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310-202 Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, fraction ll

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310-202 exam Dumps Source : Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, fraction ll

Test Code : 310-202
Test cognomen : Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, fraction ll
Vendor cognomen : SUN
: 558 true Questions

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S.A.F.E. Alert gear is free for parents and educators | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Commissioner of training encourages each faculty district to implement alert device called for in 2018 college security preparedness file

harmony — faculties and parents around current Hampshire now possess a free app they could down load to extend communication between educators and families in case of emergencies. Ping4, a current Hampshire-based mostly company that presents a mobile phone alert gear within the industrial market, currently approved its groundwork to create the "protection. indicators. For. education." application to enhance college protection. The free app is accessible on the Apple App withhold and Google Play.

The enterprise created the app after the Governor's school security Preparedness assignment compel decided, by means of suggestion forty three, that current Hampshire needed to set up a gadget “to alert parents, team of workers and non-first responders perquisite through an emergency to immediately and effectively notify them of latest incident and protection counsel.”

Following up on the free proffer in October, the industry currently install accounts for All current Hampshire faculties and are encouraging folks to register and ensure their colleges additionally spark off the alert device.

“whereas it may well breathe that not All schools execute a conclusion to spend the Ping4 platform, as there are different products out there,” famed straightforward Edelblut, the commissioner of the brand current Hampshire department of training, “it is necessary that All colleges procure some platform installation and possess wide guardian sign-up so that they are able to possess the applicable response within the event of an emergency.”

“Any measure that offers aid for police to respond rapidly and thoroughly to a school crisis is important,” referred to James Morse, the superintendent of the Oyster River Cooperative. “A uniform strategy throughout the state is an necessary step ahead. Ping or equivalent measures, adopted with the aid of local faculty programs and their respective police departments, just makes undergo for the security of recent Hampshire college students.”

The app uses geo-fencing expertise by the spend of the world positioning system allowing administrators and law enforcement to immediately and simultaneously alert college students and staffers of a threat via their cell phones. The expertise creates a discrete digital perimeter in and around schools, that could consist of parking a Great deal, athletic fields and more. This enables as many people as possible, in the discrete area, to breathe alerted in actual-time, stated Jim Bender, the CEO of Ping4.

“The S.A.F.E. foundation is offering this program free to current Hampshire colleges as a result of their babies’s protection is a accurate priority,” talked about Bender. “This know-how is proven and useful, and will enhance protection and in the reduction of response time within the event of a crisis.”

solar certified system Administrator: Job Description & requirements | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

licensed Solaris system directors are assistance know-how (IT) gurus who install and withhold network servers working one of the crucial Solaris operating system, at the moment purchasable throughout the Oracle service provider. they are always employed by way of companies and different corporations with computing device networks that spend the company's open supply software products. As programs administrators, they might also also supervise different IT group of workers and reply to questions and preservation requests from workplace worker's.

training Bachelor's degree in tips know-how or laptop science counseled Job potential Troubleshooting, analytical pondering, multitasking, verbal exchange revenue ambit (2016)* $87,400 to $104,762 with sun certified system Administrator credentials Job extend (2014-2024)** eight% for network and computing device techniques administrators

source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics

Required education

Most methods directors possess achieved a Bachelor of Science in tips technology, computer Science or a linked box. Core coursework customarily comprises themes in programming languages and approaches, networking and methods design. Solaris certifications can breathe establish during the Oracle industry enterprise in community, security and techniques administration. requirements include a passing rating on an exam, which candidates can do together for via enrolling in lessons at the Oracle Academy or an accredited working towards middle, reviewing seminar packages and taking commemorate exams.

competencies Required

programs directors are analytical thinkers who're in a position to troubleshoot issues for giant corporations of community gear clients. traumatic cases require clear, quick considering, and can involve working lengthy hours until the problem is fastened. The capacity to multitask will also breathe constructive when managing more than one project at a time. verbal exchange skills are key when working with nontechnical team of workers participants.

career and salary Outlook

The U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics (BLS) anticipated that jobs for gadget administrators in prevalent will extend by means of a standard tempo, 8% from 2014 to 2024. certified device directors will relish remarkable job prospects, as businesses increasingly trust on full-time gurus to hold their computing device working techniques. according to, licensed programs directors for Solaris working programs earned between $87,400 and $104,762 in might also 2016.

Pay for gear Administrator Certifications | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Written by using GoCertify team of workers published: 17 September 2007

page 2 of four

With that as a starting point, how enact community directors with one or extra certifications fare? in response to records, crimson Hat licensed Engineers rectify the income listing with a median earnings of $sixty seven,430. we'd possess chosen a lessen smooth purple Hat certification to evaluate, such as pink Hat licensed Technician, however RHCE seemed the closest suit to their standards of being a device administrator certification. next up, solar certified device administrators, with a median of $sixty five,one hundred fifty, followed by licensed Novell directors ($fifty two,486), Microsoft licensed device administrators ($forty nine,547), Cisco licensed network Administrator ($forty nine,428), and eventually, network+ ($46,246). whereas an RHCE isn't on the equal skill stage as network+, these figures provide an exquisite positive case for the price of IT certifications within the workplace.

Of route, compensation can fluctuate significantly depending on job position and years of event. The charts that commemorate reveal what some of these diversifications are:

certified Novell Administrator (CNA) profits by using Job position

CompTIA community+ income by way of adventure

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Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, fraction ll

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Disk Slices | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the engage 

Disks are divided into regions called “disk slices” or “disk partitions.” A slice is composed of a single ambit of contiguous blocks. It is a physical subset of the disk (except for slice 2, which represents the entire disk). A UFS or the swap region is built within these disk slices. The boundaries of a disk slice are defined when a disk is partitioned using the format utility, and the slice information for a particular disk can breathe viewed by using the prtvtoc command. Each disk slice appears to the OS (and to the system administrator) as though it were a separate disk drive.

Disk slicing differs between the SPARC and x86 platforms. On the SPARC platform, the entire disk is devoted to the OS; the disk can breathe divided into 8 slices, numbered 0 to 7. On the x86 platform, the disk is divided into fdisk partitions using the fdisk command. The fdisk partition is divided into 10 slices, numbered 0 to 9.

A physical disk consists of a stack of circular platters. Data is stored on these platters in a cylindrical pattern called “cylinders” as illustrated in design 4-1. Cylinders can breathe grouped and isolated from one another. A group of cylinders is referred to as a slice. A slice is defined with start and quit points, starting from the outside of the platters to the hub of the stack of platters, which is called the “spindle.”

For example, a 73GB SCSI disk has 14,087 cylinders, numbered 0 to 14,086. Cylinder 0 is on the outside edge of the platters, and cylinder 14,086 is the closest to the spindle. Disk slices are defined by an offset and a size in cylinders. The offset is the distance from cylinder 0. To define a slice, the administrator provides a starting cylinder and an ending cylinder. A slice spanning from cylinder 0 to 14,086 would spend the entire disk and is typical of the slicing scheme used on a ZFS boot disk.

When setting up slices, remember these rules:

  • Each disk slice holds only one file system.
  • No file system can span multiple slices without the spend of a volume manager such as ZFS or SVM.
  • After a file system is created, its size cannot breathe increased or decreased without repartitioning and possibly destroying the partition directly before or after it.
  • Slices cannot span multiple disks; however, multiple swap slices on separate disks are allowed.
  • When they contend ZFS in Chapter 5, you’ll learn how to procure around some of these limitations in file systems.

    Displaying Disk Configuration Information

    As described earlier, disk configuration information is stored in the disk label. If you know the disk and slice number, you can parade information for a disk by using the print volume table of contents (prtvtoc) command. You can specify the volume by specifying any slice defined on the disk (for example, /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s2 or /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s*). Regardless of which slice you specify, All slices defined on the disk will breathe displayed. If you know the target number of the disk but enact not know how it is divided into slices, you can Show information for the entire disk by specifying either slice 2 or s*. The following steps Show how you can examine information stored on a disk’s label by using the prtvtoc command.

  • Become the superuser.
  • Type the following text and press Enter.

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>

    The system responds with the following:

    * /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 424 sectors/track * 24 tracks/cylinder * 10176 sectors/cylinder * 14089 cylinders * 14087 accessible cylinders * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * Unallocated space: * First Sector Last * Sector weigh Sector * 0 10176 10175 * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector weigh Sector Mount Directory 0 2 00 10176 143339136 143349311 2 5 01 0 143349312 143349311
  • The disk described is a SAS disk, target 0 with an SMI VTOC label. The prtvtoc command shows the number of cylinders and heads, as well as how the disk’s slices are arranged.

    The following is an example of running the prtvtoc command on a SCSI disk with an EFI label:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1<cr> * /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 8385121 sectors * 8385054 accessible sectors * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector weigh Sector Mount Directory 0 2 01 34 41006 41039 1 2 00 41040 8327663 8368702 /mnt 8 11 00 8368703 16384 8385086 Using the format Utility to Create Slices: SPARC

    Before you can create a file system on a disk, the disk must breathe formatted, and you must divide it into slices using the format utility. Formatting involves two separate processes:

  • Writing format information to the disk
  • Completing a surface analysis, which compiles an up-to-date list of disk defects
  • When a disk is formatted, header and trailer information is superimposed on the disk. When the format utility runs a surface analysis, the controller scans the disk for defects. It should breathe famed that defects and formatting information reduce the total disk space available for data. This is why a current disk usually holds only 90% to 95% of its capacity after formatting. This percentage varies according to disk geometry and decreases as the disk ages and develops more defects.

    The necessity to fulfill a surface analysis on a disk drive has dropped as more manufacturers ship their disk drives formatted and partitioned. You should not necessity to fulfill a surface analysis within the format utility when adding a disk drive to an existing system unless you contemplate disk defects are causing problems. The primary understanding that you would spend format is if you want to view or change the partitioning scheme on a disk.

    The format utility searches your system for All attached disk drives and reports the following information about the disk drives it finds:

  • Target location
  • Disk geometry
  • Whether the disk is formatted
  • Whether the disk has mounted partitions
  • In addition, the format utility is used in disk repair operations to enact the following:

  • Retrieve disk labels
  • Repair defective sectors
  • Format and analyze disks
  • Partition disks
  • Label disks (i.e., write the disk cognomen and configuration information to the disk for future retrieval)
  • The installation program partitions and labels disk drives as fraction of installing the Oracle Solaris release. However, you might necessity to spend the format utility when doing the following:

  • Displaying slice information
  • Dividing a disk into slices
  • Formatting a disk drive when you contemplate disk defects are causing problems
  • Repairing a disk drive
  • Changing a disk label from EFI to SMI or vice versa
  • The following example uses the format utility to create disk slices on a disk.

  • Become the superuser
  • Type “code.”

    The system responds with the following:

    Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c0t0d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@0,0 1. c0t1d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@1,0
  • Specify the disk (enter its number).

    The system responds with the format main menu:

    FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk type - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - relate the current disk format - format and analyze the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk analyze - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and parade labels redeem - redeem current disk/partition definitions inquisition - Show vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit

    Table 4-4 describes the format main menu items.

    Table 4-4 Format Main Menu item Descriptions

    Menu Item



    Lists All of the system’s drives. also lets you pick the disk you want to spend in subsequent operations. This disk is referred to as the current disk.


    Identifies the manufacturer and model of the current disk. also displays a list of known drive types. pick the Auto configure option for All SCSI-2 disk drives.


    Creates and modifies slices.


    Describes the current disk (that is, device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and physical device name).


    Formats the current disk using one of these sources of information in this order:

    Information that is establish in the format.dat file.

    Information from the automatic configuration process.

    Information that you type at the prompt if no format.dat entry exists.

    This command does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks are preformatted by the manufacturer.


    x86 platform only: Runs the fdisk program to create an Oracle Solaris fdisk partition.


    Used to repair a specific block on the current disk.


    Writes a current label to the current disk. This is not the very as labeling the disk with volname.


    Runs read, write, and compare tests.


    Retrieves and displays defect lists. This feature does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks manage defects automatically.


    Searches for backup labels if the VTOC becomes corrupted or gets deleted.


    Displays information about the current disk such as device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and partition table.


    Saves current disk and partition information.


    SCSI disks only: Displays the vendor, product name, and revision smooth of the current drive. This will also parade the disk’s current firmware.


    Labels the disk with a current eight-character volume cognomen that you specify. This is not the very as writing the partition table to disk using label.


    Exits the format menu. Pressing Ctrl+D will also exit the format utility from the main menu or from any submenu.

  • Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.

    format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table cognomen - cognomen the current table print - parade the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
  • Type “print” to parade the current partition map.

    partition> print<cr>

    The system responds with the following:

    Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 24620 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1418 - 9924 11.72GB (8507/0/0) 24576723 1 var wm 9925 - 13469 4.88GB (3545/0/0) 10241505 2 backup wm 0 - 24619 33.92GB (24620/0/0) 71127180 3 swap wu 0 - 1417 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 4 unassigned wm 13470 - 14887 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 5 unassigned wm 14888 - 16112 1.69GB (1225/0/0) 3539025 6 unassigned wm 16113 - 16821 1000.15MB (709/0/0) 2048301 7 home wm 16822 - 23910 9.77GB (7089/0/0) 20480121

    The columns displayed with the partition table are

  • Part: The slice number (0–7).
  • Tag: This is an optional value that indicates how the slice is being used. The value can breathe any of the following names that best fits the duty of the file system you are creating:

    unassigned, boot, root, swap, usr, backup, stand, var, home, alternates, reserved, system, BIOS_boot

  • Flag: Values in this column can be

  • wm The disk slice is writable and mountable.
  • wu The disk slice is writable and unmountable (such as a swap slice).
  • rm The disk slice is read-only and mountable.
  • ru The disk slice is read-only and unmountable.
  • Cylinders: The starting and ending cylinder number for the disk slice.
  • Size: The slice size specified as

  • mb megabytes
  • gb gigabytes
  • b blocks
  • c cylinders
  • b Blocks
  • e Ending cylinder
  • You can spend the cognomen and redeem commands in the partition menu to cognomen and redeem a newly created partition table to a file that can breathe referenced by cognomen later, when you want to spend this very partition scheme on another disk. When issuing the cognomen command, you’ll provide a unique cognomen for this partition scheme and then issue the redeem command to redeem the information to the ./format.dat file. Normally this file is located in the /etc directory, so provide the plenary pathname for /etc/format.dat to update the master file.

  • After you partition the disk, you must label it by typing label at the partition prompt:

    partition> label<cr>

    You are asked for confirmation on labeling the disk as follows:

    Ready to label disk, continue? y<cr>

    Enter “Y” to continue.

  • After labeling the disk, type “quit” to exit the partition menu or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility:

    partition> quit<cr>
  • Type “quit” again to exit the format utility:

    format> quit<cr>
  • It’s necessary to point out a few undesirable things that can betide when defining disk partitions with the format utility if you’re not careful. First, breathe watchful not to waste disk space. Wasted disk space can occur when you lessen the size of one slice and enact not adjust the starting cylinder number of the adjoining disk slice.

    Second, don’t overlap disk slices. Overlapping occurs when one or more cylinders are allocated to more than one disk slice. For example, increasing the size of one slice without decreasing the size of the adjoining slice will create overlapping partitions. The format utility will not warn you of wasted disk space or overlapping partitions.

    The main understanding a system administrator uses the format utility is to divide a disk into disk slices. In Oracle Solaris 11 11/11, for a bootable ZFS root pool, the disks in the pool must contain slices and must breathe labeled with an SMI label. The simplest configuration would breathe to do the entire disk capacity in slice 0 and spend that slice for the root pool. Bootable ZFS root pools are discussed further in Chapter 5.

    I’ll relate how to spend the SMI label for SPARC-based systems. For example, on a SPARC-based system with a 72GB disk, you would necessity to possess 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. Similarly, on an x86-based system with a 72GB disk, you would also necessity to allow 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. A small amount of boot information is contained in slice 8. Slice 8 requires no administration and cannot breathe changed.

    Follow these steps to partition a disk (c2t0d0) to breathe used as a ZFS boot disk (bootable ZFS root pool) on a SPARC-based system. If the disk has an EFI label, and the firmware has not been upgraded, you must first transmogrify it to an SMI label.

    Use the prtvtoc command to verify the disk label as follows:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>

    The system displays

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1 - 14086 68.35GB (14086/0/0) 143339136 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0

    Notice that slice 2 is labeled “backup” and the slices are numbered 0-7. This is an SMI label.

    The following shows the output that is displayed for a disk with an EFI label:

    Part Tag Flag First Sector Size ultimate Sector 0 usr wm 34 68.36GB 143358320 1 unassigned wm 0 0 0 2 unassigned wm 0 0 0 3 unassigned wm 0 0 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 0 8 reserved wm 143358321 8.00MB 143374704

    Notice there is a slice 8 and slice 2 is NOT labeled “backup.” This is an EFI label and would necessity to breathe changed. spend the following steps to change the label from an EFI label to an SMI label:

  • As root, spend the format -e command and select the disk to label as follows:

    # format –e<cr>

    The system displays a list of disks. In the example, I selected disk 1 (c2t1d0):

    Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr> selecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
  • The main menu is displayed. Type “label” to label the disk:

    FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk type - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - relate the current disk format - format and analyze the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk analyze - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and parade labels inquisition - Show disk ID scsi - independent SCSI mode selects cache - enable, disable or query SCSI disk cache volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit format> label<cr>
  • Select option 1 to label the disk with an SMI label and press Enter when prompted for autoconfiguration:

    [0] SMI Label [1] EFI Label Specify Label type[1]: 0<cr> Auto configuration via format.dat[no]?<cr> Auto configuration via generic SCSI-2[no]?<cr> format>
  • Exit the format utility.

    format> quit<cr>
  • To slice the disk so that it can breathe used as a ZFS boot disk, ensue these steps:

  • As root, enter the format utility:

    # format<cr> Searching for disks ... done

    Select the disk that is going to breathe sliced. In the example, I will select disk 1 (c2t1d0):

    AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr>

    The system responds with

    selecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
  • Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.

    format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table cognomen - cognomen the current table print - parade the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
  • Type “print” to parade the current partition map.

    partition> print<cr>

    The system responds with the following:

    partition> print<cr> Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 25 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 1 swap wu 26 - 51 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 52 - 14086 68.10GB (14035/0/0) 142820160 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>
  • Enter “modify” to change the partition table:

    partition> modify<cr>
  • Select option 1 for “All Free Hog” when prompted:

    Select partitioning base: 0. Current partition table (original) 1. All Free Hog Choose foundation (enter number) [0]? 1<cr> Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
  • Type “yes” when asked whether to continue:

    Do you wish to continue creating a current partition table based on above table[yes]? yes<cr>

    Type “0” for the Free Hog partition:

    Free Hog partition[6]? 0<cr>
  • The system will prompt you to enter a size for each partition. Press Enter when prompted as follows, and each slice will breathe 0MB:

    Enter size of partition '1' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '3' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '4' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '5' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '6' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '7' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr>

    Because All of the slices possess been set to “0,” the free hog space is the entire disk. This space will breathe allocated to slice 0 as specified in step 6.

  • When prompted to execute this the current partition table, press Enter to spend the default value “yes”:

    Okay to execute this the current partition table[yes]?<cr>
  • When prompted for a table name, enter “rootdisk.” This cognomen is not significant and can breathe any name.

    Enter table cognomen (remember quotes): rootdisk<cr>

    Enter “pr” to parade the current partition table:

    partition> pr<cr> Current partition table (unnamed): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>

    Notice that slice 0 is the entire disk.

  • Enter “quit” or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility.

    partition> quit<cr>
  • Using the format Utility to Create Slices: x86

    As described earlier in this chapter, Oracle Solaris on the x86 platform treats disk drives slightly differently than on the SPARC-based systems. Disks on the x86 platform must possess an fdisk partition table. The x86-based systems spend the fdisk partition table to identify parts of the disk reserved for different OSs and to identify the partition that the system will boot from. This boot partition is referred to as the “active disk” partition. You can apportion one fdisk partition on a disk to breathe used for Oracle Solaris.

    On an x86-based system, once a disk drive has been physically installed and verified as working, you’ll spend the format command to slice the disk, but first an fdisk partition must breathe created on the current drive. You can create this fdisk partition using the fdisk command from the command line or through the format utility. The following steps relate how to create a fixed disk partition table on a disk using the format utility:

  • As root, type “format” to procure into the format utility.

    # format<cr>

    The following menu appears:

    AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c1t0d0 <FUJITSU-M1606S-512-6234 cyl 3455 alt 2 hd 6 sec 102> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@0,0 1. c1t1d0 <IBM-DFHSS1W!e-4141 cyl 4071 alt 2 hd 4 sec 135> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@1,0 2. c1t2d0 <DEFAULT cyl 2928 alt 2 hd 6 sec 120> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@2,0 Specify disk (enter its number):
  • Enter the number corresponding to the current drive and the following menu will breathe displayed:

    FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk type - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - relate the current disk format - format and analyze the disk fdisk - hasten the fdisk program repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk analyze - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and parade labels redeem - redeem current disk/partition definitions inquisition - Show vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name5 quit format>
  • Select the fdisk option and the following menu appears:

    The recommended default partitioning for your disk is: a 100% "SOLARIS System" partition. To select this, tickle type "y". To partition your disk differently, type "n" and the "fdisk" program will let you select other partitions.
  • If you wish to spend the entire drive for Oracle Solaris, enter “Y.” This will recrudesce you to the format menu. If “N” is entered, the fdisk menu will breathe displayed.

    Total disk size is 4073 cylinders Cylinder size is 540 (512 byte) blocks Cylinders Partition Status Type Start quit Length ========= ====== ======== ===== === ====== === THERE ARE NO PARTITIONS CURRENTLY DEFINED SELECT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: 1. Create a partition 2. Change vigorous (Boot from) partition 3. Delete a partition 4. Exit (Update disk configuration and exit) 5. Cancel (Exit without updating disk configuration) Enter Selection:
  • Choose 1 to create an fdisk partition. This is not the very as a slice.
  • After creating the partition, pick 4 to exit and save. The format menu will return.
  • Choose partition and ensue the procedure for formatting a disk on page 272, beginning at step 4.
  • Disks on x86-based systems can breathe divided into 10 slices labeled slice 0 through slice 9. On Oracle Solaris 11/11, slices 0 through 7 are used for the very purposes as disk slices establish on SPARC-based systems. Slice 2 represents All of the space within the fdisk partition. As stated earlier, slices 8 and 9 are used for purposes specific to x86-based hardware. You cannot modify slices 8 and 9 using the format utility. beginning with Oracle Solaris 11.1, the boot disk on an x86-based system can contain an EFI label, and the partition scheme is slightly different than the SPARC system. Slice 0 is reserved for the BIOS_boot information. I’ll relate this more in the next chapter.

    Here’s an example of the partition table on an IDE or SATA disk on an x86-based system running Oracle Solaris 11/11, as displayed by the format utility:

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 alternates wm 1 - 2 15.69MB (2/0/0) 32130

    In the previous example, notice that slice 9 is defined and tagged as the alternates slice.

    The next example shows the partition table for a SCSI disk attached to an x86-based system. Notice that partition 8 is assigned, but slice 9 is not used:

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0

    One more item of note: On standard UFSs, don’t change the size of disk slices that are currently in use. When a disk with existing slices is repartitioned and relabeled, any existing data will breathe lost. Before repartitioning a disk, first copy All of the data to tape or to another disk.

    You can also create the fixed disk partition table on an x86-based system disk from the command line using a single command as follows:

    # fdisk –B c1t0d0<cr>

    The –B option creates a single fixed disk partition that spans the entire disk. The following 36GB disk was formatted using the fdisk –B command:

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 4695 35.97GB (4696/0/0) 75441240 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0

    The fdisk –B command can also breathe used to transmogrify a disk label from an EFI to SMI.

    To verify that a disk contains a fixed disk partition table, issue the following command:

    # fdisk -v -W - /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p<cr>

    The system displays the fdisk table for disk c3t0d0:

    * /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p0 default fdisk table * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 63 sectors/track * 255 tracks/cylinder * 2088 cylinders * * systid: * 1: DOSOS12 * 2: PCIXOS * 4: DOSOS16 * 5: EXTDOS * 6: DOSBIG * 7: FDISK_IFS * 8: FDISK_AIXBOOT * 9: FDISK_AIXDATA * 10: FDISK_0S2BOOT * 11: FDISK_WINDOWS * 12: FDISK_EXT_WIN * 14: FDISK_FAT95 * 15: FDISK_EXTLBA * 18: DIAGPART * 65: FDISK_LINUX * 82: FDISK_CPM * 86: DOSDATA * 98: OTHEROS * 99: UNIXOS * 100: FDISK_NOVELL2 * 101: FDISK_NOVELL3 * 119: FDISK_QNX4 * 120: FDISK_QNX42 * 121: FDISK_QNX43 * 130: SUNIXOS * 131: FDISK_LINUXNAT * 134: FDISK_NTFSVOL1 * 135: FDISK_NTFSVOL2 * 165: FDISK_BSD * 167: FDISK_NEXTSTEP * 183: FDISK_BSDIFS * 184: FDISK_BSDISWAP * 190: X86BOOT * 191: SUNIXOS2 * 238: EFI_PMBR * 239: EFI_FS * Id Act Bhead Bsect Bcyl Ehead Esect Ecyl Rsect Numsect 191 128 0 1 1 254 63 1023 16065 33527655 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

    When there are multiple disks of the very type (manufacturer, model, size, and geometry) to breathe sliced, you can redeem time by copying the label from a source disk over to a target disk without going through All of the steps using the format utility. spend the prtvtoc command to procure the partition table from the source disk (c0t0d0) and write the table to the target disk (c0t1d0) using the fmthard command as follows:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 | fmthard –s - /dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2<cr>

    Complete pilot to Apple Certification and Training | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

  • Post
  • apple_logo1

    Although I’ve been supporting Macs since they came out in 1984 (when I was in lofty school), I haven’t received any “formal” training. It has mostly been learning by doing, reading the occasional engage and now of course, TheAppleBlog. Does formal certification really execute a divergence as a technician? You uncover me.


    Recently I got into an dispute with a vendor that to a unavoidable degree thought a technician who first started repairing Macs sixth months ago trumped my 25 years experience. Did certification execute this person a better technician? Having done quite a bit of hiring myself, I’ve too often establish that certification only verifies your faculty to capture a test and may not possess bearing in the true world.

    Now that the market has changed and everyone seems to breathe competing for scarce resources, perhaps a certification would breathe an additional edge? What’s the industry strategy for independent Mac technicians wanting more? The retort took a lot of research — even Apple wasn’t able to retort my questions — so learn from my journey.

    Credit goes to both Brian Best of BestMacs and Doug Hanley of MacTEK Training, because without them I wouldn’t understand the alphabet soup of ACSP, ACMT, ACTC, ACSA, AASP, ACN and more. Didn’t they All become Mac users to avoid mysterious terms? As many of you know, the ease of the Apple user interface is equalled only by the frustration of trying to understand Apple’s certifications programs. Figuring out this path was much harder than any video game I’ve ever played, but a “game” may breathe the best metaphor to relate the process.

    The Game

    You originate the “game” as a generic Mac user. The three worlds you’ll generally espy in the game are IT, Pro Apps, and Sales. As an IT person maybe you possess skills, maybe you don’t. Nothing stops you from simply repairing Macs on your own, unless you enact things that specifically void the warranty and you procure caught doing so. You enact not necessity leave per se from Apple to work on Macs. Many folks are jubilant at this smooth collecting coins one by one, but you can’t proceed any further unless you procure a certification — the key that unlocks the next smooth in the game.

    The first certification most roam for is Apple Certified Support Professional (ACSP) which used to breathe known as an Apple Certified aid Desk Specialist (ACHDS). This certifies your faculty to understand the operating system and is earned based on the OS version. Therefore, you are an Apple Certified Support Professional in 10.5 (or soon 10.6). Each OS requires certification, but your certification does not expire. Therefore, if you are a ACHDS in 10.3, you can summon yourself certified without understanding 10.5 at all. Your can capture the test without training (many do), self-study via materials from Peachpit, or attend an instructor-lead course at an Apple Authorized Training hub (AATC). MacTek is one of those centers. You’ll capture the test at a Prometric testing hub and pay around $200. The test takes about 90 minutes or so and you procure the results immediately.

    Apple Consultants Network

    While certification is the means, the quit you may breathe reaching for is the faculty to combine the Apple Consultants Network (ACN). Joining the ACN requires any Apple certification, such as the ACSP discussed above, or any number of other certifications (described below, though one source says not All certifications are valid, so beware). Keeping with the video game analogy, the ACN is enjoy an entire current region of the video game you want to explore, but the boss that must breathe defeated first is Apple, and your weapon is a certification!

    After getting a certification you can then apply to combine the ACN. The application fee is $60 and the actual fee to combine is $395 as a sole proprietor. The plenary requirements are here. You’ll procure lots of benefits such as product discounts as well as the faculty to network with other Macintosh consultants. As an ACN, Apple store employees may hand out your card to customers in the store. Now your industry can really expand as every Apple store customer is a potential customer for you.

    ACN membership is Great and many stay at this smooth of the “game” using the ACN membership as a multiplier for their income. However, you still can’t enact hardware repairs under warranty nor order Apple parts. As with the video game, you’re stuck at this smooth unless you explore further and try to beat the next boss. Apple always controls the rules. Accept it as fraction of the game. Fail to accept it and you’ll procure slapped back to the beginning of the game quicker than you can click the home button.

    Server Administration Certification

    From this point, you possess a brace directions you can go. You can focus on repair and service, or you can focus on server or advanced software administration (many folks will enact both). I will contend the server administration certifications and the hardware services certifications. You can contemplate of each of these as two separate worlds in the game. You can pick one or the other, or explore them both.

    The first smooth server administration certification is another 4-letter acronym: ACTC: Apple Certified Technical Coordinator. In addition to passing the test for ACSP, you’ll visage the Server Essentials test. This extends your workstation abilities to servers. An even higher smooth of certification within the server realm is an ACSA — Apple Certified Systems Administrator. For the ACSA, you’ll necessity to pass four tests: Server Essentials, Directory Services, Deployment, and Mobility and Security for 10.6 (or Advanced System Administration for 10.5).

    Apple also offers the ACMA (Apple Certified Media Administrator) which includes Server Essentials, Xsan, Final slash Server and as an option, Support Essentials, Deployment, Directory Services, or Final slash smooth 1. Other certifications are not necessarily IT related and are software-focused. That’s a realm I’m not exploring as they chose the IT track at the beginning of the game.

    Hardware Repair Certification

    Moving on from server administration to actual Apple hardware repair, the primary certification you will win is the Apple Certified Macintosh Technician (ACMT), formerly the Apple Certified Portable Technician (ACPT) and Apple Certified Desktop Technician (ACDT). This certification means you are theoretically qualified to enact warranty repairs on Apple Macintosh equipment. The skills required for ACMT are those of hardware repair and software troubleshooting. You don’t necessity an ACSP to breathe an ACMT, but many people win both. The educational process for hardware repair is more violent and it’s less likely you’ll pass the test without some training. At this level, you can also roam to an AATC and pay about $4,800 for both the hardware and software aspects of the course, or your can purchase self-study materials from Apple called “Apple permeate Technician Training” for $299.

    Apple Authorized Service Provider

    Similar to how passing the ACSP allows you to combine the Apple Consultants Network, passing the ACMT allows you to enter the realm of an Apple Authorized Service Provider (AASP). You may not automatically become one though, and only AASP’s procure reimbursement from Apple for warranty work. However, being an ACMT is very helpful if you want to procure a job as an AASP. You may also apply to enact warranty repairs for your larger organization of over 50 Macs via the Self-Service program. If you want to advance to being able to enact warranty repairs for anyone, you’ll visage that very boss again, Apple. Note that becoming an ACMT will not necessarily win you any more money than an ACSA or ACTC. Facing the next boss may breathe too expensive and too restricting, but if you enact want the next level, read on.

    Getting to that AASP smooth is really the final smooth of the game. You’ll necessity to possess an ACMT on staff and ensue stricter requirements than joining the Apple Consultants Network. Generally you’ll necessity a true store front and not breathe a one-person operation. Apple grants exceptions (doesn’t every game possess cheat codes?), but don’t weigh on it. Once you possess your AASP you can breathe listed with Apple as a service provider and procure reimbursed for warranty repairs.

    So I’ve loaded the game and pressed Start. Is certification worth it? What about ACN or AASP? Which training should I roam for? Is instructor lead training worth it? Any training vendors willing to sponsor me? What about the self-study programs? Share with me your experiences in the game and let’s develop a definitive pilot including “cheat codes.”

    Apple-authorized Organizations

    ACN (Apple Consultants Network)What it is: Network on Apple professionals, receives discounts and assistance from Apple, and can breathe referred from Apple retail stores.Requirements: Any certification.

    AASP (Apple Authorized Service Provider)What is it: industry that is permitted to enact Apple warranty repairs for reimbursement and order parts from Apple.Requirements: possess an Apple Certified Macintosh Technician on staff, among other requirements.


    Apple Certified Support Professional: Basic understanding of the client Mac operating system and troubleshooting.

    Apple Certified Technical Coordinator: Deeper understanding of the Mac OS, including the Mac OS X Server and Server Essentials.

    Apple Certified Systems Administrator: Even greater technical understanding of the Mac OS X Server, including passing tests on Server Essentials, Directory Services, Deployment, and Mobility and Security.

    Apple Certified Media Administrator: This is a sister track of the “Apple Certified Systems Administrator” with a focus on the needs of media management, and includes training in XSan or Final Cut.

    Apple Certified Macintosh Technician: You can enact Apple hardware repairs, both in and out of warranty. Required to start (or procure a job with) an Apple Authorized Service Provider, or self-service your great organization.

    What is ethical hacking? How to procure paid to splinter into computers | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    What is ethical hacking?

    Ethical hacking, also known as penetration testing or pen testing, is legally breaking into computers and devices to test an organization's defenses. It's among the most exciting IT jobs any person can breathe involved in. You are literally getting paid to withhold up with the latest technology and procure to break into computers without the threat of being arrested. 

    Companies engage ethical hackers to identify vulnerabilities in their systems. From the penetration tester's point of view, there is no downside: If you hack in past the current defenses, you’ve given the client a random to nearby the hollow before an attacker discovers it. If you don’t find anything, your client is even happier because they now procure to declare their systems “secure enough that even paid hackers couldn’t splinter into it.” Win-win!

    I’ve been in computer security for over 30 years, and no job has been more challenging and fun than professional penetration testing. You not only procure to enact something fun, but pen testers often are seen with an aura of extra coolness that comes from everyone knowing they could splinter into almost any computer at will. Although now long turned legit, the world’s former most notorious uber hacker, Kevin Mitnick, told me that he gets the exact very emotional thrill out of being paid to legally splinter into places as he did for All those years of illegal hacking. Mitnick said, the only divergence “is the report writing.”

    What enact ethical hackers do?

    Scope and goal setting

    It is essential for any professional pen tester to document agreed upon scope and goals. These are the kinds of questions regarding scope you necessity to ask:

  • What computer assets are in scope for the test?
  • Does it include All computers, just a unavoidable application or service, unavoidable OS platforms, or mobile devices and cloud services?
  • Does the scope include just a unavoidable type of computer asset, such as web servers, SQL servers, All computers at a host OS level, and are network devices included?
  • Can the pen testing include automated vulnerability scanning?
  • Is social engineering allowed, and if so, what methods?
  • What dates will pen testing breathe allowed on?
  • Are there any days or hours when penetration testing should not breathe tried (to avoid any unintentional outages or service interruptions)?
  • Should testers try their best to avoid causing service interruptions or is causing any sort of problem a true attacker can do, including service interruptions, a crucial fraction of the test?
  • Will the penetration testing breathe blackbox (meaning the pen tester has slight to no internal details of the involved systems or applications) or whitebox (meaning they possess internal information of the attacked systems, possibly up and involving material source code)?
  • Will computer security defenders breathe told about the pen test or will fraction of the test breathe to espy if the defenders notice?
  • Should the professional attackers (e.g., red team) try to break-in without being detected by the defenders (e.g., blue team), or should they spend customary methods that true intruders might spend to espy if it sets off existing detection and prevention defenses?
  • Ask these questions regarding the goals of the penetration test.

  • Is it simply to Show that you can splinter into a computer or device?
  • Is denial-of-service considered an in-scope goal?
  • Is accessing a particular computer or exfiltrating data fraction of the goal, or is simply gaining privileged access enough?
  • What should breathe submitted as fraction of documentation upon the conclusion of the test? Should it include All failed and successful hacking methods, or just the most necessary hacks? How much detail is needed, every keystroke and mouse-click, or just summary descriptions? enact the hacks necessity to breathe captured on video or screenshots?
  • It’s necessary that the scope and goals breathe described in detail, and agreed upon, prior to any penetration testing attempts.

    Discovery: Learn about your target

    Every ethical hacker begins their asset hacking (excluding social engineering techniques for this discussion) by learning as much about the pen test targets as they can. They want to know IP addresses, OS platforms, applications, version numbers, patch levels, advertised network ports, users, and anything else that can lead to an exploit. It is a rarity that an ethical hacker won’t espy an obvious potential vulnerability by spending just a few minutes looking at an asset. At the very least, even if they don’t espy something obvious, they can spend the information learned in discovery for continued analysis and beset tries.

    Exploitation: splinter into the target asset

    This is what the ethical hacker is being paid for – the “break-in.” Using the information learned in the discovery phase, the pen tester needs to exploit a vulnerability to gain unauthorized access (or denial of service, if that is the goal). If the hacker can’t break-in to a particular asset, then they must try other in-scope assets. Personally,

    if I’ve done a thorough discovery job, then I’ve always establish an exploit. I don’t even know of a professional penetration tester that has not broken into an asset they were hired to splinter into, at least initially, before their delivered report allowed the defender to nearby All the establish holes. I’m sure there are penetration testers that don’t always find exploits and accomplish their hacking goals, but if you enact the discovery process thoroughly enough, the exploitation fraction isn’t as difficult as many people believe. Being a estimable penetration tester or hacker is less about being a genius and more about resignation and thoroughness.

    Depending on the vulnerability and exploit, the now gained access may require “privilege escalation” to turn a customary user’s access into higher administrative access. This can require a second exploit to breathe used, but only if the initial exploit didn’t already give the attacker privileged access.

    Depending on what is in scope, the vulnerability discovery can breathe automated using exploitation or vulnerability scanning software. The latter software type usually finds vulnerabilities,but does not exploit them to gain unauthorized access.

    Next, the pen tester either performs the agreed upon goal action if they are in their ultimate destination, or they spend the currently exploited computer to gain access closer to their eventual destination. Pen testers and defenders summon this “horizontal” or “vertical” movement, depending on whether the attacker moves within the very class of system or outward to non-related systems. Sometimes the goal of the ethical hacker must breathe proven as attained (such as revealing system secrets or confidential data) or the mere documentation of how it could possess been successfully accomplished is enough.

    Document the pen-test effort

    Lastly, the professional penetration tester must write up and present the agreed upon report, including findings and conclusions.

    How to become an ethical hacker

    Any hacker must capture some common steps to become an ethical hacker, the bare minimum of which is to execute sure you possess documented leave from the perquisite people before breaking into something. Not breaking the law is paramount to being an ethical hacker. All professional penetration testers should ensue a code of ethics to pilot everything they do. The EC-Council, creators of the Certificated Ethical Hacker (CEH) exam, possess one of the best public code of ethics available.

    Most ethical hackers become professional penetration testers one of two ways. Either they learn hacking skills on their own or they capture formal education classes. Many, enjoy me, did both. Although sometimes mocked by self-learners, ethical hacking courses and certifications are often the gateway to a estimable paying job as a full-time penetration tester. 

    Today’s IT security education curriculum is plenary of courses and certifications that teach someone how to breathe an ethical hacker. For most of the certification exams you can self-study and bring your own undergo to the testing hub or capture an approved education course. While you don’t necessity an ethical hacking certification to procure employed as professional penetration tester, it can’t hurt.

    As CBT Nuggets trainer, Keith Barker said, “I contemplate the break to possess 'certified ethical anything' on your resume can only breathe a estimable thing, but it’s more of an entry way into more study. Plus, if companies espy that you are certified in ethical hacking, they know you possess seen and agreed to a particular code of ethics. If an employer is looking at resumes and they espy someone who has an ethical hacking certification and someone that didn't, it’s got to help.”

    Even though they teach the very skill every ethical hacking course and certification is different. Do a slight research to find the perquisite one for you.

    5 top ethical hacking courses and certifications
  • Certified Ethical Hacker
  • Offensive Security Certified Professional
  • Foundstone Ultimate Hacking
  • Certified Ethical Hacker

    The EC-Council’s Certificate Ethical Hacker (CEH) is easily the oldest and most accepted penetration course and certification. The official course, which can breathe taken online or with a live in-person instructor, contains 18 different subject domains including traditional hacking subjects, plus modules on malware, wireless, cloud and mobile platforms. The plenary remote course includes six months of access to the online Cyber ambit iLab, which will allow students to rehearse over 100 hacking skills.

    Sitting for the CEH certification requires taking an official course or, if self-study, proof of two years of material undergo or education. It contains 125 multiple-choice questions with a four-hour time limit. Taking the exam requires accepting the EC-Council’s Code of Ethics, which was one of the first required codes of ethics required of computer security test takers. The courseware and testing is routinely updated.


    SysAdmin, Networking, and Security (SANS) Institute is a highly respected training organization, and anything they teach along with their certifications are greatly respected by IT security practitioners. SANS offers multiple pen testing courses and certifications, but its base GIAC Penetration Tester (GPEN) is one of the most popular.

    The official course for the GPEN, SEC560: Network Penetration Testing and Ethical Hacking, can breathe taken online or live in-person. The GPEN exam has 115 questions, a three-hour time limit, and requires a 74 percent score to pass. No specific training is required for any GIAC exam. The GPEN is covered on GIAC’s generic code of ethics, which they capture very seriously as attested to by a running weigh of exam passers who possess been disqualified for violating the code.

    “I enjoy how [the GPEN exam] ties to practical skills that penetration testers necessity to possess to enact their jobs every day,” says Skoudis. “It covers everything from minute technical approaches to testing All the way up through scoping, rules of engagement, and reporting. The exam is very scenario focused, so it will present a given penetration test scenario and inquire of which is the best way forward. Or, it’ll Show you the output from a tool, and inquire of what the tool is telling you and what you should enact next. I treasure that so much, as it measures real-world skills better. The exam doesn’t possess a lot of questions that are merely definitional, where they possess a sentence that is missing one word and inquire of you which of the following words best fill in the sentence. That’s not a particularly estimable way of measuring skills.”

    Offensive Security Certified Professional

    The Offensive Security Certified Professional (OSCP) course and certification has gained a well-earned reputation for toughness with a very hands-on learning structure and exam. The official online, self-paced training course is called Penetration Testing with Kali Linux and includes 30 days of lab access. Because it relies on Kali Linux (the successor to pen testers' previous favorite Linux distro, BackTrack), participants necessity to possess a basic understanding of how to spend Linux, bash shells and scripts.

    The OSCP is known for pushing its students and exam takers harder than other pen testing paths. For example, the OSCP course teaches, and the exam requires, the faculty to obtain, modify and spend publicly obtained exploit code. For the “exam”, the participant is given instructions to remotely attach to a virtual environment where they are expected to compromise multiple operating systems and devices within 24-hours, and thoroughly document how they did it. repellent Security also offers even more advanced pen testing courses and exams (e.g., including involving web, wireless, and advanced Windows exploitation). Readers may want to capture edge of their free, online basic Metasploit tool course.

    Foundstone Ultimate Hacking

    McAfee’s Foundstone industry unit (which I worked for over 10 years ago) was one of the first hands-on penetration testing courses available. Its series of Ultimate Hacking courses and books led the realm for a long time. They covered Windows, Linux, Solaris, web, SQL, and a host of advanced hacker techniques (such as tunneling). Unfortunately, Ultimate Hacking courses don’t possess formal exams and certifications.

    Today, Foundstone offers a host of training options well beyond just pen testing, including forensics and incident response (as enact many of the other players in this article). Additionally, Foundstone offers training in hacking internet of things (IoT), firmware, industrial control security systems, Bluetooth and RFID. Foundstone instructors are often real-life pen testers and security consultants, although many, if not most, of the training courses are handled by partners.


    Internationally, the not-for-profit CREST information assurance accreditation and certification body’s pen test courses and exams are commonly accepted in many countries, including the United Kingdom, Australia, Europe, and Asia. CREST’s mission is to educate and certify attribute pen testers. All CREST-approved exams possess been reviewed and approved by the UK’s Government Communication Headquarters (GCHQ), which is analogous to the United States’ NSA.

    CREST’s basic pen testing exam is known as the CREST Registered Tester (or CRT), and there are exams for web and infrastructure pen testers. Exams and costs vary by country. CREST test takers must review and concede the CREST Code of Conduct. The repellent Security OSCP certification can breathe used to obtain the CRT.

    All the instructors I spoke to believed that the courses they taught were just a beginning. Barker of CBT Nuggets said, “[Certification exams] are a Great entry point and exposure to All the foundations that you can then roam onto more.”

    “Each [of their classes] is not just a standalone class someone takes for six days and then disappears,” says Skoudis. "Instead, their classes are more enjoy an ecosystem, centered around that 6 days of training, but with webcasts and ensue up blogs for continued learning going forward. Also, we’ve been super fortunate to possess their previous students contributing to this ecosystem through their own blogs and tool development, giving back to the community. It’s really a stunning virtuous cycle, and I’m so thankful to breathe a slight fraction of it.”

    Ethical hacking tools

    Ethical hackers usually possess a standard set of hacking tools that they spend All the time, but they might possess to peruse for and stock up on different tools depending on the particular job. For example, if the penetration tester is asked to beset SQL servers and has no material experience, they might want to start researching and testing different SQL beset tools.

    Most penetration testers start with a Linux OS “distro” that is specialized for penetration testing. Linux distros for hacking advance and roam over the years, but perquisite now the Kali distro is the one most professional ethical hackers prefer. There are thousands of hacking tools, including a bunch of stalwarts that nearly every pen tester uses.

    The most necessary point of any hacking tool, beyond its attribute and lucky for the job at hand, is to execute sure it does not contain malware or other code designed to hack the hacker. The vast majority of hacking tools that you can procure on internet, especially for free, contain malware and undocumented backdoors. You can usually trust the most common and accepted hacking tools, like Nmap, but the best ethical hackers write and spend their own tools because they don’t trust anything written by someone else.

    For a more in-depth peruse at ethical hacking tools, read "17 penetration testing tools the pros use."

    Ethical hacking jobs: How the role is evolving

    Like every other IT security discipline, ethical hacking is maturing. Standalone hackers who simply Show technical prowess without professionalism and sophistication are becoming less in demand. Employers are looking for the complete professional hacker — both in rehearse and the toolsets they use.

    Better toolkits: Penetration or vulnerability testing software has always been a fraction of the ethical hacker’s toolkit. More than likely, the customer already is running one or both of these on a regular basis. One of the most exciting developments in pen testing are tools that essentially enact All of the arduous work from discovery to exploitation, much enjoy an attacker might.

    An example of this type of tool is open source Bloodhound. Bloodhound allows attackers to see, graphically, relationships among different computers on an vigorous Directory network. If you input a desired target goal, Bloodhound can aid you quickly espy multiple hacking paths to procure from where you start to that target, often identifying paths you didn’t know existed. I’ve seen intricate uses where pen testers simply entered in starting and ending points, and Bloodhound and a few scripts did the rest, including All hacking steps necessary to procure from point A to Z. Of course, commercial penetration testing software has had this sort of sophistication for much longer.

    A picture is worth a thousand words: It used to breathe that to sell a defense to senior management, pen testers would hack senior management or Show them documentation. Today, senior management wants slide decks, videos or animations of how particular hacks were performed in their environment. They spend it not only to sell other senior managers on particular defenses but also as fraction of employee education.

    Risk management: It’s also not enough to hand off a list of establish vulnerabilities to the repose of the company and consider your job done. No, today’s professional penetration testers must work with IT management to identify the biggest and most likely threats. Penetration testers are now fraction of the risk management team, helping to efficiently reduce risk even more so than just absolute vulnerabilities. This means that ethical hackers provide even more value by showing management and defenders what is most likely to betide and how, and not just Show them a one-off hack that is unlikely to occur from a real-life intruder.

    Professional penetration testing isn’t for everyone. It requires becoming a near-expert in several different technologies and platforms, as well as an intrinsic desire to espy if something can breathe broken into past the normally presented boundaries. If you’ve got that desire, and can ensue some legal and ethical guidelines, you, too, can breathe a professional hacker.

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