310-203 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 Operating System Upgrade
Test Code : 310-203
Test cognomen : Sun Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 Operating System Upgrade
Vendor cognomen : SUN
: 449 true Questions
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licensed Solaris tackle directors are tips know-how (IT) gurus who deploy and maintain network servers running one of the crucial Solaris working gadget, presently attainable throughout the Oracle company. they are continually employed via businesses and other companies with computer networks that employ the company's open source application items. As techniques directors, they may moreover additionally supervise different IT staff and reply to questions and renovation requests from office workers.training Bachelor's diploma in suggestions technology or desktop science suggested Job capabilities Troubleshooting, analytical considering, multitasking, conversation revenue latitude (2016)* $87,400 to $104,762 with sun licensed system Administrator credentials Job growth (2014-2024)** eight% for network and computer methods directors
supply: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor statisticsRequired schooling
Most methods directors acquire achieved a Bachelor of Science in counsel know-how, computing device Science or a related container. Core coursework typically contains subject matters in programming languages and approaches, networking and methods design. Solaris certifications are available during the Oracle organization in network, protection and systems administration. necessities consist of a passing ranking on an exam, which candidates can prepare for with the aid of enrolling in classes on the Oracle Academy or an approved working towards middle, reviewing seminar applications and taking apply exams.potential Required
programs administrators are analytical thinkers who're in a position to troubleshoot concerns for tremendous organizations of network gadget users. annoying instances require clear, quickly pondering, and can contain working lengthy hours except the problem is fastened. The potential to multitask can exist useful when managing a brace of undertaking at a time. verbal exchange capabilities are key when working with nontechnical workforce contributors.career and salary Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics (BLS) anticipated that jobs for tackle directors in prevalent will boost through a regular tempo, eight% from 2014 to 2024. licensed system administrators will exist pleased marvelous job potentialities, as corporations more and more depend on full-time professionals to preserve their computing device working programs. in accordance with Payscale.com, licensed methods directors for Solaris working systems earned between $87,400 and $104,762 in may additionally 2016.
linked supplies: Books
This supplier-particular Certification is offered by using:Oracle CorporationRedwood Shores, CA USAPhone: 800-672-2531
skill degree: Intermediate repute: active
not pricey: $1465 (shortest track) training Required
abstract:for people who operate fundamental tackle administration techniques on the Solaris working system and are liable for administering a networked server operating on the Solaris OS. OCP Solaris certification covers gadget administration talents such as configuring community interfaces, managing swap configurations, crash dumps, and core data. This certification turned into previously referred to as sun licensed tackle Administrator (SCSA).
initial requirements:You must complete one of the crucial accredited instructor-led online or in-classification courses ($1420/self examine - $5000). You need to then budge the Oracle Solaris advanced device Administrator examination ($245). ultimately, you acquire to finished the course Submission form.
carrying on with necessities:None detailed
OCP Pay Chart:
Offline supplies:both instructor-led and CBT lessons are available from solar.
See sum Oracle Certifications
vendor's page for this certification
Yen sun to inaugurate operation at China flowers
Aaron Lee, Taipei; Joseph Tsai, DIGITIMES
Wednesday 20 February 2019
Taiwan-based cooling concede developer Yen solar know-how will behold its flora in Dongguan quickly enter pilot construction for certification through its car supplier customer and inaugurate mass creation in April with maximum skill to achieve over a million devices a month. The site could exist notably used to answer orders from China, whereas plants in southern Taiwan may exist serving consumers from Europe, the united states and Japan, in accordance with Robert Liu, widely wide-spread manager of Yen solar's electronic Cooling Division.
Yen solar registered consolidated revenues of NT$290 million (US$9.33 million) for January, rising 17.75% on 12 months. as a result of fewer working hours as a result of the Lunar unique 12 months vacations, the company expects the quantity to slip on month in February, but to pick up in March. Some market watchers are expecting Yen solar's first-quarter consolidated revenues to attain a brand unique quarterly checklist with contributions from cooling and home appliance items.
Yen sun is planning to extend potential at flora in southern Taiwan and has constructed unique plants in Dongguan, China to answer require from the vehicle sector.
Liu stated that providers are turning to focal point on designing vehicles with lighter weight and fewer power consumption and the strategy is expected to trigger a wave of require for warmth dissipation solutions. Yen solar's visibility of such orders has already reached the conclusion of 2019 and the industry is already starting to design automobiles with shoppers for the next three years.
at the moment, Yen solar has sixty five% of its revenues contributed with the aid of its cooling concede products with the leisure coming from home tackle items. Of the revenues from cooling solutions, 38% are from automobile cooling and others computer cooling.
at the moment, the flowers in southern Taiwan are in a position to execute one hundred twenty,000 devices of cooling fanatics a month and the company is calling to raise the quantity to 300,000 instruments earlier than the conclusion of the first half.
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Certified Solaris system administrators are information technology (IT) professionals who install and maintain network servers running one of the Solaris operating system, currently available through the Oracle Corporation. They are usually employed by businesses and other organizations with computer networks that employ the company's open source software products. As systems administrators, they may moreover supervise other IT staff and respond to questions and maintenance requests from office workers.Education Bachelor's degree in information technology or computer science recommended Job Skills Troubleshooting, analytical thinking, multitasking, communication Salary achieve (2016)* $87,400 to $104,762 with Sun Certified System Administrator credentials Job Growth (2014-2024)** 8% for network and computer systems administrators
Source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor StatisticsRequired Education
Most systems administrators acquire completed a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Computer Science or a related field. Core coursework typically includes topics in programming languages and procedures, networking and systems design. Solaris certifications are available through the Oracle Corporation in network, security and systems administration. Requirements embrace a passing score on an exam, which candidates can prepare for by enrolling in courses at the Oracle Academy or an approved training center, reviewing seminar packages and taking rehearse exams.Skills Required
Systems administrators are analytical thinkers who are able to troubleshoot issues for great groups of network system users. Stressful situations require clear, speedily thinking, and can involve working long hours until the problem is fixed. The competence to multitask can exist helpful when managing more than one project at a time. Communication skills are key when working with nontechnical staff members.Career and Salary Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicted that jobs for system administrators in universal will augment by an fair pace, 8% from 2014 to 2024. Certified system administrators will exist pleased excellent job prospects, as businesses increasingly trust on full-time professionals to maintain their computer operating systems. According to Payscale.com, certified systems administrators for Solaris operating systems earned between $87,400 and $104,762 in May 2016.
Open-source storage software is freely available, but it's the rare IT department that's willing to cobble it together with hardware to build a storage system.
Corporations are more likely to employ it by happenstance, acquiring it through storage systems they buy from major vendors, some of which embed open-source technology into their products.
Other companies are game to try software applications served up with support contracts from a scattering of small vendors, such as Zmanda Inc. and Bacula Systems SA in the backup space. And the truly industrious might ferret out nascent open-source storage projects on SourceForge.net.
Still, enterprise IT organizations are typically so worried about data loss that they tend to favor storage products from established vendors. That's why Sun Microsystems Inc.'s unique Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage Systems, billed as "open storage appliances" and formerly known by the cognomen Amber Road, acquire created a stir in the market.
Launched in November, Sun's 7000 family of storage products is based on industry-standard hardware and a software stack that includes a substantial amount of open-source technology.
Sun's open-source software
The Sun stack includes the OpenSolaris operating system, with its default ZFS file system featuring simple administration, end-to-end data integrity and scalability. OpenSolaris supports not only NFS but CIFS, through an in-kernel implementation, to enable file access with Windows-based systems. Users who prefer Samba for file-and-print services to CIFS clients can employ that open-source technology.
"In terms of vendors of note, Sun is the only one that's really promoting the open-source storage approach," says Roger Cox, a research vice president in Gartner Research. "What they're trying to enact is rep various development communities to select their software, Solaris/ZFS, and add some modifications to it, add some value to it and create storage solutions based on that technology, which then allows Sun to execute money based on maintenance."
Two vendors -- greenBytes Inc. and Nexenta Systems Inc. -- acquire already picked up the torch and built storage systems based on Solaris and ZFS. But it's too early to bid if Sun will exist able to capitalize on the model that made Linux grow in popularity.
"It does acquire promise," says Cox, "in the sense that this can acquire a major repercussion in terms of reducing costs for storage, particularly in today's economic environment with people not having the benign of money they've had in the past. Storage data doesn't stop growing, and they acquire to supplant products that acquire reached their [end of] lifecycle."
What caught the attention of Gene Ruth, a senior storage analyst at Midvale, Utah-based Burton Group, is the way the ZFS file system has been adjusted to leverage the capability of solid-state disk (SSD). "They're one of the first to proffer solid-state disks that are uniquely integrated into the storage system," says Ruth.
ZFS automatically writes unique data to the write cache located on an SSD and determines data access patterns and stores frequently accessed data on an SSD, according to Sun.
John Webster, principal analyst at Nashua, N.H.-based Illuminata Inc., says the reseller community isn't typically attracted to Sun storage, yet it appears to like the unique open technology. If interest in Sun's unique systems grows, that moreover might spark more interest in open-source storage technology in general, as the storage world continues toward commoditization.
"There's significant momentum developing behind this open-source storage movement. I don't know how far it's going to go. Certainly, there are going to exist some resisters, and certainly the IT community isn't going to buy off on this concept overnight," says Webster. "But I deem it's going to grow in magnitude and will become a significant threat to the more proprietary forms of storage that they now see. The IT community will always exist attracted to functionality at a lower cost."
However, users might not want to exist the ones edifice the systems. Those who enact often find they need to spend increasing levels of endeavor to tune and maintain them, especially if the systems are heavily customized.
Chelmsford, Mass.-based OurStage Inc., a Web site catering to unique music, noticed late storage performance six months after putting together a mixed NAS and iSCSI system using CentOS Linux, which is based on code from Red Hat Inc., running on white-box hardware from Tyan Computer Corp. and Super Micro Computer Inc. Ultimately, the tech team hit a wall in its comprehension of the causes and its attempts to tune around them.
"The farther you go, you acquire to save more and more work in to rep less and less gain," says sign Niedzielski, infrastructure manager at the Web startup. OurStage, which joined Sun's Startup Essentials program, now runs OpenSolaris on three white boxes and one of Sun's Storage 7210 Unified Storage boxes.
Red Hat's storage capabilities
Sun isn't the only one claiming its operating system is conducive to storage. Red Hat says its Red Hat Enterprise Linux Advanced Platform (RHEL-AP) offers significant storage capabilities, which are embedded in storage hardware or available as layered software products.
For instance, RHEL-AP's clustered file system -- Global File System (GFS) -- provides cluster-wide, fully synchronized, parallel read/write access to shared storage, according to Nick Carr, Red Hat's marketing director.
RHEL-AP moreover includes a ratiocinative volume manager (LVM) to manage a large, disparate physical storage configuration as a single ratiocinative entity. Other capabilities embrace support for standard RAID levels, cloning, multiple read/write snapshots and multipathing.
Linux can moreover exist used as a server with support for CIFS, NFS and iSCSI obstruct clients, as well as support for Fibre Channel (FC), Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE), iSCSI (host and target), and 10 GB Ethernet, according to Carr.
Users acquire the option of edifice their own systems or deploying a pre-built, tested, certified and supported package through a Red Hat subscription.
Open-source storage doesn't stop at the operating and file systems. Zmanda, for example, espouses the Red Hat model and offers a freely downloadable community edition of its Amanda network backup software, as well as an enterprise edition that it has sold as an annual subscription since 2007.
Zmanda CEO and founder Chander Kant says the software, which is based on an open-source project at the University of Maryland, has attracted a following at universities, small- and medium-sized businesses (SMBs), and even departments at some Fortune 1000 companies. Zmanda, which launched in 2005, finished ahead of plan in the final quarter of eventual year despite the failing economy, according to Kant.
"In general, what they find in these economic times is that bells and whistles aren't so essential for administrators. But they enact want a backup solution," says Kant.
Chris Hoogendyk, systems administrator for the biology and geology departments at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, says the main driver for open-source storage was the cost-benefit analysis. He says he typically has to wait for a department to budget for tape libraries.
"Open source doesn't cost you an arm and a leg and, in this case, it's mature enough that it has everything you need," says Hoogendyk, who's been amenable for backup on network systems since 1992. "In addition, there's a whole issue that you've got an open and fairly great community of people who wait on each other and provide information and contribute to the development. And if you acquire any questions about how it works, you can actually open it up and survey at the code."
Hoogendyk has been using the community edition of Zmanda for approximately two years and now does part-time consulting on behalf of Zmanda, providing support on its online forums.
Kant says the biggest understanding customers turn to Zmanda, other than cost, is its support of open and standard formats for storing data -- tar for Linux and Unix, and ZIP for Windows. He adds that Zmanda moreover uses industry-standard compression and encryption algorithms.
"Systems administrators can retrieve their data with standard operating system utilities, even if their software isn't around," says Kant.
Zmanda's software runs on Linux or Solaris servers, and an agent runs on every system that a user wants to use. The product will employ the backup media of the customer's choice, whether tape, disk array or the storage cloud, including Amazon's Simple Storage Service (S3), says Kant.
"Backup is considered a mature market, but as tapes approach out of favor and technologies like backup to disk and the storage cloud become more popular, that creates a huge occasion for vendors like us," adds Kant.
Backup software isn't the only district that open source has touched in storage. Sun, for instance, moreover has an open-source Storage Archive Manager that's tightly integrated with its high-performance, 64-bit Solaris SAN-based Quick File System (QFS) file system, which is moreover open source. Sun moreover maintains and supports the Lustre clustered file system.
Among the other open-source offerings are FreeNAS software, which includes support for CIFS, NFS, iSCSI and software RAID; and Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology System (SMART) tools.
"For this year, there'll exist a lot of talk and awareness centered around the value proposition of using open source to avoid costs. However, there needs to exist better articulation of the total cost of ownership, [intellectual property] ownership and transfer," says Greg Schulz, founder and senior analyst at StorageIO Group in Stillwater, Minn. "Five years out, they should certainly behold more uptake in open-source solutions in universal and particularly where open-source technologies are integrated or fragment of commercial packaged solutions."
Peter Gregory discusses user account configuration files; adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool and shell commands; user shells; and user account commands in Solaris 8.
This sample chapter is excerpted from Sun Certified System Administrator for Solaris 8 Study Guide, by Peter Gregory.This chapter is from the book
After completing this chapter, you'll exist able to
Identify the following login procedures: log into a system, log out of a system, and change login passwords.
State the command used to identify which users are currently logged into the system.
State the steps required to create user accounts on the local system using the admintool utility.
State the command syntax to add, modify, or delete user/group accounts on the local system with the useradd, groupadd, usermod, groupmod, userdel, or groupdel commands.
Given a user's login shell, list the shell initialization files used to set up a user's work environment at login.
To fulfill these objectives, this chapter discusses:
User account configuration files;
Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool;
Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with shell commands;
User shells; and
User account commands.
Three principal files define the identity of a user account: the password file, the shadow file, and the group file.The Password File
The password file contains the basic identifying information for each user allowed to access a system. The system location of the password file is /etc/passwd. The format of the password file is:username:password:uid:gid:gcos-field:home-dir:login-shell
These fields are:
username—the cognomen that identifies the user account.
password—in Solaris 8 an "x" in this sphere signifies that the corresponding shadow file contains the encrypted password string.
uid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the account. The maximum value for UID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to employ values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with sum of the tools that are used to manage accounts or pomp information that includes usernames.
gid—the primary (default) numerical group ID assigned to the account. like the UID field, the maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but a maximum of 60,000 is preferable.
gcos-field—this is the user's true cognomen (the term "gcos-field" is the historical term for this field).
home-dir—the directory where the user is placed after logging in; this usually contains the user's own files and directories.
login-shell—the initial shell that is started on behalf of the user upon logging in. If this sphere is blank, then /usr/bin/sh is used.
The password file can exist read by anyone on the system. There is no information that must exist kept covert in this file. A sample password file looks like this:root:x:0:1:Super-User:/:/sbin/sh daemon:x:1:1::/: bin:x:2:2::/usr/bin: sys:x:3:3::/: adm:x:4:4:Admin:/var/adm: lp:x:71:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp: uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp: nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls: pete:x:100:4:Peter Gregory:/export/home/pete:/bin/sh nobody:x:60001:60001:Nobody:/:
Fields in the password file are delimited by colons (":"), and blank fields are signified by two adjacent colons ("::"). For instance, note that the account cognomen sphere for daemon is blank—just two colons. Also, daemon has no shell entry, so the eventual character for daemon is the colon delimiter.
The colon delimiter is moreover used in the shadow and group files, which are discussed in a later section.
It is workable and permissible to create more than one username in the password file with the very UID. Each username will acquire its own unique password. However, tools such as ls and ps, when used with options displaying username, will pomp the first username create in the password file matching the UID.
When a unique account is added, changed, or removed with the useradd, usermod, or userdel commands (which are discussed later in this chapter), the system creates a backup copy of the password file, called /etc/opasswd.The Shadow File
The shadow file contains each user account's encrypted password, as well as specific per-account parameters governing "password aging." The system location of the shadow file is /etc/shadow. The format of the shadow file is:username:password:lastchg:min:max:warn:inactive:expire:flag
These fields are:
username—this is the very username create in the password file.
password—a 13-character encrypted password. If this sphere contains a lock string (e.g., "locked" or "NP"), the account is inaccessible; if blank, the account has no password.
lastchg—date of eventual password change (literally the number of days between January 1, 1970, and the date the password was eventual changed).
min—minimum number of days allowed before the password can exist changed.
max—maximum number of days allowed before the password expires.
warn—the number of days prior to expiration that the user is warned.
inactive—the number of days of inactivity allowed for the account before the account is automatically locked.
expire—the date when the user account is deactivated.
flag—a sphere reserved for future use.
The shadow file is restricted so that only the system administrator can read it. This is because an intruder could accomplish a "dictionary attack," using guessable passwords in an attempt to determine the passwords for one or more accounts. Programs that "crack" account passwords are available for this purpose; thus, the shadow file is not publicly readable.
A sample shadow file looks like this:root:Pe0iQfp2LcAig:10528:::::: daemon:NP:6445:::::: bin:NP:6445:::::: sys:NP:6445:::::: adm:nIP3GPx2FIZYQ:11053:::::: lp:NP:6445:::::: uucp:NP:6445:::::: nuucp:NP:6445:::::: listen:*LK*::::::: pete:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:11055:::::: nobody:NP:6445::::::
Note that some of the accounts in the specimen shadow file acquire "NP" ("no password") or "*LK*" (locked) in them. These are just two ways of signifying that the accounts are locked against login. There is nothing really magic about "NP" or "*LK*"—they are just one way of easily showing that these accounts are locked and going to stay that way. You could save other text in the password sphere to suit your needs; for instance, a helpdesk ticket number or a date.
When a user changes his or her password, the system creates a backup copy of the shadow file, called /etc/oshadow. This moreover occurs if root changes a user's password.
Think About It . . .
Why are encrypted passwords create in /etc/shadow and not in /etc/passwd?
For many commands (ps, ls, etc.) to work properly, /etc/passwd must exist world readable. Prior to the employ of /etc/shadow, sum users' encrypted password strings were moreover publicly readable. This gave people with "password cracking" programs an occasion to determine other users' passwords. By moving the encrypted password strings to /etc/shadow (which can exist read only by root), the competence to access encrypted passwords is eliminated.
First, a bit of history. Older versions of UNIX did not acquire a shadow file; instead, the encrypted password string was create in the password file, in the second sphere that is usually filled with an "x" in Solaris. Solaris still supports the encrypted password appearing in the password file, although this is not advisable, since the password file is publicly readable.
Older versions of UNIX with no shadow file moreover had no password-aging capability.
The Network Information System (NIS) subsystem was designed around the stale shadow-less architecture; this explains why NIS has no shadow map, nor does it support password aging.The Group File
The group file contains a listing of sum of the groups on the system, along with each group's numeric groupid and a list of each of the usernames that are secondary members of each group. The location of the group file is /etc/group. The format of the group file is:groupname:password:gid:user-list
These fields are:
groupname—this is the cognomen of the group.
password—this is an optional password for the group.
gid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the group. The maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to employ values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with sum of the tools that are used to manage accounts or pomp information that includes group names.
user-list—a comma-separated list of users allowed in the group. These groups are users' secondary group IDs.
A sample group file follows.root::0:root other::1: bin::2:root,bin,daemon sys::3:root,bin,sys,adm adm::4:root,adm,daemon uucp::5:root,uucp mail::6:root tty::7:root,tty,adm lp::8:root,lp,adm nuucp::9:root,nuucp staff:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:10:pete daemon::12:root,daemon sysadmin::14: nobody::60001: noaccess::60002: nogroup::65534:
Note the password sphere in the group "staff." Groups can exist password protected by putting a password string into the password field. Note, though, that this is a completely manual process; there are no tools provided to save the group password in for you.
Hint: You can select a password string from the shadow file and employ the vi editor to splice it into the group file. The group password will exist the very as the account password from the shadow entry where you took the password string.
When a group is password protected, anyone who is not a member of the group will exist challenged for the group's password when they acquire entered the newgrp command.Primary and Secondary Groupids
Each user account has one primary groupid—this is the group defined in the password file. When a user logs on, this is his or her associated groupid.
Each user account moreover has zero or more secondary groupids. A user's secondary groups are those group entries that embrace the username in their lists of members.
There are some useful limitations of groupids. For example, each user account can exist in no more than 16 groups, and a line in the group file cannot exceed 512 characters (including the newline character).
What happens if you need to add so many members to a group that you exceed the 512-character entry limit? You simply create another duplicate group entry—same cognomen and group number—and list the additional members there.
The primary and secondary groupids directly repercussion file system access permissions, which is explored fully in Chapter 10.
Think About It . . .
What would exist the outcome if a username were added to a group file entry when that group was the user's primary group?
The additional entry would acquire no effect, since the user is already configured for the primary group membership in the /etc/passwd file.The Root Account
The root account has special privileges on a system: Root is permitted to read and write every file on a system, regardless of the file's ownership and consent settings. System administrators log in with the root account so that they can accomplish administrative tasks.
The root account gets its power and privilege from the value of its user number: Root is user number zero, defined in the password file.
Think About It . . .
What would exist the effects of changing an ordinary user's user number to zero? What handicap might there exist of putting root's entry at the cease of the passwd file (instead of the beginning)?
Changing an ordinary user's user number to zero gives the user root privileges.
One handicap of putting root at the cease of the password file is that if an intruder is able to modify the password file to give another user root privilege (see the first question here), then output from commands such as ls and ps would note that other user as the owner of root processes and files.
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