN plug-in for the Chrome browser. This will only secure some of your traffic, but it's better than nothing.

    Finally, they maintain lately begun to review the best Linux VPN apps, too.

    Using a Mobile VPN

    We used to counsel people to result banking and other essential trade over their cellular connection when using a mobile device, since it is generally safer than connecting with a public Wi-Fi network. But even that isn't always a safe bet. Researchers maintain demonstrated how a portable cell tower, such as a femtocell, can exist used for malicious ends. The assail hinges on jamming the LTE and 3G bands, which are secured with strong encryption, and forcing devices to connect with a phony tower over the less-secure 2G band. Because the attacker controls the fake tower, he can carry out a man-in-the-middle assail and observe sum the data passing over the cellular connection. Admittedly, this is an exotic attack, but it's far from impossible.

    Wi-Fi attacks, on the other hand, are probably far more common than we'd fancy to believe. While attending the Black Hat convention, researchers saw thousands of devices connecting to a rogue access point. It had been configured to mimic networks that victim's devices had previously connected to, since many devices will automatically reconnect to a known network without checking with the user. That's why they recommend getting a VPN app for your mobile device to protect sum your mobile communications. Even if you don't maintain it on sum the time, using a mobile VPN is a smart way to protect your personal information.

    Most VPN services present both Android and iOS VPN apps, saving you the pains of configuring your phone's VPN settings yourself. VPN providers typically allow up to five devices to exist connected simultaneously under a single account. Also, while there are free VPN services available, many require that mobile users sign up for a paid subscription.

    Not sum mobile VPN apps are created equal. In fact, most VPN providers present different services (and sometimes, different servers) for their mobile offerings than they result for their desktop counterparts. We're pleased to observe that NordVPN and Private Internet Access provide the identical excellent selection of servers regardless of platform. These apps received an Editors' altenative nod both for desktop VPN apps and Android VPN apps.

    One feature of note for Android users is that some VPN services also block online ads and trackers. While iPhone owners can consume apps fancy 1Blocker to remove ads and trackers from Safari, ad blockers aren't available on the Google Play store.

    If you're of the iPhone persuasion, there are a few other caveats to reckon for a mobile VPN. Some iPhone VPN apps don't consume OpenVPN, even if the VPN service that made the app supports the protocol. That's because Apple requires additional vetting if a company wants to comprehend OpenVPN with its app. VPN app developers maintain slowly started jumping through those extra hoops and are bringing support for protocols such as OpenVPN to iOS.

    Thankfully, there's a workaround for this problem. Instead of using the VPN app from the company from which you've purchased a subscription, you can download the standalone OpenVPN app. Open it, and you can enter your subscription information from the VPN company you've decided to work with. The OpenVPN app will then connect to the VPN company's servers using their preferred protocol.

    Which VPN Is prerogative for You?

    Computer and software providers work arduous to profile sure that the devices you buy are safe prerogative out of the box. But they don't provide everything you'll need. Antivirus software, for example, consistently outperforms the built-in protections. In the identical vein, VPN software lets you consume the web and Wi-Fi with self-possession that your information will remain secure. It's critically essential and often overlooked.

    Even if you don't consume it every instant of every day, a VPN is a fundamental tool that everyone should maintain at their disposal—like a password manager or an online backup service. A VPN is also a service that will only become more essential as their more of their devices become connected. So stay safe, and find a VPN.

    Click through the review links of the best VPN services below for minute analysis and performance results, and feel free to chime in on the comments section below them. Once you've picked, exist sure to read their feature on how to set up and consume a VPN to find the most from your chosen service.

  • Pros: More than 4,800 servers in diverse locations worldwide. Unique, specialized servers. Six simultaneous connections. P2P allowed. Browser apps. Blocks ads, other web threats. Strong customer privacy stance.

    Cons: Expensive.

    Bottom Line: NordVPN wraps a slick client around a strong collection of features and a huge network of servers for securing your online activities. Earning a rare 5-star rating, it's their top pick for VPNs.

    Read Review
  • Pros: Affordable. Small footprint. Far above tolerable number of available servers. Ad blocking. Supports P2P file sharing and BitTorrent. Multiplatform support. Strong stance on customer privacy.

    Cons: Spartan interface may befuddle current users. No free version. No specialized servers.

    Bottom Line: Private Internet Access offers a robust, full-featured service, at an unbeatable price. Its tremendous value offsets its rudimentary UI, making it an Editors' altenative for VPNs.

    Read Review
  • Pros: 1,000 servers around the globe. Allows BitTorrenting. Automatic IP address cycling. execute Switch.

    Cons: Unwelcoming interface.

    Bottom Line: VPN service IPVanish secures your web traffic from prying eyes. It packs powerful features veteran VPN users will appreciate, though its interface may build off the less experienced.

    Read Review
  • Pros: fine server distribution. Robust network. Strong privacy policy. Excellent and unique features. Offers seven licenses with a subscription.

    Cons: Expensive. Unintuitive design.

    Bottom Line: CyberGhost offers an excellent VPN product with strong, unique features not found elsewhere. It's a worthy choice.

    Read Review
  • Pros: Excellent privacy policies. Pleasing, approachable design. Browser extensions, including a stand-alone ad blocker.

    Cons: Uninspiring speed test results. lack of geographic diversity in server locations.

    Bottom Line: TunnelBear's VPN is a rare security product that doesn't force you to compromise between security and usability. It's friendly when you need it to be, invisible when you don't, and it doesn't skimp on security.

    Read Review
  • Pros: Designed for BitTorrent and P2P. Numerous servers spread across the globe. Strong privacy policy. Top speed test scores. Many add-ons.

    Cons: Clunky client. No free trial. Lacks specialized servers.

    Bottom Line: TorGuard VPN is the best ante for BitTorrent seeders and leechers to secure their web traffic. It's packed with features sure to appeal to security wonks, and it has the best speed test scores yet, though its client is clunky.

    Read Review
  • Pros: Diverse geographic distribution of servers. Allows P2P and BitTorrent. Simple interface. Supports OpenVPN protocol.

    Cons: Expensive. Fewer than tolerable simultaneous connections allowed. No ad-blocking or advanced features. Lackluster speed scores.

    Bottom Line: ExpressVPN packages VPN protection and BitTorrent support into a simple interface, but it is expensive and lacks advanced features.

    Read Review
  • Pros: Multiplatform, multiprotocol support. Strong privacy policy. Allows P2P traffic. fine geographic distribution of VPN servers. Limited free account.

    Cons: Few simultaneous connections. Few servers. No ad blocking.

    Bottom Line: Golden Frog VyprVPN offers an excellent distribution of VPN servers worldwide and a strong privacy policy. It allows few simultaneous VPN connections, however, and its total number of servers is low.

    Read Review
  • Pros: Inexpensive. Allows P2P and BitTorrent. Browser extensions. Personal VPN server, static IP available. Specialized servers.

    Cons: Restrictive policy on number of devices. Small number of servers. No free version. No ad blocking.

    Bottom Line: KeepSolid VPN Unlimited offers a strong slate of security and privacy features, but doesn't present many servers and enforces a restrictive device policy.

    Read Review
  • Pros: Hundreds of server locations spread across almost every nation. Friendly, simple interface. Allows BitTorrent. much name.

    Cons: Expensive. Relies heavily on virtual server locations. No ad blocking. No free version.

    Bottom Line: veil My Ass VPN turns heads with its name, and it has solid security and a robust server network, to boot. The downside is its hefty expense tag.

    Read Review


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