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310-812 Sun Certified MySQL 5.0 Developer fraction 1(R)

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310-812 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified MySQL 5.0 Developer fraction 1(R)

Test Code : 310-812
Test designation : Sun Certified MySQL 5.0 Developer fraction 1(R)
Vendor designation : SUN
: 173 real Questions

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SUN Sun Certified MySQL 5.0

MySQL users typically Unfazed through solar Acquisition | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

customers on the MySQL conference this week preeminent solar Microsystems' acquisition of the database trade might boost MySQL's credibility among senior IT conclusion makers still skittish about the usage of open-supply software.

there were some, even though, who feared that possession of MySQL by means of a standard IT dealer would slash boom in the neighborhood of MySQL developers, who provide a daily toddle of patches and fresh points for the database.

"The main draw back is that the community could reject it [Sun's purchase of MySQL]," preeminent Yuriy Demchenko, a database administrator and net purposes developer at a broad Canadian telecommunications company. "we'll observe if the neighborhood continues to develop on the expense it has."

Demchenko spoke of his enterprise, which he did not covet identified because he's not authorized to talk for it publicly, runs primarily Oracle and IBM's DB2 databases, however his offshoot uses MySQL for "semi-official startup initiatives" that sometimes finish up working in creation. He uses the community version of MySQL "since it's free."

The upside of the acquisition is that it'll create bigger-stage executives on the service extra snug with MySQL because it is owned by means of a big, apt business, Demchenko mentioned. His trade already makes Use of solar servers.

solar closed its US$1 billion buy of MySQL in February and is internet hosting its first MySQLuser conference this week in Santa Clara, California, the state it launched a close-ultimate edition of MySQL 5.1. It has been at pains to emphasise its sheperd for open supply and similarities within the organizations' cultures, regardless of their huge incompatibility in size.

"solar has a comparatively enlightened angle to open source, so I Do not observe [the acquisition] affecting the neighborhood too plenty," talked about Steffen Higel, a methods engineer with on-line gaming trade DemonWare, which is using a edition of MySQL 5.0 to serve up games devotion "name of responsibility 3."

DemonWare switched from the Ingres database to MySQL a pair of 12 months ago because it establish Ingres "horrific" when it comes to aid and efficiency, and because Higel and his colleagues had event with MySQL at a school, he observed. It began with the free community version and switched to a paid subscription after DemonWare changed into acquired by using Activision, Higel noted.

he is satisfied with MySQL however would devotion greater again-up capabilities, which are not due except MySQL 6.0 later this yr. sun mentioned this week it might delay the closing release of MySQL 5.1 by using up to 3 months, however Higel referred to it is "now not a broad deal, there's nothing reveal-stopping they want."

Lionel Beaudet, technical supervisor for the French division of Virgin cell, is extra worried by means of Oracle's acquisition of Innobase than by sun's MySQL buy. Innobase makes the default transactional storage engine for MySQL, and the Oracle deal has created some uncertainty for MySQL users.

MySQL is developing a storage engine for MySQL 6.0, referred to as Falcon, and companions are setting up others. Virgin mobile will examine Falcon to glance how it performs in case it must create a transition, Beaudet pointed out. Marten Mickos, the former CEO of MySQL and now a sun senior vp, said MySQL lately renewed its license with Oracle, although he would now not utter for a way lengthy.

an additional consumer is, a startup so that it will quickly launch a carrier for constructing on-line communities around television courses. The sun deal is "a fine component, it adds probably some respectability to the MySQL manufacturer, plus you comprehend now that the company is at complete times going to breathe there," mentioned Silas Martinez, a techniques engineer for WebPlayTV.

"Some people might possibly breathe hesitant, however as lengthy they observe that MySQL remains its personal entity within solar, I don't believe it might breathe a problem," he mentioned.

WePlayTV picked MySQL for its rapid performance and potential to scale at cost effective, Martinez spoke of. His company has a coverage to create Use of open-source utility on account of the diminish imbue and aid from the developer group. he's the Use of MySQL 5.0 and was on the divulge to evaluate MySQL Cluster.

Ron Rosen, founding father of on-line internet affiliate marketing company, moreover cited the budget friendly of MySQL compared with true-tier databases devotion Oracle. He favors the acquisition since it will carry poise to MySQL and its product road map, he said.

"so long as sun would not Do anything loopy, everything may still breathe adequate," he pointed out.

To observation on this text and different PCWorld content material, quest counsel from their fb page or their Twitter feed.

OSCON: The saga of MySQL | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

At OSCON in 2006, I followed sessions that mentioned how open supply agencies would fare when big corporations are available in. lower back then there acquire been best a handful of examples of massive companies deciding to buy small open source businesses. Three years later, we’ve witnessed MySQL AB come by swallowed by using sun, best to acquire solar breathe swallowed by means of Oracle. Now there are greater open questions than ever and at the least three types of MySQL which are jockeying to proceed the MySQL blood-line. yesterday I attended talks by two of these groups and i requisite to examine yourself how the MySQL video game will play itself out over time.

the primary speak I attended become: “Drizzle: fame, principles, and Ecosystem” where a number of Drizzle developers shared their thoughts about this task. Brian Aker forked MySQL to create Drizzle a 12 months ago with the premise to create a brand fresh database that was leaner and more extensible through the Use of a micro kernel and plugin mannequin. The latest MySQL codebase had grown overly complicated after a number of aspects had been “hacked in” which made adding more features overly complicated.

The drizzle team, which has a few developers subsidized by way of solar, appears very a whole lot worried in regards to the technical nature of their assignment. As in most open source tasks the developers seem less worried with politics and organizations and more with creating a kick-ass database. i attempted to examine just a few questions to observe where they believe that MySQL, Drizzle and MariaDB had been headed, but generally the questions acquire been now not answered — they reiterated the headquarters of attention on technical excellence. other than having critical company help, Drizzle seems to breathe pushed with the aid of classic open source ideas. This makes me satisfied, because the future of both MySQL and Drizzle are doubtful on the grounds that Oracle simply bought solar. Given the focus on open supply principles, I’m unavoidable the Drizzle would now not Go away should Oracle settle to cease supporting the crew.

The 2d session turned into: “MariaDB: community driven SQL Server” which introduced Monty’s (of MySQL AB repute) fresh trade Monty program AB. unlike the Drizzle group, Monty’s fresh enterprise has pellucid corporate desires, complete with fluff and advertising communicate. the brand fresh company’s fork of MySQL, MariaDB, aims to breathe a hundred% compatible with the common MySQL. Its designed to breathe 100% drop in replacement that goes even as far as letting individuals who're certified on MySQL observe their capabilities to MariaDB. despite the fact that Monty program AB differs in just a few points from the common MySQL AB, it in reality seems to comply with a reasonably identical model.

The people engaged on the original MySQL had been not too well represented right here at OSCON. not devotion Drizzle and MariaDB, MySQL is shrouded in uncertainty considering the fact that no person breathe alert of what Oracle plans to Do with MySQL. given that it MySQL can cannibalize (and probably already has) Oracle’s flagship product, the future of MySQL is very unclear. The mindshare at OSCON obviously belongs to MariaDB and to Drizzle.

Returning returned to my common aspect now, they will observe that the acquisition of MySQL AB by way of sun hasn’t worked out at complete how complete and sundry had hoped. most of the fears raised via my blog publish from three years in the past acquire manifested during this mess. After MySQL grew to breathe a sun property, the high-quality of MySQL began to undergo, together with releasing a edition of MySQL that had critical universal bugs. This had not ever took state earlier than and despatched a transparent signal that not complete become smartly with MySQL. And the group had a lot of frustrations with sun as sun slowed or stopped accepting patches. Even critical businesses devotion Google had severe patches to MySQL not noted. certainly the manner had damaged down.

these days they discover ourselves with at least three models of MySQL that complete acquire differing dreams, yet engage to share code with one an additional. Some could breathe suitable with each different, some spoil fresh floor. The one component they comprehend for Definite that nothing in this online game is certain. unless Oracle makes a statement about the future of MySQL nothing can breathe clear.

I find it basically snoopy that each Drizzle and MariaDB acquire again MySQL to primary open source roots. Neither neighborhood goes to require fancy licenses or copyright agreements and may totally matter on the Use of the GPL. Drizzle is devoid of a industrial model in the interim and even Monty application AB will seem devotion a greater “traditional” open supply business.

Amidst this uncertainty the simplest thing that is pellucid to me is that the MariaDB and the Drizzle communities are not anticipating anything else — they're engaged on fresh enhancing their projects as quick as they could. I in my view suppose that Drizzle gifts probably the most exciting strategy to saving MySQL — it sounds just devotion the codebase vital a serious overhaul to breathe able to wreck some building bottlenecks and to allow extra individuals to recrudesce and participate within the development process.

besides the fact that I’ve switched to Postgres many moons in the past, I’m completely complete in favour of what's at the moment happening with MySQL. The current routine during this space are things that they discussed three years ago with the conclusion of “This will breathe exciting to monitor!” certainly, it’s unique to observe — I feel we’ll breathe speakme about this situation for fairly some time to come. Oh, and MySQL users: worry now not — you’re going to breathe the winners in this whole debacle!

Oracle raises certification checking out prices | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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MySQL Conference & Expo 2009 Schedule | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Below are the confirmed and scheduled talks at MySQL Conference & Expo 2009 (schedule subject to change).

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Ballroom A

Ballroom B

Ballroom C

Ballroom F

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7:30am Continental BreakfastRoom: Mezzanine

12:00pm LunchRoom: Santa Clara Ballroom

Linux Timeline | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Linux Journal celebrated the publication of its 100th issue in 2002 with the release of the Linux Timeline. It's now 2006, Linux itself turns 15 this year and Linux Journal, a slight older, grayer and wiser, is soon to release it's 150th issue. In celebration and in homage of an astounding community's history we're compiling the significant events of 2002 through 2006 (and of course anything from earlier years that they may acquire previously missed).

We examine you to raise a few minutes of time and aid record history. reckon this article post a giant whiteboard -- observation on the event or events you find to breathe most significant in Linux's recent history, you'll likely observe their editors doing just the same.

We'll compile the events and re-release the timeline for complete to share in the upcoming months.

Ready? Here they go:

August 1991

``Hello everybody out there using minix - I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't breathe broad and professional devotion gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing since april, and is starting to come by ready. I'd devotion any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it rather (same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons) among other things).I've currently ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40), and things seem to work. This implies that I'll come by something practical within a few months, and I'd devotion to know what features most people would want. Any suggestions are welcome, but I won't engage I'll implement them :-) Linus (PS. Yes - it's free of any minix code, and it has a multi-threaded fs. It is NOT protable (uses 386 task switching etc), and it probably never will support anything other than AT-harddisks, as that's complete I acquire :-(.''

September 1991

Linux version 0.01 is released and build on the Net.

April 1992

The first Linux newsgroup, comp.os.linux, is proposed and started by Ari Lemmke.

October 1992

Peter MacDonald announces SLS, the first standalone Linux install. At least 10MB of space on disk was recommended.

June 1993

Slackware, by Patrick Volkerding, becomes the first commercial standalone distribution and quickly becomes accepted within the Linux community.

August 1993

Matt Welsh's Linux Installation and Getting Started, version 1 is released. This is the first book on Linux.

March 1994

The first issue of Linux Journal is published. This issue featured an interview with Linus Torvalds and articles written by Phil Hughes, Robert ``Bob'' Young, Michael K. Johnson, Arnold Robbins, Matt Welsh, Ian A. Murdock, straightforward B. Brokken, K. Kubat, Micahel Kraehe and Bernie Thompson. Advertisers in the premier issue embrace Algorithms Inc., Amtec Engineering, Basmark, Fintronic (later became VA Research, VA Linux Systems, then...), Infomagic, Prime Time Freeware, Promox, Signum Support, SSC, Trans Ameritech, USENIX, Windsor Tech and Yggdrasil.

Linux 1.0 is released.

June 1994

While at a conference in fresh Orleans, Jon ``maddog'' Hall persuades Linus to port Linux to DEC's 64-bit Alpha computer processor chip. Less than two weeks later, maddog had moreover persuaded DEC to fund the project. An Alpha workstation was immediately sent to Linus. ``Digital [DEC] and the Linux community formed the first truly successful venture of suits and Linux geeks working together'', said maddog.

Linux International, a nonprofit vendor organization, is founded by Jon ``maddog'' Hall. Linux International goes on to become a major contributor to the success of Linux, helping corporations and others work toward the promotion of the Linux operating system.

August 1994

Linux trademark dispute: is Linux trademarked? William R. Della Croce, Jr. files for the trademark ``Linux'' on August 15, 1994, and it is registered in September. Della Croce has no known involvement in the Linux community yet sends letters out to prominent Linux companies demanding money for Use of the trademark ``Linux''. A lawsuit is filed in 1996 against Della Croce. Plaintiffs in the suit embrace Linus Torvalds; Specialized Systems Consultants, Inc. (publishers of Linux Journal); Yggdrasil Computing, Inc.; Linux International; and WorkGroup Solutions (also known as LinuxMall). The plaintiffs prevail, and in 1997 announce the matter as settled by the assignment of the cost to Linus Torvalds on behalf of complete Petitioners and Linux users.

September 1994

Linux is first mentioned in the mainstream press. Wired magazine features an article titled ``Kernel Kid'', by Seth Rosenthal. He writes: ``So, is Linus going to become the Bill Gates of Finland? Maybe not. He claims to breathe 'by no means a apt student' and is in no Hurry to graduate since 'Linux has taken a lot of time from my studies, and I devotion the work I acquire at the University which keeps me alive.'''

Randolph Bentson reports on the world's first vendor-supported Linux device driver in Linux Journal. Cyclades gave him a multiport serial card in exchange for developing a Linux driver for it.

December 1994

A major tradeshow and conference raise notice of Linux. Open Systems World features a Linux track, hosted by Linux Journal. Two days of seminars embrace Eric Youngdale, Donald Becker, Dirk Hohndel, Phil Hughes, Michael K. Johnson and David Wexelblat as speakers.

April 1995

Linux Expo, the first Linux-specific tradeshow and conference series, launches, thanks to the folks at North Carolina State University and in particular, Donnie Barnes. Speakers embrace Marc Ewing, Rik Faith and Michael K. Johnson, among others. Linux Expo snowballs and becomes the most accepted and well-attended annual Linux divulge for the next several years (after three years Red Hat takes over organization and becomes the major sponsor). The cost for entry into the exhibit hall and a pass to the conferences? $4.

January 1997

First ``Linux virus'' discovered. Called Bliss, it actually works on any UNIX-like OS and offers a helpful--``bliss-uninfect-files-please'' command-line option. Alan Cox points out that Bliss ``does not circumvent the security of the system, it relies on people with privilege to Do something dumb'' and reminds users to install digitally signed software from trustworthy sites only and to check signatures before installing.

``In fact it's probably easier to write a virus for Linux because it's open source and the code is available. So they will breathe seeing more Linux viruses as the OS becomes more common and popular.''--Wishful thinking from McAfee

January 1998

Linux Weekly advice begins publication with Jonathan Corbet and Elizabeth Coolbaugh as founders. The very first issue, dated January 22, was just a tiny hint of what LWN was to become.

Netscape announces that they will release the source to their browser under a free software license. This almost certainly remains one of the most notable events of the year; it opened a lot of eyes to what Linux and free software could provide.

Red Hat Advanced development Labs (RHAD) is founded. It has since become one of the higher-profile places where people are paid to develop free software and an notable component of the GNOME Project. RHAD is able to attract developers devotion ``Rasterman'' (although only for a short time) and Federico Mena-Quintero.

February 1998

The Cobalt Qube is announced and immediately becomes a favorite in the trade press due to its towering performance, low cost and cute configuration factor. Cobalt's Linux engineering is done by zero other than David Miller, the source of much that is apt in the Linux kernel.

The Linux user community wins InfoWorld's technical support award; Red Hat 5.0 moreover won their Operating System award. But it was the tech support award that truly opened some eyes; everybody had been epigram that Linux had no support. This was the birth of the finish of the ``no support'' argument.

Eric Raymond and friends arrive up with the term ``open source''. They apply for trademark status and build up the web site. Thus begins the formal trouble to propel Linux for corporate use.

March 1998

Consumer advocate Ralph Nader asks the big PC vendors (Dell, Gateway, Micron, etc.) to present non-Microsoft systems, including systems with Linux installed.

April 1998

Linux is covered by the US National Public Radio news, marking one of its first appearances in the mainstream, nontechnical press.

O'Reilly holds the ``first ever'' Free Software Summit, featuring Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Linus Torvalds, Guido van Rossum, Eric Allman, Phil Zimmermann, Eric Raymond and Paul Vixie.

May 1998

The Google search engine pops up. Not only is it one of the best search engines around, but it's based on Linux and features a Linux-specific search page.

Big databases start to arrive. Support for Linux is announced by Computer Associates for their Ingres system and by Ardent Software for their O2 demur database.

June 1998

``Like a lot of products that are free, you come by a loyal following even though it's small. I've never had a customer mention Linux to me.''--Bill Gates, PC Week, June 25, 1998

``...these operating systems will not find widespread Use in mainstream commercial applications in the next three years, nor will there breathe broad third-party application support.''--The Gartner Group says there is slight hope for free software.

A Datapro study comes out showing that Linux has the highest user satisfaction of any system; it moreover shows Linux to breathe the only system other than Microsoft Windows NT that is increasing its market share.

IBM announces that it will deal and support the Apache web server after working a deal with the Apache team.

July 1998

The desktop wars rage as KDE and GNOME advocates hurl flames at each other. Linus gets in on the act, epigram that KDE is okay with him. In this context, KDE 1.0 is released. The first stable release of the K Desktop Environment proves to breathe popular, despite the complaints from those who Do not devotion the licensing of the Qt library.

Informix quietly releases software for Linux. Meanwhile, Oracle beats Informix to the punch PR-wise and makes a Linux-friendly announcement first, suggesting that they would soon breathe supporting Linux. Oracle promises to create a trial version available by the finish of 1998, a deadline they beat by months. This, seemingly, was one of the acid tests for the potential of long-term success for Linux; a majestic deal of attention resulted from both Informix's and Oracle's announcements.

Informix announces support for Linux effectively moments after Oracle does so. Sybase later announces their support for Linux also.

Linus appears on the cover of Forbes magazine. A lengthy anecdote presents Linux in a highly positive manner and brings the system to the attention of many who had never heard of it before. Linux begins to become a household word.

September 1998 is launched by Dave Whitinger and Dwight Johnson. The site, later acquired by, arguably becomes the most well-read and visited Linux portal of complete time.

Microsoft's Steve Ballmer admits that they are ``worried'' about free software and suggests that some of the Windows NT source code may breathe made available to developers. The identical month Microsoft goes on to list Linux as a competitive threat in its annual SEC (US Securities and Exchange Commission) filing. Speculation abounds that their real purpose is to influence the upcoming antitrust trial.

October 1998

``For the moment, however, the company from Redmond, Washington, seems almost grateful for the rising profile of Linux, seeing it as an smooth way of demonstrating that Windows is not a monopoly, ahead of its antitrust trial, scheduled to commence on October 15. That may breathe short-sighted. In the long run, Linux and other open-source programs could antecedent Mr. Gates much grief.''--The Economist, October 3, 1998

Intel and Netscape (and two venture capital firms) announce minority investments in Red Hat Software. The money is to breathe used to build an ``enterprise support division'' within Red Hat. An unbelievable amount of press is generated by this event, which is seen as a big-business endorsement of Linux.

Corel announces that WordPerfect 8 for Linux will breathe downloadable for free for ``personal use''. They moreover announce a partnership with Red Hat to supply Linux for the Netwinder.

October 1998

A confidential Microsoft memorandum on Redmond's strategy against Linux and Open Source software was leaked to Eric S. Raymond. Raymond, with his own added commentary, releases the memorandum to the national press over Halloween Weekend. Because of complete of the press surrounding the story, Microsoft was forced to acknowledge the now-infamous Halloween Document's authenticity. This was the first time the public heard Microsoft admit Linux was becoming stiff competition.

December 1998

A report from IDC says that Linux shipments rose by more than 200% in 1998, and its market share rose by more than 150%. Linux has a 17% market share and a growth rate unmatched by any other system on the market.

January 1999

``Microsoft Corp. will shout it out to the world when Windows 2000 finally ships. Linux creator Linus Torvalds announced the arrival of the next generation of Linux, version 2.2, with a simple note to the Linux-kernel mailing list.''--Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols, Sm@rt Reseller

Samba 2.0 is released. It contains a reverse-engineered implementation of the Microsoft domain controller protocols, allowing Linux servers to provide complete services to Windows networks.

Hewlett-Packard and Compaq announce plans to present Linux-based systems. Later, Dell moreover announces plans to commence selling Linux-installed systems. SGI contents itself with providing information on how to bring up Linux on its systems.

Loki Entertainment Software announces that it will port Civilization: summon to Power to Linux.

February 1999

Linux and BSD users unite for ``Windows Refund Day''. They visit Microsoft, hoping to recrudesce the unused Windows licenses that they were forced to acquire when they purchased a computer system bundled with the OS.

March 1999

``Like a Russian revolutionary erased from a photograph, he is being written out of history. Stallman is the originator of the Free Software movement and the GNU/Linux operating system. But you wouldn't know it from reading about LinuxWorld (Expo). Linus Torvalds got complete the ink.''--Leander Kahney, Wired magazine, March 1999

The first LinuxWorld Conference and Expo is held in San Jose, California. As the first broad commercial ``tradeshow'' event for Linux, it serves notice to the world that Linux has arrived; 12,000 people are said to acquire attended.

Linux Magazine debuts, bringing some additional competition to the Linux print business. Later, other magazines surge and Fall including Open, Journal of Linux Technology (JOLT) and Maximum Linux.

VA Research buys the domain for $1,000,000 and announces plans to turn it into a Linux portal. Microsoft's rumored bid for the domain is frustrated.

April 1999

``...please imagine what it is devotion to observe an idealistic project stymied and made ineffective because people don't usually give it the credit for what it has done. If you're an idealist devotion me, that can wreck your whole decade.''--Richard Stallman on GNU/Linux

Al Gore's presidential drive web site claims to breathe open source. That pretension is gone, but the site still claims: ``In the spirit of the Open Source movement, they acquire established the Gore 2000 Volunteer Source Code Project; is an 'open site'."

HP announces 24/7 support services for the Caldera, Turbolinux, Red Hat and SuSE distributions. They moreover release OpenMail for Linux.

The Linux FreeS/WAN Project releases a free IPSec implementation, allowing Linux to office as a VPN gateway using what is now the industry standard.

``But the mere fact that there is now an official SEC document that includes the text of the GPL serves as fairly astonishing proof that the rules of the software trade really are being rewritten.''--Andrew Leonard, Salon

May 1999

``Those two slight words--open source--have become a magical incantation, devotion portal in 1998 or propel in 1997. Just whisper them and complete will breathe yours: media attention, consumer interest and, of course, venture capital.''--Andrew Leonard, Wired

August 1999

First Intel IA-64 ``Merced'' silicon. Although Intel had given simulators to several OS vendors, Linux is the only OS to elope on the fresh architecture on its first day. The Register headline: ``Merced silicon happens: Linux runs, NT doesn't''.

SGI announces the 1400L--a Linux-based server system. SGI moreover announces a partnership with Red Hat and begins contributing to kernel development in a broad way.

Red Hat's initial public offering happens; a last-minute repricing helps to create difficulties for people participating in the community offering. The stock cost immediately rises to $50; a value that seems towering at the time.

``For the umpteenth time, someone paved paradise, build up a parking lot. For the thousands of Linux coders who've built the utopian open-source movement--offering free aid to create a free operating system--the IPO of Red Hat Software was a sure sign of Wall Street cutting the ribbon on the fresh Linux mall.''--The Industry Standard

Motorola jumps into Linux announcements of embedded systems products, support and training services, and a partnership with Lineo.

Sun acquires StarDivision; it announces plans to release StarOffice under the Sun Community Source License and to create a web-enabled version of the office suite.

September 1999

``'Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse Corp. in Burlington, fresh Jersey is spending $1 million or so to buy 1,250 Linux-equipped PCs from Dell, but it won't pay Red Hat a dime for support', says Michael Prince, chief information officer. 'I suppose Red Hat's trade model makes sense to somebody, but it makes no sense to us', he says.''--Daniel Lyons, Forbes, May 31, 1999. Then in September, Burlington ended up purchasing support from Red Hat.

The first broad Linux stock rush happens. Shares in Applix more than double in volume, reaching nearly 27 million shares--three times the 9 million shares that are actually on the market.

SCO trashes Linux in a brochure distributed in Northern Europe: ``Linux at this moment can breathe considered more a plaything for IT students rather than a serious operating system in which to state the functioning, security and future of a business. Because Linux is basically a free-for-all it means that no individual person/company is accountable should anything Go wrong, plus there is no way to foretell which way Linux will evolve.''

Stock in Red Hat hits $135/share. The cost seems unbelievably towering at the time.

October 1999

Sun Microsystems announces that it will release the source to Solaris under the Sun Community Source License. The actual release drew criticism: ``In a toddle aimed at Linux, Sun said it will announce Wednesday that it is making the source code for its fresh Solaris 8 operating system 'open'. Webster's has lots of definitions for the word, including 'not sealed, fastened, or locked'. But when you dig into the details of Sun's announcement, you'll find that what it is offering doesn't arrive close to meeting the dictionary's definition, let lonesome that of the Open Source movement.''--Lawrence Aragon,, January 26, 2000

November 1999

``...if there's one thing about Linux users, they're do-ers, not whiners.''--Andy Patrizio,

Red Hat buys Cygnus for almost $700 million in stock. Rumors of other acquisitions by Red Hat commence to circulate and divulge no signs of stopping.

December 1999

VA Linux Systems goes public after two repricings (originally priced at $11-$13/share). The final IPO cost is $30/share; that cost rises immediately to $300 before closing around $250. It sets the record for the biggest IPO surge in the history of the NASDAQ.

``Gee. remember when the broad question was 'How Do they create money at this?'''--Eric Raymond

January 2000

VA Linux Systems announces SourceForge (although the site had actually been up and running since November 1999). SourceForge moreover makes the code for its operation available under the GPL. By the finish of the year, SourceForge hosted over 12,000 projects and 92,000 registered developers.

Version 1.0 of Red Flag Linux is released in the People's Republic of China.

Transmeta breaks its long silence and tells the world what it has been up to--the Crusoe chip, of course.

The Linux Professional Institute announces the availability of its first Linux professional certification exam.

Linux wannabe press releases current from companies trying to ride on the success of Linux stocks., for example, posts the following: `` has further distinguished itself in the competitive Internet health industry race by being one of the first to integrate the Linux Operating System, produced by Red Hat, the leading developer and provider of open-source software solutions.''

February 2000

The latest IDC report suggests that Linux now ranks as the ``second-most-popular operating system for server computers'', with 25% of the server operating system sales in 1999. Windows NT is first with 38% and NetWare ranks third with 19%. IDC previously predicted that Linux would come by up to the number two position--in 2002 or 2003. The revolution appears to breathe well ahead of schedule.

VA Linux Systems acquisition of in a high-profile purchase that values Andover shares at 0.425 of VA's, or roughly $50/share. is the owner of the accepted web sites and and straightforward Kaspar and Associates moreover acquire made plans to merge. has been at the top of the retail side of Linux almost since the very beginning; Kaspar is one of the largest distribution channels.

Red Hat wins InfoWorld's ``Product of the Year'' award for the fourth time in a row.

March 2000

``The law in open code means that no actor can gain ultimate control over open-source code. Even the kings can't come by ultimate control over the code. For example, if Linus Torvalds, father of the Linux kernel, tried to steer GNU/Linux in a way that others in the community rejected, then others in the community could always acquire removed the offending fraction and gone in a different way. This threat constrains the kings; they can only lead where they know the people will follow.''--``Innovation, Regulation, and the Internet'' by Lawrence Lessig for The American Prospect.

A fresh version of LILO is posted that is able to come by past the 1024-cylinder boot circumscribe that has plagued PC systems for years.

The latest Netcraft survey shows Apache running on just over 60% of the Web.

Caldera Systems goes public after a short delay, on March 21. The stock, which was offered at $14/share, began trading at $26 and closed at $29.44. It thus registered a 110% gain on its first day.

``Caldera knows of no company that has built a profitable trade based in whole or in fraction on open-source software.''--Caldera SEC filing

Walnut Creek (the parent company for Slackware) and BSDi announce their merger. Yahoo! will breathe taking an equity investment in the fresh company.

Motorola Computer Group announces the release of its HA Linux distribution. This distribution is aimed at telecommunications applications that require very towering amounts of uptime; it includes hot-swap capability and is available for the i386 and PowerPC architectures.

The Embedded Linux Consortium is announced. Its goal is ``to amplify the depth, breadth and speed of Linux adoption in the enormous embedded computer market''. The initial leader will breathe Rick Lehrbaum, the man behind the and web sites, among other things.

Ericsson announces its ``Screen Phone HS210'' product--a Linux-based telephone with a touchscreen that can breathe used for e-mail, web browsing, etc. Ericsson and Opera Software moreover announce that Ericsson's (Linux-based) HS210 Screen Phone will incorporate the Opera web browser.

April 2000

Code is ruled to breathe speech. On April 4, 2000, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit published its conclusion regarding Peter Junger's challenge to the Export Administration Regulations that prevented him from posting information on the Internet that contained cryptographic sample code. Most critical in the ruling: ``Because computer source code is an eloquent means for the exchange of information and ideas about computer programming, they hold that it is protected by the First Amendment.''

Andy Tanenbaum releases the the Minix operating system under the BSD license. Had Minix been open source from the beginning, Linux may never acquire happened.

May 2000

SuSE releases the first supported Linux distribution for the IBM S/390 mainframe.

``Approximately 140 distribution companies exist across the globe. They believe complete but the top five will breathe bought, will Go out of trade or will breathe relegated to insignificance. Market-share leaders are currently defined around geographic boundaries. Red Hat has the largest global brand recognition and leading North American market share; SuSE leads in Europe, Turbolinux leads in Asia, and Conectiva leads in South America.''--Keith Bachman, an analyst for WR Hambrecht, predicting in The Red Herring

June 2000

Commercial considerations aid prompt the relicensing of MySQL under the GPL. Now the two freely available databases that are widely used in the Linux and Free Software communities, PostgreSQL and MySQL, meet the Debian Free Software Guidelines and the Open Source Guidelines. In addition, Progress Software forms a fresh company, NuSphere, just for the purpose of supporting MySQL.

July 2000

``In a world of NDA-bound trade agreements, Debian is an open book. In a world of mission statements, Debian has a social contract. At a time when commercial distributors are striving to observe how much proprietary software they can pack into a box of Linux, Debian remains the bastion of software freedom--living proof that you can acquire a fully functional and usable operating system without needing any proprietary code.''--Evan Leibovitch, ZDNet

Sun announces that StarOffice is to breathe released under the GPL. The code is going to breathe reworked, integrated with Bonobo and GTK, and released as a set of reusable components. StarOffice will moreover breathe reworked to Use a set of open XML-based file formats.

Oracle's Linux-based internet appliance system hits the shelves. The ``New Internet Computer'' (NIC) is the latest result of Larry Ellison's long personal crusade to create non-Microsoft systems available to the world. It's aimed at people who only want access to the Net; as such, it's essentially a $199 (without monitor) X terminal.

Reports first materialize that SCO may breathe purchased by Caldera. Later in 2000 Caldera and SCO announce their intent for Caldera International to breathe formed from Caldera's existing operation and two of SCO's three divisions.

Ted Ts'o steps forward to become the fresh 2.4 status list maintainer. Alan Cox was doing the job until he said that it was time to ``find someone else to maintain it''. Ted Ts'o responded to Linus' subsequent summon for a fresh status list maintainer.

August 2000

HP, Intel, IBM and NEC announce the ``Open Source development Lab'', which makes big hardware available to Linux developers for benchmarking and testing.

September 2000

``I'm a bastard. I acquire absolutely no clue why people can ever believe otherwise. Yet they do. People believe I'm a nice guy, and the fact is that I'm a scheming, conniving bastard who doesn't imbue for any damage feelings or lost hours of work if it just results in what I reckon to breathe a better system.''--Linus Torvalds trying to change his image.

The RSA patent expires, allowing for secure web transactions without proprietary software.

Trolltech releases the Qt library under the GPL, putting a definitive finish to a long-running and unpleasant license flame war.

The CueCat fiasco begins. Digital Convergence attempts to shut down programmers who acquire written Linux drivers for its CueCat bar code scanner. The company has given out big numbers of these scanners for free, expecting people to Use them with its proprietary software and web site. The threats antecedent the drivers to become marginally harder to find for a short period, after which the company declares victory and moves on.

October 2000

Microsoft says that penguins can mutate in a European print ad that quickly becomes famous.

December 2000

``I was dumbfounded to discover that installing Linux was easy. Why? Well, the world has changed. No more Do you acquire to understand everything about Linux before you install it, downloading the many chunks of code necessary to elope a complete system and getting them complete to work together. That was BSW--before shrink-wrap. With companies such as Red Hat and Corel putting complete the software you requisite in a box, the throe is (nearly) gone.''--John Schwartz, Washington Post

IBM announces plans to invest $1 billion in Linux in 2001.

January 2001

The long-awaited 2.4.0 kernel was released on January 4.

The US National Security Agency (NSA) releases SELinux under the GPL. SELinux offers an additional layer of security checks in addition to the standard UNIX-like permissions system.

March 2001

The Linux 2.5 kernel summit is held in San Jose, California; it is, perhaps, the most complete gathering of Linux kernel hackers in history.

April 2001

IBM gets into trouble over its ``Peace, adore and Linux'' graffiti in several cities.

``Slackware has always made money (who else producing a commercial distribution can utter that?), but with BSDi they ended up strapped to a sinking ship.''--Patrick Volkerding

May 2001

Sony's PlayStation Linux kit, shipped in Japan, sells out in eight minutes despite a doubling of the available stock.

June 2001

Sharp announces its upcoming Linux PDA based on Lineo's Embedix system.

VA Linux Systems exits the hardware business, choosing to focus on SourceForge instead. Later VA drops the word ``Linux'' from its designation altogether, relaunching as VA Software Corporation.

``In a press release issued Wednesday afternoon, VA Linux CEO Larry M. Augustin called the shift in strategy a analytic move. 'Our differentiating strength has always been their software expertise', Augustin said''.--Wired. You only thought VA was a hardware company.

July 2001

Free Dmitry! Dmitry Sklyarov is arrested in Las Vegas after Adobe complains about the Advanced eBook Processor. The following month he is charged with DMCA violations and conspiracy: the potential penalties add up to 25 years in prison. Dmitry's defense is based on constitutional challenges to the DMCA, on free speech and jurisdictional issues. Later in the year, charges are dropped, conditional on one year of apt deportment and testimony in the ElcomSoft trial.

``Although Adobe withdrew its support for the criminal complaint against Dmitry Sklyarov, they respect the majestic jury and federal government's conclusion to prosecute the company, ElcomSoft, and as a law-abiding corporate citizen, Adobe intends to cooperate fully with the government as required by law.''--Adobe's position

November 2001

Sharp Electronics Corporation begins a special Linux developer prerelease of the Zaurus PDA to attract free software developers to the feverish fresh platform.

February 2002

Avaya, the former PBX and enterprise systems division of Lucent, announces Linux-based PBX systems.

``So there are some--and I'd list myself among them--who believe that the recrudesce to Earth is a apt thing. There's nothing wrong with making a buck, but Linux doesn't profit from being elevated beyond reality on a shaky foundation.''--Evan Leibovitch takes a glance at the post-rush world of Linux.

We would devotion to recognize their indebtedness to Rebecca Sobol and Jonathan Corbet at Linux Weekly News, for allowing us to borrow heavily from the timeline featured on their site and for their accurate and genial historical editing.

From HTTP Messages to PSR-7: What’s It complete About? | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

This article was peer reviewed by Andrew Carter. Thanks to complete of SitePoint’s peer reviewers for making SitePoint content the best it can be!

The PHP Framework Interoperability Group (PHP-FIG) has relatively recently approved another proposal, the PSR-7: HTTP Messages Interface. The document crystallizes HTTP messages into 7 interfaces which a PHP library should implement if they subscribe to the specification. In PSR-7 By Example, Matthew Weier O’Phinney, editor of the PSR, gives an snoopy overview of the specification. So what is it?

Image of digital question mark, indicating confusion and pending explanation

If you type in your browser, you Go straight to the homepage of the BBC, but a number of things might acquire taken state between the time the browser sent an HTTP request to the server and it getting a response back.

Here’s a sample raw request.

GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0) Accept: */* Referer:

It’s always made up of a request line (GET / HTTP/1.1), a number of header domain lines listed as <key>: value, a single vacuous line and an optional body for any data payload (for sample query parameters or post data).

The blank line after the zero or more header lines must breathe a CRLF by itself. This means 2 characters – an ASCII 13 (Carriage Return), followed by ASCII 10 (Line Feed) or \r\n.

Let’s forward this request from the command line via curl and observe the response:

curl -i -H "Host:" -H "User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0)" -H "Accept: */*" -X come by HTTP/1.1 301 Moved Permanently Content-Type: text/html Date: Sun, 02 Oct 2016 20:49:42 GMT Location: Connection: Keep-Alive Content-Length: 0

Moved? There was a redirect. Then, let’s ensue the trail and create a request to instead:

curl -i -H "Host:" -H "User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0)" -H "Accept: */*" -X come by | less HTTP/1.1 200 OK Server: nginx Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8 ETag: W/"29c44-MXo+6t7MoPRad358MSWqwA" X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN x-origin-route: xrt-ext Content-Length: 171076 Date: Sun, 02 Oct 2016 20:54:27 GMT Connection: keep-alive Set-Cookie: BBC-UID=15c73fe11704a0731344da5ec13869204c1a22a0c7b444d60a708762e631ac0c0Mozilla/5.0%20(compatible%3b%20MSIE%209.0%3b%20Windows%20NT%206.1%3b%20Trident/5.0); expires=Thu, 01-Oct-20 20:54:27 GMT; path=/; X-Cache-Action: HIT X-Cache-Hits: 1223 X-Cache-Age: 55 Cache-Control: private, max-age=0, must-revalidate Vary: Accept-Encoding, X-CDN, X-BBC-Edge-Scheme <!DOCTYPE html> <!--[if lte IE 9]> <html lang="en-GB" class="no-js no-flexbox no-flexboxlegacy"> <![endif]--> <!--[if gt IE 9]><!--> <html lang="en-GB" class="no-js"> <!--<![endif]--> <head>

That’s more devotion it. The first line, HTTP/1.1 200 OK, is the status line. Then they acquire headers, in a similar pattern to requests – <key>: value, an vacuous line, and the response body. Note: They passed the output through less so that they can observe the first fraction of the response.

Requests and responses can breathe broken down into a message line, a number of header lines and body lines. The commonalities can breathe distraught in an interface (MessageInterface) which the request (RequestInterface) and response (ResponseInterface) can extend with their separate flavor of HTTP message.

PHP doesn’t only elope within a web environment, and web requests might acquire originated from APIs. The ServerRequestInterface was designed to raise imbue of other types of HTTP requests.

The other three interfaces are a further abstraction of specific aspects in messages. Looking back at the request message line:

GET / HTTP/1.1

This comprises:

  • METHOD: Although RFC 2616 defines safe and idempotent types of methods, for common applications, it’s sufficient to identify them by designation – GET, POST, PUT, PATCH, DELETE, OPTIONS, HEAD and TRACE. CONNECT is reserved for Use with a proxy that can dynamically switch to being a tunnel e.g. SSL tunneling.

  • TARGET: This is the URI or their request target, and things come by a bit snoopy here as they can have:

  • origin-form – path and query string of the URI. The query string may or may not breathe present.
  • absolute-form – an absolute URI.
  • authority-form – the authority fraction of a URI, made up of a maximum of 3 parts – user-info (optional), host and port (optional). The user-info may require a password too – user:password. They finish up with a pattern of user:password@host:port. The user-info may moreover acquire require an
  • asterisk-form – just the string, *
  • We finish up with scheme:[//[user:password@]host[:port]][/]path[?query][#fragment]. This fraction of the request message was distraught to the UriInterface.

  • VERSION: There’s limited selection here as HTTP/1.1 is the current version. Prior to that, they had HTTP/1.0, and the next draft version is HTTP/2.0

  • Also, file uploads required special attention. In non-SAPI environments, the $_FILES environment variable is vacuous and in some situations such as non-POST requests, $_FILES isn’t populated at all. The UploadedFileInterface was designed to allow for a more consistent interaction with files.

    The message (request or response) needs to breathe able to ply big data efficiently for both client and server. PHP has had streams built in since 4.3.0. The StreamInterface fraction of PSR-7 provides a wrapper around common operations and serialization of an entire stream to a string.


    The path to PSR-7 was paved with strong debate and differing opinions at every step of the way.

  • Immutable objects – The immutability or mutability of objects was one of the most hotly-debated points, and PSR-7 eventually settled for this:

    The proposal models messages and URIs as value objects.

    Messages are values where the identity is the aggregate of complete parts of the message; a change to any aspect of the message is essentially a fresh message. This is the very definition of a value object. The drill by which changes result in a fresh instance is termed immutability, and is a feature designed to ensure the integrity of a given value.

    What this means is that each time you create any change to a message object, you finish up with a fresh copy. The complexity of URI, headers and streams require an assurance that a replete adoption of immutability by complete collaborators offered to the designers of the interfaces.

    With immutability, any state change you create requires you to allot the result.

    $request = $request->setHeader('Cache-Control', 'public');

    Any mode that changes the state of the current message returns an instance of it with the changes made. As long as a result assignment is made, you can chain any number of changes in a fluent-like syntax.

    $request = $request ->setHeader('Cache-Control', 'public') ->addHeader('Cache-Control', 'max-age=18600') ->setStatus(200);

    The methods having the prefix “with” must conform to the immutability requirement. A concern is that supporting mutability in one of the message interfaces means enforcing it across complete the other interfaces.

    On the other hand, it has been highlighted that PSR-7 Objects Are Not Immutable as they are generally thought to be. It’s worthy of note that similar HTTP demur implementations in Ruby and Node are mutable by design. So, PHP is in apt company.

  • Nomenclature – These objects are designed as interfaces. Isn’t calling it MessageInterface superfluous? A mode signature taking a request and response ends up being too long. Compare the following:

    public office __invoke(ServerRequestInterface $request, ResponseInterface $response, callable $next) : ResponseInterface { } public office __invoke(ServerRequest $request, Response $response, callable $next) : Response { }

    Aliasing is the suggested solution for those who prefer to drop the Interface suffixes.

  • Middleware – We’ve got the message interfaces which are devotion the ingredients for making a cake, perfectly measured out. I want a cake to consume but I don’t know how to bake. How about a recipe? PSR-7 only prescribes a standard for the definition of a request and response. How Do they toddle from request to response? That “middleman” that does the leg work between the request and response is called middleware.

    The next step would breathe a unification of how to plumb PSR-7 interfaces so that applications and frameworks that conform to them can breathe completely swappable. This fraction of the debate which borders on providing a template for an interoperable implementation of PSR-7, has been moved to the separate PSR-15: HTTP Middlewares.

  • Usage

    A number of libraries and frameworks acquire added support for PSR-7 in different ways.

  • Symfony – The HttpFoundation Component is one of the most accepted OOP abstractions of the HTTP specification prior to PHP-FIG. With the emergence of PSR-7, Symfony opted for a PSR-7 Bridge which converts HttpFoundation objects from and to objects which implement PSR-7 message interfaces.

  • Zend Framework (ZF) – They came up with a Composer package, zendframework/zend-diactoros, of implementations of the HTTP message interfaces, not surprising as the editor of PSR-7 is the ZF Project Lead. Diactoros goes a step further by including a server that is similar to the one provided by http.Server in NodeJS.

  • Slim – PSR 7 and Value Objects describes a flexible approach that makes Slim accept any implementation of PSR-7. That is, if the one provided by Slim doesn’t suffice.

  • Guzzle – Being an HTTP client library, PSR-7 is of majestic relevance to this library. They built the guzzlehttp/psr7 Composer package, a message implementation of PSR-7, which they depend on. Guzzle and PSR-7 gives an excellent overview of their raise on the specification.

  • Aura – They’ve included Aura.Router, a web router implementation of PSR-7 in their collection of independent library packages. complete router objects are managed by a RouterContainer from which you retrieve an instance of a Map object. Each mode of this Map demur may accept an HTTP message interface as one of its arguments.

  • HTTPlug – A package of interfaces that allow library and application developers to create HTTP clients that are fully compatible with PSR-7. The HttpClient sends a PSR-7 Request and returns a PSR-7 response. observe Breaking Free from Guzzle5 with PHP-HTTP and HTTPlug for a practical way of using this package.

  • Packagist has a list of PSR-7 implementations with a wide reach of popularity or acceptance. However, a developer still has the following usage options:

  • Direct – As the specification states, while Psr\Http\Message\MessageInterface MAY breathe implemented directly, implementors SHOULD implement Psr\Http\Message\RequestInterface and Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface. The simplest way is to install the package with Composer.

    composer require psr/http-message
  • Indirect – The interfaces are used indirectly through an adapter. For example, PSR-7 support in Symfony is through the PSR HTTP Message Bridge, a library designed to transmute Symfony Request and Response objects into objects that are fully compatible with PSR-7, and from PSR-7 back to Symfony objects.

  • Partial – You might breathe interested in the more generic interfaces such as StreamInterface, UriInterface and UploadedFileInterface. Nothing stops you from implementing them in a non-HTTP messages context. The package is available on Packagist and Composer is your friend.

  • Conclusion

    The PHP community should breathe applauded for coming together on the fundamental principle of how they interact with and manage HTTP requests and responses. PSR-15 transcends this and the intensity of the debate surrounding middlewares will not Go away very soon, neither should the draft breathe expected to breathe accepted quickly. In the meantime, PSR-7 is there for complete to embrace.

    What Do you believe about PSR-7? Do you Use it and subscribe to it, or Do you feel devotion it’s just a layer of complication? We’d devotion to hear from you!

    Deji, a Zend Certified PHP Engineer, works as a Software Engineer with the British Council in London. He's passionate about Open Source, contributes to Drupal and speaks at Drupal Camps. He has worked as a dentist, teacher of English as a alien Language and radio journalist. Oh yes, he's four times a dad and supports Arsenal FC.

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    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

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