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3X0-101 exam Dumps Source : Linux Installation and Configuration (Level 1)
Test Code : 3X0-101
Test denomination : Linux Installation and Configuration (Level 1)
Vendor denomination : Sair
: 118 real Questions
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writer: Patrick Volkerding, Kevin Reichard and Eric Johnson
publisher: MIS: Press
cost: $39.ninety five
Reviewer: Scott Wegener
instances maintain modified within the Linux community due to the fact the common kernels had been first made attainable with the aid of Linus Torvalds. My first Linux installing consisted of downloading constituents of an SLS distribution at evening, every night for per week, from a endemic BBS at 2400 baud, simplest to learn that many of the files had been pervert and unusable. I then downloaded a Slackware distribution in an analogous style, and two weeks after figuring out that i needed to deploy Linux, I eventually had a usable set up set. Now if only there turned into some documentation on installation Linux...
happily, those days are long past perpetually. The Linux kernel and distributions maintain advanced at a vast fee, documentation now exists, more and more application has been ported to Linux, and talents Linux users now maintain their option now not in basic terms between two or three distributions to deploy or retrieve from the net, however maintain many CD applications to pick between as smartly.
Linux: Configuration and setting up is a booklet/CD kit which comprises the Linux 1.2.8 kernel and the Slackware 2.three distribution together with a host of alternative Linux chocolates (the CD is packed). The publication is authored through Patrick Volkerding, the maintainer of the Slackware Linux distribution, together with Kevin Reichard and Eric Johnson, both veteran Unix professionals. Their event shows sum through the ebook and the CD. youngsters the CD cannot compare to having the total Sunsite archive, it has a lot of constructive extras enjoy an X-home windows CD browser, a home windows bootdisk/rootdisk application, and a few of the more commonplace Linux and X packages presently obtainable.
The publication is divided into four sections: “Linux installation and Configuration”, “using Linux”, “Linux Communications and Networking”, and “Linux Programming”.
the first fraction is a brand new Linux consumer's godsend. youngsters now a reasonably experienced Linux consumer, I bethink scouring the cyber web for probably the most suggestions contained in these few chapters. Chapter 1 no longer handiest offers an overview of laptop hardware, but extra importantly, lists which hardware is supported via the Linux 1.2.x kernel—invaluable to a primary time installer of Linux. I feel most of us recognize as a minimum one horror fable about unsupported hardware; this chapter can support develop sure a new gadget will rush Linux or, at a minimal, unravel why it could now not.
Chapter 2 gives a really thorough walk-through of a “general” Linux installation, masking each aspect of installation in addition to a few common complications encountered within the system. unfortunately, each and every Linux setting up can maintain its own enjoyable persona, so it is unimaginable to cover every problem that could possibly arise. for instance, the kernel I made a bootdisk from had an issue with the caching on my CD-ROM drive; subsequently, I needed to carry out a partial installation from my DOS complicated force, then bring together a 1.three kernel so as to finished installation off the CD.
I actually maintain two minor complaints concerning the stroll-via:
It assumes each user could subsist using a swap partition instead of a swapfile. Swap-info are coated, however only plenty later within the e-book. Most readers will locate this section handiest after doing an installing the usage of the Chapter 1 walk-through as a “template.”
Loadlin is mentioned after LILO configuration has been completed in the stroll-through. I maintain yet to bag LILO to work safely with windows ninety five, and citing the actuality of Loadlin before someone installs LILO can moreover avoid wasting complications.
Chapters three and four cowl X-home windows installing and configuration and, for probably the most part, does a superb job. These chapters consist of an overview of the window managers, the different X servers essential for diverse video boards and, most importantly, provide an in-depth explanation on configuration data and the xf86config utility. The main configuration file for X-windows, XF86Config, which is one of the most daunting projects for a Linux Linux dilettante to set up (a reality the booklet conveniently acknowledges) is explained almost line for line. A minor gripe: i was stunned to learn no reference to the X utility vgaset. now not everyone has a monitor whose requirements precisely apt up with the given monitor record; vgaset has been priceless in final monitor/X configuration.
Chapter 5 covers the Linux file gadget, Un*x/Linux instructions, and different time-honored Un*x and Linux topics constructive for the Linux newbie. Shells, altering passwords, filename completion, and shell historical past are sum covered to a degree that ensures a brand new Linux user coming from an MS-DOS or a windows ambiance might not subsist lost. Printing is in brief lined as smartly, however no point out of Ghostscript or of medium printing issues is made. Ghostview and references to the Printing-HOWTO are made in a while in the e-book, however a divide consolidated locality on printing should still had been written or skipped altogether. The premiere characteristic of the chapter is truly the elvis/vi overview; except a new person can find improved references on editors and/or gets used to Linux editors, even just a few pages about vi can shop loads of frustration.
Chapter 6 covers day-to-day consume of X-home windows, standard X programs and utilities, and is without doubt one of the most profitable chapters within the booklet for rookies and experienced clients alike. fvwm and its configuration file, .fvwmrc, are covered very smartly, with most settings fully defined as well as X substances and several X utilities. I simply cannot compliment the chapters on X-home windows adequate (Chapters three, four, and 6); X is one of the most “terrifying” things to subsist trained beneath Linux and any assistance on it helps highly.
Chapter 7 is a different “must study” for inexperienced persons and experienced Linux users seeking to additional their expertise. lots of the medium text processing tools are defined—Emacs, groff, TeX, texinfo/data, and sed. These sections are not exhaustive tutorials but are more than satisfactory to bag somebody began using the equipment. the person web page structure is moreover mentioned in a section I institute to subsist individually effective. Tar and gzip are correctly coated, and a superb locality on dawn device administration covers some usually misunderstood subjects, including scheduling commands(cron/at/batch), managing users and organizations, the /and many others directory and passwd file, and more. whereas the chapter won't develop you an quick savvy sysadmin, it does a remarkable job of explaining some sysadmin projects and is a fine vicinity to delivery.
Chapters eight and 9 are quite efficient to those users new to the cyber web. The chapters comprise lots information about Linux's conversation programs (Seyon and Minicom), fundamentals of TCP/IP and host names, and most of the regular slew of internet classes and utilities. The basics of electronic mail, telnet, FTP, and the WWW are explained in a straightforward to respect vogue; in short, these two chapters comprise a superb introduction to the web under Linux.
Chapter 10 is some thing that many programmers from DOS or home windows environments will admire—a programming overview for Linux, along with an introduction to lots of the more commonplace programming equipment. There are without rigor too many different tools to maintain a single chapter cover even one of them absolutely. Intermediate programmers may additionally ignore the chapter, but inexperienced persons or programmers new to Linux will subsist grateful for it. Examples are given for Perl, gawk and Tcl, and make/imake are in short defined, which is a nice however unexpected “bonus” to round out the ebook's many topics.
The CD itself carries the full Slackware 2.3 distribution, which comprises the X window gadget (XFree3.1.1), Linux kernel 1.2.8, and the universal disk sequence for Slackware. There is never too a lot to affirm about the latter; Slackware has been one of the surest Linux distributions when you respect that its inception, and it is effortless ample to installation that almost sum non-Linux clients can maintain few problems, if any. the total set of Linux HOWTOs and FAQs are included, both in home windows Write structure (a pleasant contact) and ASCII/Linux versions. A full set of precompiled kernels are moreover on the CD and descriptions in the e-book aid you select the germane kernel in your system.
there is a non-destructive partitioning software protected on the CD, called FIPS, in addition to full supply for lots of the distribution packages. lamentably, I wasn't valorous ample to try FIPS—I actually maintain 1 gig of storage between two HDs and would now not want to tempt destiny. Some wonderful classes included in both binary or source:
LessTif: An alpha Motif work-alikeSamba: Utility to connect with windows primarily based networksSlirp: SLIP emulation for shell debts(source)httpd: NCSA WWW serverlemacs: Lucid Emacs(Emacs for X)AUIS: Andrew consumer Interface equipment, a bunch of integrated appsperl-5.001: newest version of Perl programming language
normal, the bespeak is neatly written and consists of a awesome quantity of tips, given the great number of topics that will moreover subsist mentioned about Linux. Most of my gripes in regards to the bespeak are minor, and due to the fact the volume of information lined, it subsist moderately comprehensible that no longer every item i needed to see become there. whereas it is never a alternative for sum the Linux Documentation task publications, it does a superb job of putting an incredible quantity of Linux guidance into one reference ebook and could subsist a remarkable addition to any starting to intermediate Linux user's library. The e-book itself is greater than expense the cost, and packaged with the CD, it subsist a combination that can not travel incorrect.
Arch Linux is likely one of the most versatile GNU Linux distribution due to its simplicity and chopping age utility packages due to its Rolling unlock model, Arch Linux isn't addressed for novices in Linux world. It additionally provides an advanced command line installer, with out a Graphical Interface aid. The command line setting up model makes the job of installing the gadget very flexible but additionally very intricate for Linux newbies.
A proxy server can back you're taking control of how clients gain the web. prerogative here's the step-by using-step system of setting up and configuring Squid.
graphic: Jack Wallen
A proxy server is a computer that acts as an intermediary between a computing device computer and the web and allows for a client laptop to develop an oblique connection to network servers and services. there are many the judgement why you may wish to consist of a proxy server to your network:
clearly one of the above reasons are completely becoming for a company and some, neatly, may additionally no longer plunge in keeping with your best practices. Regardless, knowing how to install and configure a proxy server is vital competence for a network administrator. So, let's carry out something about that. i will disclose installing the Squid proxy server on Ubuntu sixteen.04 server.setting up
This installing and configuration can subsist handled completely from the command line, so open up a terminal window and set aside together to category.
the first ingredient they want to carry out (as with application installation on Ubuntu) is to replace apt. out of your terminal window, problem the command sudo apt-get replace. as soon as that completes, you might additionally rush an help with the command sudo apt-get upgrade. Of course, should still this help the kernel, you're going to want to carry out a reboot, so agenda this consequently.
as soon as the replace/upgrade is finished, set up Squid with the command:sudo apt-get install squid3
The installation will opt for up the vital dependencies (libecap3, libltdl7, squid-purge, and squid-langpack) and complete devoid of issue.
this is sum there's to the setting up. Now they movement on to the configuration of a basic proxy server.Configuration
The configuration of the Squid Proxy Server is dealt with in the /and many others/squid/squid.conf. i'll prove you how to configure a very fundamental proxy server. the primary component they deserve to carry out is uncomment the line (by way of putting off the # character):#http_access enable localnet
To locate that line, issue the command:sudo grep -n http_access /and so on/squid/squid.conf
As you can see (figure A), the configuration alternative is discovered on line 1186 (of my installation). Open up the squid.conf file for editing, with the command sudo nano /etc/squid/squid.conf, and scroll down to that line and pick away the # persona.
Grepping the crucial configuration choice.
subsequent you wish to glare for the road:#acl localnet src
There should subsist a number of them (for distinct community IP schemes). you'll wish to uncomment the one that suits your network (say 192.168.0.0/16) and alter it to your wants. allege you rush your interior network on the 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 community. Your localnet configuration preference would show to be:acl localnet src 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
Restart squid with the command:sudo provider squid restart
it's it. You now maintain a fundamental proxy server up and operating on port 3128 and the IP tackle of the rig you simply installed Squid on. so that you would then travel to your client machines and configure them (either on a per-application or OS foundation) to consume that newly configured proxy via IP and port.Make it work for you
Of course, Squid can carry out quite a bit more than serve as a primary proxy server. if you necessity to bag profound into the numerous configuration alternate options for Squid, subsist sure to pick a glance on the trustworthy documentation, the locality you could learn how to configure alternate options for third-birthday celebration purposes, configure options for the neighbour alternative algorithm, configure various community parameters, and tons extra. in the meantime, you can sum the time pick a glare at the /var/log/squid/entry.log and /var/log/squid/cache.log to peer what Squid is doing to your community.Open supply Weekly publication
You don't wish to miss their advice, tutorials, and commentary on the Linux OS and open supply applications. Delivered Tuesdayssign in nowadays sign up these days additionally see
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I installed Linux on the Acer Aspire V3 (pictured) and the Asus R414S.Image: Acer
It has been some time since I maintain written about installing Linux on systems with UEFI firmware, and I maintain recently gotten several questions about how to carry out this. So I respect this is a superb time for a brief refresher on this topic.
In my opinion, the state of UEFI firmware configuration today is still pretty chaotic - as far as I can explicate every OEM has their own peculiar way of handling UEFI configuration, and the differences between them are anything but trivial.
Even worse, in some cases in my own direct experience, different systems from the identical OEM maintain completely different UEFI configuration procedures. So if you maintain Come here looking for simple answers and cookbook procedures, you're going to subsist disappointed.
The first plane of UEFI configuration is the basic preference of whether you want UEFI Secure Boot enabled or not.
Secure Boot is supposed to subsist one of the major reasons for the actuality of UEFI firmware - but in my sentiment it is a ridiculously tangled solution for a problem that the vast majority of PC users would never subsist faced with. The understanding is to certify the boot image(s) on your computer, so that evil-doers can not pervert or replace them, and thereby penetrate your system.
What this means is that if you maintain UEFI Secure Boot enabled, you can only boot a certified signed image - and at least in the original UEFI specification, the only signing authority was Microsoft. I will leave the debate about the wisdom of that determination to others. sum I will allege here is that this determination had the consequence of making installing Linux on UEFI firmware systems much more difficult.
Some OEMs (and their firmware suppliers) maintain set aside considerable endeavor into providing an alternate means for installing keys, certificates and signed images so that their users maintain at least some slim hope of regaining control of their computers. But in my sentiment so far these maintain been difficult to understand and difficult to use, at best.
On the other hand, some Linux distributions maintain tried to apt to UEFI firmware with Secure Boot by including a signed image in their installation. Off the top of my head, I respect openSUSE and Ubuntu carry out this, and I suppose there are some others. They can carry out it either by getting their own boot images signed by Microsoft, or by producing a complete alternate signing authority, and getting the UEFI firmware to accept that authority and its signed images.
Although this might provide an adequate solution for the few distributions which are willing and maintain the resources to carry out it, it doesn't back the vast majority of distributions who don't maintain the time, resources or interest to bag it done.
Therefore my personal preference is to simply disable UEFI Secure Boot. Note carefully, I am motto I disable Secure Boot only - not disable UEFI boot entirely, or return to Legacy (MBR) boot. I actually enjoy working with the implementation of UEFI boot in general, I find it to subsist more flexible and considerably more robust than the ragged MBR boot process.
So the first question that I want to address here is how to disable Secure Boot in the UEFI firmware configuration. Unfortunately, as I alluded to above, the retort to this question is neither simple nor consistent.
The first step is fairly easy, and is almost always the identical on sum systems. To bag into UEFI firmware configuration, you press F2 (or sometimes ESC) during the boot sequence. This is the identical as it has generally been for Legacy BIOS configuration.
Once you bag into UEFI/BIOS configuration, you will see a menu with a number of options such as "Main Advanced Boot Security save & Exit". Following are two examples of such menus, from systems that I maintain here on hand:
ASUS R414S UEFI Configuration MenuImage: J.A. Watson
Acer Aspire V3 UEFI Configuration MenuImage: J.A. Watson
Other OEMs will certainly maintain moderately different configuration menus, so withhold an open intelligence when looking at these.
Within these menus, you want to find something about "Secure Boot", "Secure Boot Processing" or something similar to that. It is typically in either the Boot menu or the Security menu. When you find it, you want to select it and set it to Disabled or Off.
If you maintain an Acer computer, when you try to carry out this you will probably bag your first surprise. You can't change the Secure Boot setting, at least at first -- it simply won't subsist viable to select it for editing. It turns out that you must maintain a "Supervisor Password" set in the UEFI configuration in order to change the Secure Boot mode. But it doesn't actually explicate you this anywhere. Sigh. In this case, once you set a password you will then subsist able to change Secure Boot from Enabled to Disabled.
Once you maintain disabled Secure Boot, you are halfway home in getting Linux installed and working. You should now subsist able to boot the installation media for any Linux distribution which supports UEFI firmware (which is just about sum of them now).
Although I mentioned this briefly above, I didn't account for it in much detail.
Most Linux distributions today support UEFI installation, but not Secure Boot. What that means in practical terms is that if you maintain a UEFI firmware system with Secure Boot enabled, and you try to boot the installation CD/DVD/USB media of a Linux distributions that does not support Secure Boot, what will happen is that your installation media will simply not subsist listed in the boot menu. Once you disable Secure Boot in the UEFI configuration, your installation media will then subsist listed.
Once your installation media is recognized and listed in the boot menu, you should subsist able to travel through the installation process for whatever distribution you are using without much trouble. The next trick comes when you try to reboot to the installed system.
The problem here relates to how the boot sequence list gets modified. That list specifies what order the various boot objects should subsist tried, until one which meets the boot requirements is institute and is successfully booted. I maintain seen three different situations in this area:
If you maintain situation number 1 above, you are a ecstatic person and the world is a wonderful place, so you can stop reading this long-winded article now. If you maintain situation two or three (or some other that I haven't seen yet, but which moreover is causing Linux installation/boot not to work), then you necessity a solution. Read on.
The most common solution/work-around for either case two or three is that the OEM and/or UEFI firmware supplier maintain provided a means in the UEFI configuration menus for you to manually specify the boot objects, priorities and/or sequence. To accomplish this, you maintain to bag to the UEFI/BIOS configuration menu again, by pressing F2 during boot.
In the Configuration menus, glare for the BOOT page, where you should find a list of boot kick something enjoy these:
ASUS UEFI BOOT MenuImage: J.A. Watson
Acer UEFI BOOT MenuImage: J.A. Watson
The essential thing to notice in these pictures is that there is a list of boot objects, which will subsist tried in the order that they are listed, and that there are instructions on the prerogative side of the screen about how to modify this list.
These two systems illustrate the most common methods I maintain seen so far.
On the ASUS, it lists every bootable operating system that is currently defined and present, and you can simply lunge items up and down the list to alter the priority, or to change which one will subsist booted by default.
On the Acer it only lists one "object" of each type - something to boot from the hard drive, the built-in CD/DVD, the Network, the USB ports and so on. To change the priority of different operating systems on the hard drive, you maintain to first select hard Drive Priority, which will then bring up a new view that shows sum of the known operating systems installed on the hard drive:
Acer UEFI hard Disk Boot Priority MenuImage: J.A. Watson
In this screen you can change the order of the operating systems, which then sets to sequence in which they will subsist tried until one of them boots.
The last thing I want to mention, briefly, is that there is moreover a Linux CLI command which should subsist able to set the UEFI boot sequence, called efibootmgr. First, for those who are either allergic to or terrified of the command line, I want to stress that it is not necessary to consume this command, this is an optional approach.
If you maintain a system which matches case 1 above, acceptation that the UEFI boot table and sequence can subsist successfully and permanently set by software, then this command can subsist quite useful - especially if you are setting up a dual-boot or multi-boot system. Using it, you can quickly and easily change what operating system boots by default, for example.
If you maintain a system which is case two or three above, you still might subsist able to consume this command to configure your UEFI boot sequence - but I would recommend trying to carry out it via the UEFI configuration menu as I just described.
I can explicate you from undergo that it is very frustrating to spend the time getting the boot list just the way you want it with this command, and then reboot the system and find that nothing you did really had any consequence anyway.
There is one final case that I should mention. When you are installing a Linux distribution as the only operating system on your UEFI-firmware system, in my undergo it is very likely to work properly, the first time, without requiring any additional manual configuration.
So, that's a brief overview of UEFI and Linux as I deal with it today. I apologize again for it being so vague, but that is exactly the way things are on my computers today.
If you are very lucky, when you install Linux the UEFI boot sequence will just work as it should, and you won't maintain to worry about any of this. If you are not lucky, then the most essential thing when you try to solve the problem is to withhold an open mind, glare carefully at the UEFI configuration options, and read the Help/Information text institute at the prerogative side of most items carefully.
Good luck!Previous and related coverage
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Despite Unix being one of the longest-lived operating systems, it still carries a mystique, one that has kept its popularity from growing amongst the universal public. Unix seems to exist only in the darkest realms of academia, engineering, and high-tech graphics. As a MS-DOS user for too many years, I decided to finally learn Unix, and with that decision, I faced some choices: local schools offered evening courses for a few hundred dollars a pop; I could buy “personal” versions of most of the vast Unix products for still only a few hundred dollars; or I could get—what was this?—some free version of Unix called Linux.
Being a miser, I chose Linux. My friend, David Coons, who is some sort of computer guru for Disney's Imagineering, heartily recommended Morse Telecommunication's Slackware Professional 2.1. He had bought a variety of releases and liked this one. He happily explained why, but since the language he used consisted primarily of acronyms, I just pursed my lips knowingly and nodded my head at the prerogative pauses. My criterion was far simpler: I figured anything with a picture of “Bob” on it to subsist worthwhile. That this version would allow me to rush Linux without repartitioning my hard drive sold me. UMSDOS seemed enjoy a godsend.
I called ACC Bookstore, where I ordered the Slackware set as well as the massive DrX Linux book. The order-taker reassured me that Linux-particularly Slackware-was a remarkable way to learn Unix and not that difficult to device out, at least on the basic level.
Novice Note: When you buy Linux, see what type of information comes in the enclosed manual. Slackware Professional comes with a 600-page bespeak that duplicates sum the vital information in DrX Linux and is better organized. If I had known, I wouldn't maintain ordered DrX Linux, since the non-duplicated material includes things enjoy “The Kernel Hackers Guide” and the “Japanese Language Extension HOW-TO”. It will subsist a long while before I understand Linux well enough to start hacking the kernel, and by then, the manual will subsist outdated. For now, you may want to save your money.
After ordering Linux, I went out and bought a CD-ROM player. I had debated for months about whether to buy a quad-speed (since I already maintain an original 8-bit SoundBlaster) or to buy the Creative Labs Discovery Package which would upgrade my soundcard to 16-bits but give me a less desirable double-speed CD-ROM. Again, the miser won out and I got the Discovery kit. Not a infamous deal, I rationalized, since the rumors were that high-density CDs would start to show in a year or two, and I would rather subsist obsolete as cheaply as possible. Also, Linux appears to maintain solid support for Creative Labs' products. While installing the multimedia kit, I switched my floppy drives so that the 3.5" became my A: and the 5.25" became B:. David had highly recommended doing this.
I got the CD drive, got Linux, got the manuals, and started screaming. sum the manuals suggested repartitioning using FIPS and were of no back regarding UMSDOS-just vague references. Even Doom is listed in the Slackware index but nothing about UMSDOS. I didn't want to repartition! A convene to David and he reassured me that the options would subsist obvious on what to carry out when I ran setup, after first creating the boot and root disks. Not to panic. Okay, thanks!
Ordinarily, I wouldn't maintain minded repartitioning. The program to carry out so, FIPS, a non-data-destructive FDISK, is a brilliant and obvious (are you listening, Microsoft?) utility, but I worried that I might FIPS too much or too cramped disk space and possibly even Kill my MS-DOS programs. UMSDOS is what I wanted, a no-commitment option.
Taking a profound breath and chanting the “Doom” mantra, I began. Following the installation instructions (I detest to RTFM), the first step was to prepare boot and root disks. Since I had a SoundBlaster system, I assumed the SBPCD boot image would subsist the obvious choice. For the root disk, I opted for UMSDS144, which was the mythological UMSDOS system for 1.44 disks.
With these disks created, I booted with the boot disk. It didn't recognize my CD player. Hmmmm. Of course! The Discovery Kit used a Sony CDU-33a drive. I re-made the boot disk this time choosing the CDU31a option. Yes! Rebooting with this new disk showed Linux recognizing my drive.
I ignored the option to set boot parameters, set aside in the root disk and stalled at the first hurdle. Did I want a swapfile on my hard drive? I maintain eight megs of RAM and the manuals said with that amount of RAM not too worry, so I just press <Enter> and got a Login prompt. A sentiment of lordly omnipotence washed over me as I smugly logged in as root and ran setup.
A menu came up and the panic started again. Tags, swapspace-what's with sum the choices? I finally figured out that the essential first step for beginners is (T)arget. This will set up a C:\LINUX subdirectory on your hard drive and prompt you through the other necessary procedures. You will necessity to select a source; in my case a CD-ROM drive and specifically, the Sony CDU-33a.
Next, you bag to pick which disk sets to install. I decided on sum of them except the F succes (FAQs and HOW-TOs). Finally, you select a mode of installation, whether everything goes to hard drive (“SLAKWARE”-where you develop sum the decisions as to which files to install) or three choices of TAG sets which preselect which files to install: SLACKPRO (all files on the hard disk, with upgrade capability); SLAKPRO2 (some files are links to CD but without facile upgrade capability); or SLAKPRO3 (many links, again without facile upgrade capability). Links are references on your hard disk to the actual files on CD; this conserves hard disk space but gives up access speed.
For my first installation attempt, I chose the “slakware” option, so that everything would travel to the hard drive. In the middle of set “X” the drive ran out of space. Rebooting DOS and using X-Tree (which ran out of memory), I deleted the contents of C:\LINUX for another try. I debated whether to upgrade my drive to a full gigabyte. The mortgage was due, and as you already know, I'm a miser, so I didn't.
My second installation was “slakpro3”, which set aside the fewest files directly on the hard drive. This option would develop later upgrading difficult but is a superb exploratory choice. It used only 15 meg, produced about 3000 files, and didn't carry out much. Commands enjoy adduser didn't work. I'm not even sure the the shell was active. Back to DOS for Linux deletion again.
The third installation I tried was to maintain sum the files on the hard drive (“slackpro”), because I didn't know that this was larger than my previous “slakware” installation. After an hour, sixteen thousand files, and 150 meg, my drive again ran out of space. Okay, maybe I don't necessity 2 million fonts for TeX, some of the programming tools, or network stuff. Back to DOS, again. My guess is that 200 meg would handle this type of installation.
Novice Note: The “A” and “Q” disk sets both deal with installing the kernel, whether you want IDE without SCSI, IDE with SCSI, etc. You may want to carry out two rounds of installations: first, you would just deal with sets “A” and “Q” to find exactly which kernel you want. My choices narrowed down to CDU31ao (without SCSI support) or CDU31a (with SCSI support); I installed CDU31a. Your second round of installation would then cover sum the other disk sets.
Fourth time, again using the “slackpro” option and ONLY installing the A, AP, D, Q (for the revise kernel), and X data sets, used 50 meg and created about 5000 files, but the instructions regarding LOADLIN didn't work. Apparently LOADLIN doesn't bag copied over to the hard drive at any point. I institute the LOADLIN.ZIP in the KERNELS subdirectory on the Slackware disk, unzipped it into C:\LINUX, and modified the given LINUX.BAT to launch it:rem C:\LINUX.BAT reecho off cls reecho set aside the Slackware CD in the drive! pause rem First, ensure any unwritten disk buffers are flushed: smartdrv /C rem Start the LOADLIN process: c:\linux\loadlin c:\linux\vmlinuz root=/dev/hda rw
IT WORKS!!! IT WORKS!!! IT WORKS!!! No more boot and root disks! The want of LOADLIN was likely the problem with “slakpro3” not working correctly, but I won't try that out now that this setup works. I “adduser”ed an account for myself with no problems, the procedure being very easy, and logged in on that account via Alt-F2. This is “way cool”, having two vigorous accounts going simultaneously.
Novice Note: Capitalization counts! I went nearly crazy trying to rush a configuration program. The subdirectories were sum spelled correctly but some of the letters had to subsist in capitals. I recommend installing the Mouseless Commander. (I believe it is in the AP dataset. It is now called the Midnight Commander, since it can now subsist used with a mouse, but Slackware still refers to it as the Mouseless Commander in some places.) It's a remarkable Norton Commander clone and, for this X-tree user, a comfort and an facile way to view files.
Well, it took four tries and at least as many hours, but the Linux base is on the MS-DOS partition and appears to rush smoothly. I had no problems with either DOS or Windows after installing Linux; it appeared as just another subdirectory, albeit with a ton of files.
Now to install X-Windows. I called David for just a couple of clues. “You're on your own. I didn't install X.” I politely hung up as he explained how he was writing an astonishing device driver with his left hand and installing a 200-node network with his right.
With the profit of hindsight, I highly recommend that before you attempt to install X, you maintain on hand information about your monitor-specifically bandwidth, horizontal synchronization, and vertical refresh rate. The data should subsist in your monitor manual. If not, the Linux guides suggest looking in the files called “modeDB.txt” or “Monitors” located in /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc. Best to maintain the actual monitor guide. moreover you should know what type of video card you have. If you maintain MS-DOS 6.0 or later, the MSD program will give you that information. In Linux, a program called SuperProbe will moreover explicate you.
Installation is relatively easy, but is only half the job. Again, sum this applies to Slackware Professional.
Change to the /usr/X11R6/lib/ConfigXF subdirectory (watch for capitalization!) and rush ConfigXF. The program will first claim for information about your mouse, if you maintain one. I maintain a Logitech mouse so I selected the Microsoft option. The guides suggest this, motto that only if you maintain an older Logitech mouse should you pick the Logitech option. After this, I agreed with the given defaults and having /dev/mouse as the path.
Onward to video cards. From the massive list, I chose the Cirrus GD-5426. Next came a monitor list, and I opted for generic VESA SVGA. After this, it asks you questions regarding virtual desktop size and other things. Since I didn't understand half of the questions, I just accepted the defaults. Eventually, you bag to a screen where you can save the set up, tune the set up, quit, and other choices. For me the option to tune the set up just didn't work, producing a variety of errors.
What did work is this: saving the set up to the default choice. Edit /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XF86Config, looking for the section called “Monitor”. You'll note that Bandwidth, HorizSync, and VertRefresh are marked with “EDIT THIS!!!” It took me too many times to realize that when the X-installation program said you should edit the XF86Config file that you really had to edit it. Now the crucial part: replace the information in the file with the information from your monitor manual.
Novice Note: pick a few minutes and learn to consume the text editor vi. Not only is this editor ubiquitous and small, but many other programs consume similar commands. For instance, the :q that will quit vi will moreover bag you out of the man program.
For example, I entered the following for my CTX CMS-1561 Multiscan monitor:Bandwidth 100 HorizSync 30-60 VertRefresh 50-90
In addition to these changes, I moreover added lines that appeared in the Linux manuals but not in the XF86Config file. They probably aren't needed, but what the heck. Under “Keyboard” I added:AutoRepeat 500 5
Under section “Screen”, subsection “Display” I added:Depth 8
Save the file. Start X-Windows with startx (or xstart) and, with luck, it will run. If it doesn't, bag the Linux manual, skip the automatic installation altogether, and carefully carry out it yourself, checking that the information in the Config files match your set-up.
Whew! Linux works. X-Windows works. What next? Well, I could install the XAP disk set to give me programs to consume when I am in X. Doom could finally Come out of hiding. Or I could install TeX and see what those Klingon fonts glare like. Or I could tackle SLIP and see if I can bag working access to the Internet. Or I could even reassert my latent geekdom and write a “Hello world!” program in GNU C/C++. Linux has so much to explore-but then, that's the fun. Watch out David and sum you other Unix gods-we're coming up the ladder!
This section provides a basic step-by-step installation of Red Hat Linux from a CD-ROM. There are many different ways to proceed with an install, and the Red Hat Linux installer can provide a graphical or text-based interface in a variety of modes. The case approach outlined here should work with any PC and can subsist used as a starting point for learning more about installing Red Hat Linux.
To bag started, insert the first Red Hat Linux CD-ROM and reboot your computer. You'll first see a boot screen that offers a variety of options for booting. These options (shown in device 3.1) are
<ENTER>—Start the install using a graphical interface
text—Start the install using a graphical text interface
lowres—Start the install using a 640x480 resolution
nofb—Start the install avoiding consume of a video framebuffer
expert—Offer manual installation and configuration during the install, and disable autoprobing of hardware by the installer
linux rescue—Boot to single-user mode with a root operator prompt, disabling X, multitasking and networking
linux dd—Use a driver disk and possibly one or more kernel arguments (such as linux mem=512M expert) to enable inescapable types of hardware, such as networking cards
Figure 3.1 Select a type of installation, installation mode, or rescue installation when first installing Red Hat Linux.
Other options that can subsist used at the boot prompt comprise setting a specific resolution and color depth for the installation. This is done by typing vga= at the boot prompt, along with a number such as
773—use 256 colors at 1024x768
775—use 256 colors at 1280x1024
791—use thousands of colors at 1024x768
794—use thousands of colors at 1280x1024
Function keys can subsist used at the boot prompt to bag more information about an installation mode or to enable a mode. Pressing F2 provides a single screen of back text. Pressing F3 gives information about the expert mode. Pressing F4 describes how to pass kernel arguments. Pressing F5 describes Red Hat's rescue mode.
Press the spacebar to halt an automatic boot to the install. Type the word text at the boot prompt and press Enter to continue. The installer's kernel will load, and you'll subsist asked to select a language for the installation, as shown in device 3.2.
Use the Tab key to navigate to scrolling lists or buttons in the graphical dialog box. Scroll through the list to highlight a language, and then consume the Tab key to highlight the OK button and press Enter. You'll then subsist asked to select a keyboard for the install, as shown in device 3.3.
Figure 3.2 Select a language to consume when installing Red Hat Linux.
Figure 3.3 Select a default keyboard to consume when installing and using Red Hat Linux.
Again, select a keyboard, and then highlight the OK button and press Enter. You'll next subsist asked to select a pointing device, as shown in device 3.4.
Figure 3.4 Select a pointing device to consume when installing and using Red Hat Linux.
Select a mouse type to consume for Red Hat Linux sessions. Note that Red Hat Linux supports USB devices, including USB mice. If you maintain a two-button mouse, select it by scrolling through the list. Note that three-button emulation will subsist automatically selected. (This emulation enables a middle-mouse button to subsist simulated when both the left and prerogative mouse buttons are pressed simultaneously.) Highlight OK to continue. You'll see a splash screen and will subsist offered the opening to travel back to change the previous settings. If the settings are correct, highlight the OK button and press Enter. You'll subsist asked to select a type of installation, as shown in device 3.5.
Figure 3.5 Select a type of Red Hat Linux installation.
Select a type of installation using your cursor keys and the Tab key. The Workstation, Server, and Laptop installations offer a unique set of preselected software libraries and packages. The Custom installation allows selection of individual software packages with the competence to resolve any dependency issues automatically. Software dependencies should subsist resolved in order to maintain a stable system because some software packages depend on other software packages to function properly.
You can consume Linux virtual consoles during installation to monitor the hardware detection, gain access to a single-user shell, and view progress of the installer script. When using a graphical installer, press Ctrl+Alt+F1+4 to navigate to the various screens. Press Alt+F7 to jump back to the installer. When performing a text-based installation, consume Alt+F1+4; consume Alt+F1 to jump back to a text-based install, and Alt+F5 to jump back to the install screen if you consume a graphical install.
In this example, select a Server install and press Enter to continue. You'll then see a screen, as shown in device 3.6, that offers a preference of partitioning schemes and tools.
Figure 3.6 Select a partitioning scheme or tool.
The Autopartition button will partition your hard drive according to the type of selected installation, and automatically configure the partitions for consume with Linux. The Disk Druid button will launch a graphical partition editor. The fdisk button will launch the Linux fdisk utility. The fdisk command offers the competence to create (not format) nearly 60 different types of partitions, but has a text-based interface.
Click the Disk Druid button. If you are using a new hard drive that hasn't previously been partitioned, you'll subsist asked if you would enjoy to create new partitions on the drive. Click the Yes button to initialize the drive. If you are using a hard drive that has been previously partitioned or formatted and the partitions are recognized, Disk Druid will present a graphical interface. device 3.7 shows a hard drive with nearly 1.5GB of free space that hasn't been partitioned.
Figure 3.7 Partition your drive before installing Red Hat Linux.
To consume Disk Druid, select any listed free space, and then press the New button. To create free space, scroll to an existing partition and consume the Delete button to delete the partition. If you consume the New button, you'll see a dialog box as shown in device 3.8.
The Add Partition dialog box is used to select a hard drive, allot a mount point (such as /boot or /), allot a filesystem (such as ext2, ext3, RAID, swap, or vfat), allot the size of the partition, and allot a filesystem check. The size of the partition can subsist fixed, or if you press the spacebar when selecting the Fill sum Available Space field, will consume sum remaining free space. The Check for infamous Blocks item is used to verify low-level formatting (and will pick a long time on a hard drive with a capacity larger than 1GB). consume the OK button when finished.
Figure 3.8 Set partition information about a selected or new partition on a hard drive.
Red Hat Linux requires at least a root (/) and swap partition. The swap partition should subsist more than twice as great as the amount of installed memory, and perhaps three times as great because of new memory requirements of the Linux 2.4–series kernel. device 3.9 shows a completed partitioning scheme for a server with an initial 1.5GB hard drive. Note that you can allot other schemes, such as a remote /home partition, but this can subsist accomplished after installation.
Figure 3.9 Review your partitioning scheme for your hard drive.
Take a jiffy to review your partitioning scheme. Changes can subsist made by selecting a desired partition, and then using the Edit or Delete button, followed by consume of the New button to consume any free space. When satisfied, consume the OK button to continue the install. You'll then subsist asked (as shown in device 3.10) to select a boot loader for booting Red Hat Linux, or whether you'd prefer not to consume a boot loader (when booting from floppy, a DOS partition, or over a network).
Figure 3.10 Select whether you want to consume a boot loader, and if so, which type.
Using GRUB or LILO depends on your necessity for a particular feature, familiarity or preference. The GRUB loader works with sum BSD UNIX variants and many proprietary operating systems. The utility moreover supports menuing, command lines, installed RAM detection, and diskless and remote network booting. On the other hand, LILO has a much longer Linux history and might subsist more chummy to long-time Linux users. Select the desired boot loader, and then consume the OK button, and you'll subsist asked where you want to install the boot loader, as shown in device 3.11.
GRUB and LILO are typically installed in the MBR of the first IDE hard drive in a PC. However, the boot loader can moreover subsist installed in the first sector of the Linux boot partition. Note that you can moreover backtrack through the install process to change any settings. Select a location and consume the OK button to continue. You'll then subsist asked (as shown in device 3.12) if you'd enjoy to pass any kernel arguments before booting Linux.
Figure 3.11 Select where you'd enjoy to install the boot loader.
Figure 3.12 Enter any desired kernel arguments to subsist passed by the boot loader.
Enter the arguments in the dialog box or consume the OK button to continue. After you press Enter, you can graphically edit the loader's configuration file to add or remove choices of booting other operating systems. The default operating system to boot will subsist Red Hat Linux, but if you are configuring a dual-boot system, you can configure the boot loader, either now or later on when using Red Hat Linux, to support booting another installed operating system residing on a different partition. When finished, click the OK button, and you'll subsist asked to select a firewall configuration, as shown in device 3.13.
You'll subsist asked to configure network settings if your computer's installed network adapter is recognized by the Red Hat installer. If you install a recognizable network adapter after installation, Red Hat Linux will claim during the boot process if you'd enjoy to configure the adapter. Network adapters can moreover subsist configured by using the netconf command.
Figure 3.13 Selected a desired security level.
Use the dialog box shown in device 3.13 to set a security level. Although the No firewall setting isn't recommended, this setting can subsist used if you're using Red Hat Linux as a non-networked workstation. The Medium setting might subsist acceptable for consume on an intranet protected by a firewall and served by an Internet gateway. Certainly consume a lofty security plane if your computer is attached directly to the Internet. Note that you can moreover manually configure security settings after installing Red Hat Linux. consume the Customize button to pick allowable services, as shown in device 3.14.
The dialog box in device 3.14 should subsist used to set allowable incoming service requests. This is essential if you want to allow requests immediately following installation and the start of Red Hat Linux. For some servers, HTTP, FTP and Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) requests are acceptable and reasonable. consume the OK button when you finished selecting services. You'll then subsist asked to select any additional languages you'd enjoy supported by the installed Red Hat Linux system. You'll then see a Time Zone Selection dialog box, as shown in device 3.15.
Figure 3.14 Select allowable incoming service requests for your custom security setting.
Figure 3.15 Select your time zone.
There are two "clocks" or times when using a PC: the hardware clock, maintained by chips in the computer and a backup battery; and the system time, set upon booting and used by the Linux kernel. It is essential to withhold the two times accurate and in synchronization because automated system administration might necessity to pick locality at critical times. Many computer installations consume computers with hardware clocks set to Greenwich connote Time (a misnomer because the revise designation is UTC or Coordinated Universal Time). The Linux system time is then set relative to this time and the current time zone, such as Eastern Standard Time, which is -5 hours of UTC. Setting the computer's hardware clock to UTC (GMT) has the odds of allowing the Linux system time to subsist easily set relative to the geographic position of the computer and resident time zone. (Such as a Linux laptop user who would enjoy to create files or dispatch electronic mail with revise time stamps, and who has traveled from New York to Tokyo).
Read the manual page for the hwclock command to learn how to withhold a running Linux system synchronized with a PC's hardware clock.
Choose your time configuration, and then press the OK button. You'll then subsist asked to enter a root operator password. Type in a password, press Enter, and then type it again to develop sure that it is verified. The password, which is case sensitive, should subsist at least six characters (or more) and consist of letters and numbers. Note that the password isn't echoed back to the display. When finished, consume the OK button to continue. You can then create a typical user account, as shown in device 3.16.
Figure 3.16 Create a user account for consume with Red Hat Linux.
Create a user account for yourself and any additional users of the system. Users are assigned a username, password, shell, and home directory. The default home directories reside under the /home directory. When finished, consume the OK button to continue. You can then add additional users if you created a user for your system. (Even if you consume Red Hat Linux on a standalone workstation, you should create a user for yourself, and then consume the su or sudo commands to discharge root tasks.)
In the Package Group Selection dialog box, shown in device 3.17, are select software groups, each of which contains many different software packages.
Figure 3.17 Select software package groups for installation.
Use the spacebar to select various groups of software packages. Note that the size of the installed software will dynamically reflect your choices. consume the Select Individual Packages item to pick individual software packages. This can allow fine-tuning of the software installation to only installing desired commands or clients, and to prune unwanted software. consume the OK button when finished. You'll then subsist asked to configure a video card for the X Window System (if selected for installation) as shown in device 3.18.
You won't subsist asked to select a video card if you don't install the X software. Note that you can select and pick X software for installation, and then skip the configuration step and configure X for Red Hat Linux after installing. see Chapter 6, "The X Window System," for details on configuring X to work with a PC's graphics card. If you select a graphical or text-based install and don't consume the Expert mode to install Red Hat Linux, your graphics hardware will subsist automatically probed.
Figure 3.18 Select a video card for consume with X11 or skip the configuration.
After X configuration or skipping the configuration, the installer will then format your partitions using your settings. Next, an install image will subsist transferred to the formatted partition for consume during the install. The installer will then check your software selection for any package dependencies and originate copying software from the CD-ROM (or a selected source) onto the new Linux partitions, as shown in device 3.19.
Figure 3.19 Monitor your installation and packages.
The installer, shown in device 3.19, reports on the denomination of the current package being installed, the total number of packages, time remaining for the installation, and number of completed and remaining packages. At some point during the installation, you will subsist asked to remove the first CD-ROM and insert the second. When the installation finished, the installer will discharge some temporary file cleanup, install the boot loader and then claim if you'd enjoy to create a boot diskette for viable consume later, as shown in device 3.20.
Figure 3.20 You can create a boot disk for later use.
You can create this bespeak disk now, or you can consume Red Hat's mkbootdisk command later on while using Red Hat Linux. Select Yes or No. If you pick to create a boot disk, you'll necessity to maintain a blank diskette on hand. Having a boot disk can subsist handy, especially if the boot loader fails to boot Linux.
After this portion of the install, you're done! Press the OK button and Red Hat Linux will eject any inserted CD-ROM and reboot. If you pick to consume the LILO boot loader, you'll then subsist presented with a graphical boot prompt as shown in device 3.21. (The GRUB boot loader will glare similar.)
If you carry out nothing for five seconds or press Enter, the boot loader will boot Red Hat Linux. To consume a text-based boot prompt, press Ctrl+x and press Enter. You'll then see the boot: prompt if you consume LILO. Both LILO and GRUB offer the casual to pass any required kernel arguments.
Figure 3.21 Boot Red Hat Linux by pressing the Enter key or waiting five.
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CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [22 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [128 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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