Experts Exchange about 310-152 exam Questions PDF | | Inicio RADIONAVES

Pass4sure 310-152 exam simulator is the best prep tool ever made It uses updated questions answers - braindumps - and practice test to make the candidate confident - - Inicio RADIONAVES

Killexams 310-152 braindumps | Pass4sure 310-152 VCE exercise Test | http://www.radionaves.com/



Killexams.com 310-152 Dumps | real Questions 2019

100% real Questions - Memorize Questions and Answers - 100% Guaranteed Success



310-152 exam Dumps Source : Download 100% Free 310-152 Dumps PDF

Test Code : 310-152
Test cognomen : Sun Certified Backup and Recovery Engineer (emphasis on Solstice Backup)
Vendor cognomen : SUN
: 115 real Questions

Download 310-152 braindumps with valid real questions.
killexams.com 310-152 Exam PDF consists of Complete Pool of Questions and Answers and Dumps checked and certified along with references and explanations (where applicable). Their target to accumulate the 310-152 Questions and Answers is'nt only to pass the 310-152 exam at the first attempt but Really improve Your learning about the 310-152 exam topics.

If you are really worried about the 310-152 exam dumps. You should just download 310-152 real questions from killexams.com. It will rescue you from lot of problems. It makes your concept about 310-152 objectives crystal pellucid and fabricate you confident to physiognomy the real 310-152 exam. fabricate your own notes. You will survey that some questions will looks very smooth to answer, but when you will try at vce exam simulator, you will survey that you retort them wrong. This is just because, those are tricky questions. SUN specialists fabricate such questions that looks very smooth but actually there are lot of techniques inside the question. They mitigate you understand those questions with the mitigate of their 310-152 questions and answers. Their vce exam simultor will mitigate you to memorize and understand lot of such questions. When you will retort those 310-152 dumps again and again, your concepts will live cleared and you will not throw when SUN change those questions to fabricate unavoidable techniquest. This is how they mitigate candidates pass their exam at first attempt by actually boosting up their learning about 310-152 objectives.

Sometime, pass the exam does not matter at all, but understanding the topics are required. This is situation in 310-152 exam. They provide real exam questions and answers of 310-152 exam that will mitigate you gain beneficial score in the exam, but issue is not just passing the 310-152 exam some time. They provide VCE exam simulator to improve your learning about 310-152 topics so that you can understand the core concepts of 310-152 objectives. This is really important. It is not at totality easy. Their team has prepared 310-152 questions bank that will actually deliver you beneficial understanding of topics, along with surety to pass the exam at first attempt. Never under assay the power of their 310-152 VCE exam simulator. This will mitigate you lot in understanding and memorizing 310-152 questions with its braindumps PDF and VCE.

You can download 310-152 dumps PDF at any gadget like ipad, iphone, PC, smart tv, android to read and memorize the 310-152 dumps. Spend as much time on reading 310-152 Questions and answers as you can. Specially taking exercise tests with VCE exam simulator will mitigate you memorize the questions and retort them well. You will fill to recognize these questions in real exam. You will gain better marks when you exercise well before real 310-152 exam.

Features of Killexams 310-152 dumps
-> 310-152 Dumps download Access in just 5 min.
-> Complete 310-152 Questions Bank
-> 310-152 Exam Success Guarantee
-> Guaranteed real 310-152 exam Questions
-> Latest and Updated 310-152 Questions and Answers
-> Verified 310-152 Answers
-> Download 310-152 Exam Files anywhere
-> Unlimited 310-152 VCE Exam Simulator Access
-> Unlimited 310-152 Exam Download
-> Great Discount Coupons
-> 100% Secure Purchase
-> 100% Confidential.
-> 100% Free Dumps Questions for evaluation
-> No Hidden Cost
-> No Monthly Subscription
-> No Auto Renewal
-> 310-152 Exam Update Intimation by Email
-> Free Technical Support

Exam Detail at : https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/310-152
Pricing Details at : https://killexams.com/exam-price-comparison/310-152
See Complete List : https://killexams.com/vendors-exam-list

Discount Coupon on replete 310-152 braindumps questions;
WC2017: 60% Flat Discount on each exam
PROF17: 10% Further Discount on Value Greatr than $69
DEAL17: 15% Further Discount on Value Greater than $99



310-152 Customer Reviews and Testimonials


I want to pass 310-152 exam, What should I do?
Found out this beneficial source after a long time. Everyone here is cooperative and competent. Team provided me very beneficial material for 310-152 preparation.


How much salary for 310-152 certified?
I chose killexams.com because I did not want to pass 310-152 exam but I wanted to pass with beneficial marks so that I would fabricate a beneficial imprint on everyone. In order to accomplish this I needed outside aid and killexams.com was willing to provide it to me. I studied over here and used 310-152 questions to prepare. I got the august prize of best scores in the 310-152 exam.


Actual exam questions updated 310-152 exam! wonderful source.
Great thanks buddies. You rock. I fill just passed my 310-152 exam with 93% marks. Though it was tough but I already memorized totality the answers. You helped me lot. I will recommend you to everyone who like to pass 310-152 exam in quick and smooth way.


Where must I sign in for 310-152 exam?
Like many others, I actually fill currently handed the 310-152 exam. In my case, widespread majority of 310-152 exam questions came precisely from this guide. The answers are accurate, too, so if you are preparing to grasp your 310-152 exam, you could completely trust on this internet site.


The way to read for 310-152 exam in shortest time?
passed 310-152 exam a few days in the past and got an pattern score. however, I cannot grasp complete credit score for this as I used killexams.com to prepare for the 310-152 exam. two weeks after kicking off my exercise with their exam simulator, I felt like I knew the Answers to any question that will Come my manner. and I actually did. every question I exam at the 310-152 exam, I had already seen it at the selfsame time as practising. If now not each, then tremendous majority of them. the whole thing that turned into in the practice% turned out to live very relevant and beneficial, so I can not thank enough to killexams.com for making it manifest for me.


Sun Certified Backup and Recovery Engineer (emphasis on Solstice Backup) exam

Storage Certifications - fraction I | 310-152 real Questions and VCE exercise Test

any individual involved within the certification trade will recount you that these are complicated instances. in the days before the dot com bust, IT certifications fill been a way for any individual with a technical inkling and a tiny money to gain licensed and, without doubt, gain a job. because of this, hoards of agencies producing a hardware or application product jumped on the bandwagon and started providing a certification application (or two) to any one willing to step as much as the plate and certify.

As with just about every other a fraction of the IT trade, storage providers fill been brief to recognise that they too might proffer certifications, and they too could profit because of this. The most effective problem become, simply as probably the most storage carriers started merchandising their certification classes, the bottom fell out of the economy and the certification market that fed off it. could live certification candidates nascence searching more toward preserving the job they had in space of taking a gape at getting licensed and touching on to a new job.

nowadays, youngsters, with many forecasting an upturn in IT recruitment over the next few years, the certification market is as soon as once again showing signs of lifestyles, and one of the vital areas tipped to live scorching over the arrival years is storage networking certifications.

What's obtainable?The latitude of certifications accessible can fabricate identifying one a tricky task. most of the dealer unavoidable certifications will, rather reasonably, focus on that companies products and it live related applied sciences. whereas this might possibly live an excellent issue for getting up to pace on that company's items, you should believe the portability of the certifications when you Come to a conclusion to plug to an additional enterprise that uses diverse items. The draw back is that one of the vital more typical certifications can live viewed as less advantageous through an commerce enterprise who's looking for a specific capabilities set and so a extremely specific certification. during this admire, there are basically no arduous and posthaste rules - you necessity to simply design out which way you are looking to depart after which head in that course. Of direction there's nothing to title that you can not just grasp multiple certification, which could live the reply to the conundrum.

https://o1.qnsr.com/log/p.gif?;n=203;c=204660765;s=10655;x=7936;f=201812281308090;u=j;z=TIMESTAMP;a=20400368;e=i

One factor they did locate at the selfsame time as learning storage certifications is that many companies classes are nevertheless below construction. This means that the first step towards certification can live possible, but after that you're at the whim of the supplier as to when extra exams or curriculum are made purchasable. here's a vital ingredient for anyone who may gain pissed off at having to stay up for a dealer to gain their house so as.

TestingNearly totality of the certification suppliers elect to exhaust the tried and validated verify delivery mechanisms offered through either Vue or Prometric checking out. For any one who has taken an exam for an additional certification program (CompTIA, Microsoft, Novell, Cisco, Oracle and so on.), the system will live universal sufficient. If this might live your first certification gape at various the process is elementary. After registering with one of the two suppliers, that you may booklet a pc based mostly examine which may besides live taken at certainly one of lots of trying out facilities worldwide. checks sweep from 45 minutes to about 2.5 hours and are normally closed e-book assorted option affairs. In nearly totality situations your effects are given at the conclusion of the gape at various enabling you instant gratification (or commiseration) on your efforts.

The fees of exams differ drastically between certification providers however are frequently between $a hundred and $200 per test. If the enterprise makes exhaust of both testing suppliers, the permeate and content of the check could live the equal for both, so the alternative of testing company will turn into one in every of convenience (which one has a checking out middle closest to you), or personal preference.

The Certifications.When each of the certification courses discussed privilege here, it's faultfinding to suffer in judgement that now not every certification is going to live acceptable to every grownup. in case you are just nascence out in storage certification, live sure to gape against one of the vital greater approved skills so that you can provide you with extra breadth than depth. if you're a seasoned storage administrator, you are in a plenty improved space to fabricate an informed resolution a few really expert certification.

The certifications discussed listed below are in alphabetical order and through no means represents a complete list of the entire certifications purchasable.

AdaptecWhen it comes to specialized certifications, there aren't too many who are more particularly concentrated than Adaptec's licensed Storage skilled. despite the fact the program covers chummy storage concepts, there is a very massive stress on RAID and in selected Adaptec's items. apart from the simple ACSP cert, Adaptec additionally presents a program for Durastor / exterior Storage Certification practicing. For more assistance, visit the ACSP homepage.

BrocadeStorage swap vendor Brocade has a longtime certification application that specializes in unavoidable technical areas comparable to server and storage consolidation, LAN-free and serverless backup, remote information replication, and dynamic storage management.

at present available are the assessments for Brocade certified textile skilled, Brocade licensed SAN designer and Brocade licensed SAN supervisor. The cloth professional examination is definitely a pre-requisite for the other certifications and so necessity to live taken first. The Brocade certification roadmap, which is purchasable at Brocade's website, besides comprises tips about the premier Brocade licensed SAN Architect certification, even though particulars are scant on precisely when the faultfinding tests to attain this stage should live obtainable.

EMCOf totality of the corporations discussed here, EMC has possibly the most developed, complicated and complete certification software obtainable nowadays. No shock from the enterprise generally regarded as the number 1 storage dealer.

earlier than even starting into one of the most 'tracks', candidates should pass the EMC commerce Storage Fundamentals exam, which covers simple storage networking ideas along with a meet dose of EMC product capabilities. After passing that examination, candidates can then pursue considered one of four tracks specifically Operator, Builder, Architect and instructor.

For each tune, there's an associate and master flat accreditation, the change being the flat of skills required to gain certification. more guidance on the EMC certification is attainable on the EMC site.

GadzooxUnlike the other certification courses mentioned here, the Gadzoox certifications for licensed professional and certified Technical professional require that candidates finished practicing courses instead of grasp a certification exam. even if this makes the Gadzoox certs as effective as others will depend on your personal viewpoint or that of your existing or potential corporation. extra information on the certifications may besides live discovered on the Gadzoox website.

IBMAs IBM's product portfolio includes many different things as well as storage products, it's going to Come as no surprise that their certification choices are well developed. current IBM storage linked certification offerings encompass a smattering of storage unavoidable certs similar to IBM TotalStorage Networking options and extreme conclusion Disk options to identify just two. each and every realm has a single exam associated with it. For extra tips search counsel from the IBM certification website.

McDATASAN Director and switch brand McDATA fill an in depth contour for his or her certification application, notwithstanding at current, just one certification, the McDATA certified Storage network clothier is purchasable. In universal with many other seller offerings, the McDATA programs merge a commonplace skills of storage networking with a attention of product linked focus. grasp a gape at the McDATA site for the latest tendencies on the McDATA certs.

community ApplianceStorage retort manufacturer network equipment has created a certification software with two diverse tracks designed to focus the candidates consideration on community equipment items. the two tracks are NetApp licensed associate (Filer) certification, which requires three tests to live taken earlier than candidates can movement on to the NetApp licensed knowledgeable (Filer) cert which requires a further two tests. The selfsame kindhearted of path (with diverse checks) exists for the NetApp licensed affiliate (NetCache) and NetApp licensed expert (NetCache) certifications. For more guidance on network equipment certification debate with the certification homepage on the network appliance web page.

Storage Networking industry association (SNIA)Being a seller independent company, the SNIA is capable of present certification software free of the product orientation that many of the other certifications tracks take. even if you reckon is a beneficial or a foul factor depends on your perspective.

latest SNIA choices embrace the Fibre Channel Storage Networking expert, Practitioner, professional and knowledgeable. exams for the first two certifications are at present accessible, with the others scheduled to observe someday later this year. The certifications can besides live taken in any order. The Fibre Channel Storage Networking skilled is, by means of SNIA's personal admission, designed for non-technical personnel. extra tips can besides live create at the SNIA website.

solar Microsystems solar's enormously developed storage certification application includes three discrete tracks together with sun certified records management Engineer, solar certified Backup and recovery Engineer and sun certified Storage Architect. each certification requires the passing of a single examination, and the certs can besides live taken in any order. For extra counsel search counsel from the certification section of solar's web page.

Veritas introduced previous this yr, the VERITAS certified knowledgeable software is designed to certify individuals on VERITAS products. in keeping with press counsel the checks cover VERITAS products and their functions for data protection and extreme availability, though a search of the VERITAS web site yielded no further suggestions on the courses than that.

in fraction Two......partially two of this text, they are going to consult with some commerce figures about certifications and gain the retort to at least one very faultfinding query. Are certifications charge your time, funds and energy? they will besides anatomize some extra components that you'll want to believe when opting for a certification.


Certification Watch: Microsoft adds .web Developer Credentials | 310-152 real Questions and VCE exercise Test

Certification Watch is supplied through GoCertify.com, a gathering region and resource middle for individuals interested in computing device skilled certification.

it's only February and already the certification marketplace is gearing up for a industrious year. in this subject they report on 4 new and pending certifications.

Microsoft declares New .internet Developer CredentialsAs a fraction of the large Microsoft .internet rollout, Microsoft is launching an entirely new developer credential, plus adding a .internet edition of the MCSD certification. Microsoft certified application Developer (MCAD) for Microsoft .web, fits squarely between the primary certified knowledgeable (MCP) and the advanced Microsoft licensed options Developer (MCSD) titles. It requires passing two core exams specializing in a particular language tune (either visible fundamental or C#) and one optional.

the new MCSD title, Microsoft licensed utility Developer (MCAD) for Microsoft .internet, provides an extra two core tests to the MCAD necessities, including a .net edition of the historic standard inspecting necessities and Defining solution Architectures. latest MCSDs are not required to replace to the .internet music to continue to live certified. For the complete story, survey the GoCertify.com article, figuring out Microsoft's New Developer Credentials.

https://o1.qnsr.com/log/p.gif?;n=203;c=204660774;s=9478;x=7936;f=201812281339040;u=j;z=TIMESTAMP;a=20403972;e=iCompTIA To build New Entry-stage safety CertificationComputer and community security has been this type of sizzling subject matter in recent months that it can Come as no shock that the Computing expertise commerce affiliation (CompTIA) is planning so as to add a security certification to its portfolio. CompTIA, sponsor of a family unit of seller-neutral certifications together with the accepted A+, currently introduced an initiative to create a vendor-neutral, groundwork stage protection certification. the new designation will address firewalls, viruses, user authentication and encryption, among different subject matters. The answerable cognomen of the brand new certification has now not been determined yet, however Certification Watch has discovered that it may not live protection+. search for a beta exam in plunge 2002. computing device Forensics Certification LaunchedGuidance utility has created a software to certify potential in the enjoyable container of recuperating desktop-based mostly proof, using EnCase computer forensic application and correct forensic methodology. The EnCase licensed Examiner (EnCE) title is rarely an entry-stage title: prerequisites encompass monstrous event and training requirements. applicants who meet the necessities depart on to grasp two exams. the first exam is in the time-honored, desktop-primarily based format administered by Prometric testing centers. The 2d is a grasp home useful examination that requires analyzing proof info and producing a document. survey the replete details on this fascinating addition to the certification marketplace.

solar certified Backup And recuperation Engineer Goes LiveAll of the checks that qualify as requirements for the sun certified Backup And restoration Engineer designation are actually are living. Candidates can tide either the VERITAS NetBackup and Solstice Backup exam to merit the designation. The tests are designed to measure learning of professional backup methodology, restoring records and meeting design requirements and value $150 each and every. They can live create through Prometric checking out centers.

The complete present problem of Certification Watch will besides live discovered at GoCertify.com.

Anne Martinez is the author of low-cost internet tricks: construct and Promote a successful net web page totally free and gain certified and gain forward. She besides is the founder of GoCertify.com.

related news AND evaluation
  • synthetic Intelligence in Healthcare: How AI Shapes drugs

    characteristic |  by using Lisa Morgan, March 08, 2019

  • properly computer studying solutions

    feature |  with the aid of Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • Google computing device learning Engine: Product Overview and insight

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  by way of Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • Alteryx: Product Overview and insight

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  by using Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • SAP Leonardo: Product Overview and perception

    artificial INTELLIGENCE |  through Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • RapidMiner: Product Overview and insight

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  via Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • Microsoft Azure machine discovering Studio: Product Overview and perception

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  by Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • IBM Watson Studio: Product Overview and insight

    artificial INTELLIGENCE |  with the aid of Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • SAS visual computing device gaining learning of: Product Overview and perception

    characteristic |  by way of Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • AWS SageMaker: Product Overview and perception

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  via Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • synthetic Intelligence in business: the usage of AI on your business

    artificial INTELLIGENCE |  through Daniel Dern, February 08, 2019

  • How IBM’s task Debater might repair fb

    artificial INTELLIGENCE |  with the aid of Rob Enderle, January 21, 2019

  • IBM broadcasts strongest AI application Yet: The start of wise HR

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  by using Rob Enderle, December 07, 2018

  • IBM Spectrum discover: AI at Scale

    artificial INTELLIGENCE |  by Rob Enderle, October 26, 2018

  • The accurate Cloud-based mostly AI services

    artificial INTELLIGENCE |  by using Andy Patrizio, September eleven, 2018

  • synthetic Intelligence Salaries: Paychecks Heading Skyward

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  through Andy Patrizio, August 28, 2018

  • artificial Intelligence exhaust cases

    characteristic |  by using Samuel Greengard, August 13, 2018

  • 25 exact AI Startups

    function |  by using Andy Patrizio, July 18, 2018

  • CIOs Leveraging AI and computing device gaining learning of For ITSM goals

    artificial INTELLIGENCE |  by way of Jeff Kaplan, July 03, 2018


  • Certification Watch: community Storage Certifications | 310-152 real Questions and VCE exercise Test

    Certification Watch is supplied by means of GoCertify.com, a gathering locality and useful resource middle for individuals interested in desktop professional certification.

    1. Microsoft Cancels Plans to Decertify home windows NT 4 MCSEsIn a dramatic reversal of their previous plans, Microsoft has cancelled plans to decertify totality MCSEs who don't improve to the windows 2000 song by means of the halt of this yr. in its place, the MCSE title will develop into music unavoidable - for example, "MCSE on windows 2000" or MCSE on windows NT 4.0. The accelerated exam option for Win2k candidates is unchanged. read Microsoft's answerable FAQ on this alternate at: http://gocertify.com/redirect/msftMCSENT.html

    2. Microsoft Launches New Administrator DesignationA few days ago Microsoft introduced the launch of its new Microsoft certified programs Administrator (MCSA) on Microsoft home windows 2000 credential. people should pass three core assessments and one optionally available to merit the new title. The core exams can besides live chosen from home windows 2000, .internet, or XP skilled working equipment checks. The non-obligatory alternate options consist of the usual Microsoft alternative, masking such issues as Proxy Server, alternate Server, SQL Server and others. Microsoft will additionally accept a amalgam of COMPTIA certifications in space of the optionally available - both A+ and community+ OR A+ and Server+.

    https://o1.qnsr.com/log/p.gif?;n=203;c=204660774;s=9478;x=7936;f=201812281339040;u=j;z=TIMESTAMP;a=20403972;e=i

    3. sun Rolls Out network Storage CertificationsSun Microsystems has simply launched the first of three certifications that will fabricate up its new network Storage skilled software. The solar certified facts administration Engineer covers the learning required to do into effect, configure, operate and administer a disk array storage gadget. Two further certifications are in the works. individuals who're accountable for design and implementation of backup methods in a data hub might live attracted to the solar certified Backup and healing Engineer designation. Storage enviornment network (SAN) designers and administrators will are looking to try the solar licensed Storage Architect. the first two certifications deliver a conclusion of paths: either Solstice DiskSuite or VERITAS extent supervisor utility. tests are at the standard solar rate - $150.

    four. Linux+ LiveCompTIA formally launched its Linux+ certification previous this month. This one exam certification is supposed to demonstrate foundation degree Linux working gadget talent. based on CompTIA, Linux+ is a stepping stone toward bigger degree Linux certifications from LPI and Sair. The examination carries ninety five questions and lasts up to 2 hours. The U.S. exam cost is $one hundred ninety (CompTIA participants gain a reduction). trying out is obtainable by the exhaust of Prometric and VUE.

    5. CIW Simplifies ScoringProsoftTraining, vendor of the certified web Webmaster (CIW) application, has changed the scoring formula for the 1D0-410 Foundations examination. Candidates ought to merit at the least a seventy five% their complete exam ranking. There is no minimal rating for each and every of the three examination sections, as there was during the past. The foundations exam is the first step toward totality superior CIW titles.

    6. Microsoft certified coach application Now Requires Annual RenewalAs deliberate, the Microsoft licensed trainer (MCT) enacted new necessities as of October 1st. current and new trainers fill to renew yearly, which contains paying an annual charge. MCTs fill to convey as a minimum 10 days of Microsoft official Curriculum (MOC) and merit carrying on with schooling credits, as well as preserve a premier Microsoft certification (MCSE, MCSD, or MCDBA). becoming a member of the MCT software fees $four hundred ($300 if you work for a Microsoft CTEC).

    7. Oracle 8 tests to retire March 31, 2002All Oracle eight DBA and DBO checks could live retired on March thirty first, 2002, except for the SQL and New aspects checks. people who already dangle the certification will continue to live certified. Most checks required for Oracle8 certification can besides live applied to the Oracle 8i music. youngsters, when you reckon that Oracle is likely to retire the 8i track through the halt of 2002 or presently thereafter, candidates should live would becould very well live improved served to soar straight to the 9i track.

    The comprehensive existing issue of Certification Watch can live create at GoCertify.com.

    Anne Martinez is the creator of low cost net tricks: construct and Promote a successful net web site free of permeate and gain certified and gain ahead: Millennium version she is besides the founder of GoCertify.com.

    connected information AND analysis
  • artificial Intelligence in Healthcare: How AI Shapes drugs

    characteristic |  by way of Lisa Morgan, March 08, 2019

  • suitable computing device studying options

    feature |  with the aid of Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • Google computing device gaining learning of Engine: Product Overview and perception

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  by Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • Alteryx: Product Overview and insight

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  with the aid of Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • SAP Leonardo: Product Overview and perception

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  via Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • RapidMiner: Product Overview and perception

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  via Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • Microsoft Azure laptop discovering Studio: Product Overview and insight

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  through Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • IBM Watson Studio: Product Overview and perception

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  with the aid of Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • SAS visible laptop learning: Product Overview and perception

    function |  by means of Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • AWS SageMaker: Product Overview and insight

    artificial INTELLIGENCE |  by means of Samuel Greengard, February 14, 2019

  • synthetic Intelligence in company: using AI to your enterprise

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  by way of Daniel Dern, February 08, 2019

  • How IBM’s venture Debater may fix facebook

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  by way of Rob Enderle, January 21, 2019

  • IBM declares strongest AI application Yet: The delivery of smart HR

    synthetic INTELLIGENCE |  by using Rob Enderle, December 07, 2018

  • IBM Spectrum discover: AI at Scale

    artificial INTELLIGENCE |  with the aid of Rob Enderle, October 26, 2018

  • The proper Cloud-based mostly AI functions

    artificial INTELLIGENCE |  by way of Andy Patrizio, September eleven, 2018

  • artificial Intelligence Salaries: Paychecks Heading Skyward

    artificial INTELLIGENCE |  through Andy Patrizio, August 28, 2018

  • synthetic Intelligence exhaust circumstances

    characteristic |  through Samuel Greengard, August 13, 2018

  • 25 accurate AI Startups

    characteristic |  by using Andy Patrizio, July 18, 2018

  • CIOs Leveraging AI and desktop learning For ITSM dreams

    artificial INTELLIGENCE |  by Jeff Kaplan, July 03, 2018


  • Obviously it is arduous assignment to pick solid certification questions/answers assets concerning review, reputation and validity since individuals gain sham because of picking incorrectly benefit. Killexams.com ensure to serve its customers best to its assets concerning exam dumps update and validity. The vast majority of other's sham report objection customers Come to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams cheerfully and effectively. They never trade off on their review, reputation and property because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams customer certitude is vital to us. Uniquely they deal with killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com sham report grievance, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. In the event that you survey any improper report posted by their rivals with the cognomen killexams sham report grievance web, killexams.com sham report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com dissension or something like this, simply remember there are constantly terrible individuals harming reputation of beneficial administrations because of their advantages. There are a Great many fulfilled clients that pass their exams utilizing killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams hone questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, their specimen questions and test brain dumps, their exam simulator and you will realize that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.


    CBCP sample test | 190-610 braindumps | P2080-096 brain dumps | PSP exercise test | 650-126 braindumps | 210-455 real questions | E20-655 free pdf | C2050-219 exercise questions | C9050-042 VCE | 1T6-215 dump | HP2-H05 real questions | 000-433 dumps questions | C2150-614 study sheperd | AXELOS-MSP questions and answers | C9010-252 exercise test | EE0-515 exercise exam | 3305 bootcamp | 000-N16 exam prep | C2150-596 braindumps | JN0-346 free pdf |



    HP2-B71 brain dumps | 642-457 dumps | C2180-271 free pdf | 2B0-104 questions and answers | HP0-417 sample test | 00M-512 exercise questions | 1Z0-935 exam questions | C2180-606 exercise test | DNDNS-200 free pdf | 1Z0-066 examcollection | SAT study sheperd | 1K0-001 study sheperd | 1T6-222 dump | HP2-K21 questions answers | CTAL-TTA-001 test prep | PTCB test prep | VCS-323 exercise questions | A2040-910 exam prep | CLAD study sheperd | 000-633 questions and answers |


    View Complete list of Killexams.com Brain dumps


    HP2-Z28 dump | 9A0-063 exercise questions | 3308 cram | 7241X braindumps | 9A0-156 VCE | 9A0-039 free pdf | FM1-306 study sheperd | 00M-244 cheat sheets | HP0-S34 exam questions | M70-301 exercise test | ADM-201 mock exam | CFEX test prep | HP3-X10 dumps questions | 000-R01 test prep | C2140-820 exercise exam | C2040-410 sample test | HP2-E45 braindumps | HP0-M33 exercise test | 642-457 real questions | ISO20KF questions and answers |


    Sun Certified Backup and Recovery Engineer (emphasis on Solstice Backup) exam dumps

    Pass 4 sure 310-152 dumps | Killexams.com 310-152 real Questions | http://www.radionaves.com/

    Radioactive Wounds of War | killexams.com 310-152 real Questions and VCE exercise Test

    Tests on returning troops suggest serious health consequences of depleted uranium exhaust in Iraq

    Gerard Matthew thought he was lucky. He returned from his Iraq tour a year and a half ago alive and in one piece. But after the New York State National Guardsman got home, he scholarly that a bunkmate, Sgt. Ray Ramos, and a group of N.Y. Guard members from another unit had accepted an proffer by the New York Daily news and reporter Juan Gonzalez to live tested for depleted uranium (DU) contamination, and had tested positive.

    Matthew, 31, decided that since he’d spent much of his time in Iraq lugging around DU-damaged equipment, he’d better gain tested too. It turned out he was the most contaminated of them all.

    Matthew immediately urged his wife to gain an ultrasound check of their unborn baby. They discovered the fetus had a condition common to those with radioactive exposure: atypical syndactyly. The privilege hand had only two digits.

    So far Victoria Claudette, now 13 months old, shows no other genetic disorders and is healthy, but Matthew feels guilty for causing her deformity and angry at a government that never warned him about DU’s dangers.

    U.S. forces first used DU in the 1991 Gulf War, when some 300 tons of depleted uranium–the waste product of nuclear power plants and weapons facilities–were used in tank shells and shells fired by A-10 jets. A lesser amount was deployed by U.S. and NATO forces during the Balkans conflict. But in the current wars in Afghanistan and, especially, Iraq, DU has become the weapon of choice, with more than 1,000 tons used in Afghanistan and more than 3,000 tons used in Iraq. And while DU was fired mostly in the desert during the Gulf War, in the current war in Iraq, most of DU munitions are exploding in populated urban areas.

    The Pentagon has expanded DU beyond tank and A-10 shells, for exhaust in bunker-busting bombs, which can spew out more than half a ton of DU in one explosion, in anti-personnel bomblets, and even in M-16 and pistol shells. The military loves DU for its unique penetration capability–it cuts through steel or concrete like they’re butter.

    The problem is that when DU hits its target, it burns at a towering temperature, throwing off clouds of microscopic particles that poison a wide locality and remain radioactive for billions of years. If inhaled, these particles can lodge in lungs, other organs or bones, irradiating tissue and causing cancers.

    Worse yet, uranium is besides a highly toxic massive metal. Indeed, while there is some debate over the risk posed by the element’s radioactive emissions, there is no debate regarding its chemical toxicity. According to Mt. Sinai pathologist Thomas Fasey, who participated in the New York Guard unit testing, the factor has an affinity for bonding with DNA, where even trace amounts can antecedent cancers and fetal abnormalities.

    Dr. Doug Rokke, a health physicist at the University of Illinois who headed up a Pentagon study of depleted uranium weapons in the mid ’90s after concerns were raised during the Gulf War, concluded there was no safe way to exhaust the weapons. Rokke says the Pentagon responded by denouncing him, after earlier commending his work.

    No one knows how many U.S. soldiers fill been contaminated by DU residue. Despite regulations authorizing tests for any military personnel who suspects exposure, the U.S. military is avoiding doing those tests–or delaying them until they are meaningless.

    “When they asked to live tested at Ft. Dix, they wrongly told us they didn’t fill to worry unless they had DU fragments in their body,” says Matthew. His buddy, Sgt. Ramos, who exhibits symptoms resembling radiation sickness and massive metal poisoning, adds that at Walter Reed Medical hub he was grilled for hours about why he wanted to live tested and was then branded a troublemaker by his own unit. Matthew says Walter Reed “lost” his sample.

    At the war’s start, the United States refused to allow U.N. or other environmental inspectors to test DU levels within Iraq. Now the United Nations won’t even depart near Iraq because of security concerns.

    “It doesn’t look privilege that they are poisoning the places they are supposed to live liberating,” Ramos says.

    The Pentagon continues to insist, on the basis of no realm evidence, that DU is safe. To date, only some 270 returned troops fill been tested for DU contamination by the military and Veterans Affairs. But even those tests, mostly urine samples, are useless 30 days after exposure, because by that time most of the DU has left the corpse or migrated into bones or organs.

    Gonzalez and the Daily news paid for costlier tests for nine Guardsmen–tests that could pinpoint uranium inside the corpse and identify the special isotope signature of man-made DU. Four of the nine tested positive for DU; totality had symptoms of uranium poisoning.

    Even harder evidence may soon arrive. Connecticut State Representative Pat Dillon (D-New Haven), a Yale-trained epidemiologist, has crafted state-level legislation that Connecticut and Louisiana fill unanimously passed, authorizing returned National Guard troops to request and receive specialized DU contamination tests at the Pentagon’s expense. This approach bypasses the Pentagon’s feet-dragging because National Guard troops plunge under state, rather than federal, jurisdiction.

    “This was not a Democratic or a Republican issue,” Dillon says. “These are their kids and someone needs to protect them.” She says that since passage of her bill, which takes result this October, military groups and family organizations, state legislators, and even National Guard unit commanders fill contacted her for copies of her bill to promote in their states. Bob Smith, a veteran in Louisiana who got hold of Dillon’s bill and spearheaded a successful application to pass similar legislation in Louisiana, claims that 14 to 20 other states are considering similar measures.

    If enough Guard troops avail themselves of the testing–and start testing positive for contamination–it seems likely that reservists and dynamic duty troops and veterans will exact similar access to rigorous tests, which can cost upwards of $1000 per person.

    One way or another, the Pentagon will pay a price. “DU is a war crime. It’s that simple,” Rokke says. “Once you’ve scattered totality this stuff around, and then rebuff to antiseptic it up, you’ve committed a war crime.”

    Dave Lindorff, an In These Times contributing editor, is the author of This Can't live Happening: Resisting the Disintegration of American Democracy. His work can live create at This Can't live Happening.

    if you like this, check out:

    Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years | killexams.com 310-152 real Questions and VCE exercise Test

    Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years from Len Anderson, AF6AY on December 6, 2009View comments about this article!

    Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years

    A comprehensive examination of USA tyro radio demographics requires a reference as to the numbers of the various classes of license. There is only one honest reference, the public FCC database. Other sources of statistics are totality derived from this. Two such sites used here are Hamdata and ARRL. ARRL statistics present only those licensee numbers within their 10-year effective period. Hamdata shows totality licensees including their 2-year Grace period plus a number of other data as to new licensees, expirations, and class changes.

    For purposes of examination of trends, six dates were chosen at 6- month intervals, the 18th of May and 18th of November, for years of 2007, 2008, 2009. The option of date was arbitrary, picked to open 3 months after the cessation of license examination code test requirements.* New license classes of Technician-Plus, Novice, and Advanced would not live granted after USA tyro radio Restructuring. Those three are lumped as one group under the acronym TPNA.

    The expected influx of new license applicants did not betide privilege away after the morse code test was eliminated from license testing on 23 February 2007. Looking at two specific dates, just before 23 Feb 07 and roughly 10 days later:

    22 February 2007 4 March 2007 ---------------- ------------ Technician 311,851 311,115 universal 142,031 142,951 tyro Extra 111,464 111,559 TPNA 145,886 145,438 Total Individual 711,232 711,063

    Majority of number changes look to live due more to license class changes made possible by new regulations that eliminated the code test. This is not proven but justified by the subside in Technician class numbers as well as the TPNA group and a step-increase in universal class numbers.

    Longer-term class numbers can live examined by the tabulation following. Each month column is taken from the 18th day of that month.

    May 07 Nov 07 May 08 Nov 08 May 09 Nov 09 ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- Technician 305,982 309,338 316,662 323,478 336,713 343,256 General 151,409 155,099 155,791 156,223 157,082 158,082 Amateur Extra 113,383 115,200 117,103 118.665 120,205 121,417 TPNA 141,049 133,372 122,696 114,660 100,123 93,595 Total Individual 711,823 713,009 712,252 713,026 714,123 716,350

    What is consuming from the above is that total individual licensees change by +4,527 or 0.64% over three years. Technician class changed by +37,274 or 12.18%. tyro Extra increased by +8,034 or 7.09% and universal class was last with +6,673 or 4.41% increase. Attrition in the TPNA group seems regular considering that no renewals fill been available for years.

    A psychologically-sensitive locality is Expirations. License expirations may live due to death, disablement, or simply from disinterest in continuing to support a license renewed. So far, this author has create that only Hamdata displays Expirations as well as New licensees, Class Changes, plus miscellaneous data such as Administrative changes (mailing address changed, cognomen changed, etc.). New licensee numbers are a bellwether datum to argue interest in joining tyro radio. The following is a tabulation from Hamdata on New, Expired, Class- Changes on the Prior 6-month period at the 18th of each month:

    May 07 Nov 07 May 08 Nov 08 May 09 Nov 09 ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ New 14,383 12,180 15,027 12,833 15,027 14,279 Expired 14,954 10,828 15,607 11,907 15,607 11,983 Class Change 18,510 11,877 11,248 8,977 13,448 7,157

    Two things on that tabulation. First, the number of Expirations is nearly that of New licensees. Most of the New group are granted Technician class licenses. A universal trend seems to live that New licensees are nascence to overtake Expirations but that may live premature. Second, the Class Change numbers took an upward turn privilege after cessation of the code test, changes available through new regulations. However, the number of Class Changes fill dropped off in the three-year period. That may live due to a lessening of tyro radio attractiveness to the universal public. A universal trend appears to live that the desire to upgrade is slowly decreasing.

    Radio amateurs in their Grace period may live approximated by subtracting ARRL numbers (10-year term only) from Hamdata numbers. From the ARRL statistics for the 18th of each month:

    May 08 Nov 07 May 08 Nov 08 May 09 Nov 09 ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- Technician 287,679 298,385 301,917 310,276 325,181 332,554 General 139,545 142,559 143,189 144,314 147,172 150,259 Amateur Extra 110,310 111,789 113,627 115.231 117,170 118,967 TPNA 117,872 108,797 99,013 92,009 80,822 78,471 Total 655,406 655,530 657,746 661,830 670,345 680,251

    Doing the arithmetic yields the following including percentage (in brackets) in their Grace period:

    May 08 Nov 07 May 08 Nov 08 May 09 Nov 09 ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- Technician 18,303 16,953 14,745 13,152 11,297 10,702 [5.98%] [5.48%] [4.66%] [4.07%] [3.36%] [3.12%] General 10,864 12,540 12,602 11,909 9,910 7,777 [7.18%] [8.09%] [8.09%] [7.62%] [6.31%] [4.92%] Amateur Extra 3,073 3,411 3,476 3,434 3,035 2,458 [2.71%] [2.96%] [2.97%] [2.89%] [2.52%] [2.02%]

    As expected, the tyro Extra, the "hard core" amateur, has the lowest Grace period numbers. Surprisingly, Technician class is next lowest but universal class has the highest percentage within their 2- year Grace period. universal class has existed the longest in USA tyro radio history.

    According to Hamdata, the peak of totality USA tyro license grants happened on 2 July 2003 with a total of 737,938. Total tyro license grants fill been less than that following that date of 6 years ago. To gain some visibility into which class has risen the most in a bit more than 5 years, compare the following Hamdata figures on two dates. Percentage in parentheses denotes total per class relative to the total INDIVIDUAL license grants. New, Expired, Class Changes occurred in the 6-month period prior to the column date:

    9 May 2004 18 November 2009 Change ----------------- ----------------- ------- Technician 284,105 (39.1%) 343,256 (47.9%) +59,151 General 146,223 (20.1%) 158,036 (22.1%) +11,813 Amateur Extra 107,595 (14.8%) 121,417 (17.0%) +13,822 TPNA 188,920 (26.0%) 93,595 (13.1%) -95,365 Total Individual 726,843 716,304 -10,589 New Licensees 9,723 14,279 Expirations 9,786 11,983 Class Changes 6,581 7,157

    A rather obvious trend seems to live that Technician class is growing the fastest of the three and those Technicians look to live STAYING in that class. Note that Class Changes fill slowed down is evident in the preceding tabulation as well as that above. Another trend is that total individual license grants are probably slowly decreasing, due to expirations if not from lack of universal interest in tyro radio.

    An odd bit of miscellany is that Club licenses were 9,008 on 9 May 2004 but jumped to 11,066 by 18 November 2009. Club license grants aren't counted in most of these numbers involving INDIVIDUAL licenses.

    As the TPNA group runs its course to zero, the Technician class licensees will become the majority in the USA. They are within 3% of achieving that majority NOW. Other than Technician license numbers constantly growing, plus the spurt in Club licenses, there isn't much else changing in the last five years of USA tyro radio licensing; total numbers just aren't keeping up with a continuing USA population increase.

    73, Len AF6AY

    * PDF files of statistics website screenshots on the dates indicated herein are available from the author via private e-mail attachment; private e- mail requests for this ZIP file (~360KB) may live made to AF6AY@aol.com. These screenshots were done by Printing HTML screens via Acrobat 8. In some cases the HTML screens hold background colors and advertisements which did not transfer to PDF. In totality cases the statistics numbers transferred correctly.

    Member Comments: This article has expired. No more comments may live added. Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by NN4RH on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! >> A rather obvious trend seems to live that Technician class is growing the fastest of the three and those Technicians look to live STAYING in that class. <<

    I mediate (opinion, not statistics) that about a third of those would live the EmComm Whackers that gain tech licenses so they can exhaust ham radio in their jobs. They don't progress to an HF license because totality they custody about is Saving The World with minimal investment in the hobby.

    Another third are the CBers who gain their Techs so they can exhaust their modded CBs on 10 & 12 meters but don't want to invest anything else in the hobby. They're just sitting around and waiting for the sunspots to Come back so they can shoot skip on their "extree channels" and in the meantime are still on CB Hamsexy.com.

    The ease are just the usual ones who once they gain their license fill no interste in ever getting on the air. Those will totality depart away in about 7 to 10 years. In the meantime they spend their days on Hamsexy or EHam under anonymous logins.

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by N4CQR on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Sometimes I am surprised there is any growth at totality in tyro radio.

    Craig

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by KW4JX on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! People don't want hierarchies in their hobby they fill enough of it in their jobsBuffalo Gil W2/G3LBS   Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by WA9PIE on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I would fancy to survey these stats by age group. Obviously, in order to sustain the hobby, they necessity an influx of young people with new ideas.

    Mike, WA9PIE

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by N8RGQ on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! This is another Article spun to fabricate a beneficial thing into a immoral one ! They fill made it back to 2004 levals of hams ! The fact is they are growing again and the auther doesn't like it that the changes fill worked !

    73,TerryN8RGQ

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by WY3X on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! >Attrition in the TPNA group seems regular considering>that no renewals fill been available for years.

    Not true. I renewed my Advanced class license, and gape forward to renewing it for many more years. The FCC is not "sunsetting" these licenses. You may renew them as long as they continue to fabricate it available. They would probably "grandfather" Advanced class licensees to Extra Class to accomplish away with it, and they've repeatedly said they won't accomplish this.

    73, -KR4WM

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by K3AN on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! According to census figures I found, the U.S. population grew about 1% each year from 2000 to 2008. Ham population grew just 0.64 percent in two and a half years. Not an alarming trend, but not a hardy one either.   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by N5TGL on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! "I mediate (opinion, not statistics) that about a third of those would live the EmComm Whackers that gain tech licenses so they can exhaust ham radio in their jobs. They don't progress to an HF license because totality they custody about is Saving The World with minimal investment in the hobby. "

    That's the EXACT selfsame conclusion I came to.

    Pity, as they are missing out on a lot of fun stuff in HF.

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by KH6AQ on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Where are the graphs? I want to survey graphs.   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by K6LO on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! [NN4RH Wrote] ..."I mediate (opinion, not statistics) that about a third of those would live the EmComm Whackers that gain tech licenses so they can exhaust ham radio in their jobs. They don't progress to an HF license because totality they custody about is Saving The World with minimal investment in the hobby. " ...[end]

    ---------I am sorry to speak that is my conclusion too. I am an engineer in the public safety radio industry, and work very closely with federal, state, and local agencies.

    The EmComm people fill tiny to no interest in tyro radio. The license is simply a tool to exhaust equipment, often owned by a city or county, not the "ham". It is turn-key process for them. grasp a one day license class, pass a simple test, exhaust equipment. Much like taking any other certification class.

    This is not cynicism speaking. These are not indolent or stupid people. They simply accomplish not fill an interest in the hobby.

    73 - Luke

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by WB4M on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! "Pity, as they are missing out on a lot of fun stuff in HF."

    Not really. They are industrious promoting WinLink, so non-hams can exhaust ham frequencies for email. WinLinkers besides want to rescue the world, pass totality kinds of dire traffic during emergencies.

      Tech Plus, Advanced and Novice licenses   by N2EY on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KR4WM writes: "I renewed my Advanced class license, and gape forward to renewing it for many more years. The FCC is not "sunsetting" these licenses."

    When the FCC stopped issuing new Advanced and Novice licnes back in April 2000, there were about 50,000 Novices and 100,000 Advanceds. Today there are about 17,000 Novices and 60,000 Advanceds. (these numbers are for current unexpired licenses held by individuals, and accomplish not embrace expired licenses in the grace period)

    KR4WM: "You may renew them as long as they continue to fabricate it available."

    Modify and gain a vanity call, too.

    This isn't the first time the Advanced was closed to new issues. At the halt of 1952, the FCC closed Advanced to new issues, intending that it would vanish by attrition. 15 years later, in 1967, Advanced was reopened to new issues as fraction of the first wave of changes that came to live known as "incentive licensing".

    KR4WM: "They would probably "grandfather" Advanced class licensees to Extra Class to accomplish away with it, and they've repeatedly said they won't accomplish this."

    Yep, FCC has turned down totality sorts of no-test free-upgrade proposals. Their response is always the same: 'just pass the tests'. I mediate one judgement is that it would cost them totality sorts of admin work.

    Technician Plus is a different story. That license class was created about 1993 because hams wanted a differentiation between Techs who had HF priviliges and Techs who didn't.

    In April 2000, FCC not only stopped issuing new Tech Pluses, but besides started renewing totality Tech Pluses as Techs, leaving it up to the licensee to retain documents proving they had HF privileges. That became a moot point in 2007, of course.

    The auto-renewal of Tech Pluses as Tech means that in a few months the Tech Plus license will simply disappear. It's besides one judgement the Technician license numbers fill grown so much in the past decade.

    Back in April 2000, there were about 125,000 Tech Pluses. Today there are less than 400. In another 4 months or so there will live no one at all.

    Since 1951, the only other FCC-issued license class to vanish was the ragged Conditional, which went away in the mid-1970s. FCC did it the selfsame way - totality Conditionals were renewed as General. It only took 5 years because the license term was 5 years back then.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

    Novice 1967Technician and Advanced 1968Extra 1970 - present

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by WB0OEW on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I posted a plot of the licenses at http://www.clearskyinstitute.com/ham/stats/index.html .   Graphs   by N2EY on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! To WB0OEW:

    Thanks! The graph makes it smooth to survey the trends.

    For example, it's smooth to survey that the number of Generals and Extras has climbed pretty steadily for more than a decade, while the number of Technician/Tech Pluses has pretty much stayed the same.

    Would it live possible for you to present the number of Advanceds and Novices? Maybe as dashed lines?

    One minor point: The FCC didn't drop any license classes in 2000, they just closed them to new issues.

    73 es tnx agn de Jim, N2EY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by K4ZN on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I observe that the belief that people interested in ECOM are inflating the TECH class appears to live an offering of anecdotal observation, and to this point is not documented from a statistically significant population sample. This does not suggest that it is not so. It simply means that there is no SCIENTIFIC data to support the anecdotal observation.

    If it is indeed the case that there is a significant growth of TECH for this reason, then, even though they may not live hobbyists in the traditional hobbyist sense - and may not fill an interest in the radio art; nevertheless, it is arduous to imagine a better demographic to target for the growth of the hobby.

    Even people who accomplish not presently fill a zeal for the hobby of ham radio - someday they will retire, or the kids will leave home - or they will fabricate more money later in life and can then afford the 'dream station'. How many hams are at some point QRT and then later become dynamic again?

    Licenses held is one thing. People on the air regularly is another. Ham radio activity is truly a difficult thing to measure. No station runs totality bands, totality modes, 24-7-365. What is participation? Holding a license? Being on the air twice a day, once a day, once a week, once a month, one contest a year?

    Kudos to Len AF6AY for presenting the tabular shape of the data. It is food for thought.

      2003 was due to a bubble   by KASSY on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I talked with an ARRL staffer a few years ago at a hamfest and she told me an consuming thing...well, observation? ARRL's conjecture?

    In 1993 the no-code tech license came into being. A major shove between ARRL and emcomm support agencies encouraged people to gain licensed, and there was a HUGE influx of hams at that time. But these people were not interested in ham radio, they were interested in emergency preparedness.

    For most people, communications is not towering on the list for emergency preparedness. So these new hams, in the emergency preparedness classes, scholarly that their first focus was on developing a sustainable water and food supply, and learning how to stay properly sheltered. They started putting time into that instead of ham radio.

    And, they scholarly quickly that ARES/RACES fill stultifylingly complicated hierachies, pseudo-government, that nobody in their privilege judgement would want to live fraction of - although power mongers fancy them. So, they lost almost the entire "generation" of new hams that came into the hobby in 1993 - their licenses expired in 2003.

    Therefore, the key learning from 2003 is not that, for some reason, there was a peak in 2003, but finally, an simulated bubble had passed, and they returned to a more regular condition.

    Bringing people into the hobby under the guise of emergency preparedness is always temporary. As soon as the world, overall, feels less tense, the people who got into it for "emergency preparedness" lose interest.

    BTW, ham radio is getting younger. Another casual encounter I had at a hamfest was with a property Engineer - these people are the world's best at understanding what statistics and population studies show.

    He said that while the mediocre age of ham radio has increased from 59 to 61 since the mid-70s, the mediocre age of America has increased by 8 years. So, ham radio is younger, comparitively.

    I noticed at the last few hamfests I attended, that there were way more young people than I fill ever seen at ham functions. They don't depart to clubs, though - their generation communicates on Twitter and by texting, not at in-person meetings. Clubs may well live dying, but not because ham radio is dying. It's just that the youth are not so interested in clubs.

    Gotta watch what I speak here, some people would call me young. I accomplish clubs and I accomplish Twitter, so I'm a tweenie, I suppose....

    - k

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by K6LHA on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N8RGQ wrote on December 6, 2009:

    "This is another Article spun to fabricate a beneficial thing into a immoral one !"

    Not at all. It is merely a dispassionate gape at some statistics, data that is publicly available to anyone who bothers to access it.............."The fact is they are growing again and the auther doesn't like it that the changes fill worked !"

    Wrong. The "auther" [sic] is myself and my single license accord in the tyro radio service is fraction of the data presented. My license accord was achieved by passing totality three test elements on a Sunday afternoon (25 February 2007) at "Old Firehouse 77" on Glenoaks Boulevard in Sun Valley, CA. I was age 74 when those test elements were passed. :-)

    That was my ONLY tyro radio license obtained anywhere on this planet. It should besides live illustrious that I've held a First-Class Commercial Radiotelephone license since passing those four test elements in one sitting at an FCC realm Office in Chicago, Illinois, during a weekday in March, 1956. Later, that "First Phone" became a universal Radiotelephone License and, eventually, was made lifetime, no renewals required. I've been involved in radio communications professionally since age 19, a mere 58 years. :-)

    As to "growth" in license numbers, an objective gape requires removal of rose-tinted glasses and dropping the "we are always the best and biggest" pep-rally attitude and gape at reality. If there IS a "growth" then its percentages are down in regular statistical noise. The best filter to achieve a towering reality-to-noise ratio is through OBJECTIVITY. In HF terms, USA tyro radio licensing "growth" is down there barely touching "S1."

    As a so-called "new" person in radio, I didn't gain into tyro radio thinking it would live a loser. But, I'm fraction of a new group now and hoped that conditions in tyro radio would fill changed after my tyro license was granted. I survey tiny change, therefore the study to survey if a antecedent could live determined just from easily-obtainable statistics.

    Over the long term, the continued existance of USA tyro radio requires enough national interest to justify its existance to the federal government. Your tyro radio license accord is nothing more than a federal license to radiate RF energy under terms of regulations codified in law. It does not give you, me, or any other license grantee anything more, not even any fancy royal titles. That license does not endow you, me, or anyone with superior virtuous virtue or righteousness. Licensing is just a regulatory agency tool to maintain order in the EM spectrum, to mitigate interference.

    From a cursory glance at content of e-ham articles by respondents, the majority look to live those who fill been licensed in the tyro radio service for a large number of years, certainly more than my not-quite-3-years. On the other hand, the number of respondents to articles is a tiny fraction of total USA licensees and those are generally too enthusiastic over their hobby activities to grasp serious objective looks at the state of this radio service now. Further, long-timers tend to view today's unlicensed (in tyro radio) citizens as having the selfsame interest and enthusiasm as they did long ago when they were young. There isn't any objective evidence of such similarity in sameness in today's unlicensed citizens. Today's unlicensed citizens fill much more available to them for hobbies and recreation than existed ten, twenty, or thirty years ago.

    SOME growth is necessary in the tyro radio serivce, if only to support up with the (continuing) population increase. privilege now I don't survey much of that with my objectivity filter switched in.

    One sign of decline is the market in tyro radio goods. Witness the folding of two of the four USA periodicals specializing in tyro radio within two decades. Both were independents (Ham Radio and 73) whose major income and profit came from advertisers. Another is the decline of reseller outlets in major urban areas...and expansion of consumer electronics outlets at a much greater pace in the last two decades. While numerical data is more difficult to accumulate about such areas, there is enough to observe individually by anyone...with objectivity filters.

    AF6AY (who has never upgraded his USA tyro radio license :-)

      Trends, bubbles etc.   by N2EY on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! K4ZN writes: "Licenses held is one thing. People on the air regularly is another. Ham radio activity is truly a difficult thing to measure. No station runs totality bands, totality modes, 24-7-365. What is participation? Holding a license? Being on the air twice a day, once a day, once a week, once a month, one contest a year?"

    Good point.

    Which is better: A million US hams, 90% of whom fill no station and no interest, or 500,000 hams, 90% of whom fill stations on the air once a week or more?

    KASSY writes: "In 1993 the no-code tech license came into being."

    Actually, that happened in 1991. Feb 14, 1991, to live exact.

    That's a minor detail, though; the main point you're making is valid in that if someone was licensed in the early 1990s to accomplish emcomm and lost interest over time, they'd still live in the numbers for 10 or 12 years (depending on whether you import grace-period licenses or not).

    Here's another factor: Cell phones. Early models were big, expensive and had limited coverage. From the nascence of the repeater era, a significant number of new hams got licenses to exhaust VHF/UHF repeaters and their autopatches. When cell phones became inexpensive, small, and common, a lot of those folks drifted away. And a source of numerous new hams disappeared.

    KASSY: "BTW, ham radio is getting younger. Another casual encounter I had at a hamfest was with a property Engineer - these people are the world's best at understanding what statistics and population studies show.

    He said that while the mediocre age of ham radio has increased from 59 to 61 since the mid-70s, the mediocre age of America has increased by 8 years. So, ham radio is younger, comparitively."

    I fill to question the "average age of hams" numbers often cited. How are such numbers determined? The FCC database doesn't fill birthdate data for totality US hams. Voluntary surveys are notoriously unscientific. Observing who goes to hamfests, club meetings, etc., isn't answerable either. And is that mediocre a mean, a median, or something else?

    You're absolutely right, though, that the median age of Americans is climbing and has been for many years. US census data proves it. For example, from the 1990 census to the 2000 census, the median age of US residents in the census rose from 34 years to 39 years - in just one decade. It's smooth to understand why: Americans are live longer, having fewer kids, and having them later in life.

    KASSY: "Clubs may well live dying, but not because ham radio is dying. It's just that the youth are not so interested in clubs."

    It may not live a matter of interest as much as having the time available in large controlled blocks. A person can depart online, text, tweet, etc. whenever they fill a few minutes free and fill access to a device. Club meetings usually betide on weekday nights and require an investment of a brace hours.

    Good points all.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by QRZDXR2 on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Thanks for the static data. It appears you spent a lot of time working on it so its understandable and the bottom line is... not much going anywhere.

    I AM SURPRISED THAT SOMEONE HAS NOT SUED THE FEDERAL GOV (FCC) FOR DISCRIMINATION AND BIAS. They are still holding CLASS LICENSES.. which discriminates against the minority who can't look to gain a universal OR EXTRA license. THUS THEY SHOULD eliminate totality CLASSES OF LICENSES TODAY AND JUST CONSOLIDATE IT INTO/ fabricate IT ONE CLASS..

    By their own rules and regulations for discrimination they are not in compliance.

    All the other countries fill .. but the ARRL pushed for this incentive licensing stuff so they could fabricate more money.. MAYBE THE ARRL SHOULD live SUED THEN TOO FOR DISCRIMINATION... Hello ACLU... new target in sight...

    One could start with the US troop plan...(now that CW is not required) and work up to licensing for early retirement and gain some of that money they (ARRL) made... hmmmmm

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by AI2IA on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! While these statistics might live useful for some such as those involved or considering becoming involved in sales of tyro radio equipment or publications as one illustration of many, for most of us the statistics are tiny more than entertainment or curiousities.

    Shortly you will forget most of these "interesting statistics."

    Don't, however, forget this:

    AMATEUR RADIO IS WHAT YOU fabricate IT FOR YOURSELF.

    All the complaints, totality the stupid comments tossed aside, YOU are tyro radio. It is totality in your hands. fabricate the most of it.

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by QRZDXR2 on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! One could mediate that the real reasion that CW was done away with ... due to discrimination as a requirement to gain the higher class lice. Hmmm so why now not accomplish away with the lic structure under the selfsame requirements??   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by N3OX on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Some other reasons to gain a Tech license and never upgrade:

    Race communication for things like Solar Car competitions.

    Playing around with edge of space/weather balloons/rockets, etc.

    Radio control airplanes.

    Legal tinkering with long sweep towering power towering speed network links just for the heck of it.

    The first brace probably provide a very steady influx of college age hams who are studying engineering. I knew of a unprejudiced number of people at my Alma Mater who got ham licenses for the Solar Car competition.

    I looked a few up and I'm surprised that a unprejudiced number of them renewed. That's beneficial news. But the spot checks didn't yield any upgrades.

    There's a lot of stuff you can accomplish with a Tech license if you're an electronics hobbyist without a lot of interest in "things ham radio" but with a lot of interest in things like long sweep telemetry.

    There's a large hobbyist electronics community these days and a tech license could live a real boon to them in terms of controlling their robots or whatever. HF wouldn't live much use.

    The Tech license actually gives you VAST privileges. I'm sure there are plenty of people who gain it just for EMCOMM or who gain it and gain bored because 2m FM has tiny to offer, but the fact of the matter is being licensed by the FCC to exhaust a wide variety of types of communication at towering power levels on a large swath of the VHF/UHF/microwave spectrum is a rather valuable thing for people interested in unavoidable things that aren't really about being interested in RADIO itself.

    73Dan

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by N0AH on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! We fill three Hams in my house now. Myself, and I fill been an Extra since 1996, my YL, KD0ISN, who is a new Technician and has no serious interest in upgrading, and my 9 year ragged daughter Anna, W0ANT, who is working on her universal for expaned HF.

    We are totality in the hobby because they really relish contesting, DX'ing, and the fun of it all.

    I was not a large fan of the no-code General, Extra, etc.......but I know of a lot of friends who fill really excelled who were not able to gain into HF tyro radio due to code. I promote "Know Code" vs "No Code" but I mediate the hobby has benefited.

    That said, happy I am not the only one who wonders what 10M is turning into.........I mediate 1/2 the distress does not even fill a license on that band-

    Thanks for the Great report- BTW, per a call I placed into the ARRL last year for research, you can not gain age breakdowns as the FCC license shape no longer tracks this- That is crazy- seems like really faultfinding information.

    73 Paul N0AH

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by WA8MEA on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I honestly believe they are seeing a new generation of youth becoming involved in ham radio. I accomplish hear a lot more of them on the air lately.

    No, they are NOT totality playing games. Here's why: Mom & Dad are playing video games and talking on the cell phone. Anything Mom & Dad accomplish just isn't cool! So let's not play video games and talk on the cell phone.

    Grandpa (and sometimes Grandma) play with their ham radios. Grandpa and Grandma are frigid people. So I want to learn about what they are doing.

    It was Bill Cosby who said; "The judgement why grandparents and grandchildren gain along so well is because they share a common enemy."

    I scholarly more from my grandparents simply because, thinking as a typical teenager, my parents knew nothing.

    It was my grandpa's floor model shortwave radio that started the ball rolling for me.

    73, Bill - WA8MEAhttp://HamRadioFun.com

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by G0GQK on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I suppose the figures you extrapolated present that the tyro radio fraternity is in the dolrums like everything else, and is probably slowly sliding back.The selfsame applies in Britain, they are besides sliding back.

    The figures showing how many people there are in possession of a radio tyro license means nothing, there are lots of ragged chaps listed in the UK who haven't operated for years and probably never will again !

    The incentive which will gain things touching is now low in the sky, and producing a sunspot perhaps once every six weeks. There wouldn't live so many car drivers in the US if gasolino was $10 a litre would there ?

    As for the suggestion there needs to live an infux of young people with new ideas. Ha ! What new ideas ?The most approved wire antenna which every ham knows about, those who depart to a hamfest and buys one, is a G5RV.

    This was designed in 1946! In England! Not long after the subjugate of Japan !

    G0GQK

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by W1ITT on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Numbers are entertaining, but they don't speak to the property of Amateurs. FCC fraction 97.1, on the basis and purpose of the service includes the following:

    (b) Continuation and extension of the amateur's proven talent to contribute to the advancement of the radio art.

    (c) Encouragement and improvement of the tyro service through rules which provide for advancing skills in both the communications and technical phases of the art.

    (d) Expansion of the existing reservoir within the tyro radio service of trained operators, technicians, and electronics experts.

    I seriously doubt that those who fill their ham station hanging from their belt, or those who buy HF dipoles in plastic bags will contribute much. Many of the new lads look to live uninterested in further education once a ticket is in hand, and I'm not sure that many of them will ever live any asset to the electronics or communications industries. Sooner or later, some Washington counsel will gape at "Basis and Purpose", then gape at the tyro Service and resolve they are not fulfilling their obligation, then resolve that someone else should live profiting from some or totality of "our" spectrum. I only hope that I will live breakfasting with Mssrs Kennely and Heaviside before they tangle up with us.

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by KW4JX on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! The recruitment should improve and the property of recruits expand if the entrance training were experimental.W2/G3LBS   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by W5HTW on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I harmonize with those who speak that a very large percentage of new Technician class licensees are EMCOM types who fill no other plans in the hobby. I accomplish think, and I accomplish hope, that trend is dying, so they can gain back to real hams with a real interest in tyro radio, but it has not died yet.

    As confirmation, two people I know from non-ham context fill just expressed an interest in learning more about tyro radio. Both of them survey it as a type of emergency communications, but for personal use, such as "if I fill an emergency I can gain help." Both besides mediate of it in the regular sense of EMCOM, though they don't even know that abbreviation. One of them definitely thinks of it in a free cell phone context. That view of tyro radio faded in the late 1990s.

    Undoubtedly there are a few new Techs who want to experiment with radio. But it's pretty pellucid they are in the minority.

    That means as this EMCOM "fad" (and I mediate it is exactly that, as was the FRS ham fad and the cell phone ham fad) fades away, many of these Techs will lock the radio in the bureau drawer and totally forget about it. That is what happened to the "you can support in touch with family" FRS hams and the "free cell phone" hams. The radios fill been junked, sold, or parked in a closet.

    And EMCOM definitely will die. As rapidly as it has expanded, public safety radio has expanded even more, with more capabilities making EMCOM unnecessary at best, and unwanated at worst. I mediate it is on the downhill swing now, with the new clarification by both the FCC and the ARRL. Thousands of 'heros' will become discouraged, and those radios too will depart into a desk drawer, to live taken out and thrown away a few years from now.

    Ed

      Are You Smarter Than A Third Grader?   by N2EY on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Discrimination you say? One class of license?

    OK, let's grasp totality the stuff currently required for the Tech, universal and Extra and roll it into a single 120 question test. Anybody who wants a US tyro license just has to pass that test, and they gain replete privileges.

    That's what you meant by one class of license, right?

    Some fun facts:

    - the CEPT folks only recognize the Advanced and Extra class licenses for replete reciprocity. They changed the policy recently.

    - the Extra has been earned by incandescent elementary-school children. IIRC, the current youngest Extra was 7 years ragged when the licensed was earned - and that was before 2007. Going back into the 1990s, the ragged 20-wpm-code/5-written-exams Extra was earned by an 8 year ragged in the third grade.

    Way back in 1948, when the exams required sending and receiving code, drawing diagrams, writing essays and totality the rest, and the exams were conducted by FCC Examiners, a 9 year ragged earned the Class B license - equivalent to the General.

    Now I'll accord that those young people who earned their licenses before their ages reached double digits were pretty bright. And they came from ham radio families that facilitated their learning and helped them gain started. But they weren't child prodigies, just smart and hard-working.

    Can anyone *really* speak the tests are or were "discriminatory" when incandescent young elementary school children could pass totality of them?

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      Worth Repeating   by N2EY on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! AI2IA wrote:

    "AMATEUR RADIO IS WHAT YOU fabricate IT FOR YOURSELF."

    That really sums it totality up. Thank you.

    I mediate one of the greatest things about tyro Radio is that they fill so many choices. totality sorts of bands, modes, kinds of operating, kinds of equipment, kinds of QSOs, etc. Home, mobile, portable, DX, local, etc. totality it takes is an easy-to-get license, some hardware, some know-how - and the privilege attitude.

    Most of totality the privilege attitude.

    73 es TNX de Jim, N2EY

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by AI4HO on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Was licensed in 1995 as KE4WAF, was dynamic for a brace years, due to a work relate injury, raising a family, dealing with doctors, lawyers, etc, I was passive for about 4.5 years. Once the state of Fl decided to retire me. had this tiny light bulb, or LED came on, and I got VERY dynamic in this wonderful hobby. So dynamic in fact that I upgraded, yes I did grasp the 5 wpm code test, it was then that I create that I was tone deaf, very tone deaf. Despite that one drawback I managed to pass the code test the written test, and then 3 months after getting my general, I took and passed my tyro extra. Maybe some who got licensed in the 90's did so just to speak they did or for the EMMCOMM aspect of the hobby, most of em fill either let their license lapse or renew even though they are not active. Who knows why, but even though they may only live a Tech now, who knows they may in 10, 20 years from now when they are secure in their careers or retired and the kids are out of the house, they might sit down and upgrade twice in one day.

    It took me a long time to gain where I did, fortunately through family and friends I fill been able to stay as dynamic as I can live under my circumstances. Just give them time and hopefully one day some will Come around and relate the fun, if not then it wasn't meant to be.

    73 de MarkW3LZK

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by K6LHA on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! G0GQK posted on December 6, 2009:

    "As for the suggestion there needs to live an infux of young people with new ideas. Ha ! What new ideas ?The most approved wire antenna which every ham knows about, those who depart to a hamfest and buys one, is a G5RV. This was designed in 1946! In England! Not long after the subjugate of Japan !"

    I might add that the MOST-used/manufactured antenna has been the Yagi-Uda parasitic beam invented IN Japan during the 1930s. :-) It was the basis for millions of 1950s "TV antennas" privilege after WWII.

    Actually, the UK has done some fine innovation in radio and electronics, witness "Technical Topics" in Radio Communications (member magazine of the RSGB). Peter Martinez has been doing Great stuff there since the mid-1970s, first trying out the Gingell polyphase network (Mike Gingell besides being a Brit) for phasing SSB modulation/demodulation, then working on AMTOR and then innovating PSK-31 and getting a lot of Europeans to test it on-air before the USA published anything on it.

    The single-microcontroller Digital Frequency parade and frequency counter was devised in the UK. By a NON-amateur there. Search "Weeder" for the first published source code (forgot the given name, my apologies).

    The Wadley Loop was a privilege fine innovation for HF receivers without needing a fancy PLL or DDS for first Local Oscillator crystal control. It might live better known as "Barlow-Wadley" since its introduction in a receiver produced in South Africa. It was beneficial enough that Drake used it over here and Radio Shack had it in their top-of-the-line SWL BC receivers.

    The first detailed plan of communications satellites was published in Wireless World some time in 1946 by the late Arthur C. Clarke. Geosynchronous orbits were known and published before WWII but Clarke do DETAIL in how it could work along with antenna footprints on the surface.

    Americans may fill invented the transistor, then the Integrated Circuit (which revolutionized the entire world's electronics) but such new-fangled things weren't loved by the American amateurs even two decades after their inventions. Yes, they besides invented the hand-carried scientific calculator but hams don't like them...calculators work with NUMBERS and some USA hams necessity GRAPHS! [Texas Instruments has graphing claculators now] :-)

    The Phase-Locked Loop was invented in France in 1932. Took a while until solid-state matured enough to fabricate it practical. 'Radio' itself was publicly demonstrated in Italy and Russia in 1896, only 113 years ago. England had one of the greatest semaphore systems anywhere until those upstarts Morse and Vail got folks interested in the WIRED telegraph system (it could work in the fog no problem).

    Otherwise, I harmonize with you but only in stating that USA radio amateurs haven't invented totality that much for tyro radio purposes...they are still "pounding brass" and promoting it as the "best" way to communicate in their four-decade tenures as mighty gurus of the ionosphere. :-)

    73, Len AF6AY

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by AI2IA on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Most posters on this thread mediate that the FCC license is a sacred cow. It is not. If for some judgement (and accomplish hope this does not occur) the FCC were to suspend totality licenses or accomplish away with tyro radio, the endeavor would still depart on. Some folks like myself would still build and do up antennas (mostly for recieve purposes at such a time), and would still build and tinker with probably low power transmitters and receivers and transceivers.

    The judgement is that many of us are fascinated by the principles of radio communication. This is their real driving force, not the pecking order of the license.

    In addition, let me speak a few words of appreciation for those who fill an inner calling for tyro emcomm. For the most part, these beneficial spirited folks fill a genuine interest in and survey a real practical necessity for national participation in emergency communication. May God bless them for their calling. Just as the national soldier stands ready to retort the call of arms to defend his family, his community, his state, his nation, so besides the national emcomm volunteer stands ready to serve these selfsame purposes should a disaster incite the necessity to live there, and they exercise arduous for it on their own time, mostly with their own gear, and at their own expense. It is departed wrong to try to do them down. They belong as much as the ret of us.

    So these two driving forces behind tyro radio and beyond tyro radio create the real hams. Strive to live either the one kindhearted or the other, or both, and then you will fill achieved the ulitimate award of tyro radio which transcends even the tyro extra class mere license. The license can never replace the real ham. - Ray Mullin, AI2IA

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by K5TED on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! When's the last time any of you advanced the technique of radio?   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by K5TED on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I failed to note that the sole obvious contribution of the EU hams is the advent of sending semi-nude girlie images over SSTV.   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by WB2WIK on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! This is like reading actuarial tables.

    Assuming it's totality 100% correct (I haven't validated that, but what the heck), the point is??

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by EX_AA5JG on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! WA9PIE wrote: "Obviously, in order to sustain the hobby, they necessity an influx of young people with new ideas."

    WRONG! That is not obvious either. In order to sustain the hobby, they just necessity to replace each person who dies or lets their license expire with another licensed individual. The age of the replacement doesn't matter. I don't know where they gain this "We must only gain young people licensed"obsession.

    Look at the mediocre age for an AARP member. They look to stay in business.

    73s John AA5JG

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by WB0RXL on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Ray.I harmonize with your comment. One time when I was working with HCJB Radio (HC1QH) they received a listener letter from a scientist at JPL. He observed that during his work day he was able to communicate incredible distances with some pretty sophisticated equipment. But when he went home he was equally as thrilled to turn on his rig and chat with fellow hams around the world. There is just something about electronics in universal and ham radio in particuliar that got into my blood when I was just six years ragged and has stayed with me ever since.JohnWB0RXL   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by QRZDXR2 on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Can anyone *really* speak the tests are or were "discriminatory" when incandescent young elementary school children could pass totality of them?

    Ya then why did they fill to accomplish away with the CW test? I understand that the FCC was facing a handicap issue that was going to sink their ship if they didn't change. The ARRL besides got involved and to fend off the legal hassel from the disabilities group... they elected to delete it (CW requirement) .. and dummy down the question pool to accomidate these....people.

    Thus why stop at the CW testing. Why not just fill one class of lic.. Ham. let the other go. If you want to play. got it... if you want to Ecomm.. got it... no one is better or honored more than the other.

    You then can fabricate it what YOU want it to live and no one can say..."Well I'm better because I fill a higher license than you do... which some find loathsome and thus the wars on the radio when the others depart off and exhaust frequencies that are reserved for them. Thats discrimination and jaundice when the government sets aside priviliged resources that others can't exhaust until they comply with standards that maybe they can't understand... handicap or not its discrimination that was set up by the ARRL and approved by the FCC.

    It should live removed like they did with the troop plan, cw and other issues. After totality why should someone gain special treatment... preferential treatment... from the selfsame government that they totality pay their taxes to??

    So by going back and looking as to why things changed... I mediate you can survey that it WAS determined to live discrimination of people who couldn't comprehend CW or other issues... thus.. only one license.. HAM. is what I am saying.

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by AI2IA on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KC5NY throws down the gauntlet - "When's the last time any of you advanced the technique of radio?"

    KC5NY, let not your heart live troubled. Every single time a real ham goes on the air, he advances the technique of radio.

    Furthermore, no kindhearted of radio communication in the world, no matter how sophisticated can compare to the jewel of tyro radio. In a sense they work with the crumbs from the master's plate, and yet " when totality else fails ......" Is that not a wonderful advancement in the technique of radio? How many lives saved past, present, and future? How many disaster victims comforted? How many military loved ones consoled? How many genuine advances in radio and related fields inspired? How many engineers educations advanced by tyro radio? How many disabled persons given purpose and import and delight and learning and fellowship by tyro radio?

    No, KC5NY, let not your heart live troubled. If you support within you the privilege attitude, you are a member of one of the greatest fellowships in the world and one of most effective contributors to the advancement of radio ever known - tyro radio!

    Never doubt it, not for one moment. - Ray Mullin, AI2IA

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by AI2IA on December 6, 2009 Mail this to a friend! A "ham" is not defind by class of license, or mode of communication, or years of operation.

    There are hams who never had a license, because they didn't feel they needed one. In fact you don't necessity one.

    To live a ham you must ascend above the petty squabbles, the tired ragged snobbery, the immoral attitudes, the gloom and doom, the cognomen calling, and totality the ease of it. You fill to focus on what was and should always live your attraction to radio communication. This is what makes you a ham, and what you accomplish with that spark of inspiration is what keeps you a ham.

    Forget totality the petty stuff. live greater than you seem! Ray Mullin, AI2IA

      Are You Smarter Than A Third Grader?   by N2EY on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! "Ya then why did they fill to accomplish away with the CW test?"

    Because some folks asked them to. Squeaky wheel and totality that.

    Consider that the treaty changed in 2003 but it took FCC more than 3-1/2 years to change the rules. They could fill done it in a day but they dragged their feet. mediate about why.

    "I understand that the FCC was facing a handicap issue that was going to sink their ship if they didn't change."

    What handicap issue? From whom?

    "The ARRL besides got involved and to fend off the legal hassel from the disabilities group... they elected to delete it (CW requirement) .. and dummy down the question pool to accomidate these....people."

    The ARRL proposal was that the code test would live retained for Extra, not completely removed. FCC said no.

    The question pools were not "dumbed down", they were combined.

    And I inquire again: How can anyone speak the tests are "discriminatory" when incandescent kids who aren't even 10 years ragged fill passed totality of them?

    "Why not just fill one class of lic.. Ham. let the other go."

    Just do totality the stuff in totality 3 question pools in one 120 question test.

    "no one is better or honored more than the other."

    "Thats discrimination and jaundice when the government sets aside priviliged resources that others can't exhaust until they comply with standards that maybe they can't understand... handicap or not its discrimination that was set up by the ARRL and approved by the FCC."

    Nope.

    The judgement for having multiple license classes is to fabricate it easier to gain replete privileges, not harder. If there were only one class of license, it would fill to embrace everything in totality three license tests, and totality newcomers would fill to pass it in one go. With three levels, a newcomer can start out at any level, depending on how many tests they can pass.

    It would live discriminatory only if there were requirements that had nothing to accomplish with tyro radio. For example, if a prospective ham had to live at least 14 years ragged before being allowed to grasp the tests or live issued a license, *that* would live discrimination.

    "It should live removed like they did with the troop plan, cw and other issues."

    ??They didn't remove the troop plan.

    "After totality why should someone gain special treatment... preferential treatment... from the selfsame government that they totality pay their taxes to??"

    Because they proved themselves qualified. And the privileges are available to totality who can pass the tests.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      Trends in USA tyro Radio...   by AB0RE on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! In my neck of the woods (SW MN) it'd appear ~3/4 of new licenses are obtained for em-com purposes. Of those new licenses, ~1/4 eventually gain bitten by the ham radio bug and will upgrade their license for HF priviledges and/or will pick up the mic just for the enjoyment of talking on the radio.

    Who cares? We'll grasp new hams however they can gain them. It's up to us seasoned hams to present the newbie "emcom" hams what they're missing.

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio...   by AB4D on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! "This is like reading actuarial tables.

    Assuming it's totality 100% correct (I haven't validated that, but what the heck), the point is??"

    Lenny felt a necessity to gain up on his soap box again. SSDD

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by W6ZPC on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I am a fairly new ham, thanks to the removal of the code requirement. I obtained my technician class license in the plunge of 2007 and then passed the universal class test in October 2008. I am now studying for my extra class. My dad was a ham and so I fill always had an interest in ham radio. He passed away in 2006 and I fill taken his original call sign, the one I heard him exhaust countless hours from a very early age since he was licensed in 1947 before I was born. I had tried several times to learn the code but due to pressure from other activities, school, work etc., never was able to devote the time to learn it. I am definitely not anti-code though and would like to eventually work CW. I am very grateful to the lifting of the requirement though, because it opened the door to me. I am dynamic daily on two meters and listen to HF daily. I generally work HF on the weekends when I fill more time to devote to it, but my Icom 718 is always on around 3878 or 7180 kHz every evening. I fill joined the two local ham clubs in my county and am besides a member of the ARRL. As far as getting people interested in ham radio and retaining new hams, I would inspirit totality of us to live visible and talk it up. I am by profession a news broadcaster at the local radio station here in Ste. Genevieve and I try to gain the local hams on my interview present at least once a year, usually just ahead of realm day (in fact I was doing that before I became a ham). I besides manage the local cable access tv channel and fill had the hams on my programs there. I mediate as long as they fill a core group of dynamic hams who are visible in the community and seen as a positive fraction of a their community they will live okay.   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by VE7IG on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Re NN4RH ----Where were they then? I recently do up a new 4 factor yagi on 12m. There was a month or so of activity on 12 due to some sunspots in November and plenty of "skip". There was hardly any phone activity during this time, mainly DX stations but a lot of CW activity, but what US phone activity I did hear was typically tyro and not CB. I didn't hear ANY CB type activity at all.

    73 Reg, VE7IG

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio...   by EX_AA5JG on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! "Who cares? We'll grasp new hams however they can gain them."

    I care! What is the exhaust of getting a new licensee, if they really aren't a ham-don't custody about communicating or getting on the air? Why is the number of licensees they fill so important? Just give everyone a license along with their social security number if license numbers are so important.

    73s John AA5JG

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by KF4HR on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Since (as the adage goes) there's strength in numbers. This is especially notable considering the ever increasing exact for the commercial uses of the RF spectrum.

    It seems to me a more notable point is the comparison of the tyro population trend, to the US population trend.

    Given the current trends, it seems their tyro population may turn into an insignificant percentage (comparied to the overall US population) sooner or later. Not good!

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio...   by WA7NCL on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! What is it about these articles that generates a troll fest.

    By totality means kick everybody out of the hobby you don't like.

    I sure hope the 3 of you left relish talking with each other.

    There's play for everybody. There's strength in numbers. As time goes on things change, try to fabricate it better, and gain over it.

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio...   by AB0RE on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! "I care! What is the exhaust of getting a new licensee, if they really aren't a ham-don't custody about communicating or getting on the air? ..."

    And what's the exhaust of people having ragged licenses that aren't used anymore? I'd suspect there are more ragged timers that fill given up on ham radio than there are new emcom types who only exhaust their licenses for weather spotting and ARES drills. If you feel so passionately about people who aren't using their licenses perhaps you should petition the FCC to fill the license term changed from 10 years to 1 year.

    The bottom line is the hams who don't exhaust their licenses passed the selfsame test the ease of us did, and paid the selfsame VE fee, so they're entitled to their license. Instead of being judgmental and getting totality bent out of shape about passive hams not using their license how we'd like, perhaps they should focus more on elmering them and sponsoring other activities that bring the fun back to ham radio. Every passive ham out there has huge potential to add to the hobby, so I'm not going to squabble about their logic for originally getting their license.

      RE: Are You Smarter Than A Third Grader?   by QRZDXR2 on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! by N2EY on December 7, 2009"Ya then why did they fill to accomplish away with the CW test?"

    You best depart check the ADA group. They were the ones that fill handicapped people who, along with most of the others that JUST COULDN'T look TO LEARN CW.. for a host of reasions... filed against the Federal Government in hopes of making some bucks. (notice how many ADA people now are sue'n stores and all. Its a new hobby in their minds.. smooth money)

    Again you prove my point about someone smart vs the ADA person. It makes no inequity to them if they can't sign their cognomen correctly. If they can't gain the necessary license then its dis-crima-nation and thus not politically correct.

    What test? Asking one what frequency he can operate on is a test akin to asking one if they do the privilege shoe in the left foot...like duhhhh present me 50 questions out of the pool that actually has any technical issues. Third Graders .. if they can read they can pass the test and not know a thing about electronics or radio. (The proof is some of the idiots on the ham bands that inquire dummy questions yet fill EXTRA class licenses. One only has to gape at the sidebar on eham too... inquire one what a volt is and you will gain the deer caught in the headlight gape or ... volt who??? )

    However, when a new EXTRA class license ham reach'es into a HF lin amp and zapps himself to death and the surv's sue the manufacture because it is a leathal voltage without saftey protection... one has to wonder if it doesn't mitigate the gene pool out by elimination ... Hi voltage ..what's that!!! oh and totality them warning stickers just don't apply to 'em after totality they are EXTRA hams... dead... but it looks impressive on the grave marker where it says.. he was a Extra Class ham... Too immoral he smoked... smile

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by N0AH on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! VE7IG.......no CB but you heard skip? You mean't DX, right? (just kidding)   Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by KB6QXM on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! As in totality stats, the numbers can live spun one way or another to present bias.

    As I crunch a lot of data in my job, what I did not survey is stats such as the following:

    The amount of "new Extra Class licensees" versus the renewal of the Pre-code elimination Extra class licensees.

    The amount of Advanced class licensees. Are the numbers stable. They cannot increase, they know, but at what rate are they falling as far as license renewals.

    I fill just renewed my advanced class license and will accomplish that till the day I become a SK. The FCC would insult me if they "grandfathered" my advanced class license into an Extra Class license.

    The FCC and the ARRL has already done enough to dilute this Great hobby, I truly hope that they accomplish not try to completely eliminate the Advanced class licenses.

    If any Advanced class licensees are reading this, you totality know that the theory test for Advanced was large and significant.

    I am really upset that the FCC and the ARRL took away the challenge of 20 WPM. If they wanted to give away spectrum to people that did not to grasp the time or fill the disipline to live proficent at 20 WPM, then give them another license class, not just give people a license will unlimited privledges for tiny work.

    Not that many years ago people were impressed that you were a ham radio operator. The license requirements now are nothing more than a formality making one a glorified CB radio operator.

    Yes, CW is an obsolete technology. I gain that. It was besides tradition from the very nascence of the hobby.

    Then recount me what is the justification of lowering the technical standards of the test? Some new extra class licensees accomplish not know how to accomplish anything, including soldering on a connector onto a piece of coax. This is a beneficial thing?????

    At least teach these new hams safety. RF and electrical safety so they accomplish not hardm themselves or others. Case in point was that family that died putting an antenna up recently.

    Why spend totality of this money on equipment/time when the behaviour of these people are terrible because of the lowered standards?

    Just food for thought. These stats paint a picture based on jaundice of the author. If you want to survey the large picture, there is a lot more number crunching that needs to happen.

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by AE5JU on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Is learning Morse Code the only thing that defines "a real ham"? If so, they are in large trouble.

    I cannot import the number of hams that fill told me, "In my heyday I could accomplish 25 wpm, but I haven't done CW in years. I probably can't accomplish 10 wpm now." Why not? If it is not notable to you now, why should it live to me?

    There are plenty of modes to depart around. And different ones interest different people for reasons totality their own.

    For example, I fill a Great interest in PSK31 and other digital modes that grasp very tiny power, yet can QSO at Great distances. I don't custody about contests (but I don't complain about contesters), but I really relish a 20 minute QSO with a ham thousands of miles away. I gain a kick out of having to gape at a map to find a ham's QTH, perhaps some tiny island I didn't even know existed. Or a town in Spain I fill not heard of.

    But I fill no interest in SSTV, RTTY, or CW. Does that fabricate me not "a real ham"?

    And I'm one of those guys that passed totality of the tests in one test session. accomplish you really mediate I just memorized the answers? I did, to a few questions. The electronic theory and safety, no, I didn't fill to memorize a bit of that. I had to memorize a baud rate (and why does that matter?) and how tall an antenna can live without getting the FAA's panties in a wad (200', but hey, I can understand this), and a few things like that. But most of it I knew before starting into ham radio.

    And yes, I know how to solder PL-259's to coax. I've been soldering, let's see, carry the 2... 50 years. I mediate I fill that fraction of the hobby down pretty well. I had subscriptions to approved Electronics and Electronics Illustrated as a kid, and built a number of projects from those pages, as well as Knight and Heathkits.

    But that some would resolve whether I'm "a real ham" based on whether or not I can dispatch code at 20 wpm? I would imagine that since I can listen to a piece of music once or twice, then write every note played by each instrument, I am pretty sure I fill the talent to learn Morse, too. But I'm really not interested.

    I won't apologize. And I won't fill others telling me whether I am "a real ham" or not based on their criteria, not mine.

    PaulAE5JU

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by N8QBY on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Amateur radio is a hobby, no different than fishing, hunting, camping, etc,(minus the pocket protector). Let's lighten up.   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by AE5JU on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Exactly!

    I'm trying to fill fun here!

    ;-)

    Paul - AE5JU

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by NN4RH on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! by VE7IG on December 7, 2009Where were they then?

    28.400

    They'll spread out once they gain sustained propagation on 10 meters, and assuming they'll eventually design out there's more than one "channel" on the ham bands.

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by K6LHA on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! K4ZN posted on December 6, 2009:

    "I observe that the belief that people interested in ECOM are inflating the TECH class appears to live an offering of anecdotal observation, and to this point is not documented from a statistically significant population sample. This does not suggest that it is not so. It simply means that there is no SCIENTIFIC data to support the anecdotal observation."

    That has been a long-standing problem in USA tyro radio...but the "Rise of the Tech" numbers had different reasons of anecdotal evidence totality along the short time between the continuing expand in numbers of the Technician class from 1991 to 2009. Nearly totality of those anecdotal 'reasons' were depreciatory of the Technicans (see "shack on a belt" descriptors still in use)...............K4ZN: "If it is indeed the case that there is a significant growth of TECH for this reason, then, even though they may not live hobbyists in the traditional hobbyist sense - and may not fill an interest in the radio art; nevertheless, it is arduous to imagine a better demographic to target for the growth of the hobby."

    The only available data is in the FCC Database. The judgement I prefer Hamdata figures is that they present much more information on license history over the long term, fill the least self-serving attitudes in presentations. For example, ARRL statistics (barest minimum of data without any history, short-term or long-term). At one time the ARRL refused to give a straight retort on the number of members it has...to fully-paid-up members. They did finally embrace it on their 2008 Annual Report...............K4ZN: "Even people who accomplish not presently fill a zeal for the hobby of ham radio - someday they will retire, or the kids will leave home - or they will fabricate more money later in life and can then afford the 'dream station'. How many hams are at some point QRT and then later become dynamic again?"

    That is impossible to accurately quantify. It must live interpreted, just as I "interpreted" the number in each class who are in their Grace period by the inequity between totality licensees in a class and ARRL data which counts only those in their 10-year license term. I would reckon it fairly nigh to the "real thing."............K4ZN: "Licenses held is one thing. People on the air regularly is another. Ham radio activity is truly a difficult thing to measure. No station runs totality bands, totality modes, 24-7-365. What is participation? Holding a license? Being on the air twice a day, once a day, once a week, once a month, one contest a year?"

    There will live endless OPINIONS on totality of those. Everyone has the ONLY "true" judgement and others not going along with those reasons "have a immoral attitude." It is like nailing jelly to a tree. :-).............K4ZN: "Kudos to Len AF6AY for presenting the tabular shape of the data. It is food for thought."

    Thank you. It was meant to live just food for thought...but many title I'm "not eating right." :-)

    73, Len AF6AY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by N2EY on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB6QXM writes: "the numbers can live spun one way or another to present bias."

    Of course. What is not shown can live more revealing than what is shown.

    For example, simply lumping totality Tech Plus, Novice and Advanceds together hides what is actually happening to those classes.

    For another example, a prime antecedent of the growth of the Technician class since April 2000 is the automatic renewal of Tech Pluses as Techs. No other license class is growing because FCC is renewing one license class as another.

    KB6QXM: "The amount of Advanced class licensees. Are the numbers stable. They cannot increase, they know, but at what rate are they falling as far as license renewals."

    Here's a snapshot of how the numbers fill changed since May of 2000:

    Number of current, unexpired licenses held by individuals:

    May 14, 2000

    Novice: 49,329Technician: 205,394Technician Plus: 128,860Combined Tech/Tech+: 334,254 (49.53%)General: 112,677Advanced: 99,782Extra: 78,750

    Total 674,792

    December 6, 2009

    Novice: 17,155Technician: 333,321Technician Plus: 341Combined Tech/Tech+: 333,662 (48.96%)General: 150,645Advanced: 60,850Extra: 119,160

    Total 681,472

    Here's another way to gape at it.

    Suppose they reckon the numbers of May 14, 2000 as the baseline, and design out the current numbers as a percentage of that baseline. 100% means exactly the same, 200% means double, 50% means half, etc.

    We gain the following growth/decline stats (current numbers as a percentage of May 14 2000 numbers)

    Novice: 34.78%Technician: 162.28%Technician Plus: 0.26%Combined Tech/Tech+: 99.82%General: 133.67%Advanced: 60.98%Extra: 151.31%

    Total: 100.99%

    Note that the combined number of Techs and Tech Pluses has actually declined slightly. About 2 out of 3 Novices fill upgraded or left, while almost 2 out of 3 Advanceds still hold that license.

    KB6QXM: "I fill just renewed my advanced class license and will accomplish that till the day I become a SK. The FCC would insult me if they "grandfathered" my advanced class license into an Extra Class license."

    Why?

    KB6QXM: "The FCC and the ARRL has already done enough to dilute this Great hobby, I truly hope that they accomplish not try to completely eliminate the Advanced class licenses."

    What has the ARRL done to dilute it? Back in 1998, ARRL proposed keeping the Advanced open, but FCC refused.

    KB6QXM: "If any Advanced class licensees are reading this, you totality know that the theory test for Advanced was large and significant."

    I passed the Advanced back in 1968 at the age of 14, in the summer between 8th and 9th grades. I wasn't even in towering school yet. That was back before CSCEs, VECs, published question pools, Bash books, etc.

    No large deal.

    KB6QXM: "I am really upset that the FCC and the ARRL took away the challenge of 20 WPM."

    The ARRL didn't accomplish that - FCC did. remember that in 1990 they effectively eliminated the 13 and 20 wpm code tests by creating medical waivers.

    And the challenge is still there. The ARRL Code Proficiency program goes from 10 to 40 wpm in 5 wpm increments.

    KB6QXM: "Not that many years ago people were impressed that you were a ham radio operator. The license requirements now are nothing more than a formality making one a glorified CB radio operator."

    Consider that maybe FCC is trying to antiseptic up CB that way.

    KB6QXM: "Yes, CW is an obsolete technology."

    No it isn't! Not in tyro Radio, anyway.

    KB6QXM: "Why spend totality of this money on equipment/time when the behaviour of these people are terrible because of the lowered standards?"

    I don't know that the behaviour of "these people" is terrible. Most hams I encounter are very well behaved, on and off the air. The immoral apples stick out because most hams, ragged and new, are nice people who at least try to live beneficial ops.

    KB6QXM: "If you want to survey the large picture, there is a lot more number crunching that needs to happen."

    And even then, the numbers won't speak much. For example, they won't speak anything about how many hams are dynamic on the air at some level, and how many are simply ragged entries in the database. They won't speak anything about how much the licensees know, nor how well they behave.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      Request to AK5K   by K6LHA on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Bill, tickle dispatch your PDF backup requests again. Mail robot ate my reply, sorry.

    Len AF6AY

      Real Hams?   by N2EY on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! AE5JU asks: "Is learning Morse Code the only thing that defines "a real ham"?"

    No.

    AE5JU: "I cannot import the number of hams that fill told me, "In my heyday I could accomplish 25 wpm, but I haven't done CW in years. I probably can't accomplish 10 wpm now." Why not?"

    People gain rusty at things.

    Here's another data point: I can accomplish at least 25 wpm solid privilege now, sending and receiving. Probably more like 35-40 on a beneficial day. I can besides pass the current exams for any class of US tyro license, as well as the ones used for the past 50 years at least.

    AE5JU: "There are plenty of modes to depart around. And different ones interest different people for reasons totality their own."

    Of course.

    AE5JU: "But I fill no interest in SSTV, RTTY, or CW. Does that fabricate me not "a real ham"?"

    Not at all.

    AE5JU: "And I'm one of those guys that passed totality of the tests in one test session. accomplish you really mediate I just memorized the answers? I did, to a few questions. The electronic theory and safety, no, I didn't fill to memorize a bit of that. I had to memorize a baud rate (and why does that matter?) and how tall an antenna can live without getting the FAA's panties in a wad (200', but hey, I can understand this), and a few things like that. But most of it I knew before starting into ham radio."

    The point is that *some* folks simply memorize/word associate the actual test mp;A without understanding it, and manage to gain licensed anyway.

    It's been that way for more than 25 years. blame FCC, who changed the rules, not the hams or the ARRL.

    AE5JU: "But that some would resolve whether I'm "a real ham" based on whether or not I can dispatch code at 20 wpm?"

    Sending is relatively easy. Receiving is another matter.

    AE5JU: "I won't apologize."

    Nor will I.

    AE5JU: "And I won't fill others telling me whether I am "a real ham" or not based on their criteria, not mine."

    I mediate you've got it backwards.

    I mediate a lot of things really are determined by how others survey a person.

    For example, if a person went around adage that they're an "expert" on tyro radio antennas, would you harmonize just because the person described themselves that way?

    Or would you gape at what they'd accomplished in the locality of tyro radio antennas, and how others described them, and referee for yourself?

    IOW, real experts don't depart around telling people they're experts - because they don't fill to.

    In similar fashion, real hams don't depart around telling people they're "Real Hams" - because they don't fill to.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by K0RGR on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I can speak that most of those who search ham tickets in this fraction of Minnesota are doing so in order to live able to participate in SKYWARN, ARES, and other types of public service work. I teach the local classes, so I know.

    A percentage of those accomplish gain interested in radio and foster to universal or gain more involved in the hobby aspects of it. They accomplish fill quite a few locals who only operate 2 meter FM and/or APRS, so those folks do, indeed, exist.

    I've been trying arduous to fabricate a serious point lately, both with prospective newbies and existing hams. If your goal is to live around for disasters/public service, you necessity to "do" the hobby. Only by using your ham gear will you live capable of helping when needed.

    I hope we're recruiting enough newbies to replace the existing hams. I mediate the numbers demonstrate that. They survey a significant expand in the upper flat licensees. Those are the people who really support the hobby alive.

    Another large factor is that we're (hopefully) coming out of the deepest, and perhaps the longest sunspot minima in centuries. Historically, these sunpsot minima fill been arduous on ham radio growth. It's much easier to sell the hobby when people can survey you working the world with an 8 foot whip antenna and low power.

    I mediate over time, they necessity to redefine expectations for new hams. Their newbies should understand that most of their contacts will live in North America, and that you can achieve that with minimal gear and antennas. Instead, they fill too many that Come into the hobby expecting to fill daily contacts with India, running 5 watts to a G5RV on the back fence. Far, far too many of the requests for mitigate I survey start off "...I live in a hole where no outside antennas are allowed ... I fill no money... but I want to work the world on HF...".

    We necessity to strongly inspirit their newbies to exhaust their CW privileges. I would like to survey more of them try CW using computers if they just don't mediate they can accomplish it by ear. There's nothing to avert Techs from doing this, and it's something they necessity to 'push'.

    I besides mediate they necessity to recrudesce to the past to find fraction of their future. One of the things that made ham radio approved in the late 50's and early 60's was the availability of the Novice license, which granted nighttime CW privileges. In the 1930's, Class B licensees had priveleges simlar to what Techs fill today, with one large difference. They had night time voice capability on 160 meters. I mediate their newbies necessity nighttime voice privileges on HF, too. 160 meters is not the best place, but it would live better than what they fill now.

      "Strength in numbers" can live used against you, too   by KASSY on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I remember when grand-dad was with NTIA. One of the most-often cited reasons why "it's OK to grasp frequencies away from ham radio" was that despite increasing numbers of licensees, frequency usage was down, not up. The NTIA does, regularly, monitor frequency usage!

    It can work against us to fill more licensees that accomplish not gain on the air. "They" are watching!

    - k

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by K7ESU on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! "I fill just renewed my advanced class license and will accomplish that till the day I become a SK. The FCC would insult me if they "grandfathered" my advanced class license into an Extra Class license.

    The FCC and the ARRL has already done enough to dilute this Great hobby, I truly hope that they accomplish not try to completely eliminate the Advanced class licenses.

    If any Advanced class licensees are reading this, you totality know that the theory test for Advanced was large and significant. "

    My thoughts exactly!

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by K0BG on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I knew there was a judgement I didn't read this until today.

    Alan, KØBGwww.k0bg.com

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by K6LHA on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB6QXM posted beligerantly on 7 Dec 09:

    "As in totality stats, the numbers can live spun one way or another to present bias. As I crunch a lot of data in my job, what I did not survey is stats such as the following:

    "The amount of "new Extra Class licensees" versus the renewal of the Pre-code elimination Extra class licensees."

    I did not fill that data via daily downloads from two websites prior to February 2007. From my file content I've got roughly 2000 downloads to pick from. I'm NOT in the "statistics business" but statistical data has been common to my electronic design work for four decades. I can only present data based on available data resources.

    If you really needed statistical data presented on "pre-code-elimination" renewals, I would fill started my data collection about 7 to 8 years earlier since the renewal time is after 10 years. From your beligerance I mediate you only "want" that for your own biased outlook. <shrug>..........KB6QXM: "The amount of Advanced class licensees. Are the numbers stable. They cannot increase, they know, but at what rate are they falling as far as license renewals."

    You can find that some of that by looking at www.hamdata.com. They daily post the number of licensees in each class for a week ago, a month ago, six months ago, a year ago, two years ago.The ARRL statistics page shows only the current date, no past history, and then counts only those licensees within their 10-year term. Which is "more biased?" :-)...........KB6QXM: "I am really upset that the FCC and the ARRL took away the challenge of 20 WPM. If they wanted to give away spectrum to people that did not to grasp the time or fill the disipline to live proficent at 20 WPM, then give them another license class, not just give people a license will unlimited privledges for tiny work."

    "Little work?" Let's not depart off the map about "biased" stuff here. On 25 February 2007 I took (and passed) totality test elements in front of a four-member ARRL VEC examination team. totality four team members separately checked my retort sheets. I got NO special favors. Not even being 74 at the time.

    YOU are running around with pre-built jaundice on the supposition that totality new license applicants aredummies and fill NO experience. I began HF communications in the US Army on February 1953 and wasin that assignment three years. Given that station ADA had three-dozen-plus high-power transmitters and ran 24/7 with four shifts of operating teams and relaying 220 thousand messages a month mediocre in 1955 for the Far East Command Headquarters then in Tokyo. no one of the radio circuits used on-off keying CW codes. That was a nascence for me 56 years ago. NO "license"required and NO special Army classes (my MOS was Microwave Radio...equipment that would not live on-site until last half of 1954). They scholarly "on the job." no one of us "failed" or were transferred out. They were in "the large Business" of HF radio communications. No commsats then, no special modes or fancy radios for HF. In civilian life as an electronics engineer I've been able to "work" frequencies from VLF on up to 25 GHz. Oh, and I did fill an 11m CB rig, two in fact, plus an FCC license for them. In 1959. NO test required for those licenses. Since I don't custody to play old-time telegrapher I must live some kindhearted of "dummy," right? Cubed if I had an evil CB, right?

    Well, you speak *I* fill "bias" with the implication you fill "no bias?" Harfff!! :-)................KB6QXM: "Not that many years ago people were impressed that you were a ham radio operator. The license requirements now are nothing more than a formality making one a glorified CB radio operator."

    Gosh, If I felt I needed to "impress" other people, I would fill gotten one of those "very impressive" tyro radio licenses earlier...maybe even a Ham Radio BADGE in its wallet! As it was totality I got was a Commercial (First Class) radio operator license in March, 1956 (all 4 elements passed in one sitting in a Chicago FCC realm Office)...without prior taste in broadcasting, military or civilian. Gollee, I must live SO deficient and BIASED!

    Unlike so many inhabiting e-ham forums, I fill NO necessity to "IMPRESS" people. I got an tyro license for my own personal benefit. I don't fill any certificates covering my operating play walls...too many bookshelves in the way............KB6QXN: "Yes, CW is an obsolete technology. I gain that. It was besides tradition from the very nascence of the hobby."

    "Tradition" besides means using crystal set "receivers" and damped-oscillation "spark" transmitters, plus (get this one) "Picking your own call sign without government approval!" before 1912. "Spark" is forbidden in the USA. FCC regulates USA civil radio. That leaves only crystal set receivers. Can you gain a DXCC using only a crystal set as a receiver?...........KB6QXN: "Then recount me what is the justification of lowering the technical standards of the test?"

    Please redirect your ranting on non-statistical things to the Volunteer Examiner Coordinator Question Pool Committee at their website. The VEC QPC originates totality the questions and answers for tyro radio license testing in the USA............KB6QXN: "Some new extra class licensees accomplish not know how to accomplish anything, including soldering on a connector onto a piece of coax. This is a beneficial thing?????"

    Sigh...if you fill a dispute on any particular amateur's "fitness" to hold an tyro radio license grant, just contact the FCC and fabricate your case. You could shotgun both the Enforcement Bureau and Wireless Bureau to exact ACTION! Yes! exact ACTION! NOW!

    Me, I scholarly how to connect "UHF" connectors back in 1952 with solder. I don't mediate the "crimp" style connector was on the market then but I could live wrong. Not long after I scholarly how to DESIGN circuits that worked, laid out PCBs, did the required environmental testing, did work-related computer programming, wrote drafts for instruction manuals, did customer site realm engineering tasks, went through design reviews, was hands-on in everything including soldering from point-to-point wiring through thick- and thin-film to SMT. Oh, and I once "worked" a station ON the moon briefly. Not an tyro station, though, it was do there by some astronauts for NASA.............KB6QXN: "At least teach these new hams safety."

    In my 3-year Army assignment at station ADA, out of four teams comprising about 50 total, there was only ONE injury and that one was not fatal. During a QSY of a BC-340 10 KW power amplifier, one operator on another team dropped a tool inside the open PA door, caught his fatique sleeve on a tuning dial gear and his bare left forearm touched a jaundice supply line of roughly 350 VDC. jaundice supply was NOT in the door interlock chain. He didn't fill a "license" to operate. Neither did I or anyone else. totality they got were "on-the-job-reminders" without formal classes.

    Oh, and one day, during an unannounced fire drill, Executive Officer in permeate 1st Lt. Riewerts slipped while carrying a fire extinguisher. It went off and messed up the shine on his dress shoes. Terrible thing! :-)...............KB6QXN: "Why spend totality of this money on equipment/time when the behaviour of these people are terrible because of the lowered standards?"

    By golly, NOTHING seems to fullfil you, does it? :-)...............KB6QXN: "Just food for thought."

    Haven't you had enough indigestion for one day?...............KB6QXN: "These stats paint a picture based on jaundice of the author."

    'Picture?' 'Painting?' Yes, I've been a professional (paid) illustrator. Thank you for the mention. [gave it up in favor of electronics engineering...more creative]

    Would you like to commission a portrait painting? I'm open but the rate isn't anywhere near tyro economy class. However, I've got 2 cents for you for a new tyro radio statistics set:

    Show us How It Is Done and "without bias." present Us How It Is Done! :-)

    Byeeeee...

    AF6AY (Amateur Extra since day one and totally inexperienced in the biased eyes of some others)

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by KF4HR on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Post-rebuttals that provide a come-back line for each individual posted sentence or comment? Childish. Surely there are better things to do?   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by KC8FRJ on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I like you Len! I fill not seen the likes of your type since my mentor. You two would gain along great! Must live a Defense industry thing....

    Ralph, Len is probably retired and he is well traveled. While I understand your statement, Len has the time to defend his position. This makes his reaction less childish than those who provoked him. As long as the point counter point stays logical, it seems appropriate to me.

    KFR2174->WN8MNI->KC8FRJTech+ who just took universal for no real reason... Just because someone said I should. :-)

    Sort of the point isn't it. I fill been able to upgrade for years now, but why? Honestly, many HAM's look needlessly intimidating and Myopic, I don't necessity the hassle. I enjoyed the ragged "can do" and "what if" attitude of yesterday. The QRP crowd certainly has the correct attitude, but I am not much with Code, and most of the QRP guys fancy it.

    I'll just support tinkering around,

    Best Regards to all!

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by KW4JX on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Imagine some kid with a burning interest in short-wave radio going to a club meeting after a arduous day being assessed at school, and hearing ragged buffers talking about incentive licensing. Soon there will live more assessment than learning in the schools and in the ham clubs.I recommend the motto 'Discimus faciendo' to ham radio. Can you recommend one? Or is Latin a departed language like incentive licensing?   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by KG6WLS on December 8, 2009 Mail this to a friend! RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov Replyby KF4HR on December 7, 2009 Mail this to a friend!Post-rebuttals that provide a come-back line for each individual posted sentence or comment? Childish. Surely there are better things to do?

    Yeah, like getting on the radio.

      Incentive Licensing, Latin, and Trends   by N2EY on December 8, 2009 Mail this to a friend! G3LBS writes: "Imagine some kid with a burning interest in short-wave radio going to a clubmeeting after a arduous day being assessed at school, and hearing ragged bufferstalking about incentive licensing."

    Back about 1966, I *was* that kid. (Still am, when it comes to the burning interest in short-wave radio).

    And while I can't speak for totality kids everywhere, I still remember what it was about Radio, and tyro Radio, that got and kept my interest.

    I was 11 or 12 back then. When you're that age, anybody over about 25 is an ragged buffer.

    I'd been directed to the local ham radio club by Sam, K3RTR, whose antenna had caught my eye. I'd read everything I could lay my hands on about radio, particularly tyro radio, had built foxhole sets and a 2 tube regenerative, and was learning the code. (I didn't know it was supposed to live "hard", so I just scholarly it by listening to hams using it on the 80 meter band).

    But I needed a volunteer examiner (no caps back then) for the Novice exam, and the club was the way to find one, because for some judgement K3RTR wasn't into doing that. Navy MARS was his thing; I scholarly a lot about RTTY from Sam.

    Back in the mid-1960s, totality US hams with a General, Conditional, Advanced or Extra had replete operating privileges. Because of rapid growth in numbers during the 1950s and 1960s, many if not most US hams back then thought it had always been that way. In reality, that situation had only existed since February 1953; before then, using 'phone on the HF ham bands between 2.5 and 25 MHz required an Advanced or Extra.

    It made tiny sense to me that there were four different license classes that totality had the selfsame privileges. Even stranger was the fact that the Advanced was still carried on the books as a divide license class even though no new ones had been issued by FCC since the halt of 1952. But that's how it was, and what mattered to me was getting on the air, then working my way from Novice to universal and finally to Extra.

    I discovered that starting about 1963, there were proposals to change back to a system which would give different privileges to the different classes. The proposals came from various groups and individuals, with thousands of comments pro-and-con, and FCC was mulling over the changes.

    The "old buffers" seemed to me to live of three kinds.

    Some were up in arms, totality upset that they'd fill to grasp more exams to support their privileges. There were dire predictions that the changes would destroy ham radio, that used equipment values would plummet and new equipment would disappear, that the bands would live empty, and much more. They said the Advanced exam would live incredibly technical and difficult, and that the Extra tests required about the selfsame skills as a Navy Radioman First Class and an EE degree. (Back then, less than 2% of US hams were Extras).

    Some had a wait-and-see attitude.

    And some were enthusiastic to grasp on the challenge and gain whatever license was needed to accomplish what they wanted to accomplish in ham radio.

    I became one of that last group.

    The FCC finally decided on the changes, which became known as "incentive licensing."

    They came in three stages. First, the ragged Advanced was reopened to new issues and the Novice license term was doubled to two years. As a result, I got one of the first two-year Novices issued, in the plunge of 1967.

    Then in 1968 and again in 1969, parts of a four HF bands were restricted to Extra-only, or Advanced-and-Extra only. Those parts of thosee bands became less crowded, while the ease of those bands became more crowded.

    Disaster, right? halt of ham radio, right? Well, not exactly. In fact, some very anomalous things happened...

    First, the number of US hams, which had stopped growing in the early 1960s, began to grow again. And the growth continued for years and years, even though the test requirements had been raised far beyond what they'd been. Imagine - they made the licenses harder to get, and got more hams.

    Second, more and more US hams studied for the Advanced and Extra exams - and passed them. More than a few were young folks like me, who didn't realize how arduous the tests supposedly were, and simply went and did what was required, code and written.

    In my case, the Advanced was an accident. I was at the FCC office for the General, and after passing, The Examiner suggested I try the Advanced. There was no way a 14 year ragged tyro would speak no to The Man From FCC, so I tried it and passed. When the required two-years-experience for the Extra was done, I showed up at the FCC office again and earned that license. Nothing to it, really, after pile rigs from surplus and ragged TVs for a brace years, and handling traffic, ragchewing and contesting on 80 and 40 CW. I had no formal training in radio, electronics or electricity back then and my Elmers were books rather than people. But a motivated kid will accomplish what needs to live done.

    I suspect that more than a few ragged buffers, then and now, don't like the fact that younger and to them less-worthy people just went ahead and did things like earning licenses and getting on the air, while they hemmed, hawed and complained. One ragged buffer, who wouldn't even gain an tyro license until 2007, disliked the conception of young people being hams so much that, about a decade ago, he proposed a minimum-age circumscribe of 14 years for any class of US tyro license.

    G3LBS: "Soon there will live more assessment than learning in the schools and in the ham clubs."

    Well, I don't know about ham clubs but I know a tiny about schools. And the schools I know are totality about learning, with assessment tacked on because it's required.

    G3LBS: "I recommend the motto 'Discimus faciendo' to ham radio."

    I like it! And yes, I know what it means.

    G3LBS: "Can you recommend one?"

    'Ne permitas bastardi te carborundum'

    is one.

    But Latin really is a departed language.

    Here are some more:

    'If you believe, you can achieve'

    'If it happens, it must live possible'

    'A helping hand is most often at the halt of your arm'

    But most of all, I harmonize with AI2IA, who summed it totality up the best:

    "Amateur radio is what you fabricate it for yourself"

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by K9ZF on December 8, 2009 Mail this to a friend! some folks fill WAY too much time on their hands.....

    73Dan--Amateur Radio Emergency Service, Clark County Indiana. EM78elK9ZF /R no budget Rover ***QRP-l #1269 Check out the Rover Resource Page at:<http://www.qsl.net/n9rla> List Administrator for: InHam+grid-loc+ham-booksAsk me how to relate the Indiana Ham Mailing list!

      RE: Phrases in Latin   by K6LHA on December 8, 2009 Mail this to a friend! G3LBS wrote on December 7, 2009:

    "Imagine some kid with a burning interest in short-wave radio going to a club meeting after a arduous day being assessed at school, and hearing ragged buffers talking about incentive licensing. Soon there will live more assessment than learning in the schools and in the ham clubs. I recommend the motto 'Discimus faciendo' to ham radio. Can you recommend one? Or is Latin a departed language like incentive licensing?"

    I would recommend the Latin phrase "Primus inter pares."*

    That translates to "first among equals" and describes some of the attitudes displayed in forums and newsgroups. No matter what the subject, each respondent is MORE than "equal" to everyone else. If they are talking about their childhood they were always "smarter, more innovative, more adventurous, more skilled" than any other kid. If they managed to attain adulthood and gain tyro radio licenses, they are always "smarter, more knowledgeable, more intelligent, more accomplished, better than everyone" because they speak so. :-)

    * "Primus Inter Pares" was used by RCA Corporation Aviation Systems Division in the 1970s to advertise their civil aviation comm-nav radios and airborne radar sets. Some marketing person at RCA thought the phrase appropriate but the market objected and the phrase was quietly dropped. The technical property of Civil Aviation's products had already been proven prior to an "outsider" within thinking it needed Latin to sex it up in advertising. <shrug>

    AF6AY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by KE5WDI on December 8, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I am assuming the ORZ... what ever you call yourself is not an tyro radio operator, but just someone that has create his way on to eham to downgrade anyone and everyone that will read his divel....

    I could sit back without remark until your statements about people with disabilities and their needing to fill thinks "dumbed down for them". It just so happens that I know quite a few people with disabilities that could probably dispatch code around your butt with both hands tied behind their back. I mediate it is very insulting that there is no one from eham reading your crap and putting a stop to it.

    Danny LoydKE5WDI

    P.S. Yes I am arrogant enough of my call sign and cognomen to sign my posts on this site everytime I write something.

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by W7ETA on December 8, 2009 Mail this to a friend! "When's the last time any of you advanced the technique of radio?"

    I've been considering buying a table saw to build some DIY replete sweep stereo speakers. If I depart that route, I can build better looking enclosures for my home made CW transmitter, regen receiver and power supplies. they would certainly live more artful.

    Bob

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by WS4E on December 8, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I fill only been a ham for just over 1 year (+ one month).

    I got my Tech, then my General, and then my Extra.

    I know lots of people mediate getting Extra is smooth now that there is no code, but frankly if I would not fill had a study confederate who had a degree in electronics engineering, I don't know if I made it. But lots of study plus having him justify some things better to me (inductance I am looking at you), made it possible.

    They speak the Extra is pretty much equivalent to a associates degree in electronics, and I believe it.

    I am sure you could maybe memorize enough to pass but I wanted to know the stuff backwards and forwards, and in fact only missed a brace of questions on the whole test.

    Being an Extra was very notable to me, because unlike many first time Ham's my entire goal was to gain on HF.

    In fact I fill been practicing code since summer, with my goal to participate in Straight Key Night this year. My goal was accomplish CW in 1 year but thats nigh enough. I can read at about 20wpm, but I am trying to build some fist skills to exhaust a straight key at something nigh to 15wpm.

    So, I guess I went from being a 'NO-code Extra' to being a 'KNOW-code' Extra.

    I still believe that there are many of us out there that still want to LEARN and exhaust CW, I don't survey anything to worry about CW going away. I besides don't survey the no-code Extra as a immoral thing either.

    **LOOK EVERYONE** a new CW user?! Imagine that!

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by QRZDXR2 on December 8, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KE5WDI on December 8, 2009I could sit back without remark until your statements reading your crap and putting a stop to it.

    Danny LoydKE5WDI

    Gee Loyd... I didn't know people down in 5sneyland knew how to read. I find it Funny that you totality support coming up with enuendoes that you profess to know what is wrong with others. Must live in the water down their as the ease of us sit back and LOLLL at your assumptions when its pellucid you know nothing about who or what you talk about.

    When you ASSUME you know it totality and that one is better than the other.. well as someone else said.. you people from 5 land only know where that stain on your dipers comes from... and the ease is just troll'n for contemn and discontent.

    As to my abilites in CW... I mediate I mediocre around 40-45 wpm in morse and faster using american.. as they fill been doing it now for just a few years more than any KE5 has been around. Really screws your computer up too when they change the weights around... and most of your 5sneyland buds down their gain burned out just shortly after 25 wpm. Was doing CW while you were sitting in front of you TV set watching bugs bunny and knawing on your fudgebar... well maybe that wasn't a fudge bar...LOLLLL

    Arn't these the selfsame handicapped people who belong to the ADA? The selfsame whiners who for the sheer fun of it depart around looking for people to sue when they don't gain their way? They fill seen a lot of them gain "in your face" when they necessity a extra bux. Some accomplish it just to "get in your face" as they are frustrated troll's)

    As to your enuendo abou the ARRL... When they depart to the the FCC and say..."WE limn totality HAMS"... and this is what they want... so the FCC does .. and then when something hits the fan... the first thing the ARRL says is... "WELL THE FCC DID IT"... depart figure. they are quick to relate which ever side is winning (or can fabricate them money) ...and popular... live it politically correct or not from what they fill seen.

    Well Danny boy.. you fill a MERRY CHRISTMAS and pleased New Year... if you can... and try not to spread so much contemn and discontent ...the south lost the war... gain over it... grin LOLLLLL

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by QRZDXR2 on December 8, 2009 Mail this to a friend! WS4E on December 8, 2009I fill only been a ham for just over 1 year (+ one month).

    I got my Tech, then my General, and then my Extra.

    I know lots of people mediate getting Extra is smooth now that there is no code, but frankly if I would not fill had a study confederate who had a degree in electronics engineering, I don't know if I made it. But lots of study plus having him justify some things better to me (inductance I am looking at you), made it possible.

    I am sure you could maybe memorize enough to pass but I wanted to know the stuff backwards and forwards, and in fact only missed a brace of questions on the whole test.

    In fact I fill been practicing code since summer, with my goal to participate in Straight Key Night I can read at about 20wpm, build some fist skills to exhaust a straight key at something nigh to 15wpm.

    So, I guess I went from being a 'NO-code Extra' to being a 'KNOW-code' Extra.

    I still believe that there are many of us out there that still want to LEARN and exhaust CW--------------------------------------------------

    SE... ya doing it the privilege way.. too immoral that their arn't any ham clubs around to mitigate you through the trials and work. (but you seeked out and create your mentor) That was what ham clubs used to accomplish instead of totality this EOC only training junk.

    Nothing wrong with 15 wpm.. its a nice speed to QSO on ... and they will live looking for your call sign on SKN...congrats.CW is more than just code... its a way of thinking.. like learning to speek a new language. It takes time and determination... (the determination is where most fail today.. as they want things given to 'em and not WORK for it like you did)

    We hope others follow your lead and become a KNOW-Radio ham instead of it being a sandbox for diper leakers and dump'ers that if the directions were not written on the mic... press here to talk... no one would hear 'em...which might live a beneficial thing...from what they fill heard... I am sure some of the 5sneylanders are still contemplateing months later what the shove ON (on/off) means... LOLL

      Anonymous coward policies   by K6LHA on December 8, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KE5WDI wrote on December 8, 2009:

    "I am assuming the ORZ... what ever you call yourself is not an tyro radio operator, but just someone that has create his way on to eham to downgrade anyone and everyone that will read his divel...."

    We don't know that because e-ham policy on participants allows just anyone to gain in. That's unfortunate for the real tyro community. But it is their policy and they are totality stuck with the kindhearted of frustrated, bitter-bile-filled vomit from an anonymous coward that badly needs some psychologic therapy............KE5WDI: "I could sit back without remark until your statements about people with disabilities and their needing to fill thinks "dumbed down for them". It just so happens that I know quite a few people with disabilities that could probably dispatch code around your butt with both hands tied behind their back. I mediate it is very insulting that there is no one from eham reading your crap and putting a stop to it."

    E-ham's policy is their policy but I question it even if they are anxious to fill up space and gain lots of "comments" on articles regardless of their content so as to appear "popular."

    On "policy" I can understand an objection and complete blocking-out from participation even on the basis of using an alliteration to a swear word. I've been blocked out for using the phonetic alphabet substitute for two words. Okay, I toughed it out, complained to e-ham management, eventually re-instated. I didn't apologize for that. I've been a national for a long time and am a voluntary enlistee in the US Army during a wartime (the dynamic angle of the Korean War). No one on e-ham article forums is required to do their life on the line as was required in the USA military. What I cannot understand under any circumstances is this absolute "freedom" for anyone else to accomplish what can live described as a total contemn CRIME remark as this "QRZ..." anonymous coward did such as (quoting):

    QRZ...: "We hope others follow your lead and become a KNOW-Radio ham instead of it being a sandbox for diper leakers and dump'ers that if the directions were not written on the mic... press here to talk... no one would hear 'em...which might live a beneficial thing...from what they fill heard... I am sure some of the 5sneylanders are still contemplateing months later what the shove ON (on/off) means... LOLL"

    That was just a sample of the "atitudinal BILE" vomited by this creature...freely, without any censorship efforts. Done ANONYMOUSLY to avoid any identification and possible physical harm to this warped nonsense in a HOBBY activity. Yes, people, they MUST PROTECT their "rights" to spout hatred and vitriol. Why? Is that "the radio tyro way?!? Yes...it is bad, bad, immoral to exhaust even an alliteration to a swear word, but it is perfectly "okay" to vent TOTAL contemn and DENIGRATION against one activity interest group!? Yes, I guess it is.

    Until e-ham management takes a beneficial gape at its own policy, I will not bother considering subscribing as I once (perhaps naively) did..............As to the original subject of "trends in license classes," I can speak that this palpable BIGOTRY of OLD-style "ham radio must-do" still exists AFTER regulations fill legally changed. I fill stored textual references to that, visible in NPRM comments and replies to comments on every matter of USA tyro radio regulations since Restructuring was up for comment. There isn't any "trend," it is merely vomiting of more contemn against newcomers who don't accomplish what the old-timers speak they MUST do.

    For over a half century I've heard countless DEMANDS by some that I must "follow tradition" or anyway "honor it" by doing unavoidable things...like using morse code. Now, I'm 77 and a military veteran. When I was a young male, it was TRADITIONAL to depart volunteer for military service for one's country during a wartime. That started before the American Revolutionary War but seems to fill ebbed and slowed down with the Vietnam War. But..."patriotism" for ragged tyro radio "traditions" is regarded by a few vocal yokels as MORE notable than defending one's country? Of course it is to minds that fill never seen harm...but are bent. They are "off the map" if they mediate that hobby activity "patriotism" is anyway more notable than national patriotism.

    On the other hand, these traditionalist super-patriots may live simply USING tyro radio to puff themselves up in importance, consequence in the alleged sense of yesterday. Some of those try to CONTROL others...by insults, intimidation, denigration in order to accomplish as THEY say. They remind me of little, tiny dictators trying to RULE by any means possible. The talent to Rule can live an aphrodesiac to some, an addictive one, so much so that they don't realize they are doing it. Those that cover their identity are just a few neurons away from the Terrorist who Hides, then attacks. They want to live invisible so that they can strike again, satisfying their hatred and frustration. Their tyro radio learning is that of the PAST, their references being plenteous material published in the PAST. When faced with a future, they fill tiny to depart on. The future is an UNKNOWN, scary in its uncertainty, especially when they don't know how to manipulate it. The smooth way is to stay with ragged things that the invisible cowards title to "know." That is EASY. No effort. A "security blanket" for their warped souls.

    I fill seen evidence that there ARE long-timers who are generous enough to let newcomers find out for themselves without coercion. They are few to referee by quantity in forums. No demands to "do as *I* say" from them. USA tyro radio is a voluntary activity with plenty of OPTIONS available within allocations. There is NO regulatory exact that licensees MUST exhaust any particular mode/modulation over any other allocated mode/modulation. Just stay within frequency boundaries, follow regulations, and play nice. But, the super-patriotic traditionalist DEMANDS that they accomplish as they command. When they don't, these traditionalists gain angry and spiteful. totality of this "brotherhood of hams" is a lot of hypocritical BS concerning them. They only want totality to OBEY the traditionalist super-patriot. Such obeyance is not brotherhood. It is not traditionalist. It is FAR from patriotic. It is just dictatorship from overgrown schoolyard bullies.

    If they fill so many OPTIONS in their current USA tyro radio regulations, WHY is there so much outcry about using only "CW?" WHY are they to live subjected to the filthy bile from an anonymous coward hiding behind a pseudonym? WHY can't they just pick and elect what THEY like to exhaust or try?

    Can they actually elect something for ourselves without the traditionalist super-patriot ham's permission? I'm nascence to doubt it..............KE5WDI: "P.S. Yes I am arrogant enough of my call sign and cognomen to sign my posts on this site everytime I write something."

    Darn straight! [sorry, I couldn't write 'damn straight' for scare of being locked-out again] I've never tried to cover my identity on any computer-modem communications venue. I fill the courage of my convictions as well as my own identity, fill had that well before being licensed in the tyro radio service. I don't fill any respect for those that want to cover behind pseudonyms.

    73, Len AF6AY

      RE: Anonymous coward policies   by QRZDXR2 on December 8, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Anonymous coward policiesby AF6AY on December 8, 2009-------------------------------------------Dang... sorry I went to sleep reading your tripe n trolling that went on... and on... and on and on... with not much to speak one might add.

    I'll fill to support mine short so the server disk doesn't overflow after you left your super long desertation/ novel. (it amazes me that some people can talk for hours... and still not speak what a regular person can in 1 min) fill you thought about running for ARRL political office. You would live great.. only problem is most don't know (or care) what you depart on... and on talking about... that is so far off subject that they can depart grasp a nap, a shower, fill lunch, accomplish their taxes and Come back never missing a thought... as you contenue to ramble on...and on...

    (Man your electric edison bill for the radio must live akin to the national debt if you transmitt that long.. beneficial thing they invented transistors and FETs or the transmitting tube industry would live showing a stockmarket booming expand and your back yard littered with ragged worn out finals) Only one other person you fill to overcome to live No 1. and that was WA6GVG.. now that was a guy who could flatten finals nightly. But, not to worry.. he died. I mediate his wife shot him (7 times with a 6 shooter). Something about sleep depervation..or stress..or something like that... LOLLLLLLL

    would treasure it... if you could depart back and give us a exec summary of what you were trying to say... survey them guys down in 5sneyland... are still stuck on survey DICK AND JANE readers.. and your posting probably now takes the darwin award for longest verbage with no real revelations or much constructive to say... are you and Al Gore buds? grin...

    Thanks.. and they would treasure it if you could accomplish it in 10 words or less. (again for the benifit of them 5sneylanders' )

    Awww...You know how us ragged guys are. If its not stimulating... they gain bored and plunge asleep...heck I logged at least 3 or 4 hours on your ramblings and ravings... LOLLL

    Yep what ham radio turned into these days...novelties.

    Any wonder why CW is growning in popularity...

    I survey that vibroplex was sold to a new guy... Mitch must fill given up the manufacture and sales of them. Sorry to survey but gape forward to having the tradition contenue with the newbie.

    oh well live mindful who you call a coward... one might grasp that as being loathsome and you gain ban again for innuendoes.

    Merry Christmas all.. (and that includes you too AF6AY)

    C U on SKN CW. and may the DX live good. (sri e not hr u on Leonard af6ay, best depart to HRO n buy a key and accomplish like the other guy did.).... .. --... ...-- ... --.- .-. --.. -.. .-. ..--- .-.-.-

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by KB9MNM on December 8, 2009 Mail this to a friend! My 2 cents worth:When I got my Tech in '96, I was arrogant to hold the class of Ham Radio Operator. I still am arrogant to this day as a Tech. My plans to upgrade to universal are there, but time,work, cost of equipment and family life tend to overshadow this dream. I will eventually upgrade and relish the HF bands. One day.   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by AD7VH on December 8, 2009 Mail this to a friend! "When's the last time any of you advanced the technique of radio?" KC5NYJ:

    Actually, quite a few of us on eham fill done many things to foster the technique of radio, so I don't know where you gain off. I fill been doing quite a bit of work to improve mobile operations on 160m and 75m, so that is something to foster radio.

    I was very against dropping the code, but what is done, is done... To bitch about it is not going to change anything. I managed to pass the 5wpm code test after only studying it for a tiny over 2 weeks, with a moderate hearing loss (coupled with tinnitus), and working 50 hours a week. I am not able to copy code very well anymore because of the ringing in my ears, but I am sure that I could still pass a 5wpm code test without a problem!

    The other thing that is a crock: these people that hold the Advanced class, but yet won't upgrade. I was not going to let my pride gain in the way of getting the Extra class. I didn't custody what would fill been required to gain it... I was going to gain it. They dropped the code, fine; They dumb-downed the test, whatever. I could give a crap less. I know that I possess more learning than was required to pass the test, that is totality that matters!

    73, John, AD7VH, east central Nevada

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by AD7VH on December 8, 2009 Mail this to a friend! "When's the last time any of you advanced the technique of radio?" KC5NYJ:

    Actually, quite a few of us on eham fill done many things to foster the technique of radio, so I don't know where you gain off. I fill been doing quite a bit of work to improve mobile operations on 160m and 75m, so that is something to foster radio.

    I was very against dropping the code, but what is done, is done... To bitch about it is not going to change anything. I managed to pass the 5wpm code test after only studying it for a tiny over 2 weeks, with a moderate hearing loss (coupled with tinnitus), and working 50 hours a week. I am not able to copy code very well anymore because of the ringing in my ears, but I am sure that I could still pass a 5wpm code test without a problem!

    The other thing that is a crock: these people that hold the Advanced class, but yet won't upgrade. I was not going to let my pride gain in the way of getting the Extra class. I didn't custody what would fill been required to gain it... I was going to gain it. They dropped the code, fine; They dumb-downed the test, whatever. I could give a crap less. I know that I possess more learning than was required to pass the test, that is totality that matters!

    73, John, AD7VH, east central Nevada

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by KW4JX on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I know an American guy who passed totality the exams in one day but can't relate two pieces of wire together. He boasts about his achievement and suffers shape xenophobia. Maybe he will try to relate two wires and thereby electrocute himself.Of course they in England had to live more mindful because they fill the superior 250 volts. This means they can fill thinner more elastic cables on totality their appliances, particularly soldering irons, 3 kW heaters in their shacks and almost zero-insertion plugs in their sockets. American household sockets are disgusting. On the flip side twice as many people are electrocuted in England. However their Queen and Camilla protect us, like Kings Bush and Obama.Get a life guys ham radio is (a) a hobby, (b) life itself, not a way of life. It is almost as beneficial as sex. It is not an electronic ambulance.Buffalo Gil W2/G3LBS   Logic, Bias, Anonymity   by N2EY on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! A few thoughts:

    Bias in a posting can live subtle or obvious. Leaving out a relevant fact is one way. Another way is to state an belief - or a wish - as if it is a fact.

    Errors in logic are totality over the space too. The most common IMHO are the "ad hominem" mistake and its mirror image, the "appeal to authority" error. Both are the attempt to exhaust the identity of the speaker to replace a mindful examination of the reasoning and facts. When you survey someone giving their resume as a judgement why you should accept their statements, rather than backing those statements up with sound logic and verifiable facts, you're probably seeing one or both of those errors in action. That's because a person who really has a sound dispute doesn't necessity to exhaust them.

    The louder someone declares that they are "unbiased" and/or "objective", the more likely it is that they're not.

    Which brings us to anonymity. Of course some folks are anonymous because it's easier to troll that way. But being anonymous, by itself, doesn't fabricate someone a troll nor change the truth of what they say. Their statements still fill to live judged by the selfsame rules of logic and factual evidence as any other.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      Various Things   by N2EY on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! To W7ETA: If you fill the play and the money, reckon a beneficial radial-arm saw. I always preferred one to a table saw. Helped build a brace of folded horns with one.

    To WS4E: beneficial on ya! I hope to work you in SKN. What bands accomplish you work?

    Don't know if you accomplish realm Day, but CW ops are often needed. At the local FD operation, a brace of us who evade the CW station routinely deliver more points than the ease of the operation combined, even when the ratio is 1 CW station to three or four 'phone and data stations.

    To AD7VH: I mediate if a person is satisfied with their license, they shouldn't live pressured to upgrade. They're the ones missing out on having replete privileges!

    As for dropping the code test and other changes, yes, it doesn't change a thing to gripe about it. But totality discussions are not griping; it's notable to know what actually happened, and why. And to survey how things fill really changed or stayed the same.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by N8QBY on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! To many long-winded posts.   Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by W8JII on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Here is statistic for you all. 18 times over several months Len has made us conscious that, quote---"On 25 February 2007 I took (and passed) totality test elements in front of a four-member ARRL VEC examination team. totality four team members separately checked my retort sheets. I got NO special favors. Not even being 74 at the time". Congratulations Len. Now give it a rest   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by KW4JX on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N8QBY on December 9, 2009 said Mail this to a friend!To many long-winded posts.

    N8QBY is that why you spell 'Too' as 'To'?

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by AC9HE on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Of totality the hobbies that I fill ever enjoyed, this one has the most opinionated, snobbish, argumentative, bassackwards people than totality of them do together.   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by KW4JX on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Even counting marriage?   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by WS4E on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! >Of totality the hobbies that I fill ever enjoyed, this one>has the most opinionated, snobbish, argumentative,>bassackwards people than totality of them do together.

    Nah, computer technology forums are even worse.

    I guess you fill never felt the wrath of the Mac-vs-PC arguments or the Unix-vs-VMS ones for us ragged timers. :)

    At least in ham circles there are a few civil people around in-between the noise.

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by N8QBY on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! To G3LBS: What does my exhaust of the word, "To" fill to accomplish with my commenting on how long some posts are. The word to is used as a function word, and can live used many different ways, as can the word, "too". You shouldn't try and school someone else, when you don't fill control of your own faculties.   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by KB6QXM on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KC6HCJ wrote: Of totality the hobbies that I fill ever enjoyed, this one has the most opinionated, snobbish, argumentative, bassackwards people than totality of them do together.

    I know this may live before your entrance into the hobby, but before the FCC/ARRL started messing around with the license requirements and folding to pressure to these disabilities groups, there was not this 2-sided back and forth as they survey now.

    In the earlier days before the necessity to always live Politically Correct, either you took passed the license requirements or you just did not gain a license. That was it. The PC police to fabricate sure everyone is included as they accomplish not want to offend anyone lowered the standards so low that my labrador retreivers could pass the tests.

    There is something about NOT pleasing everyone. When I was testing for my black belt in VERY traditional Japanese karate, did they lower the standards for me because I was having difficulty. NO!!! Either you met the requirements passed down by tradition or you just did not wear the belt. PERIOD!!

    In college when I was getting my degree, did my professors speak Oh I survey that you are having difficulty, so forget this requirement. Either you passed, changed your degree program, or you repeated the course. Educational standards based on tradition.

    The selfsame should depart for Ham radio. Yes Yes, I know it is hobby, but when you dilute something by lowering standard, you lax totality the way around.

    In reference to the Ham that made a remark about the pride of not upgrading to Extra from Advanced class because of pride, you simply accomplish not understand.

    Do I want to live in a class of license where the requirements were known or accomplish I want to live lumped into a group with some people that actually had to accomplish a lot of arduous work to gain their extra class license and besides people that had to accomplish very little. NO!!

    I would rather stand with the few arrogant then the masses due to some Arrl/FCC conception of political correctness. No thank you.

    Feel free to flame me. accomplish you notice that I am not hiding behind some secretive account, no I am posting with my FCC generated license.

    I know that I will never change what happened. Political Correctness and generous minded individuals are taking over this and many other countries.

    I am not a conservative, but I would speak a moderate with a slight tilt to the right.

    Enjoy the hobby for what it is and what it has turned into. If not, find another hobby. I know I fill many hobbies.

    73

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by N8QBY on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Darn, I forgot to do a question charge after my first line in my last post. I am sure I lost points with Gilly. :o)   Pride, Standards and Political Correctness   by N2EY on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB6QXM writes: "before the FCC/ARRL started messing around with the license requirements and folding to pressure to these disabilities groups, there was not this 2-sided back and forth as they survey now."

    Can you point me to objective evidence that the FCC was under pressure from disabilities groups?

    I inquire this because the late erosion of license test standards goes back 30+ years. And because the code waivers came from a request to George Bush I by a now-dead King who was a ham.

    KB6QXM: "In the earlier days before the necessity to always live Politically Correct, either you took passed the license requirements or you just did not gain a license. That was it."

    It's exactly the selfsame now! The requirements are different, that's all.

    KB6QXM: "The PC police to fabricate sure everyone is included as they accomplish not want to offend anyone lowered the standards so low that my labrador retreivers could pass the tests."

    We went to VE testing back in the early 1980s. When that happened, the written exam question pools became public domain.

    It would live really consuming to gain the question pool from, say, 1984 and compare it to today's. I wonder how different they would be?

    KB6QXM: "There is something about NOT pleasing everyone. When I was testing for my black belt in VERY traditional Japanese karate, did they lower the standards for me because I was having difficulty. NO!!! Either you met the requirements passed down by tradition or you just did not wear the belt. PERIOD!!"

    We could gain a lot more people to evade the marathon if the distance was reduced from the traditional 26 miles 385 yards.

    KB6QXM: "Educational standards based on tradition."

    Why should educational standards live based on tradition? Shouldn't they live based on what the student needs to know today?

    For example, in towering school I was *required* to grasp two years of Latin. I'd fill been much better off if they'd let me grasp typing, or more science courses, or Basic computing. Latin was a departed language even then.

    KB6QXM: "The selfsame should depart for Ham radio. Yes Yes, I know it is hobby, but when you dilute something by lowering standard, you lax totality the way around."

    It's not about tradition; it's about knowing what needs to live known. Since they fill more modes, more technologies and more bands today, it seems logical that the requirements should live more comprehensive, not less.

    btw, nowhere in fraction 97 does the word "hobby" appear. Not even once. Even today, the FCC will not accept the excuse that "it's a hobby".

    KB6QXM: "Do I want to live in a class of license where the requirements were known or accomplish I want to live lumped into a group with some people that actually had to accomplish a lot of arduous work to gain their extra class license and besides people that had to accomplish very little. NO!!"

    That's fine as far as it goes. But is your sense of pride and self-worth as a radio tyro really totality that connected to the tests you took years ago to gain the license?

    And as far as "liberals" vs. "conservatives", reckon this:

    The towering standards set by the changes known as "incentive licensing" took space under the JFK/LBJ administrations.

    The change to the VE system and published question pools took space under the Reagan administration.

    The nocodetest Technician and code waivers came about under the first Bush administration.

    The restructuring of 2000 took space under the Clinton administration

    The halt of code testing took space under the second Bush administration.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by N4JTE on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Can they do a fork in this?   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by K6LHA on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB6QXM wrote on 9 Dec 09:

    "KC6HCJ wrote: Of totality the hobbies that I fill ever enjoyed, this one has the most opinionated, snobbish, argumentative, bassackwards people than totality of them do together."

    KB6QXM: "I know this may live before your entrance into the hobby, but before the FCC/ARRL started messing around with the license requirements and folding to pressure to these disabilities groups, there was not this 2-sided back and forth as they survey now."

    I strongly disagree with this based on publicly-available documents that anyone can view on the FCC website, namely the Comments and Replies to Comments on totality the NPRMs, 18 (!) Petitions that eventually led to the December 2006 Notice that code testing would live eliminated from USA tyro radio license examinations. That is a 9 year span of time. What is MISSING from them are totality the "disabilities groups" that allegedly "pressured" the FCC into changing things. The creation of the no-code-test Technician class license happened in 1990, in constrain in 1991. The FCC does not fill totality those NPRM documents on-line yet but copies of the 1990 Notice fill been obtained and circulated.

    The alleged "pressure" came from INDIVIDUAL CITIZENS who were seeking to modernize regulations. It was a LEGAL process and allowed totality citizens to participate...if they really CARED about it. Percentage wise, FEW licensees did. It was "too much trouble" for so many to actually investigate the situations...they just wanted to play with their radios and leave the "enforcement" and legalities to the ARRL. Fermentation seems to live a beneficial preservative since the sour grapes of so many old-timers over a decade is still poured out on forum participants.................KB6QXM: "In the earlier days before the necessity to always live Politically Correct, either you took passed the license requirements or you just did not gain a license. That was it."

    Incorrect. That requirement was in the LAW and do there by the FCC, not by any "politically correct" groups or individuals. What was a failure on that statement was that, to live granted an tyro radio license, an applicant had to meet the lawful requirements AT THE TIME. Those requirements fill been changing. Witness three major recent milestones: Incentive Licensing; Restructuring; Elimination of code testing entire. totality of those major changes were achieved by democratic process with the FCC hearing totality sides. That included the ARRL and its legal arduous on retainer arguing for what can live defined as the ONLY "politically correct" organization. The ARRL once had a formidable influence on the FCC but that has continued to wane over the last few decades..................KB6QXN: "The PC police to fabricate sure everyone is included as they accomplish not want to offend anyone lowered the standards so low that my labrador retreivers could pass the tests."

    If you had a DOG that could read, you would live better off making money as its agent in present business. :-)

    Since privatization of totality radio operator license testing, commercial or amateur, the NCVEC Question Pool Committee has authored totality the test questions and answers. The NCVEC QPC is composed of licensed amateurs. Contact them with your venting about alleged super-simplicity of written testing. If you are still not satisfied, write a PETITION and present it to the FCC Wireless Telecommunications Bureau. [there were no less than 18 Petitions up for remark between onset of Restructuring and before the NPRM on eliminating morse code testing]...............KB6QXN: "There is something about NOT pleasing everyone. When I was testing for my black belt in"

    Operation of a radio transmitter is FAR from any human-to-human physical contact sport.

    KB6QXN: "In college when I was getting my degree, did my professors speak Oh I survey that you are"

    Since the creation of the FCC in 1934 by the Communications Act of that year, even with a few amendments that came after, the FCC is *NOT* chartered by LAW as an academic institution. Neither has its three predecessor agencies been so chartered................KB6QXN: "The selfsame should depart for Ham radio. Yes Yes, I know it is hobby, but when you dilute something by lowering standard, you lax totality the way around."

    When you attempt "analogies" that cannot apply you are either going bananas or fill a poor grasp on the USA legislative and democratic-principled processes. They are a nation of laws. LAW can live changed. It is not fixed in stone, protected by armor plate from any possible future change.

    "Lowering standards?" Standards are not so inviolate that totality those existing when YOU were FIRST LICENSED IN tyro RADIO are to live kept forever. If you still mediate that, then you are exhibiting selfish, very self-centered viewpoints. Laws CAN live changed. The USA has a process by which to accomplish such changes. That CHANGE happened that you did not harmonize with is NOT the "fault" of the Law. It falls back on selfish individuals who will never own "losing."..................KB6QXN: "I know that I will never change what happened. Political Correctness and generous minded individuals are taking over this and many other countries."

    I detect your irritation that totality will not gape to YOU for "correctness" in everything. Sigh...................KB6QXN: "Enjoy the hobby for what it is and what it has turned into. If not, find another hobby. I know I fill many hobbies."

    Good luck in your many other hobbies. I'm sure you can win every single karate contest with your attitude, always Come out on top with your superior abilities. accomplish they stand in awe of you or just depart "awwwww....?"

      RE: Pride, Standards and Political Correctness   by K6LHA on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N2EY tried to do a political spin on this 9 Dec 09:--------"And as far as "liberals" vs. "conservatives", reckon this:

    The towering standards set by the changes known as "incentive licensing" took space under the JFK/LBJ administrations.

    The change to the VE system and published question pools took space under the Reagan administration.

    The nocodetest Technician and code waivers came about under the first Bush administration.

    The restructuring of 2000 took space under the Clinton administration

    The halt of code testing took space under the second Bush administration."---------The FCC is an INDEPENDENT USA government agency. Neither John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Baines Johnson, William J. Clinton, Ronald Reagan, James E. Carter, George Herbert Walker Bush, nor George W. Bush had tyro radio licenses...nor were they "controlling" any aspect of the FCC. The FCC operates under LAWS of Congress passed by the Senate and the House.

    Trying vainly to "blame" a political party with controlling or even influencing Comments made to the FCC by individual citizens...on things that passed or did not pass YOUR personal desires is ludicrous. It is almost as laughable as the folks who try to sluff off decisions made by the FCC as "pre-ordained" by some influence group.

    The INFLUENCE GROUP that bore weight on the FCC decisions on Notices of Proposed Rule Making were INDIVIDUAL CITIZENS making their case. If you, as a single commenter on one NPRM could NOT fabricate a convincing change, the only "blame" to fabricate is by pointing to and identifying yourself. It is pellucid that your political orientation is to the Democratic party. That has NO real mien on the matter that affected the change or not-change of trends in USA tyro radio license classes over the last three years.

    If you really, really looked at the final Notice of decisions on matters before the FCC, you would find totality of the respondents to NPRMs listed. If you really, really read totality of the Comments and Replies to Comments on any NPRM, it would live rare indeed to find any overt political party influences by commenters.

    The FCC decides on NPRMs of totality civil radio services in the USA. It isn't just about tyro radio. tyro radio is one of the SMALLER radio services in the USA. It is "politically" the smallest since it directly affects a minority national demographic. "Mass Media" (formerly known as Broadcasting) is perhaps the largest because there is direct result to any national or household that has a broadcast receiver, audio or video.

    As to your remark about "slow eorsion of standards" in USA tyro radio, it demonstrates that YOU reckon yourself far better than any government agency in knowledge, law, and many other things. There is ONE federal agency to regulate totality civil radio in the USA. There are NO "supreme leaders" of any radio service except for some delusional types who mediate THEY are far more knowledgeable than any government agency.

    The FCC has been in existance for 75 years, chartered by the Communications Act of 1934. It has tested and approved methods of CHANGING regulatory laws and totality decisions on change are published in the Federal Register. In some cases, decisions fill Come before Congress and some were reversed, but those were minor in the overall view. Those who cannot accept CHANGE in law and resist such CHANGES can live defined as low-level anarchists, even small-time dictators who survey only themselves as some kindhearted of "role-model" and/or "standard bearer." Those who fancy themselves "better" than the law can anticipate to live up against others who mediate selfishly about being the "boss of all" and only one of you will (think) you "won." Neither one won anything except disfavor of totality of us who accepted change. They outnumber you. mediate about that.

    AF6AY

      RE: Pride, Standards and Political Correctness   by W7ETA on December 9, 2009 Mail this to a friend! As always, Great prose Len--easy to follow datum presentation.

    "total numbers just aren't keeping up with a continuing USA population increase,"

    On physiognomy value, that isn't surprising. They can assume people dying had better talent and desire to become hams, vrs people just born. If one could gape at a sampling of talent and desire in new borns, to talk with others, my speculation would live borne out.

    Come to mediate of it, new borns might programed to bawl if they fill to learning CW?

    Best from TucsonBob

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by N2EY on December 10, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N4JTE asks: "Can they do a fork in this?"

    Why?

    It's just a discussion about the number of US tyro radio licenses and the distribution through the various classes. Yes, three years is a very short timeline.

    Here's a quick summary:

    The number of Novices has droppedThe number of Technicians has increasedThe number of Technician Pluses has dropped, and will soon attain zero - in fraction because FCC renews them as TechniciansThe number of Generals has increasedThe number of Advanceds has droppedThe number of Extras has increasedThe total number of US hams has increased, but not as much as the US population.

    Of course no one of that really answers the arduous questions such as "how dynamic are those hams" and "what's the long term outlook"?

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      Short Version of a Long Story   by N2EY on December 10, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I became a radio tyro in the 1960s. The situation then had a lot of parallels with today.

    From the halt of WW2 until the early 1960s, US tyro radio numbers had grown steadily, both in absolute numbers and as a percentage of the population. Lots of new hams, lots of ham equipment manufacturers, lots of young people getting licenses. Some speak it was a Golden Age.

    But in the early 1960s the growth in US tyro license numbers stopped dead. Some years the total held steady, some years it dropped, some years it climbed a tiny bit. Overall it stayed the same, even as the US population kept growing.

    Some said ham radio was too old-fashioned; who wanted HF, Morse Code and tube radios in the solid-state microwave-relay computerized Space Age?

    Some said the rising charge and complexity of the new SSB equipment shut out too many people.

    Some said it was the lack of sunspots, the ascend of CB, the many alternatives in electronics.

    Some said it was the threat of "incentive licensing" and the license requirements.

    Some said it was the young people. They had the counterculture, antiwar protesting, rock-and-roll, drugs, free love, and much more. Some said ham radio was way too square to live accepted by hip young folks who were in a much different groove. Bummer!

    Some equipment manufacturers disappeared from the tyro radio market. Others reduced their lines, or kept selling modified versions of their ragged stuff. Imported Japanese stuff began crowding American ham gear off the shelves.

    Woe and dismay! Ham radio was doomed! The numbers proved it, they couldn't even support up with the baby boom! When the ragged codgers died off, that would live the halt - 1980 at the latest!

    Now it's 40+ years later. tyro radio is still here. There are more hams, more things to accomplish in ham radio, more bands/modes/technologies to elect from.

    And they still fill the doomsayers.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by N3QE on December 10, 2009 Mail this to a friend! > The selfsame should depart for Ham radio. Yes Yes, I know it> is hobby, but when you dilute something by lowering> standard, you lax totality the way around.

    What standards fill been lowered? I got my Novice ticket at age 10 and my Advanced at age 13. Back when you got your ticket by testing at an FCC realm office, and the tests were totality about tube radios and dipoles and the CW and phone troop edges.

    College, a career, a family got in the way of me doing much ham radio after that but my school and jobs were technical and I did learn the new technologies if not exhaust them on the air in ham radio.

    Finally, I gain back on the air again (CW - it had always been my honest love) just a few years ago and resolve to upgrade to Extra. I open the study reserve and totality I can speak is:

    WOW.

    I mean, back when I was a kid, I did manage to design out how to jaundice tube amplifiers, gape at trapezoid patterns on scopes to adjust modulation, picture how to exhaust VR tubes to accomplish delayed CW keying, knew how to adjust phasing rigs for SSB etc. It was hard, I know I really was scraping bottom on getting a passing score on my Advanced test back then, but I did manage 70% or whatever the passing score was.

    But to live honest I was stunned with totality the new modes and rules and accompanying regulations I had to know for the new 21st century Extra test. Space operation? tyro TV? totality those new digital modes? (Back when I was a kid, it was Baudot RTTY or nothing! The FCC had not yet approved ASCII...)

    Technically, I had kept up with many but not totality of the advances in technology, and I didn't fill a huge problem with that side of the test. But rule-wise, wow, almost everything was new to me.

    Am I arrogant of what I scholarly as a kid about pile and adjusting tube rigs? Yeah, sure. But it sure would turn off any new kids wanting to gain into the hobby for us to constrain them to learn it just because they did. There's plenty of new stuff for them to learn instead (and for you and me to tangle up on).

    And I still work exclusively CW.

    Tim.

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by AC9HE on December 10, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I try not to post on this forum because it tends to draw flamers.........to the moth. I stand by my statement that I made in an earlier post, although when people are quoting me they are not posting my call correctly, oh well......details.

    I read some of the immediate replies to my post and they only supported my statement with the exception of one that did more than support it.

    I find it particularly consuming when someone post a reply to a topic by intentionally boasting about their accomplishments like, when I was a brain surgeon you had to open the skull with your teeth, did the medical school let me forgo this test because I had wooden teeth..........no I chomped until I was through it. These are the people that post their reply with their five paragraph responses stuff with self boasting and then depart back five times through out the day to re read their own post re assuring theirselves that they are the august person they believe themselves to be.

    Now back to the initial post in this thread and some of the comments. I fill my license, it is a tech license and for now that is what I "need" to utilize the equipment that I have. I would like to gain my universal and my extra some day down the road but for now this is the extent that I intend to endulge myself into this hobby. I find it sort of taken back when people want to "brand" those of us that are still very industrious with employment, children and other ventures in their lives and although they relish the hobby, they accomplish so at the flat in which they choose. I exhaust my equipment maybe three four times a week and relish doing so very much. I fill other hobbies as well and accomplish not emerse myself into them any more than I desire or that my economic flat will allow. I would imagine that there are other "tech" operators that read these post that belittle those of us that "choose" to relish the hobby at this level.

    The other day I was driving down the interstate and pulled into a ease area. There were several tractor trailers there. When I went into the vending machine locality I talked to several drivers and never once did they recount me because I didn't fill a CDL, that I didn't deserve to drive on the highway. You survey I don't fill a CDL because at this time in my life I accomplish not intend to drive a tractor trailer nor accomplish I own one. If at some point I resolve to drive one I will obtain a CDL. Does it suggest that I accomplish not fill the inteligence to obtain a CDL? I would mediate not as I fill held a CDL in the past.

    Does anyone understand the reference here. I exhaust the equipment that a tech license gives me the privilage to use. I accomplish not have, not accomplish I at this time own HF equipment so accomplish not necessity a universal or Extra license. accomplish I fill the learning to obtain them?I fill taken the test on line dozens of times and passed them. Will I rush out and gain one so I can talk on the selfsame equipment that I talk on already............ No more so then I will rush out and gain a CDL so I can drive my sedan down the interstate.

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by W5ESE on December 10, 2009 Mail this to a friend! > total numbers just aren't keeping up with> a continuing USA population increase

    Baloney.

    Over the long term, tyro Radio licenses havevery much kept up with the expand in thecountry's population.

    When I was first licensed (1976), amateurradio operators represented between 0.13-0.17%of the population.

    Today, they comprise over 0.2% of the USpopulation.

    Year_Population_# Hams_Hams as % of US Population1913 97225000 2000 0.002%1914 99111000 5000 0.005%1916 101961000 6000 0.006%1921 108538000 10809 0.010%1922 110049000 14179 0.013%1930 123202624 19000 0.015%1940 132164569 56000 0.042%1950 151325798 87000 0.057%1960 179323175 230000 0.128%1970 203211926 263918 0.130%1980 226545805 393353 0.174%1990 248709873 502677 0.202%1997 267783607 678733 0.253%2000 281421906 682240 0.242%2005 296410404 662600 0.224%2006 299291772 657814 0.220%

    73Scott W5ESE

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by N2EY on December 10, 2009 Mail this to a friend! W5ESE: One more data point:

    The current US population is about 306 million.

    The number of current unexpired US tyro licenses held by individuals is 681,637.

    Works out to 0.223%

    Next year is the census. Will live consuming to survey what the numbers are then.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      Standards, Policies and Politics   by N2EY on December 10, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N3QE: When folks talk about "lowering of standards", they fill a bunch of different things in mind.

    Sure, there's the code testing reduction and elimination. But that's not totality that changed.

    In the ragged days they didn't fill access to the actual mp;A. No CSCEs either; you had to pass totality tests for a given license on the first try at the selfsame session. 30 day wait to retest, you couldn't just pay another fee and gain another go. Exam sessions were held on weekday mornings in FCC offices, which meant a half-day or more off work or waiting for a school holiday that wasn't a Federal holiday. The test fee was as towering as $9, which when you adjust for inflation is about $50 in today's money - pass or fail.

    Yes, there are lots of rules/regs questions in the modern tests. Yet the size and number of tests is smaller, so those rules/regs questions tend to shove out the technical questions. IMHO, the tests today tend to cover a lot of subjects, but not in much depth. The ragged tests covered fewer subjects in a lot more detail. Which is better is a matter of opinion.

    What it totality meant in exercise was that the typical ham would learn the things that might live on the test backwards, forwards and upside down to live sure of a pass on the first go. grasp Ohm's Law: Since they didn't know what shape the Ohm's Law questions would take, it made sense to live absolutely sure of being able to solve any kindhearted of Ohm's Law problem. But when you know exactly what the questions will be, it makes sense to focus on being able to solve those problems only.

    The changes don't suggest everyone today just memorizes the mp;A and doesn't learn anything in the process. Far from it! But it does suggest that the test routine is very different - and that's a change in standards.

    There are "Technician In A Day" courses offered now which pledge to grasp someone from no license to passing the Tech in one day of class. And their success rate is very high! Would anyone fill offered even a "Novice In A Day" class back-when?

    Consider that recently the CEPT folks decided that only Advanceds and Extras qualified for a replete CEPT reciprocal license, after years and years of accepting the US universal license as well.

    Nobody is adage that hams today should fill to pass the exact selfsame tests as those given 20, 30, 40, 50 years ago. But at the selfsame time, it seems rather odd when an Extra doesn't know how to fabricate a simple wire dipole.

    Boil it totality down to this: Which would you reckon easier to pass:

    An exam where you knew the universal subjects that would live tested

    or

    An exam where you knew the universal subjects that would live tested AND could survey every one of the actual mp;A that could live on the test ahead of time?

    None of those test-method changes came about because the ARRL, ADA or large numbers of hams or would-be hams asked for them. They were the result of cost-saving moves by FCC, driven by the budget-cuts and policies of various administrations. Running test sessions at FCC realm offices cost a lot more tax dollars than having almost totality of the work done by unpaid Volunteer Examiners.

    The FCC is a joint commission, which means it answers to both the Executive and the Legislative branches. And while the White House and the Congress might not gain involved in the actual regs too much, they set the universal policies, pick the commissioners and determine the funding. gape at totality the support Bush II gave to BPL for just one example. gape at how they got medical code-test waivers back in 1990 for another.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by KB6QXM on December 10, 2009 Mail this to a friend! One more datapoint:

    Of the 306 Million people in the US, it is estimated that over 12 million of those are illegally here.

    So accomplish they lower the number to 294 Million? That would skew the percentage a bit! Many are not citizens, but visitors on work visas.

    Can these people obtain ham radio licenses???

    Hopefully the 2010 census will list the illegal population, so they can gain more accurate calculations.

      Standards, Policies and Politics = Stagnant   by K4RAF on December 10, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Since the tests fill removed the technical aspects & replaced them with archaic rules, the hobby has become a control battleground.

    One person mentioned "high power, towering speed links". Well I know several hams who operate on ham bands like 900MHz, 2.4, 3.4 & 5GHz with OFDM for broadband internet. You'll never survey a callsign on any of it. They just design links & point-multi-point systems with off the shelf parts to operate under fraction 15.

    No amps, just beneficial antennas & beneficial radios. Are they hurting anyone? Not likely. They are actually serving folks who depend on them. Note to hams: IF you necessity a power amp or heliax on 802.11(x) OFDM, don't even turn it on. You don't fill clue.

    The inability to adopt to progressive communications methods & truly serve the community has stunted the growth of a once Great technical hobby. EMCOMM wannabes should live guerrilla wi-fi guys. Drop it in, hook it up, power it up, connect up, walk away... Video, VoIP, SMS, etc... Nice scenario that happened in New Orleans during Katrina. They weren't hams, but they SHOULD fill BEEN!

    The quest for control, endless "You can't accomplish that..." & total lack of technical embrace has caused one result: Stagnation...

    Feel free to write but it is obvious truth, from where I sit. I fill been licensed long enough to survey it...

    Rafwifidx@gmail

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by N2EY on December 10, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB6QXM:

    12 MILLION! Wow!!

    However, if they're here on work visas, they're not here illegally.

    Citizenship used to live a license requirement, but not any more, so legal resident aliens can gain licenses. But I doubt many illegals would give their personal info to a Federal agency!

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by K6LHA on December 10, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KC9HGJ posted on 10 Dec 09:

    "I find it particularly consuming when someone post a reply to a topic by intentionally boasting about their accomplishments like, when I was a brain surgeon you had to open the skull with your teeth, did the medical school let me forgo this test because I had wooden teeth..........no I chomped until I was through it. These are the people that post their reply with their five paragraph responses stuff with self boasting and then depart back five times through out the day to re read their own post re assuring theirselves that they are the august person they believe themselves to be."

    I've encounterd the very selfsame attitudes for a helf century. Kinda reminds me of the amusing saying, "When I was young they whittled their own ICs out of wood!" :-)................KC9HGJ: "Now back to the initial post in this thread and some of the comments. I fill my license, it is a tech license and for now that is what I "need" to utilize the equipment that I have. I would like to gain my universal and my extra some day down the road but for now this is the extent that I intend to endulge myself into this hobby. I find it sort of taken back when people want to "brand" those of us that are still very industrious with employment, children and other ventures in their lives and although they relish the hobby, they accomplish so at the flat in which they choose. I exhaust my equipment maybe three four times a week and relish doing so very much. I fill other hobbies as well and accomplish not emerse myself into them any more than I desire or that my economic flat will allow. I would imagine that there are other "tech" operators that read these post that belittle those of us that "choose" to relish the hobby at this level."

    I will support your personal conclusion to accomplish as you survey fit, not what others or so-called representative membership organizations speak you should.................KC9HGJ: "The other day I was driving down the interstate and pulled into a ease area. There were several tractor trailers there. When I went into the vending machine locality I talked to several drivers and never once did they recount me because I didn't fill a CDL, that I didn't deserve to drive on the highway. You survey I don't fill a CDL because at this time in my life I accomplish not intend to drive a tractor trailer nor accomplish I own one. If at some point I resolve to drive one I will obtain a CDL. Does it suggest that I accomplish not fill the inteligence to obtain a CDL? I would mediate not as I fill held a CDL in the past."

    Hear ya! beneficial on you for writing that.

    What some of those ultra-conservative "critics" are really adage is that totality should worship them for their self-described glorious achievements, at how intrinsically beneficial they imagine they are, whatever is the "achievement." tyro radio is a HOBBY, a non-professional avocational activity involving radio, even if the Regulations accomplish not picture it exactly that way de jure. It is DE FACTO a hobby. Hobbies are for personal enjoyment. NO ONE should ordain "what is fun or what is not fun." Neither should the government ordain what is fun. totality the USA government dictates is some technical regulations to mitigate radio service interference.

    "NO!" bawl the petty tyrants hiding behind long tenure in amateurism. "All must accomplish AS THEY SAY! [only THEY 'know what is beneficial for tyro radio] BS. Mental perversion combined with personal delusions of grandeur................KC9HGJ: "Does anyone understand the reference here. I exhaust the equipment that a tech license gives me the privilage to use."

    Good on you again! I totally harmonize with you on that. I speak again that tyro radio is a HOBBY, an vocational activity involving radio, regulations needed only because of the nature of EM propagation and necessity to mitigate interference to other radio services. Fanatics within the hobby don't understand that, tyro radio has become a raison d'etre, their "reason for being." They fill this terrible 'need' to live 'better than others' anddon't falter to attempt beating on those who just want to relish the hobby independently, personally, the way THEY want to relish it.

    In the USA the FCC gives us Great license in personal OPTION of option in choosing what they want to accomplish in tyro radio. THEY are not lesser or greater for doing separate, individual things within it.

    Contrary to tyro radio folklore, ANY radio operator license is simply a license to operate on unavoidable frequencies under unavoidable conditions as defined by their only civil radio regulating agency. Neither the FCC (created in 1934) nor any of its predecessor agencies were chartered to live academic institutions with licenses representing 'degrees' of academic achievement. Each license is merely a PERMISSION, a privilege to radiate RF under unavoidable conditions as codified in law.

    In a jagged analogy, it is like the Cartage Driver License, a license to carry cargo for hire and engage in legal commerce of such cartage, but being required to obey the very selfsame roadway laws as totality other drivers of any vehicle type. The ONLY handicap a "30 ton tractor and box" is physical mass that can overrun small vehicles in defiance of the law. In another way the petty tiny tyro tyrant tries to BULL their way with 'upgraded' licenses and once, long ago, being tested in the now-outdated requirement of knowing manual radiotelegraphy. That is just bullying on their part, a self-glorification of theirs which is NOT an enjoyment dictated for all..............KC9HGJ: "I accomplish not have, not accomplish I at this time own HF equipment so accomplish not necessity a universal or Extra license."

    I got an tyro Extra class license just because I could. It was a personal handicap to emit RF just about anywhere allocated on the EM spectrum. After over 50 years involved in radio communications and three federal commercial radio licenses later, I figured I had enough taste and learning to pass some tyro tests. I besides had the funds to purchase an entire station new. That was done for MY convenience, not to "prove" myself to anyone. Ah, but that opened another two cans of worms of absolute resentment to unavoidable others.

    According to unavoidable others "I fill to open as a teen-ager and slowly work my way up the proficiency ladder and depart through totality the class levels to justify my talent to others in the tyro community." Barf-city BS. The only "proof" needed is to pass the FCC-mandated examinations whose questions (and answers) were authored by the NCVEC Question Pool Committee (themselves required to hold USA tyro radio licenses). That VEC QPC was the ONLY "community." :-)

    Time-travel has not yet been invented. I cannot depart back to my teen years and receive the requisite League brainwashing. My teen years occurred during a time of World War with the entire USA involved. It wasn't some schoolbook history notation. It was LIFE unfolding for totality of us then.

    Just WHY in #### cognomen must they "progress slowly, step-by-step through totality the classes of license?" tyro radio is a HOBBY. It isn't a Union or Guild. It sure as #### isn't professional by federal definition. WE, totality of us are allowed to enter or progress as far as THEY custody to. I've been a PROFESSIONAL in electronics and radio, that is earning MONEY for my work services. A few Others expressed Great resentment at that. So much so, that one several times objected to my purchasing an Icom IC-746Pro. Not so much for the brand or kind, but for the "Pro" suffix on Icom's model ID. :-)

    That was Icom's ID number, not mine. But, horrors and shame on me that I did not 'design and build my own!' Yes, I could have. I spent a working career doing things like that. I could fill technically duplicated the entirety of functions and features of an Icom or Kenwood or Yaesu with time. I figured if I started now and continued non-stop totality by myself that I might live done in 10 or 12 years. I'm 77 now, so I should wait until I'm near 90 to "make my first QSO?" :-) :-) :-)

    Well, my first 'solo' radio contact, NON-amateur, was done in 1952 while in the US Army. I'm sure that sticklers for EXACTNESS will scream "that isn't a QSO!" It was a radio contact nonetheless. Q-codes were devised by professional radiomen, not amateurs. Amateurs picked up the exhaust so that they could pretend to live "professional." Roger that. :-) In totality the history or radio communications the ACTUAL invention/innovations of advancing any state of the radio technique by amateurs were done before 1940. I don't custody what the ARRL writes, I've got many other sources of historical information on electronics which are not out trying to gain membership monies flowing into a suburb of Hartford Connectibutt.................This posting and reply isn't about "Trends" but I won't apologize for it. So many fill commented on UNverified 'trends' that are more half-truths, folklore, repetitions of what others claim. I speak that anyone who enjoys whatever activity they are in are very free to relish it. I besides speak that anyone who wants to ordain what anyone else "should" relish is one sick puppy and treated with momentary compassion for their mental illnesses. <shrug>

    73, Len AF6AY

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by AI2IA on December 10, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Commenting on eHam.net is like spitting into the wind.   RE: Pride, Standards and Political Correctness   by K6LHA on December 10, 2009 Mail this to a friend! W7ETA posted on 10 Dec 09:

    "As always, Great prose Len--easy to follow datum presentation."

    [AF6AY] "total numbers just aren't keeping up with a continuing USA population increase,"

    W7ETA: "On physiognomy value, that isn't surprising. They can assume people dying had better talent and desire to become hams, vrs people just born. If one could gape at a sampling of talent and desire in new borns, to talk with others, my speculation would live borne out."

    Thanks for the nice words, Bob.

    Unfortunately, some folks mediate it is "baloney" (W5ESE) and "prove" their point with UNverified data on USA population going back to a century ago. :-)

    I specifically targeted just three years and only three years to survey if there was an impact from the elimination of totality morse code testing for any USA tyro radio license. That it was only THREE years was stated in the title. Some folks are too caught up in their own personal vision (or mythology) of USA tyro radio to enable them to study a situation dispassionately...............W7ETA: "Come to mediate of it, new borns might programed to bawl if they fill to learning CW?"

    :-)

    Heh heh, I can't recount you how many times I've been called a "newborn" in ham radio, a "know-nothing" or even outright "stupid/ignorant" (N2EY and K8MN in public in a newsgroup when I didn't inquire THEIR "permission to grasp a test)" :-)

    Usually I just shrug my shoulders when encountering such self-centered individuals on forums and newsgroups, etc. When encountering such on tyro bands I've simply turned off. Since I BEGAN on HF over a half century ago in the large commerce of radio communications (not broadcasting), without any necessity to know or learn "CW" I am just incurious to it. I fill no fancy for "CW." I fill no contemn for it, either. Indifference is not "hate."

    I picked my study chronological period because: (1) I had third-party data from two independent sources; (2) Cessation of USA tyro radio code testing can live considered an epochal point in USA tyro radio history; (3) Some acquaintences suggested six-month periods as suitable enough for a venue having limited space. Note: I fill the tools and talent to fabricate "graphs" but saw no justification for a small amount of data by those who would quarrel against any format if the data did not meet their preconceived notions.

    Before and after that fateful date of 23 Feb 07, CW-LOVERS fill insisted that "nothing can live seen for a 'short time' period." They would stretch it totality out for years, a time sufficiently long enough for it totality to dim in history and thus become a NON-subject. I classify that as just plain denial by those who can't suffer to survey their mode (at which they title expertise) no longer "loved" or an attempt to fabricate themselves better than others, indeed 'superior' because they met standards of long ago.

    Newborns bawl because it is a natural act, calling for a necessity for sustenance, a necessity for security, a necessity for physical comfort. Lots of adults "cry" and cuss and speak nasty to others when evidence is presented that doesn't meet their personal idea/experience/brainwashed notions of what tyro radio "should be." <shrug> It is not my job to coddle them and commend them gratuitously. :-)

    73, Len AF6AY

      RE: Standards, Policies and Politics   by K6LHA on December 10, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N2EY, man of totality authority, wrote on December 10, 2009:

    "N3QE: When folks talk about "lowering of standards", they fill a bunch of different things in mind."

    N2EY: "Sure, there's the code testing reduction and elimination. But that's not totality that changed. In the ragged days they didn't fill access to the actual mp;A. No CSCEs either; you had to pass totality tests for a given license on the first try at the selfsame session. 30 day wait to retest, you couldn't just pay another fee and gain another go. Exam sessions were held on weekday mornings in FCC offices, which meant a half-day or more off work or waiting for a school holiday that wasn't a Federal holiday. The test fee was as towering as $9, which when you adjust for inflation is about $50 in today's money - pass or fail."

    By golly, things were really TOUGH for you youngsters, right? :-)

    Code testing for USA tyro radio licensing stopped in early 2007. Code testing for Commercial Radiotelegraphy operators continues...but before COLEMs, not VECs. Just think, you could depart commercial and actually merit money as a radiotelegraphy operator on the Great Lakes. You would live a natural with your superb code key skills.

    Oh, and well before the Dick Bash books, there were the "mp;A" series of books on just about every trade that had license testing, commercial radio and tyro radio included. Hardbound in 1956. I tried to gain one in my home town back in February of that year but they weren't available. When I went for my Radiotelephone Operator license in March of 1956 I just memorized totality the rules from a borrowed copy (fit into a half-inch lax leaf). I didn't fill any thought of re-taking any test in Chicago at an FCC realm Office. Gollee, if there was some regulation or something on re-taking atest, I would fill failed to remember it. Tsk, tsk, I didn't fill to retake anything. Oh, yes, one other thing, I didn't interrupt my school classes since I was 23 and newly released from dynamic duty with the US Army. <shrug>

    I can't speak what the test fee was at the FCC because I didn't bother remembering it. I had earned the exotic "salary" of $146 per month with overseas pay as an E-5 while obliging the USA with my "life if necessary." But, you loved to mock that in public much later. You never served. <shrug> I accomplish recall that the 90-mile train fare to Chicago and back cost more than the test fee..................N2EY: "Yes, there are lots of rules/regs questions in the modern tests. Yet the size and number of tests is smaller, so those rules/regs questions tend to shove out the technical questions. IMHO, the tests today tend to cover a lot of subjects, but not in much depth. The ragged tests covered fewer subjects in a lot more detail. Which is better is a matter of opinion."

    Gosh and golly, it sure sounds as though THE HAM TEST was a real toughie long ago. I don't know since I never bothered to grasp one until 2007. I've heard differently but then both you and K8MN fill publicly agreed that I was "too stupid to pass a ham test." Of course that was before I asked for your license to grasp one. Undaunted, I just took it and passed totality three test elements in one afternoon, no retakes. :-)...............N2EY: "What it totality meant in exercise was that the typical ham would learn the things that might live on the test backwards, forwards and upside down to live sure of a pass on the first go. grasp Ohm's Law: Since they didn't know what shape the Ohm's Law questions would take, it made sense to live absolutely sure of being able to solve any kindhearted of Ohm's Law problem. But when you know exactly what the questions will be, it makes sense to focus on being able to solve those problems only."

    Wow! A simple algebraic expression (Ohm's Law of Resistance) is 'rocket science?!?" E = I * R? Sonovagun!

    Well, since you later would ace totality three courses in The Calculus in collitch, yeah... :-)................N2EY: "The changes don't suggest everyone today just memorizes the mp;A and doesn't learn anything in the process. Far from it! But it does suggest that the test routine is very different - and that's a change in standards."

    I still fill the one-inch thick looseleaf notebook filled with verbatim questions and answers of totality three test elements applicable to an tyro radio license examination for February 2007. I can't find my sheet of the exact numbers of the Question Pool questions but, for totality 120 questions of 3 total tests there were about 13 times the required minimum. The tyro Extra Question Pool had about 16 times the required minimum or about 430 for Extra alone. I could re-count totality the allowed questions in the Question Pool but it would live a wasted application here, right? :-)

    I showed a local stage actor acquaintence my QPC notebook a few years ago and asked him if he couldmemorize it. Stage actors necessity to memorize just about every line in a play, totality characters plus positions and lots of other tiny notes in the script. The only remark I got was "ya gotta live kidding!?" Then he showed me the size of the script he was then rehearsing. It wasn't even a quarter inch thick and typed double-spaced.

    For 120 questions and 13 times that in the total Pool there would live 1560 questions with 6240 answers. The 120 test questions (and 480 answers) would live (or should be) selected randomly out of those 6240 total items. Since many answers are "distractors" (almost-correct answers written so as to appear as correct), totality questions AND answers necessity to live "memorized." But, I guess totality you long-time amateurs fill SUPERHUMAN powers thus you fill evolved into superbeings or something. It must live the exotic state of the radio technique that long-timers gain doing totality that morse code stuff?............N2EY: "There are "Technician In A Day" courses offered now which pledge to grasp someone from no license to passing the Tech in one day of class. And their success rate is very high! Would anyone fill offered even a "Novice In A Day" class back-when?"

    WHY? New Novice licenses haven't been granted since 2000. This morning (10 Dec 09) the number of Technician class licensees totalled 344,184 (Hamdata) and 333,410 (ARRL within 10-year term). Novice class was 20,564 (Hamdata) and 17,147 (ARRL). Novice class required passing a code test, Technician class did not after 1990. Remember, no new Novice licenses fill been granted since the year 2000.

    You support adage that Technician Pluses are "automatically renewed" as Technician since no newTechnician plus licenses fill been granted since the year 2000. Ah, new Technician Plus licensees BEFORE the year 2000. You've never explained why the no-code-test Technician class got so large BEFORE 'restructuring' came into effect. Numbers of the two just don't add up to your "theory." [don't let that stop you, accurate data verification hasn't stopped you yet].............N2EY: "Nobody is adage that hams today should fill to pass the exact selfsame tests as those given 20, 30, 40, 50 years ago. But at the selfsame time, it seems rather odd when an Extra doesn't know how to fabricate a simple wire dipole."

    Weird comment, Jimmy. Morse code testing has been required for tyro radio ever since the first USA radio regulatory agency existed (created in 1912). Now, I look to recall one James Miccolis as being ADAMANT about absolutely KEEPING the morse code test privilege on through November 2006, then adage its elimination would live the "worst thing that can happen" [to USA tyro radio] by January 2007 (repeated at least twice since in ham forums). The FCC published a Notice that code test would live eliminated in December 2006, exact effective date to live published in the Federal Register. Gee, how quickly they forget... :-)

    Oh, and length of a dipole? 468/frequency in MHz is the length in Imperial measure. I knew that in junior towering school back in 1947, well before being licensed to drive...............N2EY: "Boil it totality down to this: Which would you reckon easier to pass:"

    I'd rather pass my annual medical exam and its blood test (I study very arduous for my blood test). So far I've been lucky with nothing much out of the ordinary.

    I'd besides want to pass my written California driver exam which I am now supposed to grasp every 5 years or so now. I've passed totality of those...without "waivers."

    Ya see, I passed totality the required tests for tyro Extra in the USA and will never fill to worry about taking another tyro test in my life. Just support on renewing and it is mine for life. Even if I gain a Vanity callsign modification. That applies to totality who renew within the required time period. Imagine, the mighty state of the technique of radio KNOWN by totality licensees even after more than three decades since they've taken their last test. :-)................N2EY: "None of those test-method changes came about because the ARRL, ADA or large numbers of hams or would-be hams asked for them. They were the result of cost-saving moves by FCC, driven by the budget-cuts and policies of various administrations. Running test sessions at FCC realm offices cost a lot more tax dollars than having almost totality of the work done by unpaid Volunteer Examiners."

    Ahhh, having been assigned to station ADA in the military for 3 years, it was never involved then in tyro activities and certainly was not operated in any tyro fashion. Station ADA is still operating today in Hawaii as the callsign of the Headquarters of the US Army Pacific.

    Are YOU a VE, Jimmy? You've stated in public HERE that you were examined for your first USA tyro radio test by a Volunteer Examiner in 1969 and that selfsame tyro was besides your first QSO contact. Can they detect some "favoritsm" in there, perhaps "kindness" to a teener? Hmmm? Could they detect some selfsame "kindness" about the VEs who passed a brace of six-year-olds back in 1998 or so (cute picture was in the ARRL Letter). Are they still licensed? It is about 11 years later now. They must live in their grace period if they haven't renewed...............N2EY: "The FCC is a joint commission, which means it answers to both the Executive and the Legislative branches. And while the White House and the Congress might not gain involved in the actual regs too much, they set the universal policies, pick the commissioners and determine the funding."

    Sorry, the FCC is an INDEPENDENT federal agency, James. tickle check out your civics organizations and don't "invent" new structures. It had about a $7.5 BILLION annual budget in 2005. Congress passed the laws that chartered the FCC (Communications Act of 1934) and amended it (Telecommunications Act of 1996) and that's about it for "outside influence." While you are at it, don't forget that BPL was endorsed by an FCC Chairman (two Chairmen ago) by Colin Powell's son under the George W. Bush's Presidency. Oh, you said that, didn't you, except you called George Walker Bush as "Bush II." Note: If he was a "II" then he would fill been named George Herbert Walker Bush II. On totality those "waivers" that troubles you so, WHO out there in tyro land got code-test waivers? You fill talked SO much about that but never revealed WHO got one. Since you are this mighty "insider" into government you just haven't fleshed out your mythology of "right v. wrong." 1990 was besides the year the Technician class (having no code test) NPRM was released. Technician class (of modern times) was made law in 1991. Are you confusing things or what?

    I mediate you've been working too arduous as a "radio manufacturer" running the "Southgate Radio" company since the early 1970s. Relax, try to gain your judgement clear. Try watching TV, like re-runs of "Sanford and Son."

    Bye,

    AF6AY

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by KE7RYM on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I fill been licensed for about two years, upgraded to General, and will upgrade to AE next year. The clubs in this locality don't want new members, or at least they act that way. Despite this, I am getting on the air next year, finances permitting. I'm interested in vlf, HF, weak signal digital (all bands), and mediate that the ARRL prints the troop charts upside down. Dangle the carrots of the nearly vacant microwave bands in front of amateurs so they can start staking legitimate title to furthering learning in those areas when the next WARC rolls around and (fill in the blank) Telecomm wants the whole EHF troop for real-time vehicle telemetry or similar, and hams can point to reasons for keeping those bands.   RE: Standards, Policies and Politics   by W8JII on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Len says it again----that's 19, "I just took it and passed totality three test elements in one afternoon, no retakes. :-) ". I'll speak it again Len. You're brilliant.   Against The Wind   by N2EY on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! AI2IA writes "Commenting on eHam.net is like spitting into the wind."

    It can look like that sometimes. But to paraphrase what you wrote about tyro radio, "Eham is What You fabricate Of It For Yourself".

    The key factor is to ignore the trolls. They're smooth to spot.

    A classic troll-move on eham is to post something that seems credible but is inaccurate, delusive or just plain untrue. Those who know the facts then correct the mistake, the troll responds with more inaccuracies, arguments and insults, and the cycle continues. Usually the bait is subtle but obvious to those who know the facts.

    What keeps the cycle going is that the troll doesn't custody about the truth at all. What the troll wants is attention, and the chance to excited others and insult them. The responders accomplish custody about the truth, and support trying to set the record straight and concentrate on the facts, which simply keeps the game going.

    The troll will exhaust totality the usual tools of logical fallacy to support the responses coming. Common ones are the Appeal to Authority, Presuming the Conclusion, belief as Fact, Ad Hominem, dispute from Verbosity, misquoting, and various semantic games, but there are many others.

    The solution in totality cases is to simply ignore the trolls completely and not grasp the bait.

    You can recount when a troll is getting desperate when the inaccuracies turn to flat out lies that are easily disproved and the insults become personal and obvious.

    A classic case of troll-desperation is when a troll falsely claims that someone else said or did a unavoidable thing. No proof is given, just the improper claim.

    The person accused will usually respond with some variation of "Prove it!" knowing that the troll cannot prove an event that never happened. The troll will just ignore the response in one way or another and depart on to other ways of keeping the game going. Remember, the troll doesn't custody about the truth at all, only about the attention. The "Prove it!" response is attention, which is exactly what the troll wants.

    The only way to win is not to play. Then eham becomes a pleasure. I've scholarly a lot here from non-trolls (such as yourself) by concentrating on the signal and ignoring the noise.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by KB1SF on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Excellent analysis, Len!

    However, there's one thing missing from totality the data that you gents are bantering about that I believe will eventually prove to live their undoing.

    It’s that NOWHERE in the public FCC database does it state the AGE of their current licensees!

    It is besides notable to remember that, because their licenses are totality on a 10 year renewal cycle, the demographics you totality are citing were only completely accurate in 1999. Who knows how many more of us fill died, or have, for whatever reason, chosen to leave the hobby altogether since then?

    My own (admittedly, purely anecdotal) evidence that they are on the cusp of a steep decline in their numbers stems from my dynamic work as an accredited examiner in both the USA and Canada. For the last several years, I fill been able to import on the fingers of one hand the number of "under twenty somethings" I've administered examinations to for their Service. I'm besides getting the selfsame feelings expressed by a number of other examiners with whom I regularly fill contact.

    Indeed, most of my candidates for a "new" license in their Service fill been what I call "retreads". These are folks who may fill always wanted to gain their ham licenses but, for whatever reason, were unable to obtain one until now. And, not surprisingly, when asked, the vast majority of these folks speak they were kept out of their Service by their collective, ongoing obsession with Morse testing.

    Another large group of people I test held a ham ticket at one time long ago, but life (in the shape of job, family or income) prevented them from actively pursuing the hobby until now. In the interim, they simply let whatever license they may fill held lapse.

    In both cases most of the folks I'm administering tests to these days are now well into their mid to late 50s. Some are even well into their 60s or 70s. And the VAST majority of them are now retirees. As I fill said, there is rarely an "under twenty something" in the lot.

    Now, don't gain me wrong. I'm more than pleased to fill these folks (back) in the fold. And I welcome then totality with open arms. But my own personal experiences are increasingly showing that they simply are NOT attracting enough YOUTHFUL newcomers to their Service these days to replace us ever-aging curmudgeons when they (and most of their predominantly older newcomers) are departed and gone.

    The bottom line here is that, while their numbers may gape like they fill "stopped the decline" and are now a robust and growing Service again, the (not-so-hidden) reality is that the (non-club) number of licensees in their Service in the United States still peaked in 2003. And, as Len has so eloquently noted, there has been a slow, but very measurable decline in their overall license numbers ever since then.

    My hunch is that this fact, when combined with (as yet unreported) declines in their ranks from death or lack of interest that are being masked by their ten-year license renewal cycle, their numbers are now poised to start dropping at an ever more increasing rate. And they will open dropping like a rock in the out years as their ever increasing "silent key" rate overtakes and then eventually outpaces their "youthful newcomer" rate.

    Oh...and there's one more thing...

    As others fill pointed out, I, too, find it absolutely fascinating that, just using the numbers shown above, almost 350,000 in their ranks hold nothing more than a Technician license, while only 120,000 or so fill "advanced" totality the way to Extra Class.

    Or, to do it another way, Technicians now fabricate up a whopping 40 percent...nearly half....of the non-club whole, while Extra Class operators fabricate up only about 17 percent of the total.

    Those who were around in the late 1960s may recall that fraction of the ARRL's august "sales job" behind the FCC's so-called "incentive licensing" nonsense back then was to create built-in (largely ego-based) regulatory incentives for totality of us to feel the strong urge to educate ourselves and "upgrade" totality the way to Extra Class.

    It simply hasn't happened.

    It would now look that almost HALF of those in their current ranks fill told the FCC to "take a hike" with their stupid "incentive" nonsense. Indeed, for whatever reason, today's Technicians fill very clearly shown...by their overwhelming numbers...that they simply aren't interested in "upgrading" AT ALL!

    In any other "educational" endeavor, a 17 percent success rate to the "top rung" of the ladder (an Extra Class license) would live considered a dismal failure. Everywhere else, that is, but with the FCC's myopic attempt to turn tyro Radio into the "No Budding RF Engineer Left Behind" Radio Service.

    It would totality live comic if it wasn't so sad.

    73,

    KeithKB1SF / VA3KSF

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by KW4JX on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Precisely do - supporting the basic fact that totality hams are equal, and that motivation is the key to expanding the hobby. That motivation can only Come from experimentation at the pre-license stage.   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by AC9HE on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! IT...........is ..........a..........hobby.   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by AC9HE on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! If you mediate that it is more than that........you necessity to re medicate.   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by N2EY on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB1SF: "It is besides notable to remember that, because their licenses are totality on a 10 year renewal cycle, the demographics you totality are citing were only completely accurate in 1999."

    They weren't completely accurate in 1999 either, for the selfsame reasons.

    KB1SF: "Who knows how many more of us fill died, or have, for whatever reason, chosen to leave the hobby altogether since then?"

    Nobody knows and it doesn't matter because the selfsame was honest in 1999.

    KB1SF: "while their numbers may gape like they fill "stopped the decline" and are now a robust and growing Service again, the (not-so-hidden) reality is that the (non-club) number of licensees in their Service in the United States still peaked in 2003......there has been a slow, but very measurable decline in their overall license numbers ever since then."

    Not really. In fact, not at all.

    What happened is this:

    from 2000 to 2003 the numbers went upfrom 2003 to 2007 the numbers went downfrom 2007 to now the numbers went up.

    They haven't gone up as posthaste or as far as they might like but they ARE rising. Graph the numbers from the AH0A site and you'll see. (Graphs are excellent beneficial for showing trends).

    KB1SF: "I..find it absolutely fascinating that...almost 350,000 in their ranks hold nothing more than a Technician license, while only 120,000 or so fill "advanced" totality the way to Extra Class.

    Or, to do it another way, Technicians now fabricate up a whopping 40 percent...nearly half....of the non-club whole, while Extra Class operators fabricate up only about 17 percent of the total."

    You're not telling the whole story, Keith. Nor an accurate one.

    You're leaving out the most notable info, which tells a very different story.

    Here are the numbers of current, unexpired licenses held by individuals on May 14, 2000, just after the restructuring:

    Novice: 49,329Technician: 205,394Technician Plus: 128,860General: 112,677 (16.70%)Advanced: 99,782Extra: 78,750 (11.67%)

    Total 674,792

    Note that the total number of Technicians and Tech Pluses combined is 334,254, which is 49.53% of the total. Add in the Novices and you gain 383,583, which means that back then 56.84% of US hams held "nothing more than a Tech Plus license".

    Now gape at the numbers for yesterday:

    Novice: 17,145Technician: 333,530Technician Plus: 320General: 150,734 (22.11%)Advanced: 60,850Extra: 119,228 (17.49%)

    Total 681,807

    Note that the total number of Technicians and Tech Pluses combined is 333,850, which is 48.96% of the total - and LOWER than it was in 2000!. Add in the Novices and you gain 350,995, which means that today then 51.48% of US hams "hold nothing more than a Tech Plus license". Again, LOWER than in 2000.

    Meanwhile the number and percentage of hams with Generals and Extras has grown in both absolute and percentage numbers.

    Another poster did an offsite graph which showed totality this very clearly.

    KB1SF: "It would now look that almost HALF of those in their current ranks fill told the FCC to "take a hike" with their stupid "incentive" nonsense. Indeed, for whatever reason, today's Technicians fill very clearly shown...by their overwhelming numbers...that they simply aren't interested in "upgrading" AT ALL!"

    Really?

    Then why are the number and percentage of US hams with a Tech Plus, Tech or Novice license dropping, while the number and percentage of hams with a General, Advanced or Extra license growing?

    It seems the numbers recount a very different story.

    Also, if someone is only interested in VHF and above, why should they upgrade? Tech gives them totality operating privileges above 30 MHz, which is more than 97% of the spectrum allowed to US hams, and totality modes. If a ham doesn't want to accomplish HF/MF ham radio, isn't interested in being a VE and doesn't want a 1x2 vanity call, why bother with any other license class?

    KB1SF: "In any other "educational" endeavor, a 17 percent success rate to the "top rung" of the ladder (an Extra Class license) would live considered a dismal failure."

    How many people with bachelor's or associate's degrees depart on to a master's degree?

    How many with a master's depart on to a doctorate?

    Are those degrees "a dismal failure" because so many people don't depart after them?

    I mediate not.

    I was a ham back in the 1960s and I remember totality the prophecies of doom about incentive licensing. How it would live the halt of ham radio by 1980 at the latest - back when there were maybe 250,000 US amateurs.

    Didn't turn out that way.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by K6LHA on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB1SF wrote on December 11, 2009:

    "Excellent analysis, Len! However, there's one thing missing from totality the data that you gents are bantering about that I believe will eventually prove to live their undoing. It’s that NOWHERE in the public FCC database does it state the AGE of their current licensees!"

    Thank you, Keith, but that age data is out of their control. FCC records of tyro radio licensees don't fill (or no longer have) data on age, or gender, and certainly not race. But, gape through several current or past tyro radio publications in the USA and anyone can survey that those licensees in photos are overwhelmingly of WHITE MALES. Yes, there are females, yes, there are youngsters (and a sprinkling of teen-agers) and some who are not caucasoid. No statistics or polls are necessary to survey that. I'm not going to speculate on HOW totality that came about.

    As an example, one of my test proctors (VE) of the ARRL VEC team was black, the team leader was asian. Which one was who? One can infer that the team leader was of asian ancestry just from HIS surname, but one cannot infer anything from the other three. I was not acquainted with any of them before that test time but I observed them as much as they observed me. totality had the appearance of being male, totality appeared to live "over 40 in age.".................KB1SF: "It is besides notable to remember that, because their licenses are totality on a 10 year renewal cycle, the demographics you totality are citing were only completely accurate in 1999. Who knows how many more of us fill died, or have, for whatever reason, chosen to leave the hobby altogether since then?"

    I disagree sort of there. I did not accomplish anywhere nigh to a "demographic picture" in my article for the simple judgement that there wasn't enough data to support anything nigh to a replete demographic workup.

    The Hamdata website daily presentations accomplish present EXPIRATIONS of USA tyro radio licensees. That is the only thing available to their daily database downloads. There is no data on the WHY of expirations. There is NO requirement that the FCC live supplied with death notices of licensees. tyro radio service in the USA is essentially a hobby activity, not working in conjunction with the Social Security people as an example.

    ARRL statistics and at least one other statistics site accomplish NOT present expirations. That is their choice. I would infer that the ARRL "sins by omission" because showing license expireation numbers is/has the appearance of a decided negative interest. Note besides that the ARRL does NOT present or argue those license classes who are IN the 2-year grace period, ONLY those in their 10-year license term. Note the continuing entreaty by the ARRL to relate them...they require many members to insure a profit for their efforts and pay totality the paid staff, support their power supplied, etc. Those numbers of members are used by ARRL ad salespeople to attract paying advertisers which further enhances their monetary income. As a matter of fact, any individual member CANNOT gain any design on ARRL membership numbers except once a year in their Annual Reports. One has to live a potential advertising buyer, identity questioned if not a recognized tyro radio product maker/seller to gain current numbers of members. In other words, ARRL members cannot gain replete information on their own 'national representative.' Members gain ONLY what membership headquarters decides.

    In Hamdata's case, they fill stored past copies of FCC database downloads and derive some information by what I call "secondary sorting." (not an I.T. erm) "Primary sorting" consists of searching through the identified data fields in a database download to divide classes and to cross-check totality licensee names against the previous day's download to survey if they are still within the 12-year total term. "Secondary sorting" would live to compare the current database contents against those of a week prior, a month prior, two months prior, three months, six months, finally ayear prior. That requires much more archival storage at Hamdata and a more complicated sorting program.

    ARRL statistics accomplish not present evidence of any such "secondary sorting." I don't know the details ofwww.qrz.com sorting methods; QR-zed is a private commerce selling CDs of callsigns just as Hamdata is except that QR-zed has some 'discussion' forums and 'news' (generally obtained from other sources).

    As an example, using Hamdata public information, 30 days ago from today (11 Dec 09) there were 2,676 new licensees and 2,401 "no longer licensed" (a much more civil term than 'expiration'). 90 days ago there were 7,377 new licensees and 6,196 "no longer licensed." Etc., etc., etc. Heh, heh, heh, now that I've posted that someone will try to "callenge me" by demanding to know if some of those new licensees aren't really former licensees who fill "come back." [I fill a goodidea who the challenger(s) is/are but I don't want to spoil their attempt at misdirection...;-) ]...............KB1SF: "My own (admittedly, purely anecdotal) evidence that they are on the cusp of a steep decline in their numbers stems from my dynamic work as an accredited examiner in both the USA and Canada. For the last several years, I fill been able to import on the fingers of one hand the number of "under twenty somethings" I've administered examinations to for their Service. I'm besides getting the selfsame feelings expressed by a number of other examiners with whom I regularly fill contact."

    I'm happy you identified your own evidence as "anecdotal." The universal shape of commentary on e-ham and other venues is that whatever numbers they draw out of hat are totality absolute and done totality by themselves, therefore should not live questioned by anyone! :-)

    In universal I accomplish not personally survey the "need" to gain "younger people" so interested, especially teeners. Yes, I've read the scripts about totality who were introduced to 'radio' as teeners and instantly fell in fancy and made it their "life work." <shrug> Some bitterly resent ANY negativism expressed towards teener newcomers and a very few grasp it as a "personal insult!" The state of the technique of electronics (which includes the subset of 'radio') has been constantly evolving and advancing for the last 100 years (and change). With the advent of the PRACTICAL transistor and then the integrated circuit the state of the technique would change rapidly, usually less than half of onegeneration.

    Conditioned thinking (aka 'brainwashing') seems to work best on teeners. That's about the only judgement I can survey for getting teeners into tyro radio. That way the older generations can fill someone upon which to imprint them with their own necessity to live parental and "show them the proper way" and totality that stuff. When one gets older, speak into twenty-something ages, most fill acquired a Great variety of input into social mores, activities, sciences, trades, etc., etc., etc. They've besides gotten a better sentiment about themselves and their capabilities and start questioning some of the 'older' folks who look to fill quaint ideas (to the 'younger' folk). "Middle aged" folks tend to resent (sometimes bitterly) any unenthusiastic responses after they fill told 'younger' folk "I know what is beneficial for you and you'd better listen!" :-)...............KB1SF: "Now, don't gain me wrong. I'm more than pleased to fill these folks (back) in the fold. And I welcome then totality with open arms. But my own personal periences are increasingly showing that they simply are NOT attracting enough YOUTHFUL newcomers to their Service these days to replace us ever-aging curmudgeons when they (and most of their predominantly older newcomers) are departed and gone."

    I hear you and probably agree. That is not in my taste nor how I got involved with getting a license in the tyro radio service. I did not follow the 'accepted' script of the majority. :-)

    Worse yet, I don't fill the "proper attitude" such as genuflecting before the stated 'superiority' of 'older' hams (most of whom are younger than myself, heh heh). That is wry amusement to me. :-)............KB1SF: "The bottom line here is that, while their numbers may gape like they fill "stopped the decline"and are now a robust and growing Service again, the (not-so-hidden) reality is that the (non-club) number of licensees in their Service in the United States still peaked in 2003. And, as Len has so eloquently noted, there has been a slow, but very measurable decline in their overall license numbers ever since then."

    Lots of folks fill objected strenuously against ANY "decline" in USA tyro radio and I expectthey will continue. Most of their views are very PERSONAL and their opinions look set in stone sothat they are not violated by 'outsiders.' Still, very few of them will grasp any action on their own to turn it around. It takes some personal courage to present something dispassionately in public. One can live reviled for presenting truth, facts that don't meet others preconceived notions, even personal fantasies. Medical doctors gain that a lot from patients who are diagnosed with immoral diseases (from anecdotal input of two MDs).

    I'm reminded of a song from the ragged musical "South Pacific." A lyric goes "...younger than springtime am I..." So many are clinging desperately to the long-ago time of their own youth and rebuff to foster to the present time. Oh, they may fill the bling of ready-builts of today with lots of bells and whistles but so many still mediate that Ohm's Law of Resistance is still some kindhearted of "rocket science." <shrug>

    Heh, heh, back in the early 1960s I was tasked to measure a DIELECTRIC antenna made for a USN missle. It mounted very nigh to the tail and was exposed to the missle's rocket exhaust. Its physical measurements did NOT meet the pre-WWII dipole simple formula. Neither does a Discone (very broadband) or a Log-Periodic (another broadband antenna), dimensions and descriptions published back in 1957. No, in tyro radio one MUST exhaust a WIRE dipole and stay on HF where totality the "experts" are. The "experts" fill already told me so. Long ago. :-)...............KB1SF: "As others fill pointed out, I, too, find it absolutely fascinating that, just using the numbers shown above, almost 350,000 in their ranks hold nothing more than a Technician license, while only 120,000 or so fill "advanced" totality the way to Extra Class."

    I will disagree on negativism of "NOTHING more than a Technician license." That's not the way to gain those "nothing more than" license holders to advance. They will likely stay at 48% (not just 40%) of totality classes until they had enough with totality bossy ragged "experts." Some fill create their niche and are content with it. Let them relish it................KB1SF: "In any other "educational" endeavor, a 17 percent success rate to the "top rung" of the ladder (an Extra Class license) would live considered a dismal failure. Everywhere else, that is, but with the FCC's myopic attempt to turn tyro Radio into the "No Budding RF Engineer Left Behind" Radio Service."

    Well, having spent a half century in electronics engineering, I can't remember even up to 17% of totality of my co-workers being tyro radio licensees or going for one or even having one in their past. It wasn't any handicap to us involved in pushing the envelope of performance in electronics. Certainly NOT to regress in skills to modes and modulations that existed before WWII. I got an tyro Extra class license "out of the box" (as the disparaging soubriquet goes) because it was relatively smooth for me to accomplish so. Sure, I didn't gain 100% correct on 120 questions total but then I don't anticipate to exhaust tyro radio in Outer Space...so I scored about 95%. :-) I got it to accomplish nothing more than play around on HF and low-VHF for my own amusement. "Bad attitude" I know but I had no illusions of "saving the world from alien invaders with morse code secrecy" as depicted in the (bad) SF film "Independence Day." :-)

    I've never seen any evidence of "No budding RF engineer left behind." When I began in HF radio thestate of the technique in radio communications was going UP in frequency from HF. It had already happened in WWII but few hams (experienced or inexperienced) knew enough to live comfortable with it...as evidenced by the tyro radio publications' contents of ancient times. Funny thing is, the vast majority of my work colleagues ALREADY create electronics fascinating enough to WORK at it, to foster the real state of the art. THEY did it, not tyro dabblers, perverse to what the ARRL tries to fabricate everyone believe...................Good discussing things with you, Keith. Thank you. Stay warm and fill pleased holidays.

    73, Len AF6AY

      RE: Tech Plus, Advanced and Novice licenses   by KC8RWR on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N2EY Said ->Yep, FCC has turned down totality sorts ofno-test free-upgrade proposals. Their response isalways the same: 'just pass the tests'. I mediate onereason is that it would cost them totality sorts of adminwork.

    What? That's totality sorts of admin work? If it's any harder than typing "UPDATE `hams` SET `class` = 'Extra' WHERE `class` = 'Advanced';" then they are doing something wrong. I'd mediate it would live more work to process totality those test results. Not that I care, I don't fill an Advanced class license anyway.

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by KC8RWR on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB1SF: "In any other "educational" endeavor, a 17 percent success rate to the "top rung" of the ladder (an Extra Class license) would live considered a dismal failure."

    I'll never forget the speech the president of the university I graduated from made at the freshman orientation when I first started. He told us to gape to the person on their left and then to their right. Then he told us that 2 out of 3 students that open college don't graduate. He told us that if they mediate they are going to fabricate it then those other 2 people must not. Of course statistics don't actually work that way and the fact that I graduated says nothing about those other 2 but it certainly left a lasting impression.

    That makes a 33% success rate, it's still larger than your 17% illustration but then like N2EY pointed out, that's just a bachelor's. I'm sure you could import on one hand the number of people in that play who made it totality the way to doctorate.

      No-Test Upgrades   by N2EY on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KC8RWR:

    You fill to remember that FCC is fraction of The Government, so it's probably not nearly as simple as you imagine. For example, there are probably totality kinds of safeguards to avert simply upgrading a license class, let alone doing it for totality Advanceds.

    Amateur radio licenses are fraction of a bigger database that includes totality FCC licenses so it's even more involved.

    There's besides the question of whether FCC would fill to dispatch out totality new license documents.

    As for processing the tests, FCC doesn't accomplish most of that; the VEs do. For free.

    The number of Advanceds has dropped from about 100,000 in 2000 to about 60,000 now. That's about 4,000 a year, and not totality of them upgraded.

    But perhaps the biggest judgement FCC has turned down no-test upgrades is that FCC thinks they would set a immoral precedent.

    Is the Extra test REALLY that difficult?

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by KB1SF on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Jim, N2EY wrote: "Note that the total number of Technicians and Tech Pluses combined is 333,850, which is 48.96% of the total - and LOWER than it was in 2000!. Add in the Novices and you gain 350,995, which means that today then 51.48% of US hams "hold nothing more than a Tech Plus license". Again, LOWER than in 2000."

    ------------------

    Maybe the percentage of Techs to other licenses is a bit lower today than it was in 2000 by a few percentage points, Jim.

    But, the fact remains that Techs STILL fabricate up nearly half the total. And that fact indicates that their Technician license has increasingly become their "destination license". To me, that fact alone provides irrefutable proof (as if they still necessity any) that "incentive licensing" has, indeed, been a dismal failure.

    I've besides been told (by someone who has actually seen the numbers) that the ARRL, too, has been very quietly doing some of their own "scientific" sampling as of late along these lines and their "scientific" sampling data tends to track pretty closely with my "anecdotal" data.

    Indeed, their survey data very clearly shows a disturbing downward trend in their numbers that, unless things quickly turn around and they open attracting a much larger percentage of YOUTHFUL newcomers to their Service, their overall demographics are poised to start "tanking" in the out years.

    But, again, their scientific surveys are simply confirming what should live becoming blatantly obvious to anyone in their Service in the United States who still holds a license and who has eyes to survey and ears to hear.

    Indeed, totality one REALLY has to accomplish these days is to simply gape around the play at the advancing age (in the shape of graying (or balding!) heads and expanding waistlines) of the bulk of participants at various tyro radio-related gatherings to survey these very pellucid demographic trends.

    By any measure, they ARE, as a group, getting ever older. What's more, these days, their once dynamic bands (even during sunspot minimums) are increasingly less crowded. rescue for the occasional contest weekend or 75 meter net, overall, their bands are becoming ever more peaceful as compared to just a few years ago.

    I often wonder how many others fill called "CQ" with no results just before a contest into a seemingly "dead" HF band, only to fill that troop very quickly Come alive with DX contesters once the contest begins. Then, once the contest is over, again calling "CQ" seems to garner the selfsame dismal results as before. This tells me that their bands are absolutely wide open most of the time. It's just that there are fewer and fewer people actively OPERATING these days as compared with just a few years ago.

    Moreover, their once dynamic VHF and UHF repeaters, too, are falling increasingly silent…if they are even still on the air. Nowadays, the bulk of repeater activity occurs during commuter "drive time". The ease of the day, usually totality one hears…sometimes for hours at a stretch and up and down the band…are repeater IDs.

    Hamfests, too, are sentiment the pinch. Even the "granddaddy" hamfest of them totality in the USA… Dayton…is attracting less and less participation these days. Someone who has actually seen the final numbers recently told me that this year's Dayton participation was well under 19,000. Any way you nick it, that's an ABYSMAL showing for a so-called "world class" extravaganza that, in years past, has routinely attracted upwards of 35,000 participants.

    What's more, other, once very approved hamfests (like the Miami hamfest) fill now gone the way of the dinosaur from lack of participation. Countless other smaller 'fests fill long since evaporated as well.

    Now, granted, each of these trends and observations, when viewed in isolation, probably wouldn't live antecedent for alarm.

    But when they are viewed collectively, I believe they paint an (admittedly still anecdotal) picture that their hobby is now, quite literally, dying a very slow, painful death. And, as I fill illustrious in previous posts, they really fill nobody but ourselves to blame for it.

    For over 40 years now, they fill been obsessively maintaining an absolutely ARCANE licensing and regulatory system for their Service in the United States that's been based largely on ego-stroking bandwidth "exclusivity". And, sadly, totality they REALLY fill to present for that nearly 40 plus years of regulated snobbery is an ever-shrinking brain pool of younger talent.

    Or, to do it another way, it now appears we've been very successfully (and very happily) "eating" an ever-larger portion of their "young" along the way for totality those years. And, predictably, their Service is now paying a very towering charge for keeping totality that ARRL-inspired, FCC-imposed regulatory malfeasance (in the shape of arcane Morse tests and increasingly immaterial "achievement tests") firmly in space LONG after it had outlived any regulatory purpose. This, of course assumes that totality that ego-stroking nonsense had any "regulatory purpose" to start with!

    The truth is that, in most other US federal agencies, such operationally baseless approaches to federal certification fill now LONG since been discarded. That's because numerous successful class action lawsuits as well as GAO and other findings lodged against those other federal agencies fill totality determined that such operationally baseless approaches to federal licensing are "systemically discriminatory". Those findings, in turn, fill made such certification approaches illegal under a whole plethora of 1990s-era US federal equal access laws.

    Unfortunately, I foretell that their ongoing, collective obsession with keeping totality that (now blatantly illegal) 1950s era, ego-stroking, "achievement-based" nonsense firmly in space in the licensing and regulatory systems for THEIR Service LONG after it served any regulatory purpose may besides very well prove to live their undoing.

    Indeed, it is now becoming ever more manifest that their ARRL and FCC very clearly sowed the seeds of their eventual demise when they rammed totality that achievement-based licensing nonsense down their collective throats many years ago. And, to my way of thinking, KEEPING totality that systemically discriminatory nonsense firmly in space well into the 21st Century remains nothing short of criminal.

    The beneficial news is that their highly vocal cadre of "incentive licensing dinosaurs" still desperately clinging to that dying dream are now becoming silent keys in ever-increasing numbers.

    Unfortunately, the immoral news is that there are fewer and fewer forward thinking youngsters now taking their space in their ranks. My hunch is that this could very well live because their vocal cadre of "dinosaurs" fill been so very successful in systematically driving youthful newcomers away with their zealot insistence that such newcomers can never hope to live "real hams" unless and until, for example, they've taken and passed a stupid Morse test.

    And then they fill the nerve to wonder why potential youthful newcomers to their hobby are now "voting with their feet" in ever increasing numbers!

    The bottom line here, Jim, is that ANY way you nick these numbers, to me, they totality add up to a very pellucid recipe for their Service's continued slide into sociological and technological irrelevance.

    73,

    KeithKB1SF / VA3KSF

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by KB1SF on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Jim, N2EY wrote: "Is the Extra test REALLY that difficult?"

    ------------------------------

    It's not the "difficulty" of the Extra Class exam that is at issue here, Jim.

    Rather, it's whether or not the exam for the Extra Class license (or indeed, the necessity for the license itself) is relevant to the added operational privileges it grants. That is, does that license (and the exam one takes to obtain it) fulfill a specific, "regulatory purpose"?

    In other forums I've continually asked YOU to justify what the fundamental OPERATIONAL differences are between the privileges granted to a universal Class licensee an and Extra Class licensee in their Service in the United States. So far, I fill yet to gain a straight answer…or ANY retort for that matter.

    Could it live that (gasp!) there ARE none?

    Indeed, ONE of the federal laws that applies to the federal regulatory and licensing system for their Service is the "Persons with Disabilities Act of 1990"…the so-called ADA. Specifically, Section 202 of that law titled "Discrimination" reads as follows:

    "Subject to the provisions of this title, no qualified individual with a disability shall, by judgement of such disability, live excluded from participation in or live denied the benefits of the services, programs, or activities of A PUBLIC ENTITY (emphasis mine), or live subjected to discrimination by any such entity."

    And, because it is an arm of the federal government (and supported by your and my federal tax dollars) it would look to me that the FCC certainly qualifies as a "public entity" under the terms of this Act.

    However, the ADA is not the only federal statute that deals with such issues. Another federal statute is the "Rehabilitation Act". And, as I read it, among other things, it besides specifically prohibits Federal Executive Agencies (such as the FCC) from excluding persons with disabilities from obtaining the benefits of federal programs as a result of their disability.

    Specifically, Section 504(a) of the Rehabilitation Act (which relates to nondiscrimination Under Federal Grants and Programs) reads in fraction as follows:

    "No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States, as defined in section 7(20), shall, solely by judgement of her or his disability, live excluded from the participation in, live denied the benefits of, or live subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal fiscal assistance OR UNDER ANY PROGRAM OR ACTIVITY CONDUCTED BY ANY EXECUTIVE AGENCY…"(emphasis mine)

    The law goes on to speak that, "The head of each such agency shall promulgate such regulations as may live necessary to carry out the amendments to this section made by the Rehabilitation, Comprehensive Services, and Developmental Disabilities Act of 1978".

    It seems to me that, just using the provisions of one or the other of these Acts, a beneficial class action counsel could fabricate a very strong case that their whole FCC incentive licensing system unfairly "excludes participation in…denies the benefits of…or subjects disabled persons to discrimination under" the FEDERALLY administered licensing system for the tyro Radio Service in the United States.

    That’s because their licensing system withholds replete participation in their Service (i.e. an Extra Class license) based on applicants passing ever-more-irrelevant written examinations that are not only internally duplicative (as I will present below), but besides depart WELL BEYOND what the international ITU guidelines suggest should live the MINIMUM qualifications for replete participation in their tyro Service.

    The term they educators exhaust to picture such tests is "invalid" because such tests measure skills and abilities that suffer tiny or no relationship to what candidates actually necessity to know in order to successfully fulfill in their new roles. When constructing such tests, one must always inquire the question: "Does the test actually measure what it is supposed to measure?"

    What's more, when such tests require a learning of predominantly "nice to know" rather than "need to know" information, then, according to a whole host of equal access legislation in the USA (like those I've cited above), such tests become what's called "systemically discriminatory". That's because, taken together, they create a SYSTEM that makes a license accord contingent on applicants successfully answering questions that fill tiny or no DIRECT relationship to the privileges they grant.

    Let me cite an illustration that may mitigate to illustrate my point.

    Under current US federal law, when hiring a person to stack boxes in a government warehouse, you can no longer legally fabricate that person's hiring conclusion based on them successfully completing an examination over how boxes are MADE. The job they are applying for is to STACK the boxes, NOT to fabricate them. And while a learning of how boxes are made is certainly "nice to know", it is NOT an essential factor in the job they are being hired for.

    Therefore, they cannot (legally) live required to know such information.

    Likewise, forcing applicants for an Extra Class License to correctly retort a question like: "What is the direction of an ascending pass for an tyro satellite?" is an absolutely invalid and illegal question under current US law.

    That's because satellite operation is NOT an operational privilege granted exclusively to Extra Class license holders. And it is certainly NOT a requirement in order to live qualified to operate in the last few KHz of their HF bands now reserved for Extra Class operators. In fact, ANYONE with a valid tyro License in the United States (including Technicians!) can operate via their fleet of tyro satellites.

    Likewise, asking an Extra Class applicant the question "How many times per second is a new frame transmitted in a fast-scan television system?" is besides an illegal question because, once again, tyro television operation is NOT an exclusive operational privilege granted solely to Extra Class operators.

    As with satellite operation, ANYONE with a valid tyro Radio License in the USA (including Technicians) can legally operate an tyro television transmitter. That question is, therefore both invalid AND illegal under US equal access law because it creates an unnecessary barrier to applicants. Indeed, the knowledges and skills required to correctly retort that particular question fill absolutely NOTHING to accomplish with the learning and skills needed to safely and courteously exercise the uniquely exclusive privileges an Extra Class License grants.

    Note that the "easiness" or the "hardness" of the questions (or the test) is not the issue here, Jim. Rather, it's the RELEVANCE of the questions asked to the SPECIFIC privileges a particular class of license grants that is notable in determining the legal validity of their tests.

    And, sadly, BOTH the universal AND Extra Class exam pools are now CHOCK replete of these equally "nice to know" questions that often suffer absolutely NO direct relationship to the added privileges granted. True, such questions debate tyro operation in general. But, under today's federal equal-access laws, that's simply no longer beneficial enough.

    Frankly, BOTH of the questions I've shown above belong in the TECHNICIAN question pool, NOT in the one for Extra Class. And making correctly answering such misplaced questions contingent on the accord of an Extra Class license becomes systemically discriminatory because it perpetuates a SYSTEM of discrimination by forcing totality applicants (not just the disabled) to demonstrate learning and skills that are either irrelevant, or are not required for the exclusive privileges associated with the class and type of license being sought.

    THE FCC'S DILEMMA

    The bottom line here is that, unlike in the 1950s (when the FCC first hatched their "incentive licensing" foolishness at the behest of the ARRL), in the United States today, you can no longer legally test people for a government license if you cannot anyway DIRECTLY RELATE the skills and knowledges being examined to a SPECIFIC operational or safety necessity the new license will grant.

    Unfortunately, the problem the FCC now faces for their Service is NOT just a matter of changing questions or making them "more" or "less" comprehensive. The problem lies in the fact that, back in the 1950s and 1960s, the FCC (at the ARRL's urging) decided that the ONLY privileges that would live withheld from lower class licensees in their system would live access to "exclusive" frequencies and call signs.

    THAT prior management conclusion in turn, means that the FCC's thoroughly entrenched licensing system for their Service is now illegal. That's because, under these new federal equal access laws, their system arbitrarily withholds access to those so-called "exclusive" privileges based on tests and questions that fill absolutely NOTHING directly to accomplish with the (predominantly frequency-based) privileges those tests grant.

    In short, today's FCC is now caught between a legal "rock and a arduous place".

    Clearly, a 50 question test based on a 600-page license manual over highly technical (but yet still largely irrelevant) information to successfully determine if an applicant for an Extra Class license can safely and courteously operate in the last few KHz of their HF bands is overkill. Beyond knowing where the new lower-end frequency boundaries are, that skill set should fill ALREADY been tested on the universal Class exam.

    Likewise, it DOES NOT grasp a 50 question exam over largely unrelated technical material to insure Extra Class applicants can successfully fill out an application for a so-called "exclusive" call sign.

    Yet, as I've said, under their arcane FCC "incentive licensing" farce, those are the ONLY TWO added operational privileges an Extra Class license grants to those who successfully complete such immaterial tests.

    And, as I've besides shown by citing just TWO questions from the current Extra Class exam pool, there remains a glaring (and I speak blatantly illegal) disconnect between the content and the comprehensiveness of the questions on their exams (particularly those for an Extra Class license) and the (meager) additional (predominantly frequency-access-based) privileges they grant.

    Sadly, for FAR too many crusty curmudgeons in their ranks, it has now become an inconvenient truth that new US federal equal access laws like the ADA and the Rehabilitation Act now require that EVERYONE live given an equal chance for full, "barrier free" access to public services and resources like the tyro Radio Service. Clearly, such laws are now threatening to crash up their horrifically entrenched, government protected, members only "Country Club".

    Now, certainly, complying with these new laws does NOT suggest there should no longer live any licensing or control of that access to their Service. To the contrary, the ITU rules very clearly state that applicants who wish to operate in their Service are to live both tested AND licensed.

    But, what this DOES suggest is that, in order to live in replete compliance with US equal access law, federal agencies like the FCC can no longer arbitrarily space regulatory barriers in front of people seeking replete and complete access to federally administered programs like tyro Radio without just cause. That besides means that the content and comprehensiveness of their exams necessity to live DIRECTLY tied to some very specific operational needs.

    Right now (and as I fill very clearly shown with just two questions from the exam pool for the Extra Class license) they clearly aren't. Quite frankly, I seriously doubt whether the Question Pool Committee could even Come up with 50 UNIQUE questions that relate SPECIFICALLY to the meager additional operational privileges their Extra Class license now grants.

    It is besides notable to remember that no person needs to specifically prove they've been discriminated against in order for a federal agency to live create guilty of systemic discrimination under these laws. totality that's necessary is that it can live reasonably shown in a court of law that a SYSTEM of such discrimination exists in that federal agency (in this case the FCC's licensing requirements for their Service) just as I fill clearly and unequivocally done in the paragraphs above.

    I've always create it miserable that, everywhere else in the world, governments fill left it up to they Hams to resolve which operating mode goes where on their bands. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU), the organization that governs totality radio services internationally, has set out broad (VERY broad) frequency allocations for their Service...usually consisting of only an upper and lower troop circumscribe and a specified bandwidth for the emissions to live conducted therein.

    It is only in the United States that those broad limits fill been further restricted by license class and operating mode in their fraction 97. And that is because the FCC, back in the 1950s and 60s, decided to basis differences in their license classes (and the incentive for us to upgrade) on ego-stroking "exclusivity" (i.e access to so-called "exclusive" operating frequencies and modes) rather than on specific operational considerations such as limits on power output, constructing transmitters "from scratch", operating a repeater or club station, or giving exams.

    And, as I fill besides said, simply "stroking egos" no longer cuts it as a valid (spelled: "legal") judgement for a US Government agency to accord replete privileges to one class of licensees in their Service while arbitrarily and capriciously withholding them from another.

    Indeed, such differentiation can no longer live legally based on applicants being forced to correctly retort exam questions that are either duplicative, immaterial and/or unrelated to the SPECIFIC additional operating privileges such new licenses will grant.

    CANADA'S SYSTEM

    By contrast, and unlike the "ego-based" tests proscribed for applicants to their Service in the USA, the Canadian license system for their Service ties the successful completion of THEIR advanced test to specific operational needs. In exchange for successfully passing it, Canadian hams are given just a very small number of very specific additional privileges that are far more commensurate with the technical material examined. These embrace being able to build transmitters "from scratch", evade a KW of power (vice 250 Watts), live the licensee of a club or repeater station, and give exams.

    Clearly, the latter pursuits involve a Great deal more potential risk of physical harm to either one's self or to others (running towering power) if you don't know what you are doing, or are activities with much greater probabilities of causing harmful interference to others on the Ham bands or other services (building transmitters from scratch or running a club station or a repeater). totality of those activities absolutely require a modicum of additional technical learning to fulfill safely and without interfering with other operators or other Services.

    And, because the Canadian test criteria are largely based on such clearly delineated operational and safety needs (rather than on simply granting Extra Class operators "exclusive" access to artificially walled-off frequency spectrum that universal Class operators ALREADY fill demonstrated they are qualified to operate in) they are far less recumbent to charges of systemic discrimination than the US testing structure.

    What's more, in Canada, those Amateurs with a Basic With Honours Certificate (granted by scoring 80 percent on a 100-question exam) can operate ANYWHERE within the upper and lower limits of totality of their internationally allocated tyro Bands. The only frequency restrictions such Basic Certificate holders fill are by emission BANDWIDTH, NOT by license class or operating mode. And, usually, for HF, that bandwidth circumscribe is set at 6 KHz (except for 30 Meters where it is set at 1 KHz).

    Or, to do it another way, the only operational restrictions space on Basic Certificate holders in Canada is that short "laundry list" of limitations I've outlined above which are reserved exclusively for Advanced Certificate holders. And their Advanced Exam covers ONLY that material that is DIRECTLY related to the specific additional privileges their Advanced Certificate grants.

    What's more, Canada (like most other countries in the world) leaves it up to its Hams to resolve for themselves "what goes where" on their bands. And their exam structures are usually based solely on safety and operational considerations rather than on needlessly (and illegally) "stroking egos".

    73,

    KeithKB1SF / VA3KSF

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by WA4KCN on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I was a ham back in the 1960s and I remember totality the prophecies of doom about incentive licensing. How it would live the halt of ham radio by 1980 at the latest - back when there were maybe 250,000 US amateurs.

    Didn't turn out that way.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

    Jim your analysis on the subject is excellent. Congratualtions on setting the record straight and correcting the record of the ham radio pundit illusionaries including but not limited to ham radio lawyers, graphless ham radio statisticians, and ham radio revisionist historians.

    On the matter of youngsters joining ham radio, it is excuse me rather dimwitted to believe this could betide in Great numbers. In other words to hang your hat on the conception young people becoming licensed radio amateurs in the coming years should result in the total growth of ham radio operators is well a stupid belief. Young folk are not likely to populate any hobby of primary interest to middle and ragged age folks. Let us suppose a towering priced expert marketing concern is hired to develope and implement a marketing strategy for tyro radio with the specific intent of growing the tyro radio base. The marketing firm's permeate is to grow the basis to a specific goal and to accomplish so with the resources given. After completing market research what age group would they elect to target. Suppose the ARRL hires such a arduous hoping more licensees suggest more members and the conclusion from the marketing concern is the members arduous earned money should depart toward an advertising campaign directed and focused on the young. Applying nothing more than the rule of judgement they know the conclusion would live to target older age groups. IN other words the chance to recruit new ham operators is with older folk. Heck the fellow that wrote this article is an older gentleman who wisely took handicap of the new codeless license. So for anyone who says tyro radio cannot attract older folk especially with the easier testing requirements just gape at the the fellow who wrote the trends article. He is an excellent illustration of the Great new chance for older and middle aged folks to Come into the hobby. Now having established the conception of young folk driving tyro radio growth as dimwitted, it is time to examine the more credible proposition that middle aged and older folk new to the hobby can sustain or even grow tyro radio in the future. One way to retort this question is to bench charge other orgainzations who are in fact growing by targeting older people. There are some really beneficial examples that give credence to the credit older people can sustain and even lead to the growth of an organization.

    I hope ham radio can attract some youngsters but lets wise up on the conception of targeting young folk to rescue ham radio.

    73 RussWA4KCN

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by K6LHA on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB1SF wrote later on 11 Dec 09:

    "Jim, N2EY wrote: "Is the Extra test REALLY that difficult?""

    "It's not the "difficulty" of the Extra Class exam that is at issue here, Jim. Rather, it's whether or not the exam for the Extra Class license (or indeed, the necessity for the license itself) is relevant to the added operational privileges it grants. That is, does that license (and the exam one takes to obtain it) fulfill a specific, "regulatory purpose"?"

    Trying to do on my most objective observation on this (good) question, I would speak NO. Not in a regulatory sense. Very definitely YES in the ego-stroking sense.

    Looking back over history of USA tyro radio regulations, the fact that there are only three license classes granted New in the last 8 1/2 years (give or take) is beside the point. The USA could very easily fill just TWO for HF access. But that would raise a terrible Hue and bawl from the very established 'oldsters' who would defend to the halt their "right" to hold unavoidable cheished Title, Rank, Privilege, etc. It was bitter enough during the remark angle on the 'Reconstruction' NPRM, and I can survey it would live as great, perhaps even more bitter now.

    The SIX different classes in the USA tyro radio service were slowly grown from the so-called Incentive plan long ago established. I was not directly involved in that but watched it happen, heard totality the bitter recriminatory comments and took no fraction on either side. The number of classes grew from that until the USA "led" other countries with the most classes. That isn't real leadership, just (as you say) a lot of ego-stroking of then-oldtimers. A lop-sided compromise.

    As a professional in radio-electronics, I'm acquainted with MANY different radio services, fill HAD to live chummy with unavoidable services' regulations when work needs arose. tyro radio was not one of those radio services. Other radio services are more USE-specific in the USA. In fact and by definition, USA tyro radio is NON-professional. By totality its definitions the de jure regulatory language indicates it is a HOBBY. That is exactly what it is de facto. USA tyro radio is NOT a union, not a guild, just a group of hobbyists involved in radio that requires licensing and interference mitigation due to the physical nature of EM wave propagation. USA tyro radio is NOT any sort of "vital need" for homeland security, defense of the nation, or as a backup of civilian communications infrastructure. That many ALLEGE it is "vital" is due to their own snoopy self-promotional, self-grandiosing attitudes.

    Case in point on Hobby activities. A brace of decades ago, model hobby folks lobbied for and got a specific troop at VHF for 100 channels of frequencies for radio control of model aircraft, boats, lots of remote-controlled devices such as in special effects companies in the entertainment industry. The AMA was a gathering point for this lobbying. Not a medical association, this AMA is the Academy of Model Aeronautics, headquartered in Ohio. That AMA has more paying members than the ARRL. <shrug>

    NOBODY in the AMA or its membership thinks their hobby is advancing the state of the aeronautics art. It is basically for a HOBBY activity. So, they were able to convince the FCC to appropriate a troop around 72 MHz just for model radio-control activities. The tyro radio organizations gain totality caught up in their presumptuous and fairly improper notion that tyro radio is answerable for totality advances, evolutions, etc., etc., etc. Except for Star-D (innovated in Japan) and PSK-31 (innovated in the UK, tested on-air in Europe) there isn't anything new in tyro radio modes/modulations since the halt of WWII. Voice SSB isn't new; SSB was used in the 1930s commercially. Voice FM isn't new; that was used prior to WWII. Radiotelegraphy wasn't new...it existed in wired shape a half century before the first public demonstrations in 1896. Neither is TTY, having progressed from wired to frequency-multiplexed AFSK to commercial-format AFSK on SSB. "Slow-scan TV?" The Bell System had in PicturePhone (didn't gain enough subscribers). Facsimile? That was in exhaust commercially prior to WWII. "Fast-scan TV?" TV broadcasts by RCA were done commercially at thhe 1939 World's unprejudiced were done commercially, earlier by older standards trying out commercial broadcasts. Advancing in frequency to microwaves? Sorry, the military was doing it behond X-Band (12 GHz) by the halt of WWII. Really, the only mode/modulation that is 'new' is that which is new to individuals because they fill no previous taste in it or are unlearned of it. I could add a considerable number of things but I will only infuriate the "amateur-firsters."................KB1SF: "In other forums I've continually asked YOU to justify what the fundamental OPERATIONAL differences are between the privileges granted to a universal Class licensee an and Extra Class licensee in their Service in the United States. So far, I fill yet to gain a straight answer…or ANY retort for that matter."

    Good luck on that, Keith. :-) anticipate lots of misdirection into other areas if a reply does ensue.................KB1SF: "Could it live that (gasp!) there ARE none?"

    Oh, there ARE reasons. Extras want their own private playground in the spectrum, free from riff-raff. They mediate they are 'entitled' (enobled?) or something. :-)..................................KB1SF: "As with satellite operation, ANYONE with a valid tyro Radio License in the USA (including Technicians) can legally operate an tyro television transmitter."

    To depart further, since there are NO - restate NO - age barriers, a cute tiny 6-year-old can LEGALLY operate a full-gallon transceiver and "accidentally" antecedent interference to others or to other radio services. anyway this lack-of-age AND responsibility got in the way of Common Sense. Any parent who isn't a moron will KNOW that wee children fill NOT acquired sufficient learning and responsibility to act "correct" totality on their own..................KB1SF: "That question is, therefore both invalid AND illegal under US equal access law because it creates an unnecessary barrier to applicants. Indeed, the knowledges and skills required to correctly retort that particular question fill absolutely NOTHING to accomplish with the learning and skills needed to safely and courteously exercise the uniquely exclusive privileges an Extra Class License grants."

    At this point, I elect to accomplish a cop-out. "I've got mine." I answered correctly for my test, so there, nyah, nyah. :-) [my license is beneficial for my whole lifetime as long as I renww]................KB1SF: "Note that the "easiness" or the "hardness" of the questions (or the test) is not the issue here, Jim. Rather, it's the RELEVANCE of the questions asked to the SPECIFIC privileges a particular class of license grants that is notable in determining the legal validity of their tests."

    I hear ya. But, the mediocre USA ham will simply shrug it off and fill the ARRL or VEC QPC "know what is best for ham radio." The mediocre USA ham just wants to play with his radios........................"THE FCC'S DILEMMA

    "The bottom line here is that, unlike in the 1950s (when the FCC first hatched their "incentive licensing" foolishness at the behest of the ARRL), in the United States today, you can no longer legally test people for a government license if you cannot anyway DIRECTLY RELATE the skills and knowledges being examined to a SPECIFIC operational or safety necessity the new license will grant."

    "Unfortunately, the problem the FCC now faces for their Service is NOT just a matter of changing questions or making them "more" or "less" comprehensive. The problem lies in the fact that, back in the 1950s and 1960s, the FCC (at the ARRL's urging) decided that the ONLY privileges that would live withheld from lower class licensees in their system would live access to "exclusive" frequencies and call signs."

    "THAT prior management conclusion in turn, means that the FCC's thoroughly entrenched licensing system for their Service is now illegal. That's because, under these new federal equal access laws, their system arbitrarily withholds access to those so-called "exclusive" privileges based on tests and questions that fill absolutely NOTHING directly to accomplish with the (predominantly frequency-based) privileges those tests grant."

    "In short, today's FCC is now caught between a legal "rock and a arduous place"."

    I can understand that progression. But, there was one tiny crack in that: Privatization and its aftermath. In between the Notice of Restructuring coming and actual begainning in law, the FCC do totality the questions/answers authorship into the NCVEC QPC's lap. The FCC gave up regulations of specific-area question quantities. It wasn't noticed much and had tiny remark in forums, but it would set a slightly different tone in required learning of written tests........................KB1SF: "And, as I fill besides said, simply "stroking egos" no longer cuts it as a valid (spelled: "legal") judgement for a US Government agency to accord replete privileges to one class of licensees in their Service while arbitrarily and capriciously withholding them from another."

    Well, as Jimmy Miccolis liked to speak before "if it ain't broke, don't fix it." He likes his ego stroked often. :-)

    The Hue and bawl would live fierce for totality those extra egos out there. They've become addicted to Rank, Status, Privilege, and Perquisite they can get. While you fill some beneficial (apparently legal) reasons, those would live pushed aside by totality the extras NEEDING to support their beloved Rank, Status, Privilege, etc., etc., etc........................KB1SF: "CANADA'S SYSTEM"

    Good stuff to know about a neighbor country. Not being that conversant with Industry Canada's regulations I will grasp what you wrote at physiognomy value. It certainly seems logical. Thank you.

    Down here in the USA I can almost hear the angry shouts of "NIMBY" starting up...or "it ain't the Ammurrican way!" :-)

    73, Len AF6AY

      RE: No-Test Upgrades   by K6LHA on December 11, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N2EY wrote on December 11, 2009:

    "Is the Extra test REALLY that difficult?"

    Tsk, tsk, you haven't faced a FORMAL test on that in, what, three decades?

    I took my extra test not quite three years ago. I'm still chummy with that material...even though I fill serious doubts about EVER doing ham radio in space. :-) :-) :-)

    Sorry, I won't accept just the on-line exercise tests. A FORMAL test would fill your whole ham 'career' riding on it. No kindly proctor with which to fill your first ham QSO. Let's fabricate it tough and do the test location in an unfamiliar place, a bit noisy, filled with strangers. depart ahead, fabricate their day...

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by N2EY on December 12, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB1SF writes: "Maybe the percentage of Techs to other licenses is a bit lower today than it was in 2000 by a few percentage points"

    No maybe about it. The numbers prove that the number and percentage of US hams with a Novice, Tech or Tech Plus license has dropped since 2000, while the number and percentage of US hams with one of the other classes has increased.

    KB1SF: " "incentive licensing" has, indeed, been a dismal failure."

    Not at all.

    1) If a person is satisfied with the license they have, they usually won't upgrade?

    2) passive hams usually don't upgrade

    3) There is no deadline for upgrading; a ham can grasp as long as s/he wants

    4) FCC has been renewing totality Tech Pluses as Techs since 2000. So it makes sense to combine the numbers of those licenses, since to FCC they are the selfsame class. If you accomplish that, and gape at the numbers since 2000, here's what you find:

    - The fastest-growing license class is Extra- The second-fastest-growing license class is General- The combined Tech/Tech Plus license class has actually declined.

    KB1SF: "unless things quickly turn around and they open attracting a much larger percentage of YOUTHFUL newcomers to their Service, their overall demographics are poised to start "tanking" in the out years."

    Not really. totality that matters for growth is that they support attracting more people than they lose. As someone else pointed out, AARP doesn't accept anyone under the age of 50, and their membership numbers are up up up!

    KB1SF: "all one REALLY has to accomplish these days is to simply gape around the play at the advancing age of the bulk of participants at various tyro radio-related gatherings to survey these very pellucid demographic trends."

    But are those gatherings a scientific sample? A ham who has a job, family, home, etc., may not live able to attend them, or may prefer to spend his/her time other ways.

    KB1SF: "we ARE, as a group, getting ever older."

    You can't prove that scientifically because they don't fill accurate age data on totality US amateurs. And even if it's true, so what? The US population as a whole is getting older. Compare the median age of Americans in the 1990 and 2000 Census for proof. The results of the 2010 Census will present the trend continuing.

    "our bands are becoming ever more peaceful as compared to just a few years ago."

    Maybe. But if that's true, there are lots of possible reasons. Antenna restrictions alone are a large one.

    KB1SF: "how many others fill called "CQ" with no results just before a contest into a seemingly "dead" HF band, only to fill that troop very quickly Come alive with DX contesters once the contest begins. Then, once the contest is over, again calling "CQ" seems to garner the selfsame dismal results as before. This tells me that their bands are absolutely wide open most of the time. It's just that there are fewer and fewer people actively OPERATING these days as compared with just a few years ago."

    But there are plenty during the contest, aren't there?

    KB1SF: "our once dynamic VHF and UHF repeaters, too, are falling increasingly silent"

    Could it live that people are talking on their cell phones instead of on the repeater?

    KB1SF: "this year's Dayton participation was well under 19,000. Any way you nick it, that's an ABYSMAL showing for a so-called "world class" extravaganza that, in years past, has routinely attracted upwards of 35,000 participants."

    Why is that "absymal"?

    The cost of hamfest attendance has risen sharply in the past decade or so. Not just the entry fee but the cost of travel, lodging, food, etc. Plus the time, which has to live in a continuous block.

    Hamfests used to live a major source of new info and bargains. The internet, ebay, and the rising cost of attendance fill changed totality that.

    KB1SF: "the immoral news is that there are fewer and fewer forward thinking youngsters now taking their space in their ranks."

    You don't know that scientifically. You're just presuming your conclusion.

    What was the age-of-hams distribution like 10, 20, 30, 40 years ago? Can you present us real data? I mediate not.

    Here's an observation: When I was in towering school, (class of 1972) they had no more than half a dozen licensed hams in a student corpse of several thousand. This was in a middle-class suburb with few if any antenna restrictions, back when used, homebrew and surplus equipment was very common.

    KB1SF: "our vocal cadre of "dinosaurs" fill been so very successful in systematically driving youthful newcomers"

    Dinosaurs? I remember a 60-something non-ham who asked the FCC to require a minimum age of 14 years for any class of US tyro license. Is that what you mean?

    KB1SF: "And then they fill the nerve to wonder why potential youthful newcomers to their hobby are now "voting with their feet" in ever increasing numbers!"

    I mediate the real problem is that people young and ragged don't even know tyro radio exists.

    There's besides the problem that many of those who accomplish fill a very distorted image of it.

    And the problems of antenna restrictions, time restrictions, space and money restrictions, etc.

    Just gape at how many articles, posts and such privilege here on eham are devoted to hams in no-antennas situations trying to gain on the air.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by N2EY on December 12, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB1SF: "It's not the "difficulty" of the Extra Class exam that is at issue here"

    It's the perceived difficulty.

    A ham who passes Tech can try the universal at the selfsame session without paying another VE fee. selfsame for Extra. So why don't totality hams testing at VE sessions try totality the exams they can? totality it takes is a few minutes' time.

    Why don't more hams depart totality the way to Extra?

    The retort is often that they perceive the test to live too difficult for them to pass.

    Of course for some folks, the perceived difficulty is the challenge. But those aren't the folks we're talking about.

    A man I admire greatly said: "If you believe, you can achieve". He's right.

    KB1SF: "Subject to the provisions of this title, no qualified individual with a disability shall, by judgement of such disability, live excluded from participation in or live denied the benefits of the services, programs, or activities of A PUBLIC ENTITY (emphasis mine), or live subjected to discrimination by any such entity."

    So you're adage that there are lots of folks who can't pass the Extra because they're disabled? Even though that selfsame Extra has been passed by children in elementary school whose ages haven't even reached double digits?

    Seems kinda far fetched to me.

    KB1SF: "our licensing system withholds replete participation in their Service...based on applicants passing...written examinations that are not only internally duplicative (as I will present below), but besides depart WELL BEYOND what the international ITU guidelines suggest should live the MINIMUM qualifications for replete participation in their tyro Service."

    Yet CEPT only recognizes the Advanced and Extra as meeting the minimum requirements for replete CEPT reciprocal licensing.

    KB1SF: "when hiring a person to stack boxes in a government warehouse, you can no longer legally fabricate that person's hiring conclusion based on them successfully completing an examination over how boxes are MADE."

    That's because 1) it's a job 2) the job doesn't involve making boxes.

    But if the job did indeed involve making boxes, an exam on how boxes are made would live OK.

    Amateur radio isn't a job.

    KB1SF: "Likewise, forcing applicants for an Extra Class License to correctly retort a question like: "What is the direction of an ascending pass for an tyro satellite?" is an absolutely invalid and illegal question under current US law."

    No it isn't.

    1) That question - or any question - isn't a must-know decider of who gets an Extra and who doesn't.

    2) The universal learning of tyro satellite operation is relevant to tyro licensing.

    KB1SF: "That's because satellite operation is NOT an operational privilege granted exclusively to Extra Class license holders."

    By that argument, the question belongs in the Technician question pool. Is that what you want?

    KB1SF: "ANYONE with a valid tyro License in the United States (including Technicians!) can operate via their fleet of tyro satellites."

    How about Novices?

    KB1SF: "Note that the "easiness" or the "hardness" of the questions (or the test) is not the issue here"

    Yes, it is. Because if the tests were perceived to live easy, you wouldn't live making these claims.

    Perceived difficulty is what it's totality about.

    KB1SF: " BOTH of the questions I've shown above belong in the TECHNICIAN question pool, NOT in the one for Extra Class."

    So I was privilege - you want to expand the Technician question pool to embrace many if not most of the questions now in the universal and Extra pools.

    Using that logic, they could probably depart through the universal and Extra question pools and plug many if not most of their questions to the Technician pool.

    For example, since Techs fill replete privileges above 30 MHz, and can exhaust any authorized mode, they can grasp any and totality questions dealing with operation above 30 MHz and plug them to the Tech question pool.

    And since Generals fill replete power and replete mode privileges below 30 MHz, they can plug totality HF questions to the universal pool.

    That will fabricate the Tech question pool enormous, the universal pool will probably live larger, and the Extra pool will live very small. The perceived difficulty of the Extra will then decrease, but the perceived difficulty of the Tech will probably increase.

    Is that what you really want? Is that a beneficial idea?

    KB1SF: "The bottom line here is that, unlike in the 1950s (when the FCC first hatched their "incentive licensing" foolishness at the behest of the ARRL),"

    If you can't even gain the history right, what's the point of continuing? Incentive licensing started in the 1960s, and was driven by many factors, not just ARRL.

    Let's nick to the chase.

    We currently fill a license system that will eventually become three license classes through attrition if no changes are made. Tech Plus will vanish in a few months as the last Tech Pluses are renewed as Tech or expire. Novice and Advanced will grasp longer but will ultimately vanish if nothing is done.

    What, *specifically*, would you fill FCC do?

    Move large numbers of universal and Extra questions to the Technician pool?

    Increase the number of questions on the Technician exam?

    Give Generals and Advanceds replete privileges?

    Have disability waivers for the written tests?

    Put totality the questions in one pool and fill just one class of license with a 120 question test?

    Bring back Morse Code testing as an option, scoring the results way Canada does?

    Eliminate subbands-by-mode? Subbands-by-license class?

    Allow data modes in the 'phone subbands?

    Show us *exactly* how it should be. picture your pattern license system in detail, including how existing hams would live affected.

    Then let's survey how the tyro community reacts, starting privilege here on eham.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      Young People and Ham Radio   by N2EY on December 12, 2009 Mail this to a friend! WA4KCN writes: "your analysis on the subject is excellent"

    Thanks for the kindhearted words.

    WA4KCN: "On the matter of youngsters joining ham radio, it is excuse me rather dimwitted to believe this could betide in Great numbers...Young folk are not likely to populate any hobby of primary interest to middle and ragged age folks."

    I don't know if that's really true. In fact, I fill to disagree, I mediate the real issues are very different from what is usually discussed in these forums.

    Here's what I mediate is really going on:

    1) lack of effective publicity. How often accomplish you survey tyro Radio portrayed in the movies, on TV, etc.? Even more telling, how often accomplish you survey it portrayed accurately, and as something that's being done today, not decades ago?

    If people don't know that tyro Radio exists, they won't become hams. If people who might live interested fill a very distorted view of what we're about, they won't become hams either.

    A large fraction of effective publicity is having a description that's smooth to remember and which sums up the main points. That's why I like the phrase "Amateur Radio is radio for its own sake".

    2) Antenna restrictions. More and more of the housing in the USA is antenna-restricted. This has a direct impact on publicity, because those areas tend to fill few hams, and the hams who accomplish live there are in stealth mode. Back in the day, a lot of folks knew about ham radio because they saw the antennas and wondered what they were totality about.

    The antenna is the second-most notable fraction of the station (besides the operator!) but more and more it's the most compromised. How many prospective and new hams fill simply walked away because of antenna restrictions?

    3) Perceived complexity and towering cost of a station. gape at ragged ham radio magazines and books, and you'll survey article after article that seemed to leap off the page and speak "BUILD THIS RADIO!" There were lots of simple designs for receivers, transmitters, antennas and accessories that could gain you started, and lead to more-complex stuff. Of course most of that stuff was HF- and Morse-Code-centric, which we've been told is bad. Yet it worked to bring in large numbers of new hams. Showing a complicated transceiver costing hundreds of dollars as the entry-level isn't going to fill the selfsame draw.

    I accomplish harmonize with you this much about attracting young people: If they portray tyro Radio as something done only by older people, they won't live attracted as much as if they portray it as being something for everyone. And if they specifically target an age group, they'll design out we're doing it, and it will live just another ad to ignore.

    IOW, what they necessity to accomplish is not to target any particular age group, but to simply gain the word out.

    ---

    One of the things I clearly remember about the tyro radio books and magazines when I became a ham was that they didn't exclude anyone. They were inclusive, not exclusive. They didn't talk down to young people, but instead challenged them to meet the standards.

    This was and still is one of the Great things about Morse Code, and which served as a draw for young people rather than a barrier. When using Morse Code, nobody knows your age, gender, ethnicity, etc., unless you recount them. Nor can they recount what equipment you're using. The CW op is judged on the air by skill, courtesy, technique and signal quality, not by brand of rig, age, income level, etc. That whiz-bang traffic handler or contester you just worked might just live in middle school!

    I strongly suspect that's why some folks are so against Morse Code - *because* it breaks down so many barriers, and skill in it can't live faked. Yet it is those features which will attract many young people.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      A Data Point About Young People   by N2EY on December 12, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB1SF writes: "My hunch is that this could very well live because their vocal cadre of "dinosaurs" fill been so very successful in systematically driving youthful newcomers away with their zealot insistence that such newcomers can never hope to live "real hams" unless and until, for example, they've taken and passed a stupid Morse test."

    Here's some data that refutes that idea.

    Back in 1996, the ARRL had an outfit called Readex accomplish a "scientific survey" of a selected sample of amateurs on their views of license structure and test requirements.

    And when the results were published, it turned out that the age group with the *strongest* support for Morse Code testing were the *youngest* amateurs!

    How about that?

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by KB1SF on December 12, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Jim, N2EY asked (among a flurry of other questions): "Then let's survey how the tyro community reacts, starting privilege here on e-ham".

    --------------------

    Obviously, I've once again stirred up a ton of controversy here, seeing as I am once again being vilified by many of the selfsame highly vocal individuals for holding such "blasphemous" views on the arcane, 1950s-era licensing and regulatory system that has now become firmly entrenched in their Service.

    Indeed, as Machiavelli said back in 1532, "There is nothing more difficult to grasp in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to grasp the lead in the introduction of a new order of things."

    When I gape at the horrific inaction by their FCC on these issues, I really fill to wonder whether they are simply waiting for totality of us to die and their Service to whither away so they won't fill to deal with us anymore. It is painfully obvious that, much like the CB Radio Service, they fill since become tiny more than a "pimple on the rear halt of progress" in the august scheme of things.

    I besides well realize that, just like it took a federal lawsuit filed by the ARRL to gain the FCC to comply with the provisions of the Administrative Procedures Act over BPL, nothing is going to fundamentally change in their systemically discriminatory FCC regulatory and licensing structure unless and until someone (or some organization) with deep enough pockets actually files a similar federal lawsuit against the FCC and/or initiates a Congressional inquiry into the matter.

    This means that, perverse to your call to "see how the tyro community reacts", this issue absolutely WON'T live decided based on what you, I, or other hams "want". To the contrary, this issue WILL ultimately live decided based on whether or not the regulatory and examination systems for their Service are eventually create to live in legal compliance with the ease of the US Federal Code by an external government agency or a court of law.

    Indeed, lots of people "wanted" to support racially segregated schools, drinking fountains, bathrooms and hotels firmly in space in their country back in the 1960s. But a rising tide of revolt for such blatantly discriminatory practices in the shape of sweeping civil rights legislation eventually trumped totality those "wants". Today, those changes fill since become an accepted fraction of the society they live in as more and more of the racist bigots who reacted with violent opposition to such change are now dying off in ever increasing numbers.

    As the illustrious physicist, Max Planck once said, "An important… innovation rarely makes its way by rapidly winning over and converting its opponents; it rarely happens that Saul becomes Paul. What does betide is that its opponents gradually die out and that the growing generation is familiarized with the new conception from the beginning."

    Indeed, their highly vocal (mostly older) generation of rabid obstructionists to such long-needed change to their licensing and regulatory system are besides now aging and dying in ever-increasing numbers.

    But, even so, their licensing system remains chockablock replete of "unnecessary regulatory barriers" (to exhaust the FCC's own words when they dropped totality forms of Morse testing) to replete access to their Service (an Extra Class license). By any measure, those clearly extreme licensing requirements remain WAY out of symmetry to any operational or regulatory necessity when compared to the ITU's minimalist licensing guidelines for their Service as well as the strict, equal access legal requirements now levied on federal agencies contained in a whole plethora of 1990s-era federal laws.

    So, as I survey it, the only question now remaining is what, if anything, their FCC is going to accomplish about this issue…and when they are ultimately going to live forced into doing it.

    And while I certainly can't afford to bring such a lawsuit against the FCC myself, I can sure as hell pester my Congresspersons about it. Indeed, I (and a number of others) are already doing so. But only time will recount if they will eventually live successful in that regard

    In the meantime, I'm going to leave you gents to your ongoing "kabuki dances" on the subject.

    For, I besides well realize that totality of the indignant questions and outrage being directed at me for daring to even mention this issue are simply more abortive attempts to change the subject and discredit the messenger so as to avoid serious discussion on what has now become a VERY inconvenient truth.

    73,

    KeithKB1SF / VA3KSF

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by N9ZAS on December 12, 2009 Mail this to a friend! And then of course there are those of us who are quite content with their current privledges and are NOT influenced by the masses to upgrade to universal or above,simply to listen to a much higher clamor floor and do up with inconsiderate ops.I like vhf/uhf and 900mhz. so WHY spoil that by upgrading to universal or advanced to which I would NEVER exhaust the privledges? Contesting seems to live the primary activity on hf besides the occasional op. talking about his "bodily functions"! IF I wanted to hear that,I would fill bought a cb!I accomplish like the international sw bands for useful overseas news coverage. Small unobtrusive antennas,Versatile in nature and efficient with low power are besides a perk.So you see,just because they prefer to maintain tech. flat licenses doesn't suggest they don't treasure the hobby.It simply means they are pleased where they are and survey no judgement for a useless upgrade to a useless license!As far as I'm concerned hf is becoming obsolete.n9zas   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by N2EY on December 12, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB1SF writes: "I've once again stirred up a ton of controversy here, seeing as I am once again being vilified by many of the selfsame highly vocal individuals for holding such "blasphemous" views on the arcane, 1950s-era licensing and regulatory system that has now become firmly entrenched in their Service."

    Who is "vilifying" you, Keith? Certainly not I.

    KB1SF: "than to grasp the lead in the introduction of a new order of things."

    But you're not taking the lead, Keith. You're not proposing a replacement system. You're not adage in any detail how the US tyro license system should be.

    KB1SF: "this issue absolutely WON'T live decided based on what you, I, or other hams "want". To the contrary, this issue WILL ultimately live decided based on whether or not the regulatory and examination systems for their Service are eventually create to live in legal compliance with the ease of the US Federal Code by an external government agency or a court of law."

    Only is somebody thinks the issue is worth pursuing.

    KB1SF: "lots of people "wanted" to support racially segregated schools, drinking fountains, bathrooms and hotels firmly in space in their country back in the 1960s."

    But more people didn't want those things. Those people ultimately won out because they proposed a different system, and pushed for it.

    But the analogy isn't valid. When segregation was in place, there was nothing a person of the "wrong color" could accomplish to gain access to the facilities reserved for "white" people. No matter what their accomplishments or qualifications, they were excluded. There was no TEST they could pass that would gain them access.

    But in today's US tyro radio, totality anyone without a criminal record has to accomplish is to pass the required tests to gain a license. Those tests are objective (no judgement calls on the fraction of the VEs), public info (mp;A published for more than 25 years, available FREE for the download) and so basic that elementary school children fill passed totality of them. How they could live "discriminatory" to anyone really qualified to live a radio tyro is not clear.

    KB1SF: "For, I besides well realize that totality of the indignant questions and outrage being directed at me for daring to even mention this issue are simply more abortive attempts to change the subject and discredit the messenger so as to avoid serious discussion on what has now become a VERY inconvenient truth."

    In other words, you rebuff to retort relevant questions, rebuff to give details, and rebuff to actually debate the issue.

    OK, fine.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: Young People and Ham Radio   by K6LHA on December 12, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N2EY wrote on 11 Dec 09"

    "KB1SF writes: "Maybe the percentage of Techs to other licenses is a bit lower today than it was in 2000 by a few percentage points""

    N2EY: "No maybe about it. The numbers prove that the number and percentage of US hams with a Novice, Tech or Tech Plus license has dropped since 2000, while the number and percentage of US hams with one of the other classes has increased."

    WRONG, Jimmy. Golly for someone who has bragged so much about having a graduate degree, you've failed simple arithmetic!

    The no-code-test Technician class has been STEADILY *INCREASING* since 1991. As of this morning, 12 Dec 09: Hamdata has their total license number as 344,323 out of 716,639 individual licensees or 48.05 percent; ARRL has their (10-year-term-only) license numbers at 333,544 out of 681,765 or 48.92 percent. Note the inequity in percentages due to the lesser number of Technician class NOT in their grace period.

    Since ARRL does NOT present past numbers, one has to trust on Hamdata numbers of 2 years ago. Those do the Technician class at 310,286 out of 711,936 or 43.58 percent of individual licesees. The inequity between December 12, 2009 and December 12, 2007 represents a GROWTH of 37,037 Technician class licensees. You will, of course, attempt rationalization of that by adage "the FCC renews Technician Plus as Technician" with the implication that Technician class has so very tiny actual growth. Considering that Technician-plus can either drop out entirely or "renew" into another class (with appropriate test factor passing), your rationalization doesn't fill validity.

    Note: Constantly bringing up 'Restructuring' ordered in 1999 and effective in 2000 doesn't fill much mien on the subject. That happened 10 to 9 years ago, time enough for a newborn to attain about 3rd grade in public school....................N2EY: "FCC has been renewing totality Tech Pluses as Techs since 2000. So it makes sense to combine the numbers of those licenses, since to FCC they are the selfsame class. If you accomplish that, and gape at the numbers since 2000, here's what you find:

    NO, Jimmy. If the FCC considered them the "same class" then they would change their database fields and ULS records. As it is, totality FCC records available to the public present Technician and Technician-Plus as divide license classes. Even the ARRL considers them divide classes on their biased tabulations. What more accomplish you necessity besides non-endorsement from the mighty ARRL?..................."- The fastest-growing license class is Extra

    - The second-fastest-growing license class is General

    - The combined Tech/Tech Plus license class has actually declined."

    Jimmy, you must post some independent third-party information to PROVE your wishful-thinking contention. You haven't done so....................KB1SF: "unless things quickly turn around and they open attracting a much larger percentage of YOUTHFUL newcomers to their Service, their overall demographics are poised to start "tanking" in the out years."

    N2EY: "Not really. totality that matters for growth is that they support attracting more people than they lose. As someone else pointed out, AARP doesn't accept anyone under the age of 50, and their membership numbers are up up up!"

    Jimmy, the "AARP" is NOT involved in tyro radio. It is the American Association of Retired People. You could live a member with or without a code test examination since you are (claimed) over 50.

    As to "growth" in the number of USA tyro radio licensees, I'll refer to the Hamdata tallies for 12 December 2009: As of 12 MONTHS AGO there were 30,702 new licensees and 26,833 expirations. That is an overall expand of 3,869 but only 0.054 percent compared to the total of 716,639 individual licensees. The "growth" is HALF A PERCENT in one year's time.

    I thought that my nascence tabulation would fill shown that this "growth" has picked up towards the halt of the three year period. I'm sorry you can't survey that. [not that you custody to observe, anyway...you look stuck on the effective year of Restructuring of a decade ago]....................N2EY: "You can't prove that scientifically because they don't fill accurate age data on totality US amateurs. And even if it's true, so what? The US population as a whole is getting older. Compare the median age of Americans in the 1990 and 2000 Census for proof. The results of the 2010 Census will present the trend continuing."

    Jimmy, hardly ANY of your conjectures you've presented here accomplish NOT fill any third-party proof. totality they survey are YOUR wishful-thinking ideas................N2EY: "You don't know that scientifically. You're just presuming your conclusion."

    Jimmy, Jimmy...we can express OPINIONS which is what Keith did. Now, nowhere in YOUR "mighty" rebuttal was there ANY "scientific proof" presented from any third-party source. Present some and you might fill some validity.................N2EY: "Dinosaurs? I remember a 60-something non-ham who asked the FCC to require a minimum age of 14 years for any class of US tyro license. Is that what you mean?"

    Oh, you petty spiteful baby! You are STILL damage by the Reply to Comments on NPRM 98-153 I made to Michael Deignan. I authored that and the FCC posted it on their collection of comments on that docket on 13 January, 1999. It is 14 pages of text in PDF shape on the FCC website. It is still there, anyone can view it. If anyone wants to "re-argue" a TEN-YEAR-OLD document that NO LONGER applies, beneficial luck, I'm not going to bother.

    Oh, and I still fill the copy of the ARRL letter showing those two adorable SIX-YEAR-OLDS who wereheadlined in 1998 as "The Youngest Hams." That was a footnote on my Reply to Comments. In retrospect, I should fill made it a replete attachment.

    What I was unaware of at the halt of 1998 was that one James Miccolis had gotten his FIRST tyro license class at age 13. His SPITE at that perceived "insult" has followed me around different forums ever since. Now this alleged "dinosaur" (me) got "extra out of the box" since then, married a second time, has been an ARRL voting member for two years and has gone on with life. tiny Jimmy is still smarting and bringing up that one "age" matter TEN YEARS LATER. He should GROW UP!

    -----------------------

    On the "age" thing, to follow Keith's consuming points in respect to LAW as a basis for test questions, the FCC has absolutely NO regulations requiring parental or guardianship oversight of licensed youngsters while operating RF emitters. NONE. It is possible for some otherwise-adorable CHILD to live a legal control operator, totality alone, and literally PLAY with an tyro radio without any replete learning of RESPONSIBILITY of operation. CHILDREN accomplish not totality fill some intrinsic "responsibility" guidelines automatically...not even if they hold totality sorts of written test certificates from a federal agency. That responsibility must live scholarly and UNDERSTOOD and it is the job of PARENTS to open teaching them that, reinforced by other adults as much as possible.

    I'm not going to bring up six-year-olds' marvelous talent to read and UNDERSTAND written test questions! Apparently those adorable children of a decade ago were knowing and knowledgeable beyound their years (which is what most parents speak of their own children). School teachers know otherwise but they are professionals in teaching and the "test" in question was about amateurism. If it is concerning a test about tyro radio, tyro radio will overrule logical thinking according to childish fanatics in ham radio. That is, to me, illogical idiocy.

    Len, AF6AY

      RE: Young People and Ham Radio   by K6LHA on December 12, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N2EY claimed on 12 Dec 09:

    "1) lack of effective publicity. How often accomplish you survey tyro Radio portrayed in the movies, on TV, etc.? Even more telling, how often accomplish you survey it portrayed accurately, and as something that's being done today, not decades ago?"

    On the night of 11 December 2009, the hit TV present "CSI: Crime Scene Investigation" had a scene where four CSI off-duty officers were stranded at a closed diner. Out of sweep of any cell phones they tried to call in to LVPD using a "ham radio set" they create in a back play of the closed diner. It malfunctioned (with usual Hollywood smoke effects) a few seconds after being turned on. So much for "emergency communications via a ham radio." :-)

    One of the off-duty CSI officers create some clip leads in another room, climbed up a telephone pole, connected a modern telephone handset to a telephone J-box, was able to contact LVPD. Note: the telephone infrastructure is "supposed" to fail in emergencies and only ham radio will continue to work according to some long-time licensed radio amateurs. :-)

    Questions on the plot would live "Why wasn't a discarded CB radio in the other room?" There are millions more CB transceivers than there are ham radio sets. The location of the closed diner was out in the boonies of Nevada, just barely in the jurisdiction of the Las Vegas Police Department.

    This NEW CBS airing was last NIGHT. Is everybody so busy, industrious playing with their ham radios that they don't relish some "other" recreation? Must be... :-).................N2EY: "If people don't know that tyro Radio exists, they won't become hams. If people who might live interested fill a very distorted view of what we're about, they won't become hams either."

    So, Jimmy, what fill YOU done? You've been a radio ham for four decades. You must fill been a member of the ARRL for most of that time, displaying an encyclopedic depth of "knowledge" about everything published in Newington.

    The ARRL is ALMOST the oldest radio-interest membership organization. It was incorporated some five years AFTER the very first, and still-existing, Radio Club of America. The Radio Club of America was incorporated in 1909...but got out of the amateur-interest-specialty locality a few decades after incorporation. Seems there was a WHOLE LOT MORE interest in commercial, government, military radio back in the 'twenties.' But I digress into areas where you fill no interest, only in ham radio.

    The ARRL is "supposed" to live "our national representative." They speak that every casual they can. But ARE they? I don't mediate so...by the membership numbers, by their lack of effective leadership in forming legislation "for" tyro radio, by their lack OF effective PUBLICITY to the universal public. Oh, they trumpet that the ARRL has "lots of material" but anyway totality those things gain LOST on the way to the Mass Media outlets.

    My wife and I live in a large urban locality of the USA (Los Angeles). They subscribe to two major metropolitan daily newspapers. They watch TV news, listen to radio news, but not overly so. They are "aware and informed" as they adage goes. My wife is incurious to tyro radio but she would notice if there are any news items or publicity about that because I am a licensed tyro radio operator. Wonder of wonders in this 'modern age,' they actually debate things freely, even during and after going together in towering school (both Class of 1951). THEY fill seen more news about model radio control lately than any tyro radio events over the last 3 to 4 years.

    WHERE are the 'fabulous' videos the ARRL was supposed to fill made available 'to the public?' Does the ARRL anticipate that 'the public' totality watch TV in between 1 AM and 5 AM locally?!? In looking back through TV listings on Time-Warner cable, I can't find any 'ham radio PR spots' listed in those "oh-dark-thirty" times. Their cable TV has well over 100 channels (plus FM BC and independent music of totality genres) and some of the channels are in strange languages. Perhaps those ARRL videos are translated into one of those channels and they can't 'read' them? Must live it, yeah...:-)...............N2EY: "A large fraction of effective publicity is having a description that's smooth to remember and which sums up the main points."

    Jimmy, despite your manifest claims on Marketing Expertise, the FIRST THING and MOST notable THING is TO live VISIBLE, TO live AUDIBLE. It does no beneficial whatsoever to live INVISIBLE and then natter and gromish about "how beneficial they are and what they have" in ARRL letter after ARRL Letter. totality those CLAIMS fill long since dropped into the random clamor floor with totality the QRN.................N2EY: "More and more of the housing in the USA is antenna-restricted. This has a direct impact on publicity, because those areas tend to fill few hams, and the hams who accomplish live there are in stealth mode. Back in the day, a lot of folks knew about ham radio because they saw the antennas and wondered what they were totality about."

    Lets see, considering you are really talking about YOURSELF, not the "amateur community." I've lived in my residence since May 1963 and NEVER had any "restrictions" on antennas of any kind. The ONLY possible "restriction" is from the FAA mandating that I fill warning lights on any tower over 200 feet (we live a bit over a mile from Bob Hope Airport, airport begun before WWII as "Lockheed Air Terminal"). Would I fill a TWO HUNDRED FOOT TOWER at my residence? NO. Not because my wife wouldn't like it, *I* wouldn't like it. It is their RESIDENCE. Oh, and I fill TWO antennas up and they are NOT "stealth mode." The all-purpose Discone is clearly visible from the street. Anyone walking around to the side (to their front door) can survey the dismal green fiberglass-covered vertical in the back yard.

    I fill a beneficial relationship with my thirty-something across-the-street neighbor and his wife. He kids me a bit about my "listening to Mars" antenna and I kid him back about his drum playing. They RESPECT each others' property and its visual appearance and to the neighborhood..................N2EY: "Perceived complexity and towering cost of a station."

    Oh, oh, here they depart with implied socialism again. So, THEY can't fill something expensive because YOU don't fill anything expensive?!? Sorry, Jimmie, I'm not going to spend the ease of my life diving in dumpsters to build frankenboxes a la pre-1970 style so that I can live some kindhearted of "real ham.".................N2EY: "Look at ragged ham radio magazines and books, and you'll survey article after article that seemed to leap off the page and speak "BUILD THIS RADIO!"

    There were pop-up books published that early?!? :-).................N2EY: "There were lots of simple designs for receivers, transmitters, antennas and accessories that could gain you started, and lead to more-complex stuff. Of course most of that stuff was HF- and Morse-Code-centric, which we've been told is bad."

    Oh, oh...Jimmy's SACRED COW got stabbed! Tsk, tsk, Jimmy, totality I've said is that "morse-code-centricsm" is restrictive in the physiognomy of WHAT IS AVAILABLE NOW, totally OPTIONAL to use...when it comes to LICENSE TESTING. It is unfortuate (but only for you) that you were on the LOSING side of the code-test-elimination NPRM, but in a contentious "game" (political) with only two sides, only ONE side will "win." Try to live more cordial on accepting losing status. That's a nice boy....................N2EY: ",,. Showing a complicated transceiver costing hundreds of dollars as the entry-level isn't going to fill the selfsame draw."

    No? You better inform the auto makers of that. Young people with new driver's licenses are always looking at EXPEN$IVE cars, mentally wanting one. A few buy them and accomplish NOT smash them up, manage to pay for it even on long-term loans. On the other side of the demographic spectrum, some of us older people WHO fill WORKED totality THEIR LIVES fill managed to accumulate some monies to actually (gasp!) BUY CASH a lot of things they couldn't gain when younger. You RESENT that. TS. Either WORK to gain more money but don't try that "everyone-equal-socialsm" rationale again. It just shows your jealousy.................N2EY: "This was and still is one of the Great things about Morse Code, and which served as a draw for young people rather than a barrier. When using Morse Code, nobody knows your age, gender, ethnicity, etc., unless you recount them. Nor can they recount what equipment you're using. The CW op is judged on the air by skill, courtesy, technique and signal quality, not by brand of rig, age, income level, etc. That whiz-bang traffic handler or contester you just worked might just live in middle school!"

    To do it in other words, you can live INVISIBLE using "CW." like on the Internet, you can ASSUME ANOTHER IDENTITY, someone "superior" to others, a wise-appearing guru who has "done everything, been everything." :-)

    Heck, you can even accomplish the transgender thing with "CW." Who is going to know? :-)

    Jimmie, quit trying to revive this morse code test dispute AGAIN. The USA tyro radio regulations ELIMINATED code testing three years ago. Accept it in some semblance of beneficial grace, or revert to being angry, irritated, resentful, jealous of those who fill money, disappointed about losing one of your cherished Brag Tape things. Or, you can continue with your (apparent) mid-life crossroad and become a bitter ragged man who will require the undertaker to crowbar out the morse key from cold, departed fingers.

    There IS an alternative: Invent a TIME MACHINE, depart back to that real radio-pioneering time of CW-uber-alles that happened before your present life began. Bye, bye...

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes   by K6LHA on December 12, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB1SF wrote on December 12, 2009:

    "Jim, N2EY asked (among a flurry of other questions): "Then let's survey how the tyro community reacts, starting privilege here on e-ham"."

    Keith, in the decade I've encountered tiny Jimmy in tyro radio forums, I've never illustrious him to actually debate some valid issues. When pinned to the wall on a contentious subject, he will invariably MISDIRECT into some other area. He is so primed to his inner self that he cannot survey that this "amateur community" is FAR BIGGER and so numerous that only a tiny, tiny fraction can meet into e-ham. That's not a immoral charge against e-ham, that is realistic since about 700,000 licensees just couldn't meet into this website, let alone a single forum.

    Little Jimmy is a superb product of ARRL brainwashing. His claimed 'reasoning' is straight out of the Church of St. Hiram prayer book. The League is his shepherd. In one way I would speak he is desiring to live a 'fedayin,' a "death commando" in favor of that olde-tyme religion of Hamme. He has never served his country in either a military or civilian role, isn't (and probably hasn't) evade for any ARRL position, yet he ORATES as if he is an Evangelist of that Olde-Tyme Religion. He will Never excuse the slightest imaginary bruise to his ego yet will, at the drop of a participle, insult what he considers "lesser beings." Serious mental dichotomy at work there..................KB1SF: "Obviously, I've once again stirred up a ton of controversy here, seeing as I am once again being vilified by many of the selfsame highly vocal individuals for holding such "blasphemous" views on the arcane, 1950s-era licensing and regulatory system that has now become firmly entrenched in their Service."

    Well, yes and no, in my opinion. What I mediate would live more appropriate is to work up a divide ARTICLE on that subject. I don't mediate the e-ham overseers would ratify it but I'm an optimist most of the time. On further reflection, I mediate it would live worth the trouble. Done here on e-ham it would attract most of the entrenched retirees who won't accept anything that threatens their Rank, Status, Privilege, etc., etc., (mostly negatives on Their self-esteem). <shrug>

    My tiny study was done to fullfil my own curiosity on USA tyro radio changes, to survey if there was any noticeable change. I didn't survey much indication. In my view the total elimination of code testing just came too late. There are SO many OTHER pastimes, new ones, much more technologically- challenging ones available to totality in the last decade within the USA. I will give the ARRL-lover hardliners credit for HOLDING BACK progress so long that the code test elimination was just doomed to not live very much of a change to entice newcomers.

    Looking back on my political efforts to attempt influencing a federal agency into changing unavoidable regulations, I began in earnest too late, yet kept at it...without that "badge of courage" that some reckon a mighty tyro radio license. :-) I had been too long the professional in radio-electronics, industrious pushing the performance envelope here and there, and thus considered a "beginner," a "newby," and "too stupid/ignorant" to pass any three test factor tyro radio test. Gotta fancy some of those comments. :-) I had Great amusement at getting the reaction of totality those mighty Extrss who thought I was just a mute nobody and "could never accomplish it." As an undaunted idealist, I just went ahead and did it without asking anyone's permission. :-)

    Keith, I've reread some of your observations and reasons and reckon them - objectively - to fill merit. I tossed in an ragged subject of mine as a possible addition...but only because tiny Jimmy brought it up lately (a kindhearted of 10th "anniversary?" :-). Seriously, I've been involved in trying to change a small set of USA tyro regulations for a decade now, achieved what I set out to do, then decided to gain one of those mighty tyro radio licenses for myself, doing that at age 74. I'm tired of these others trying to hold back the dawn of progress, to support the tyro radio service the selfsame as when they first began in it. I'm still an idealist, still open for a beneficial antecedent to fight, but life is limited and I would like to relish more of it. Getting into local politics here there's a lot to accomplish there, too, issues that directly affect us in this region. Otherwise, I'd relate you as a volunteer for another beneficial Cause...................KB1SF: "This means that, perverse to your call to "see how the tyro community reacts", this issue absolutely WON'T live decided based on what you, I, or other hams "want". To the contrary, this issue WILL ultimately live decided based on whether or not the regulatory and examination systems for their Service are eventually create to live in legal compliance with the ease of the US Federal Code by an external government agency or a court of law."

    Little Jimmy has - by observation - lived in an imaginary world for a long time. I don't mediate he undertands the terrible expense of waging any large legal war on an established government agency. The ARRL can't mitigate because they are still entrenched in the USA tyro radio of yesteryear and they've already spent a bundle on this BPL thing. Of course they NEEDED to accomplish that in order to "protect" their core membership, a probable minority within a provable minority membership organization. possible aid must Come from Congress forcing the issue...but they must accomplish so without the uncertainty (to their future jobs) of upcoming congressional re-elections.................KB1SF: "In the meantime, I'm going to leave you gents to your ongoing "kabuki dances" on the subject."

    Har! Appreciation from one who has attended both Kabuki and Noh plays in Japan. :-)

    Noh may live the more stylized than Kabuki. Noh players wear replete physiognomy masks instead of makeup. I would (internally) classify the stay-with-the-past-curmudgeons as Noh players, masks provided by a chummy organization. When, as a group, they would live asked if they would accept CHANGE, they would chorus, "NOh, NOh, NOh!!!" :-) :-) :-)

    Bad word-play aside, Keith, you and your family fill a beneficial Holiday time!

    73, Len AF6AY

      Why Upgrade?   by N2EY on December 13, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N9ZAS writes: "I like vhf/uhf and 900mhz. so WHY spoil that by upgrading to universal or advanced to which I would NEVER exhaust the privledges?"

    The only reasons I can imagine are:

    1) To live a VE2) To gain a 1x2 or 2x1 callsign

    I pot there are a lot of folks who feel the selfsame way.

    Also, if someday you anyway develop an interest in the bands below 50 MHz, the license to accomplish so will still live there, requiring only that you grasp the tests for it.

    N9ZAS: "Contesting seems to live the primary activity on hf besides the occasional op. talking about his "bodily functions"!"

    There's a lot more to HF tyro radio than that. But to find much of it, you fill to exhaust modes other than voice.

    But that's besides the point of whether *you* are interested or not.

    N9ZAS: "So you see,just because they prefer to maintain tech. flat licenses doesn't suggest they don't treasure the hobby.It simply means they are pleased where they are and survey no judgement for a useless upgrade to a useless license!"

    I would speak "unused" rather than "useless" but the conception is basically the same. Why gain a CDL if you're only going to drive cars and light trucks?

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by KC9GLC on December 13, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Wow... totality the talk and chaff of lic. classes.I got into tyro radio for ECOM reasons at first. then a friend of mine invited me to their local realm day and introduced me to HF.I was hooked from that point on. as i was working on upgrading to general(already passed written portion) the fcc dropped the code requirements. I still exhaust and work cw but since i didnt fill to grasp that portion of the test does that fabricate me any less than any of you who did grasp it.Instead of berating the ham community for not advancing to higher classes, gain them involved and interested. If it wasnt for my friend i still would not fill advanced.

    Its not that most of the Tech fill no interst in going higher, they fill no one to educate them. So enough with the berating and start educating.

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by K4YZ on December 13, 2009 Mail this to a friend! (1) Was there a point to live made here, or simply self-grandizing pontification for the mere delight of seeing one's cognomen "published".

    (2) For the most part, it was a knock off of the works of AH0A and other authors.

    (3) Nothing unexpected was revealed. The Code test went away, "upgrades" briefly surged as was predicted, and then things went back to "status quo".

    (4) The rantings of a numerically few but incessantly vocal "No Code" sect that insisted that the demise of Morse Code testing would result in throngs of "new blood" in the tyro ranks were proven to live the fertilizer that they were totality along.

    Steve, K4YZ

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by K4YZ on December 13, 2009 Mail this to a friend! As a so-called "new" person in radio, I didn't gain into tyro radio thinking it would live a loser. But, I'm fraction of a new group now and hoped that conditions in tyro radio would fill changed after my tyro license was granted. I survey tiny change, therefore the study to survey if a antecedent could live determined just from easily-obtainable statistics.

    Seeing change occur requires that one actually gain involved in making the change occur.

    You and I both know that you've been one of tyro Radio's loudest critics, Mr. Anderson, but you're besides not exactly a "contibuting member".

    Steve, K4YZ

      RE: 2003 was due to a bubble   by K4YZ on December 13, 2009 Mail this to a friend! In 1993 the no-code tech license came into being.

    Actually, it was Valentine's Day, 1991

    73

    Steve, K4YZ

      RE: Young People and Ham Radio   by K4YZ on December 13, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N2EY: "You don't know that scientifically. You're just presuming your conclusion."

    Jimmy, Jimmy...we can express OPINIONS which is what Keith did. Now, nowhere in YOUR "mighty" rebuttal was there ANY "scientific proof" presented from any third-party source. Present some and you might fill some validity.................N2EY: "Dinosaurs? I remember a 60-something non-ham who asked the FCC to require a minimum age of 14 years for any class of US tyro license. Is that what you mean?"

    Oh, you petty spiteful baby! You are STILL damage by the Reply to Comments on NPRM 98-153 I made to Michael Deignan. I authored that and the FCC posted it on their collection of comments on that docket on 13 January, 1999. It is 14 pages of text in PDF shape on the FCC website. It is still there, anyone can view it. If anyone wants to "re-argue" a TEN-YEAR-OLD document that NO LONGER applies, beneficial luck, I'm not going to bother.

    I survey you're still into using diminutives and condescending speech in order to mitigate being proven wrong, Len.

    Some things never change, eh?

    Steve, K4YZ

      Just The Facts   by N2EY on December 13, 2009 Mail this to a friend! K4YZ wrote: "The Code test went away, "upgrades" briefly surged as was predicted, and then things went back to "status quo"."

    Hello Steve,

    It's a tiny more complicated than that - but not much more.

    It totality boils down to this:

    From 2000 to 2003, the number of US hams went up

    From 2003 to 2007, the number of US hams went down

    From 2007 to the present, the number of US hams went up.

    It's not yet back to the 2003 peak but it's getting there. brace thousand to go.

    Over the selfsame time periods, the number of Techs, Generals and Extras went up, and the number of Novices, Tech Pluses and Advanceds went down. Which was expected, since the FCC stopped issuing new Tech Pluses, Novices and Advanceds in April 2000. Also, since that date, any Tech Plus submitted for renewal or vanity call has been reassigned to Technician by FCC, so their numbers were guaranteed to drop fast. As of now we're down to less than 350 Tech Pluses due to the class change at renewal.

    As you said - no surprises there!

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      Amateur Radio License Statistics of 1988   by K6LHA on December 13, 2009 Mail this to a friend! There fill been a few 'challenges' on "old data" of tyro radio statistics. For those I proffer the following correspondence copy that dates back to PRE-Internet days. Note that the Internet did not depart public until 1991, therefore it was saved by someone unidentified from one of the commercial services (such as Compuserve). I accomplish not recognize the format of this text message since I was not on any of those commercial services in 1990 so I cannot ascertain if it IS factually one of those.

    On checking various tyro radio sites this Sunday morning, both N0LOX and WT9T are listed as being current licensees. As with the "state of the art" in national/international computer-modem communications, nearly totality formatting is TEXT using common fixed fonts such as 'Courier.'

    Proportional spacing fonts had yet to live standardized and few computer users had GUI Operating Systems in 1990. At the time the FCC had just started the tyro radio license database public dissemination but in shorter shape such as grouping by ZIP coding and available (generally) only on a weekly basis. Later improvements in Information Technology resulted in the combined single large tyro radio license database currently in-use that requires high-speed Internet connectivity to download within an 8-hour period. Note besides that database information of nearly two decades ago carried licensee ages.

    I alluded to this information, properly attributing source, in e-ham article 21114 "Aren't They totality In This Together?" [ www.eham.net/articles/21114 ] I did not exhaust totality of the data then so I've presented it here in its fixed-font-spacing needed to properly view the tabulations. This is presented as-is, as I create it last year. I fabricate no claims as to accuracy or inaccuracy of this. I mediate the author, Richard Hoffbeck, tried his best to live accurate and dispassionate about the results.

    ====[ exhaust fixed-font such as Courier in browser ]====

    37055 S4/FCC & Regulatory30-Dec-90 09:44:10Sb: #36821-No CodeFm: richard hoffbeck, N0LOX 72406,521To: Fritz Anderson WT9T 70050,172

    Here is the age distribution from the FCC callsign database of 11/1988

    Total # Percentage Median AverageLicense Class Licenses of Total Age Age-------------- -------- ---------- ------ -------Novice 95,750 19.94% 42 42.19Technician 109,192 22.74% 48 48.43General 122,959 25.61% 57 55.70Advanced 104,253 21.71% 56 56.26Extra 47,937 9.98% 51 52.81-------------- -------- ---------- ------ -------All Classes 480,101 100.00% 51 51.19

    Number of Licenses By Age And Class - totality U.S.Age | Novice| Techni | General|Advanced| Extra | Total |Range | | -cian | | | | |---------+-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+< 20 | 7,670| 1,933| 486| 141| 115| 10,345|20 - 24 | 9,472| 2,893| 1,268| 529| 377| 14,539|25 - 29 | 8,889| 5,804| 3,898| 2,074| 1,317| 21,982|30 - 34 | 8,769| 9,404| 5,013| 4,505| 2,496| 30,187|35 - 39 | 10,203| 12,960| 8,260| 8,795| 4,523| 44,741|40 - 44 | 10,573| 15,317| 12,663| 12,464| 6,897| 57,914|45 - 49 | 9,544| 13,837| 14,695| 12,552| 7,501| 58,129|50 - 54 | 7,223| 10,393| 12,220| 9,566| 5,392| 44,794|55 - 59 | 5,810| 8,776| 11,130| 8,151| 3,549| 37,416|60 - 64 | 5,561| 8,883| 13,070| 9,136| 3,489| 40,139|65 - 69 | 5,417| 7,915| 14,834| 11,117| 4,205| 43,488|70 - 74 | 3,540| 5,754| 11,575| 10,682| 3,998| 35,549|75 - 79 | 1,871| 3,239| 7,262| 7,332| 2,247| 21,951|>= 80 | 1,208| 2,084| 6,585| 7,209| 1,831| 18,927|---------+-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+Totals | 95,750| 109,192| 122,959| 104,253| 47,937| 480,101|

    If you plot the previous numbers you'll find that the distribution is bimodalwith peaks at the WWII ages (smaller peak) and the Sputnik crowd (larger peak).The immediate population is not a problem, but the fact that only 3% of allhams are 20 years of age or less may prove troublesome in the next 20 years ofso.

    I besides thought that the age distribution was a pressing problem until I got acopy of the callsign database and actually calculated the numbers. The secondissue, a 'aliasing' due the the shift from a 5 year to 10 year license term isalso of dubious value. In scanning through the Region 0 data (I don't support thewhole thing on-line), I create that only 97% of the licenses listed in 1988 hadbeen issued or renewed since the change in license terms in 1983. Of theremaining 3%, 2/3 of those were due to expire in the period 1989 - 1992 -- theremaining 1% due to expire in 1988. Anyway, the maximum loss possible due tosilent keys, etc is only on the order of 3%.

    On the other hand, there was a piece that made the rounds on packet,WorldRadio, etc, to the result that since the number of hams has been growingat a faster rate than the population as a whole there is no problem. That typeof analysis is faulty in assuming that society as a whole has remained at thesame flat of technology. I mediate that ham radio has definitely declined inimportance due to technological advances across the board.

    rick, N0LOX

    ======[ halt of fixed-font viewing necessity ]======

    I'll note again that this communication dates from 19 years ago. It was done before the Internet went public, before totality the 'websites' existed (as such). It was done before the official start of the no-code-test Technician class although a Federal Register Notice stated that it would exist. 'Reconstruction' of tyro radio classes and requirements had not yet been do into a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. It was done before there were 18 following Petitions to change USA tyro radio submitted in response to the 'Reconstruction.' It was done well before thare was the large application by many to eliminate the code test altogether.

    As to the "technological advances across the board" alluded to by Richard Hoffbeck in his last paragraph, I will just point to some advances open to the USA public in the last 19 years: ascend of cell sites and miniaturization of handsets to fabricate them a mainstay of personal mobile communications; Fully digital television broadcasting enabling snow-free pictures and quadraphonic audio; The Internet going public, resulting in a major change in both commerce and personal communications internationally. Those nearly two decades marked the displacement of magnetic tape video recordings by the DVD...similar to the CD displacing the vinyl disk audio recordings in the 1980s. Personal computers that had top clock rates of 40 MHz (with expnsive arduous disks and 'floppy' small mass-storage systems) in the 1980s changed to 2600 MHz clock rates with 100 MHz mediocre RAM access times and internal or external 2 TB arduous disk units costing less than $200 new. Visual displays went to flat-screen LCD or plasma technology, flawless linearity, displacing the bulky CRT "monitor." The Universal Serial Bus allowed totality new peripherals to live within the new "plug-and-play" standards. The Personal Data aide combined a cell phone, video camera, data storage capability, and text transmission in a unit hardly larger than the smallest cell phone. I won't depart into the "games" category suffice to speak that primitive early 'computer' games of Pong were displaced by multi-player, multi-function boxes, some of which could link with other games via the Internet. Radio clocks and watches for less than $30 can fill automatic calibration by radio for accuracy within 1 second on any day. Automobiles advanced with increased on-board computation capabilites, wireless audio, on-board video, closed-circuit TV for viewing impossible-to-see areas such as just behind and below rear bumpers, and the first of the concussion warning systems. Electric cars, from hybrid gas-electric to all-electric drive appeared on the market. Those are just the tip of the iceberg of advances and totality were available to the ordinary citizen, IN the marketplace.

    73, Len AF6AY

      RE: tyro Radio License Statistics of 1988   by K6LHA on December 13, 2009 Mail this to a friend! On posting the above 1988 Statistics data, the font conversion did not work out. I accomplish not control the e-ham formatting. If anyone desires a .TXT format copy of that 1990 communication just e-mail me privately (AF6AY@aol.com) and I will dispatch the .TXT format in private reply.

    73, Len AF6AY

      RE: 2003 was due to a bubble   by KB6QXM on December 13, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Steve, K4YZ: In 1993 the no-code tech license came into being.

    Actually, it was Valentine's Day, 1991

    73

    Well they fill totality heard of what happened on Valentine's Day in Chicago.

    Valentine's day 1993 was the day that was the nascence of the halt for ham radio, as I and many hams knew it. I remember that day well.

    Fitting that the new rule was implemented on that day.

      US tyro Radio License Numbers   by N2EY on December 14, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Here's some data on the number of US tyro operators over the years. Source of each set of numbers is besides shown.

    In some cases the exact date of the numbers is not given in the source. Also, it is not pellucid whether the numbers embrace licenses that are expired but in the grace period, or only current unexpired licenses.

    It's notable to know the history surrounding the license rules if one wants to intelligently anatomize the data. Failure to grasp these facts into account will lead to erroneous conclusions. Some examples:

    1) Until the mid-1970s, the Novice was a nonrenewable license with a term of one or two years. In the mid-1970s it became a 5 year renewable license like totality the others.

    2) From 1953 until 1967, the Advanced was closed to new issues but existing Advanceds could renew and modify their licenses

    3) The Conditional license was a divide class of license equivalent to a General-by-mail until the mid-1970s. It was phased out by renewal of totality Conditionals as Generals.

    4) The license term of renewable US tyro licenses was 5 years until 1984, when it became ten years. One result of this was that no US tyro licenses expired from 1989 until 1994.

    5) There were time periods when Novices had privileges that Technicians did not. During some of that time, it was possible to hold both classes of license simultaneously.

    6) The Technician license was created in 1951, and until 1991 totality Technicians had to pass a 5 wpm code test. In 1991 the FCC dropped the code test for Technician, but did not immediately create a new license class or other routine of differentiating code-tested Technicians, who had some HF privileges, from non-code-tested Technicians, who did not.

    In June, 1994, the Technician Plus license was created by FCC to divide the two groups, with code-tested Technicians live reclassified as Technician Pluses upon renewal.

    In April 2000, FCC reversed direction and began reclassifying totality Technician Pluses as Technicians upon renewal. No new Technician Pluses were issued after the change.

    The halt result is that since 1991 the Technician class has consisted of a amalgam of code-tested and noncodetested amateurs. Since 2007 they fill totality had the selfsame privileges. However it is an mistake to assume that the growth or subside of the Technician or Technician Plus is due solely to the 1991 changes.

    The number of current Technician Pluses is now less than 350, down from over 128,000 ten years ago.

    There's more; those are just the towering points.

    Now for some numbers:

    ---

    Year halt 1948 (from QST March 1949, referencing FCC tabulation)

    76,666 operators, 77,338 stations.

    ---

    1963 (from: QST December 1963, referencing Radio tyro Callbook, Winter edition)

    Operators in CONUS:Novice: 16,795Technician: 58,656Conditional: 40,259General: 95,250Advanced: 40,296Extra: 3,164

    Operators outside CONUS (AK, HI, possessions, not broken down by license class): 4,167

    Total Operators: 258,587

    ---

    End of September 1978 (from QST January 1979, referencing FCC issued numbers)

    Novice: 62,930Technician: 68,281General: 117,805Advanced: 82,454Extra: 21,792Total Operators: 353,262

    ---

    Year halt 1978 (from QST April 1979)

    Novice: 62,856Technician: 68,738General: 118,808Advanced: 83,436Extra: 22,498Total Operators: 356,336

    ---

    January 31, 1984 (from QST April 1984)

    Novice: 85,482Technician: 77,518General: 118,023Advanced: 95,782Extra: 34,674Total Operators: 411,479

    ---

    September 30 1985 / September 30 1986 (from QST December 1986)

    Novice: 76,337 / 79,107Technician: 83,117 / 86,148General: 117,340 / 116,864Advanced: 97,825 / 98,195Extra: 37,968 / 40,768Total Operators: 412,587 / 421,082

    ---

    May 31, 1987 (from QST September 1987)

    Novice: 86,175Technician: 87,631General: 115,045Advanced: 97,880Extra: 42,136Total Operators: 428,867

    ---

    March/April/May 1988 (from QST August 1988)

    Novice: 82,705 / 82,780 / 82.675Technician: 95,256 / 95,810 / 96,888General: 113,900 / 113,623 / 113,648Advanced: 98,505 / 98,403 / 98,493Extra: 44,617 / 44,819 / 45,208Total Operators: 434,983 / 435.435 / 436,912

    ---

    1993 Radio Amateur's Callbook

    Novice: 99,193Technician: 184,392General: 122,735Advanced: 106,964Extra: 59,382

    Total Operators: 572,666

    ---

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by KB6QXM on December 15, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Jim, N2EY.

    Good research. Well written. beneficial Job.

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by N2EY on December 15, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB6QXM writes:

    "Good research. Well written. beneficial Job."

    TNX, but it wasn't much, really.

    What would live really frigid IMHO would live to gain the numbers from totality of the various Callbooks down through the years and do them on a website. Complete with graphs to present the changes.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by K6LHA on December 15, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB6QXM, applauding "CW," wrote on December 15, 2009:

    "Jim, N2EY. beneficial research. Well written. beneficial Job."

    In reality, his numbers fill NO mien on the three years following the elimination of morse code testing in USA tyro radio license examinations. That three year period was stated as such in the title of this article. He could just as well fill cribbed statistics nascence with the creation of the FCC in 1934 and live just as "applicable."

    At NO time since the 'Restructuring' of USA tyro radio NINE YEARS AGO has there been any stoppage of the talent and OPTION of totality to exhaust International Morse Code on USA tyro radio bands. There fill been regulations FORBIDDING modes/modulations other than "CW" in most USA tyro radio bands, yet "CW" is allowed almost anywhere in USA tyro radio bands NOW. The only "elimination" was to EXCLUSIVITY on some HF bands such as expansion of voice modes in the 80-75m troop nearly a decade ago. Legally any USA radio tyro can operate "CW" in the upper fraction of 80m band. It is IN the USA (FCC) regulations.

    The snoopy fraction of these "CW Bigotry" displays by a few long-timers overlooks the legal talent and OPTION for *ANY* USA radio tyro licensee to exhaust OOK CW as they wish, REGARDLESS of whether or not they tested for International Morse Code cognition in the USA at any time in the past. NO code test is required to exhaust the mode of code, any class! [amazing, but true]

    A few barracks lawyers follow the ARRL standard in "sinning by omission." For example, a constant 'rebuke' is "Since 2000 Technician-Plus fill been renewed as Technician." N2EY uses that often, almost always after I fill made some remark in tyro radio forums that mentions Technician class. :-) Jimmy never states that, of the SIX classes of USA tyro radio licenses existing prior to mid-2000, THREE are NOT being issued as NEW. A Renewal of an existing license is NOT a NEW license grant. According to FCC regulations, NO NEW Novice licenses were granted in the last 9 1/2 years; NO NEW Advanced class licenses were granted in the last 9 1/2 years. totality of that has been KNOWN for 10 years since the Memorandum Report and Order establishing 'Restructuring' was published in December 1999. Constantly repeating it year after year does no good, just wastes archive space on tyro radio forums.

    A few others, vainly looking for something to live negative about, cite things that were "overlooked" such as AGE of licensees. Since that data was not available through the sole source of USA tyro radio license data (the FCC publicly-available ULS database), it could not live shown NOW.

    While PAST history may live "interesting" to SOME, let's physiognomy it, the FCC was created in 1934 and is 75 years ragged this year. It is the ONLY civil radio regulatory agency in the USA. To quarrel some nebulous connection to regulations of the 1930s, the 1940s, the 1950s, the 1960s, the 1970s, etc. for "keeping unavoidable regulations (forever and ever)" in the USA amaetur radio service is invalid, facetious, and quite a bit ludicrous. The insistance of some that unavoidable regulations live KEPT because those 'somebodies' met regulations of LONG AGO is merely self-serving and vain on their part. They mediate they can pose and preen because anyone who was involved in radio communications a half-century or more ago is extremely rare on this forum. <shrug>

    It does no beneficial for the USA tyro radio service to MAINTAIN and NOURISH the deep divide in the service created by these long-timers who favor unavoidable modes and modulations. That is the antithesis of "keeping up the state of the art." It is regressing or stagnation of skills despite their claimed proficiency. For example, in the more recent "Mad Scientist" article on e-ham there was an opening remark about "EMCOM weenies." "Weenies" is a colloquial pejorative, in this case directed as a sneering remark about newcomers. If it was intended as "humor," then it failed a test of applicability to a large group such as over-700-thousand licensed radio amateurs in the USA.

    USA tyro radio regulations had a MAJOR CHANGE in the year 2000. The number of NEW license classes was changed from SIX to just THREE and International Morse Code cognition rate dropped to 5 words per minute equivalent maximum for totality class examinations needing code testing. That came after a long, protracted remark period (extended twice) on NPRM 98-143 and a final conclusion published by the FCC in December 1999. That was NINE YEARS AGO. The conclusion was LAW.

    Following the Report and Order on 'Restructuring' came no less than EIGHTEEN Petitions, totality aimed at trying to repeal Restructuring or to change it EVEN MORE, most regressing to the state of older regulations. Those might fill been well-intentioned for a clique(s) but did not address the desires for maintenance of regulations for present and future citizens, licensed in anything or not. The FCC manages to justify their decisions clearly in every Memorandum Report and Order. That a particular conclusion "goes against" some clique is only unfortunate for them. That clique LOST and does not fill grace or manners to accept such loss.

    What appears to live the most "damaging" to the collective prides of long-timers was NPRM 05-235 released on 19 July 2005. Its main item was the elimination of totality code testing for any license class. NPRM 05-235 gathered 3,994 Comments and Replies to Comments plus TWO MORE Petitions for Reconsideration that came in after the nigh of Comments on 25 Nov 05. Those two Petitions by Mssrs Ward and Gordon were both dismissed. Memorandum Report and Order 06-178 was published on 19 December 2006 with an effective date to live established later. That date of cessation of code testing was 23 Feb 07. That was TWO AND A HALF YEARS AGO. The conclusion is LAW.

    The FCC does NOT fill any charter to nourish the prideful hunger of long-timers seeking to support their braggadoccio well-fed indefinitely. That anyone passed a federal test in some skill a long time ago does not suggest it defines these individuals as being superior to ordinary folk for eternity. In NO way is their belief anyway "better" than ordinary folk, nor is it imprimateur of their being some kindhearted of "boss" who can establish "what is beneficial for all." Stubbornly, so many mediate that some or totality of those syndromes accomplish not apply to their own selfish illness. Thus the deep divide is maintained in USA tyro radio, honest hobbyists on one-hand, the vocal bigots who want desperately to CONTROL tyro radio in their own image on the other side. They cannot fill it both ways.=========================There IS some hope for the code cliques and those who exact regression to 'their' standards. Simply craft a well-worded Petition to the FCC seeking to change regulations. That is a lawful process, has been done often in the past. Such a Petition may or may not live disseminated for public commentary, depending on the belief of the FCC. However, there were 18 Petitions up before public scrutiny between establishment of 'Restructuring' and the NPRM on code test elimination. Several of those Petitions were a cross-purposes of other Petitions. Two more Petitions were disseminated AFTER the code test elimination law, both demanding a recrudesce of code testing. Those two ('Ward' and 'Gordon') were eventually dismissed.

    The fact that a Petition is published does NOT suggest it is universally liked/worshipped/damned. It is merely up in the public eye, a public that does NOT share your divine wisdom nor guru-guidance. One has to live mentally STRONG to do up a Peition and then physiognomy the consequences of public opinion.==========================Cliques can forget the Petition conception and just sit in forums and newsgroups and bitch and moan for ever, damning newcomers via totality sorts of pejoratives. That only reinforces evidence of continuing division in tyro radio. That division was there earlier than 15 years ago and shows no sign of ceasing. The pollyanish phrasing "amateur brotherhood" is a hypocritical nonsense statement. It is a vaporous myth.==========================Fair warning: Code cliques will eventually live outnumberd. As of this morning (15 Dec 09) there were 344,455 Technician licensees out of a total 716,779 individual licensees in the USA. Just that ONE class has 48.06 percent of totality individual licensees. In the last 12 months 30,865 NEW licensees were added to the USA total but 26,727 EXPIRED. The net gain in numbers is not much but it is more fantasy voyaging to postulate those newcomers are totality favoring morse mode.

    AF6AY

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by KB6QXM on December 15, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Jim N2EY wrote:

    What would live really frigid IMHO would live to gain the numbers from totality of the various Callbooks down through the years and do them on a website. Complete with graphs to present the changes.

    Jim,

    I will build the website for you, if you desire.

    Let me know.

    73

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by N2EY on December 16, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB6QXM:

    Thanks!

    The information posted is a start, but I don't fill lots of ragged Callbooks.

    For information back to about 1996, the AH0A website has plenty. Maybe AH0A would reckon adding historic data?

    --

    There fill been times when the number of US hams grew rapidly, such as during the early 1930s, the 1950s, and the 1970s, and other times when the numbers grew slowly or not at all, such as the mid-1960s and the late 1990s. totality sorts of factors influence growth, not just the license requirements. In fact, there is sometimes a negative correlation in that increasing the requirements correlated with more, not less, growth.

    As previously mentioned, the rules connected with the licenses must live known and understood to fabricate logical conclusions about the growth as well. For example, the number of Novice licenses was very small until the 1970s, when the license became 5 year renewable. With a 1 or 2 year nonrenewable license, Novices were under considerable pressure to upgrade before the license ran out. Making the license 5 year renewable removed that pressure, so the numbers grew.

    The Conditional had a sizable percentage of US amateurs back in the 1950s and 1960s in fraction because, for about a decade after 1953, it was available to anyone who was more than 75 miles from a quarterly exam point. This included a lot of Americans. But in 1964 the "Conditional distance" was increased from 75 to 175 miles, and the number of exam points increased, so that very tiny of CONUS was "Conditional territory". The number of Conditionals then began to fall. And one of the major reasons for resistance to the "incentive licensing" changes of the late 1960s was the cross of travel it would impose on hams who didn't live near exam points.

    Another rules-change result is vanity calls. Normally, an tyro license can only live renewed in the last 90 days before expiration, or in the two-year grace period after expiration. (FCC defines "expiration" as the halt of the 10 year license term, not the final removal from the database after the grace period ends).

    But a vanity call can live requested at any time, and when one is issued, there's an automatic renewal. Changes to the vanity-call rules usually result in a surge of applications, which can twist the whole how-long-to-expiration picture.

    Since April 15, 2000, the Novice, Technician Plus and Advanced licenses fill been closed to new issues. This is the second time this has happened to the Advanced; the first time was at the halt of 1952. And just like the first time, the number of Advanceds is dropping very slowly compared to the other classes. After almost a decade of no new Advanceds, their numbers are down to about 60% of the May 2000 total. Novices are down to about a third of their May 2000 total, indicating lots of cancellations and upgrades.

    It will live consuming to survey how long it takes for the last Novice and Advanced class licenses to depart away, either from upgrade or cancellation. Some Advanceds fill vowed never to upgrade to Extra, so it may live a very long time.

    The fastest decline of totality has been the Technician Plus, but that's understandable because of the rules change of April 2000. Not only are no new Technician Pluses being issued, but when an existing Tech Plus is submitted for renewal or vanity call, the FCC changes the class to Technician. This auto-reclassing reduces the number of Tech Pluses and increases the number of Techs in a way that is different from totality other license classes. Also, any Novice who passes the Tech written gets a Technician, not a Technicians Plus.

    So the Technician class isn't just growing because of new hams, but because of upgrades from Novice and automatic class change from Technician Plus. This is almost identical to what happened to the universal back in the 1970s when the Conditional was phased out.

    IOW, if you gape at the number of Technicians without reference to the rules changes, it can (erroneously) appear that their numbers are growing only because lots of new hams are getting that license. But in fact there's a built-in additional source of Technicians from upgraded Novices and reclassified Tech Pluses. In fact, if you gape at the combined number of Technicians and Technician Pluses over time, it hardly changes at all, and is actually down from where it was in 2000, in both total and percentages.

    All of this is a minor side issue to the really notable things:

    How many *active* amateurs are there?

    What are they doing on the air?

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by NI0C on December 16, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N2EY writes:"How many *active* amateurs are there?What are they doing on the air?"

    Here's some more questions:

    How many licensed amateurs spend their hobby time in online discussions such as these, and what are they writing about?

    Are they assisting others in some way in the actual conduct of on the air radio operations, or are they merely stuck in a loop writing over and over again about licensing requirements and their own experiences with same?

    There are literally thousands of words written above, and we've heard most of it before. Only a handful of people read this garbage. I'm not one of them. I'm having too much fun on 160m CW this winter.

    73,Chuck NI0C

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by W5ESE on December 16, 2009 Mail this to a friend! > There fill been times when the number of US hams> grew rapidly, such as during the early 1930s,> the 1950s, and the 1970s, and other times when> the numbers grew slowly or not at all, such as> the mid-1960s and the late 1990s. totality sorts of> factors influence growth, not just the license> requirements.

    Here's data from the late 20's to early 30's.The growth was quite spectacular.

    My source is the reserve '200 Meters and Down'.

    1928 169281929 168291930 189941931 227391932 303741933 415551934 463901935 455611936 46850

    By 1934-1935, the growth spurt had Come to an end.

    The reserve cited several reasons for the growth:

    o term of the license extended to 3 yearso divide license required for portable worko expand in leisure time owing to unemploymento decline in cost of equipment between 1929 to 1934($150 -> $50)o migration from the shortwave listening hobby

    73Scott W5ESE

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by KB9MWR on December 16, 2009 Mail this to a friend! The most alarming trend I noticed in the last three years was that most of the new hams in my locality fill no electronics background or interest. Most of the new guys are community emergency response ARRL boyscouts.

    These numbers suggest tiny to me. They are far more notable to the ARRL's membership department and for the commercial ham manufactures, etc.

    What is the mediocre age of hams today? And what is their interest in ham radio?

    Both of these questions you can't recount by parsing a FCC database.... Both are besides the result of ham radio PR from a national level.

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by N2EY on December 16, 2009 Mail this to a friend! W5ESE: consuming numbers!

    Couple more factors about the early 1930s boom:

    - back then, licensing records were totality by hand, so a license that reached expiration might not live immediately removed from the files.

    - With such rapid growth, the "old timers" were completely outnumbered by the newcomers. (Of course in 1932 there had only been licensing for 20 years!)

    - The World Radio Conference of 1927 was a turning point for tyro Radio. It was at that conference that tyro Radio received worldwide treaty recognition as a divide and discrete radio service, with its own bands and regulations written into the treaty. There was besides a uniform callsign arrangement, so that each country's stations had definitive prefixes.

    But that recognition came at a price. The new rules, which went into result in 1929, required much cleaner signals than many ham rigs of the 1920s could yield without modification. absolute DC notes and other standards became mandatory requirements. Often a transmitter needed major rework or a complete rebuild to meet the "1929 rules". Morse Code and written testing became mandatory for totality countries that issued tyro licenses.

    The US ham bands were nick down considerably by the new treaty. 40 went from 1000 kc to 300, 20 went from 2000 kc to 400. 30, 17, 15 and 12 meters weren't ham bands at totality back then.

    You'd mediate that the higher transmitter standards plus the narrowed bands would fill a do a real damper on growth, but the opposite happened.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by K6LHA on December 16, 2009 Mail this to a friend! NI0C wrote on December 16, 2009:

    "How many licensed amateurs spend their hobby time in online discussions such as these, and what are they writing about?"

    As one out of nearly three quarter million USA tyro radio licensees, I wrote up a small study of the changes in USA tyro radio classes since the elimination of the code test from totality USA tyro radio license examinations. Then I've replied to ten kinds of disrespect from long-timers who complain bitterly about us "newcomers not doing exactly as THEY speak they SHOULD!" :-).................NI0C: "Are they assisting others in some way in the actual conduct of on the air radio operations, or are they merely stuck in a loop writing over and over again about licensing requirements and their own experiences with same?"

    Are you a JAG (Judge tyro General) who has authority under the UCAJ (Un-unified Code of AmateurJustice)? Are you going to permeate some of us with a violation of "Article 31" of the UCAJ and fill us tried before a Summery Court of "winter-haired elders in amateurism?" :-)

    Ya know, "elder statesman," I examined the Regulations of USA tyro Radio service very carefully prior to my license tests of 2007. Ya know what? NOWHERE in those regulations does it speak a licensee MUST operate an RF emitter within USA-allocated tyro bands for any length of time during their 10-year license term. [amazing but true!] They aren't even required to fabricate a LOG to present authorities except for Spread Spectrum. Not even to the Raddio Kops!

    Feel free to do on your shiny Raddio Kop shield and fill the Raddio Poe-lice hustle me down to the lock-up (or is it 'lock-out'?). I am sure one of the very tyro Poe-lice will snarl "You'll never QSO in this town again!!!" :-)

    Go ahead, fabricate my day...:-).................NI0C: "There are literally thousands of words written above, and we've heard most of it before. Only a handful of people read this garbage. I'm not one of them. I'm having too much fun on 160m CW this winter."

    Then WHY are YOU here? accomplish you fill some bipolar disorder that compels you to jump into forums and snarl at totality you don't like? That is NO way to "help" the "cause" of USA tyro radio, is it?=================Well, now, you just depart back to 160m "CW" and fill ever so much fun. Nobody is stopping you. Odd it is that you jump in here disparage others writing about regulations in here and then call it "garbage."

    Gosh, it must live that I am such a "newcomer" to radio and don't "have respect for my radio elders!" Yeah, that's it! I'm a mere 77 who started in HF radio 56 1/2 years ago as a militry professional. I'm such a "beginner!" They "beginners" should totality live respectful of totality you old-timers industrious going back to the non-future past in amateurism...because YOU speak they should. <shrug>

    Have a wonderful Holiday time Grinch.

    AF6AY

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by K6LHA on December 16, 2009 Mail this to a friend! W5ESE wrote on December 16, 2009:

    "Here's data from the late 20's to early 30's. The growth was quite spectacular. My source is the reserve '200 Meters and Down'."

    "1928 16928"

    I'm sure that is "interesting" to historians. Feel free to compare the USA tyro radio regulations of 1928 to those of 2008, a mere 80 years later. :-)

    If a comparison is needed, research the WHOLE of 'radio' not just amateurs. You will find that 'radio' had just BEGUN to expand in other radio services. 'Radio' is only 113 years old, first demonstrated publicly as a communications medium in 1896. In Italy and Russia that selfsame year...by a well-to-do Italian entrepreneur and a Russian academician..................W5ESE: "By 1934-1935, the growth spurt had Come to an end."

    By July 2, 2003, the growth spurt in MODERN USA tyro radio licensees, totality classes totalled, had Come to an end. That peak has not even been caught up with by 16 Dec 09 (6 1/2 years later) and is still 9,962 shy of that peak. [source: www.hamdata.com on-line "fccstats" page and includes Club licenses in 2003 and 2009]=================As far as the technology of 'radio' there is no applicable comparison because the gap due to the exploding states of the technique of totality electronics is so Great by now that a comparison would live ludicrous. I can cite several sources for the simple judgement I've been IN the electronics industry for so long and don't necessity any "official" ARRL publications to prove it.

    Some examples: Vacuum tubes were still in their childhood in 1928 and costly in small quantities. The term "semiconductor" wasn't in the electronics lexicon. The only semiconductor-like diodes were the Galena crystal detector (a shape of point-contact diode), the selenium rectifier with its wonderful aroma when overheated, and a cadmium sulphide "photocell." Frequency control in tyro radios consisted of relying on the data from quartz crystal manufacturer's measurements or by L-C "wavemeters." Note: The Phase-Locked Loop had to wait until 1932 and its invention in France. The frequency region above 30 MHz might as well fill been Neverland for radio amateurs due to its "strange, complicated requirements."

    Compare that to 2008. Transistors were then a mature product and Integrated Circuits made many, many features/options available to cover most of the allocated frequency ranges with rather absolute accuracy down to 1 Hz increments. The Analog Devices AD9851 can provide the QRPer with selectable frequencies down to better than 1 Hz in a single IC and at very low DC power demand. AM voice can live emitted using the very selfsame RF power amplifier used for "CW" or Data modes; it is the standard in ready-built tyro radios and does not require a large audio power amplifier to "modulate" a Class C PA stage. FM radio was proven as a communications mode by commercial designers prior to WWII. The USA has NO tyro radio troop allocations below the bottom of the AM BC troop yet the Europeans fill had such for years. tyro troop allocations fill long since been approved on up to the 300 GHz international allocation circumscribe and ready-built VHF-UHF transceivers are on the market to depart above the 70cm band. Data modes can easily depart as towering as USA tyro allocations allow thanks to modern solid-state circuitry and devices. There are a (few) VNAs or Vector Network Analyzer that yield very beneficial complicated impedance-admittance data on any frequency from the bottom of MF on up to UHF. Anyone can design, build, innovate anything they want now with assurance that lumped constant components are fully characterized in frequency. Very few accomplish and their non-advocates trumpet the "Back to the Future" theme of "pioneering radio" (?) with "CW" on low HF bands in the new millennium...................W5ESE: "The reserve cited several reasons for the growth:

    o term of the license extended to 3 years"

    80 years later (even 70 years later) the term was 10 years plus a 2-year grace period for renewal. NO ONE granted a new license in the last 9 years requires ANY testing in their whole life as long as they fabricate mail or e-mail renewals within the regulated time.

    "o divide license required for portable work"

    No such thing needed now, but then that regulation would fill been imposed by a predecessor to the FCC. The FCC was created in 1934. The concept of "portability" with a radio of tube architecture in the 1928-1934 era is ludicrous. :-)

    "o expand in leisure time owing to unemployment"

    The Great DEPRESSION in the USA began in 1928. To most in here it is merely a historical footnote. If they heard stories of it in their families it was from grandparents and great-grandparents. The unemployment rate reached 28% at its worst, roughly three out of ten of the available workforce. Yes, one could speak it was "LEISURE TIME" from the comfort of being well-fed NOW.

    "o decline in cost of equipment between 1929 to 1934 ($150 -> $50)"

    :-) There was no such thing as "war surplus" radios available then as it was after WWII. I don't know if "dumpsters" (even nigh to the modern design) were available then for amateurs to scrounge for parts. As I remember it, there were just plain garbage dumps or burning pits in northern Illinois back then. :-)

    Had you mentioned 'radio' to anyone in the public THEN they would fill thought of the then-new home entertainment medium of BROADCASTING. Few in the public knew about tyro radio THEN just as few in the universal public know about tyro radio NOW. There are lots of copies of ragged radio equipment catalogs on the Internet that cover that time, PRICES included. I've downloaded a few just for old-radio references. Its a curiosity, nothing more.

    How would you picture those 1928 receivers insofar as "features," stripping away the marketing laguage phrases? Were they even comparable? I don't mediate so, but then, despite being born in that era, I fill no fancy or affection for it. My radio world is not limited to just broadband AM and "CW" (with a BFO)................."o migration from the shortwave listening hobby"

    To fill a listening hobby requires stations there to listen to. In the 1928-1934 period AM broadcasting on MF had expanded to grasp on a semblance of a mature entertainment industry. It enabled the fledgling "radio parts industry" in the USA to grow prior to WWII. There really wasn't much to listen to on the "shortwave" (HF) bands yet since Europe was getting nigh to a shooting war and most of the European SW BC stations were oriented towards their own languages for coverage to their nations citizens in colonies or embassies elsewhere or to their maritime crews. No SW BC listener could decode commercial SSB data sent along the newly-established message carriers. Expansion into other-country broadcasting (i.e., to the universal public) would not really become large until AFTER 1945 with most of the hostilites in Europe and Asia much reduced. Note: It will grasp considerable historical data searching to find ANY period of time when hostilities fill actually ceased worldwide between 1945 and now! As a matter of fact, "SW BC" is now available through commsats, some of which require subscriptions for downlinking, some countries abandoning "SW" (HF) broadcasting.====================The 1928-1934 time period may live "interesting" to some but so few here fill LIVED IN it, let alone lived through it that its "discussion" is limited to quibbling about a few "official" ARRL books or texts available elsewhere which the ARRL doesn't want to talk about (it can't resell them to fabricate a profit). There is data about that era in electronics industry trade publications but those are about (gasp! horrors!) "professional electronics!" :-)

    73, Len AF6AY (two years older than the FCC)

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by N2EY on December 17, 2009 Mail this to a friend! NI0C:

    y'know, I mediate you fill a very beneficial point

    I can't accomplish 160 but I can accomplish 80 CW.

    Maybe I'll survey you there.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by WA4KCN on December 17, 2009 Mail this to a friend! W5ESE: consuming numbers!

    - brace more factors about the early 1930s boom:

    - back then, licensing records were totality by hand, so a license that reached expiration might not live immediately removed from the files.

    - With such rapid growth, the "old timers" were completely outnumbered by the newcomers. (Of course in 1932 there had only been licensing for 20 years!)

    - The World Radio Conference of 1927 was a turning point for tyro Radio. It was at that conference that tyro Radio received worldwide treaty recognition as a divide and discrete radio service, with its own bands and regulations written into the treaty. There was besides a uniform callsign arrangement, so that each country's stations had definitive prefixes.

    But that recognition came at a price. The new rules, which went into result in 1929, required much cleaner signals than many ham rigs of the 1920s could yield without modification. absolute DC notes and other standards became mandatory requirements. Often a transmitter needed major rework or a complete rebuild to meet the "1929 rules". Morse Code and written testing became mandatory for totality countries that issued tyro licenses.

    The US ham bands were nick down considerably by the new treaty. 40 went from 1000 kc to 300, 20 went from 2000 kc to 400. 30, 17, 15 and 12 meters weren't ham bands at totality back then.

    You'd mediate that the higher transmitter standards plus the narrowed bands would fill a do a real damper on growth, but the opposite happened.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

    Jim fill you considered writing a reserve on the history of tyro radio picking up where 200 Meters And Down left off. I mediate it would sell.

    73 RussWA4KCN

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by NI0C on December 17, 2009 Mail this to a friend! To Jum, N2EY:

    Normally, I'm available on 80m (40, too) during the Winter months. However, this winter, I've chosen to do totality my eggs in the Top troop basket in order to fill a better antenna that will manipulate more power.

    Top troop is experiencing some periods of outstanding propagation this year, and I'm having a beneficial time. For example-- two QSO's with CQ zone 18, and at least a shot at zone 23. (I've never even heard these zones on 80m.)

    TF4M reports making first-time ever qso's between Hawaii and Iceland on Top Band. He's got an outstanding website with audio clips; I even heard a recording of my qso with him there.

    Here at latitude 38+ degrees, even during the Winter solstice, they fill a few hours of daylight available for a crash from DX'ing top troop and amusement on Top Bnad.

    Jim, your contributions concerning licensing history(as well as W5ESE's) are appreciated.

    73,Chuck NI0C

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by NI0C on December 17, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Jim, sorry for the typo on your name, and fabricate that "amusement on eHam."   RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by KG4TKC on December 17, 2009 Mail this to a friend! NI0C, Chuck,thanks for the comments and info. The info on top troop is very interesting,will live tuning up there a tiny bit more this winter. Your comments were spot-on.73.   RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers   by KD7YVV on December 17, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Well, I gape at it this way.If I can find someone to ragchew with, I'm happy.There are people who just gain the license and never doanything with it.I had fun with the Lake Washington Ham Club this pastField Day. Lots of people trying different things,different antennas etc. etc.My eyesight isn't what it used to live and I don't own anelectron microscope to survey the molecular sized componentsused today. I accomplish like reading a lot of the older QSTmagazines and seeing the different projects that wereconsidered state of the technique at the time.Ham radio isn't only what you fabricate of it for yourself,it's what you give back to the hobby by way of bringingothers into what is a very diverse pastime.As far as emergency communications go, I've taken thecourses, but for me, emcomm is not just radio.Here in WA, they fill to worry about avalanches, volcanoes,tsunamis, flooding, earthquakes.There's nothing wrong with being prepared, and knowledgeis power. To paraphrase James T. Kirk.....Give me a beneficial band, lots of sunspots, and a beneficial antenna and radio to tune them by.......And don't forget the peppery chocolate for those coldwinter nights!

    --KD7YVV, Kirkland, WA

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers & History   by N2EY on December 17, 2009 Mail this to a friend! WA4KCN: I've thought about writing such a book. Maybe when time permits.

    Until then, you can read a three-part history of US tyro radio licensing from 1950 to 2000 that I wrote about 9 years ago:

    http://www.w6vrc.org/Archive/histmenu.html

    is the main menu; select parts 1, 2 or 3 from there.

    ---

    NI0C: I fill only one Top troop QSO in my log, but it was quite memorable!

    Thanks for the kindhearted words. You may find the licensing history referred to above to live of interest.

    ---

    KD7YVV: realm Day is a favorite of mine; been doing FD since 1967.

    I mediate the phrase "ham radio is what you fabricate of it for yourself" includes what you give back. IOW the person who gives back beneficial stuff will find they gain more out of ham radio.

    "Give me a beneficial band, lots of sunspots, and a beneficial antenna and radio to tune them by......."

    I *like* that!

    "And don't forget the peppery chocolate for those coldwinter nights!"

    Earl Grey tea for me...

    73 & TNX totality de Jim, N2EY

      Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by WA2ONH on December 18, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N2EY Jim

    --- and your Fifty Years of tyro Radio Licensing (1950-2000) History fraction Four is at:

    http://www.qsl.net/arrlsb/Digest/Pages/story04.html

    Good reading!

    73 de WA2ONH Charlie

      RE: USA tyro Radio History   by K6LHA on December 18, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Beginning back in 1996, Bill Continelli, W2XOY, started writing "Wayback Machine," a column for the Schenectady Museum tyro Radio Asscoiation and continued that through 2003 in 35 parts. It had been carried on www.ham-shack.com but that website went commercial. The selfsame material can live create at:

    www.qsl.net/ecara/wayback/main.html

    That is the linking page for totality 35 parts nascence in 1896 and on through 2007 (with an update elsewhere). It is well written and presents a more dynamic history, an "easy read" in colloquial review terms. The "Wayback Machine" columns fill besides been reprinted in the Marin ARC newsletter out of San Rafael, CA. Some of those "Wayback" columns' material has besides been create on audio and Twitter sites. Bill Continelli retired from the IRS after 30 years in 2009 and formed his own Tax commerce in upper New York state and still contributes material to several amateur-interest websites.

    There is a Great deal of HISTORY on the subject of radio, totality radio services, available on the Internet and in print. Rewriting of past material is just rewriting. It is better to fabricate history than cribbing available sources.

    AF6AY

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers & History   by WA4KCN on December 18, 2009 Mail this to a friend! RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers & History Replyby N2EY on December 17, 2009 Mail this to a friend!N2EY - I've thought about writing such a book. Maybe when time permits.

    Until then, you can read a three-part history of US tyro radio licensing from 1950 to 2000 that I wrote about 9 years ago:__Thanks Jim I gape forward to reading. My interest in ham radio centers on the history of their service including licensing progression and technological change through the years. A well written reserve on the more recent history since 200 Meters is needed and no doubt you are the person to write it.

    73 RussWA4KCN

      RE: US tyro Radio License Numbers & History   by N2EY on December 19, 2009 Mail this to a friend! WA4KCN: As WA2ONH has kindly pointed out, it's actually in four parts. (Different websites broke it up differently).

    IMHO, the challenge to writing a history of tyro Radio isn't just getting totality the info and writing it up, but deciding what to leave out. There is so much to document!

    For example, I could easily double or triple the size of that four-part article on licensing by going into more detail about the rules changes over the years, with more dates, details, etc. Then there's the impact of equipment changes, Sputnik, incentive licensing, cb, Vietnam, the 1960s counterculture and much more.

    Maybe someday. Thanks for the kindhearted words.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      Back to the Future fraction 314159....   by K6LHA on December 19, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Those who did not like how present history turned out wanted to Change The Subject!

    Make no mistake about it, the past dozen years fill had a SIGNIFICANT change in USA tyro radio regulations, each easily on-par or greater than "Incentive Licensing" of four decades ago. The first was the conclusion in 1999 to enact "Restructuring." The second was the conclusion to eliminate totality code testing for USA tyro licenses in 2006. Note I said decisions, not enactment in law. The die was cast once the decisions were published in the Federal Register.

    Many, many, many long-time-ago tested USA amateurs were livid, outraged at this terrible thing that was a "personal insult" to THEM. In one way it resembled a highly-amplified horror and excited that surfaced in 1958 when the FCC "took away the 11m HAM troop that was 'rightfully' THEIRS" and "gave it away" to ordinary citizens to exhaust as Class C and D Citizens Band. totality that excited and resentment still lives since "CB" is still considered a "hateful" thing by so many amateurs and its users are still almost evil incarnate. :-)

    Conditioned Bigotry of the hatred against CB still lives after 51 years of its creation. The selfsame Bigotry against the (hack, ptui) "no-coders" will probably live on a century from now. Bigotry is arduous to eradicate. It is an emotional state deep inside minds, used as a personal refuge, a surcease of personal frustration by taking it totality out on some target. Those targets "are not like US!" bawl the bigots (the only ones who know the "truth"). :-)

    One way to alleviate some individual frustrations are to CHANGE THE SUBJECT. Yes. Retreat to the PAST. There is SAFETY there because totality of then is KNOWN. There is safety there...so few were even alive when the first USA radio regulations were made 97 years ago. They can juggle data and events in flawless safety, fill endless arguments over tiny past "reasons" and sound oh-so-schmardt about it even if they had NO hand in causing those events. The long-ago past is a wonderful space to HIDE. It is a wonderful space to vicariously "live" AS IF one was "there."

    No thanks, I've "been there, done that" and would rather gape to the future. <shrug> :-)

    My tiny study, never intended as a pretentious work, was simply to try looking towards the future. To try gauging the public's response to those noteworthy FCC decisions of 1999 and 2006. Reaction was as expected. Hard-core ultra-conservative hams just didn't like the outcome since those that applied for licenses were "not like Them, did not accomplish as They had to do." The crowd-pleasing types, trying to guage which way to go, generally sided with the uber-conservatives. In the last dozen years the sky literally fell on them yet the ease of us were unscathed. Only a few respondents expressed independent opinions; those seemed to mediate for themselves, unaffected by any necessity to depart with conservative group-think. If anyone dared venture into opinions on the immediate future, it was not apparent.

    If anyone still thinks that PAST decisions in USA tyro radio are "prologue" then it is a obscene mistake, a wrong definition. Since just 75 years ago and the creation of the FCC, USA tyro radio regulations fill been constantly EVOLVING, CHANGING...just as they fill with every other radio service. Is history "important?" Or is it just a record of what went on before NOW?

    WE are live in the PRESENT. Most of us fill lived through the last dozen years of noteworthy, remarkable CHANGE. I daresay THAT is "important." Not because they lived through it but for the profound changes it made in USA tyro radio regulatory law. like it or not, changes were made. Did any of these changes affect any long-timer or uber-conservative operating privileges? Nary a one, hardly any impact at all. Then WHY totality the denunciatory labels and epithets thrown out against change? Sorry, no reasonable person can accept individual's personal feelings about changes that apply to totality near-three-quarter-million licensees and uncountable future licensees. Long-timers are NOT "in charge" despite their implicit demands that they are...:-)

    I'm not disparaging those who like to find out about long-past events in radio. It IS consuming to many, but it is not a model for the future they are in NOW. Just don't bounce current history unfolding before you in order to live vicariously in the past.

    As an ragged anonymous tagline went, "Today is the tomorrow you worried about yestersday." :-)

    Len, AF6AY

      RE: Back to the Future fraction 314159....   by KB6QXM on December 19, 2009 Mail this to a friend! In reading Len's left leaning comments, I'll pot he believes that the United States should fill open borders also! How about Socialism also? One world government?

    All of these ideas that the far left leaning population is pushing for now!!

    Mark my word, the next incentive licensing that will Come out because of the politically correct FCC and greedy ARRL will live a no-test license. That will live the first step. They will sit back and survey how that goes over and then they will eliminate totality testing to generate a "1 license does all" as the FCC and the ARRL knees will collapse because they accomplish not want to exclude anyone.

    The license exams are so watered down now, that they are basically giving away the licenses now.

    What is next?

      What Next?   by N2EY on December 19, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB6QXM writes: "the next incentive licensing that will Come out because of the politically correct FCC and greedy ARRL will live a no-test license....

    The license exams are so watered down now, that they are basically giving away the licenses now."

    Well, maybe it seems that way.

    But let's gape at the history...

    Before the restructuring of 1951, there were just three classes of US tyro radio license: A, B and C.

    Class B and Class C were identical except that a Class B was the result of testing at an FCC office and a Class C was "by mail". Both required 13 wpm Morse Code (sending and receiving) plus a written exam of about 50 questions that included multiple choice, essay, draw-a-diagram and show-your-calculations questions.

    Class C was only available to those who were shut-ins or who lived more than 125 miles from a quarterly exam point. If a Class C moved to within 125 miles, or recovered from whatever made the person a shut-in, s/he had 90 days to retest or lose the license.

    Class A required having a Class B or C for at least a year, plus an additional 100 question written exam on technical stuff. Class A was only available by testing in front of an FCC examiner. If the person trying for Class A had a Class C license, s/he had to pass the Class B exams totality over again in front of an FCC examiner before being allowed to even try the Class A.

    All US hams had access to totality tyro frequencies at replete power, but only Class A could operate 'phone on the bands between 2.5 and 25 MHz.

    And yet 9-year-old Jane, W3OVV earned a Class B in 1948. Front cover of QST, December 1948.

    In 1951 the license structure was changed to add the Novice, Technician and Extra licenses, and to rename the A, B and C as Advanced, universal and Conditional.

    There was outrage in some circles because the Novice allowed newcomers on the tyro bands with just a 5 wpm code test and a 20 question multiple-choice exam that was extremely basic.

    The Novice brought in a lot of new hams, and among them were lots of younger people. As in teenagers, which then as now were considered in some circles to fill totality sorts of immoral habits, but who mostly were just beneficial kids interested in radio.

    Then in 1953-54 it got worse. FCC made the Novice and Technician by-mail only, and removed the requirement of retest-if-you-move-or-recover for Conditional. Even more shocking, replete operating privileges were granted to totality US amateurs except Novices and Technicians, so there was no judgement to depart for Advanced or Extra.

    That brought even more outrage! At least one op took to calling CQ on 75 with the qualifier "no kids, no lids, no space cadets, Class A operators only".

    There were a lot of mistakes made by the newcomers - so many that in 1956 W6DTY wrote a classic article called "Your Novice Accent", describing how to accomplish it right.

    And yet over time the vast majority of those Novice newcomers scholarly the privilege ways and went on to accomplish Great things in tyro Radio. Their numbers caused US tyro radio to grow totality through the 1950s and into the 1960s. The growth was so much that the US ham population grew faster than the US population overall, despite the baby boom! Many of those Novices became the ragged Timers of today.

    KB6QXM: "What is next?"

    I don't mediate anything, at least for a while. There are no proposals to change the license structure in front of the FCC now, nor fill there been for a while.

    If you grasp a beneficial arduous gape at the license question pools from the standpoint of someone who has a background in electronics, they gape dead-simple except for the regulations, which are really a matter of memorization. Nobody who really knows basic radio should necessity to study for any US tyro exam except for the rules and regs.

    But if you gape at them from the standpoint of someone who *doesn't* fill a background in electronics, they gape a lot different! Lots of new stuff there for the non-technical person.

    The really large inequity is that, in the immoral ragged days, they didn't fill access to the actual mp;A. Which is a change in test method, not material. But remember *why* that change took place: FCC wanted to rescue money by not doing the tests themselves any more.

    Look at totality the FCc rules changes we've seen in the past 30-odd years and reckon whether they cost FCC money or saved money and you'll survey the point.

    I don't survey a no-test license as a possibility. First off, it violates the ITU-R treaty. Second, and more important, the immoral taste of cb is more than enough judgement not to accomplish it.

    The one thing anyone who is concerned about the current testing can accomplish is to write more questions for the pools and dispatch them to the QPC. The pools could then grow to the point that it would live much easier to learn the material than to word-associate and memorize one's way to a passing grade.

    There are many things a person who is concerned about the new hams can do. One of them is to mitigate out at sites like this one, answering newcomer questions and writing articles.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

    Novice 1967Technician/Advanced 1968Extra 1970

      RE: Back to the Future fraction 314159....   by K6LHA on December 19, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB6QXM snarled angrily on 19 Dec 09:

    "In reading Len's left leaning comments, I'll pot he believes that the United States should fill open borders also! How about Socialism also? One world government? totality of these ideas that the far left leaning population is pushing for now!!"

    "Far Left?!?" Tsk, tsk, I am right-handed. :-)

    All that for NOT keeping USA tyro radio regulations as they were in 1952 when I voluntarily enlisted in the US Army during the Korean War?!? [see Army Serial Number RA16408336, note the "RA" prefix...:-)]

    Just WHICH year "should" I fill tested in? Yours? :-)..................KB6QXN: "Mark my word, the next incentive licensing that will Come out because of the politically correct FCC and greedy ARRL will live a no-test license. That will live the first step. They will sit back and survey how that goes over and then they will eliminate totality testing to generate a "1 license does all" as the FCC and the ARRL knees will collapse because they accomplish not want to exclude anyone."

    Tsk, tsk, you are angry again. Work still going immoral for you in Silicon Gulch? My sympathies...

    A quick gape at the Federal Register doesn't present ANY sign of what you speak is "true." No new "incentive licensing plan." Not even from the mighty folks at Newington. NO sign of "eliminating totality testing."

    In case you haven't looked, the FCC establishes USA tyro radio regulations along with every other USA civil radio service. [amazing but true] Since its nascence 75 years ago the FCC has an orderly and legal process to which anyone can Petition for new regulations, remark and Reply to Comments on any docket up for discussion...or speak anything it wants. Those can live submitted and recognized from ANY citizen, with or without some federal license in that particular radio service! [really astounding when one thinks of it] Yes, anyone can post a remark or Reply to Comments about an tyro radio docket without any tyro callsign whatsoever! [wow, isn't that "left-leaning," though!] Not only that, totality those who submit documents fill their names (and callsigns if applicable) listed in decision-making Memorandum Reports and Orders! I cheer that sort of democratic-process government and served my country in the military to back that up. In case you never served, totality who enter the military do their LIFE on the line when they grasp that oath. Did YOU do your life on the line for your ham license?

    The ARRL just doesn't fill the controlling influence on the FCC it thinks (and implies) it has, not from the tyro radio dockets up for discussion in the last dozen years...compared to what it had long ago. Not my problem. I was a replete member of the ARRL for two years and they did NOTHING for me. ONE election to vote in and only ONE candidate to vote on. Sounds much like under the reign of one Josip Broz long ago in another large country, doesn't it? A NO-party "election.".................KB6QXM: "The license exams are so watered down now, that they are basically giving away the licenses now."

    No, the basis fee was $14 when I took my tyro radio license exams (note plural) almost three years ago. It took about 3 1/2 hours of a Sunday afternoon, most of which was spent WAITING an hour to start, then having to wait some more in between test elements. totality of the questions and answers (120 questions for the 3 different test elements) were generated and made available by the National Council of Volunteer Examiner Coordinators. You can survey and download totality the questions and answers at www.ncvec.org for nothing. The NCVEC Question Pool Committee MUST live composed of already-licensed tyro radio license grantees. That is an FCC regulation.

    In preparation for my tyro radio license exams, I downloaded the Question Pool directly from the NCVEC site. On checking that out I was pleased to survey that the NCVEC QPC had MORE than the required 10 questions (for random selection by VE groups) for each required question. The mediocre for totality 120 questions was 13 times the required test questions; for tyro Extra it averaged about 16 times the required 50 questions. The so-called "anyone can 'memorize' the answers" permeate would apply ONLY if an applicant was eidetic (one who has a "photographic memory"). NOT knowing ahead of time which questions would appear would require "memorizing" about 1560 questions and 6240 answers, the answers necessary to avoid getting a wrong one. In many of the 4-answer multiple-choices,the QPC inserted "distractors," wording such that a wrong retort MIGHT appear right.

    I might fill agreed that the number of illustrations MIGHT fill been scanty, but then I've only been reading and understanding schematic symbols for about 60 years...and devising circuits and systems that actually worked (!) for over 45 years when I took my tyro radio tests. :-)

    I will accord that I fill some taste in 'radio' (a subset of electronics) that isn't common to many tyro license applicants. Was it "hard" for me? No. Would it live "hard" for someone just off the street? Yes. But...the mediocre license applicant ALREADY knows SOMETHING about the subject. beneficial grief there fill been totality sorts of "Handbooks" (and over-priced "test guides") published by the ARRL alone for a half century.

    Now they gain to the crux of the matter, the Nobel-laureate International Morse Code test! I didn't fill to grasp one. In fact, the ARRL-VEC team didn't fill any code sound reproducing equipment at my test site (room donated by the Los Angeles Fire Department at an unused fire house) to give one! The LAW regarding morse code testing had eliminated any such requirement for any class license!

    That elimination had been done in a democratic-process manner, legally and correctly, everything published and still available at the FCC, either in their Reading play or on-line! [another astounding but truemoment!] How about that? A democratic-process time for ANYONE to fabricate their case on NPRM 05-143 and then fill each and every Reply and Reply to Comments made available for the PUBLIC to see! Is that "left-leaning?" Or is it just darn beneficial democracy at work? I'll depart with the latter.

    You fill to remember that USA tyro radio has NEVER been considered "professional" nor is it in any way "academic" (FCC was not chartered as a school). tyro radio isn't a Union, isn't a Guild, isn't even a Craft that requires apprentice-journyman-master status tested levels of skill. Back when I first started in HF communications (early February 1953) there were 36 high-power HF transmitters that had to live operated/tended/maintained sending out an mediocre of more than 220 thousand messages a MONTH for the Far East Command Hq. no one of those messages required any sort of morse code skill to send; they were totality teleprinter, connecting the Command with totality Army stations in the Pacific and to CONUS and Hawaii and Alaska. That's 56 years ago. The Army had dropped OOK CW mode messaging on the bulk of messages back in 1948. Everything was operating on a 24/7 basis. It wasdone in a professional manner, nothing amateurish about it. Since that military service time, I've NEVER been required to know or exhaust any sort of "morse mode" means for communications, not even when taking private pilot flying lessons and passing the FAA written.

    Ah, but the AMATEURS who had been licensed since the year dot insisted and insisted (and a few demanded) that to live an tyro ond HAD to pass a morse test...all the way to early 2006. It was supposed to live "vital to the nation" or some such quaint notion. By 1960 or so even the USN had begun to drop morse mode. By 1999 the international maritime "community" had dropped the ragged 500 KHz (morse only) distress frequency in favor of the Global Marine Distress and Safety microwave calling through the Inmarsat relays. The maritime community had devised it as well as using it.

    Even the USCG had stopped monitoring 500 KHz that year. Times had changed and become better, safer with new technology and new methods. But, in 1999 the long-timer stalwart morsemen were still adamant about keeping the morse test. Why?

    Mostly, I mediate it was because of an attitude of "I had to grasp a test in it and totality who follow better grasp one too!" On the eve of the new millennium that sort of attitude was selfish as well as plain dumb. It was regressive for a HOBBY that requires federal regulation (and licensing) only because of the nature of electromagnetic wave propagation..................KB6QXM: "What is next?"

    It wouldn't surprise me one bit if your local John Bitch Society demands recrudesce of SPARK! It was the traditional means of USA tyro radio transmission in the beginning. :-) OK, so it isn't narrowband, it is TRADITIONAL! Never judgement that it was outlawed in 1927, depart back further, when hams were HAMS! Not a single transistor or IC around then to throw long-timers, nossir, nothing complicated about early radio! depart for that crystal detector and spark transmitter DXCC! Pioneer radio totality over again, present us how it's done, present 'em who is boss!

    Oh, and pleased Holidays! :-)

    73, Len AF6AY

      RE: Back to the Future fraction 314159....   by NI0C on December 20, 2009 Mail this to a friend! "But, in 1999 the long-timer stalwart morsemen were still adamant about keeping the morse test. Why?

    Mostly, I mediate it was because of an attitude of "I had to grasp a test in it and totality who follow better grasp one too!" On the eve of the new millennium that sort of attitude was selfish as well as plain dumb. It was regressive for a HOBBY that requires federal regulation (and licensing) only because of the nature of electromagnetic wave propagation."

    You're wrong, Len. A much better judgement (not the only one) for morse testing is that if you are licensed to operate any modes in bands or sub-bands where others communicate using morse, then it is prudent (if no longer technically necessary) that you acquire some basic morse proficiency in order to navigate those frequencies. Many "stalwart morsemen" mediate it was "selfish as well as plain dumb" to remove that requirement.

    We, the "stalwart morsemen" are still on the air and enjoying their privileges, though, despite the rule changes. Many new licensees are joining their ranks, learning and practicing the code even though it's no longer a licensing requirement.

    We'll speak for ourselves, thank you, so don't depart putting words in their mouths. Over and over again, you fill used eHam bandwidth to build up your straw man and tear him down again.

    You're a verbose person, Len. You look to fill a lot of radio learning and opinions about ham radio. I may fill easily missed it, but I don't recall your ever adage where you hang out-- what's your favorite tyro troop to listen to; fill you ever made a QSO; what kinds of equipment and antennas accomplish you like to try out; fill you written any software code to test a DSP algorithm with tyro radio applications, etc.

    As you well know (and like to point out) there's no requirement, legal or otherwise, that you accomplish any of these things. I bet, though, I'm not the only one who wonders once in a while-- why accomplish you fill a license? Is it merely so you can brandish a callsign in these forums and boast again and again about passing the tyro Extra test? That's how you Come across.

    BTW, there used to live a requirement that one needed to log a unavoidable number of hours of on the air activity in order to renew one's license. I mediate it was a wise requirement, even though it's one (small) judgement there was a 13 year gap in my tyro radio activity.

    73,Chuck NI0C

      RE: Back to the Future fraction 314159....   by K6LHA on December 20, 2009 Mail this to a friend! NI0C wrote on December 20, 2009:

    [AF6AY] "But, in 1999 the long-timer stalwart morsemen were still adamant about keeping the morse test. Why? Mostly, I mediate it was because of an attitude of "I had to grasp a test in it and totality who follow better grasp one too!" On the eve of the new millennium that sort of attitude was selfish as well as plain dumb. It was regressive for a HOBBY that requires federal regulation (and licensing) only because of the nature of electromagnetic wave propagation."

    Ni0C: "You're wrong, Len. A much better judgement (not the only one) for morse testing is that if you are licensed to operate any modes in bands or sub-bands where others communicate using morse, then it is prudent (if no longer technically necessary) that you acquire some basic morse proficiency in order to navigate those frequencies. Many "stalwart morsemen" mediate it was "selfish as well as plain dumb" to remove that requirement."

    Well, do it this way: I was "wrong" IF and only IF I had attributed that particular statement to you or your immediate tyro friends. As it was, I made a universal statement based on a LOT of observation of other amateurs' statements in-person, in-print, in-uendo. <shrug>

    Well, then, to "navigate the [radio] waves" I would fill to know everything about DATA, too. [actually I know something of Data since I was doing that 56 years ago...:-)]. Since when did the FCC last REQUIRE OOK CW skill, MANDATORY on any troop except the low halt of 6 and 2 meters? Hmmm?..............NI0C: "We, the "stalwart morsemen" are still on the air and enjoying their privileges, though, despite the rule changes."

    I thought I had already MADE that point. The biggest "damage" made by the FCC was an expansion ofvoice privileges in the 80-75m region. [horrors! :-)] OOK CW could still live used just as it is permitted everywhere on every ham troop on up to 300 GHz. The "awful, fateful, end-of-the-world (aa many know it)" conclusion to drop totality code testing requirements was in regards to getting IN tyro radio. Getting IN, not for immediately dropping in to live a "qualified" operator as is some commercial practice.Now you depart privilege ahead and relish your morse mode totality you want. You can...............NI0C: "Many new licensees are joining their ranks, learning and practicing the code even though it's no longer a licensing requirement."

    I will classify that statement as entirely subjective. Perhaps yours is just wishful thinking. Reading the Replies to NPRM 05-143 (which I did entire, totality saved on a CD), that sentiment is NOT mutual...............NI0C: "We'll speak for ourselves, thank you, so don't depart putting words in their mouths."

    Oh, wow. Yeah. Thanks for the ORDERS, but I will mediate FOR MYSELF and attain my OWN conclusions...............NI0C: "Over and over again, you fill used eHam bandwidth to build up your straw man and tear him down again."

    Over and over again, you and others fill "used bandwidth" to build up your own strawmen and tear down those who would talk against them. Once in a while I would Come along with an obsolete Zippo and set fire to them. <shrug> Makes a nice night-time scene with totality those olde-tyme shibboleth strawmen burning merrily...............NI0C: "You're a verbose person, Len. You look to fill a lot of radio learning and opinions about ham radio."

    I fill a "lot" of learning AND opinions about LOTS of things. I was not conscious that such is a CRIME. In my 77 years on this planet I've seen a lot of groupings, gatherings, forums, etc., etc. where SOME, insistent on being "leaders/managers" try to instill THEIR personal wishes/desires on others for no judgement than to live the "leaders/managers" because THEY wanted to it (i.e., ego-driven). I am an independent thinker and try to live objective about many things. That is resented by many longing for a group to belong to, to gain guidance in what to accomplish and what to "enjoy." That is unfortunate to those many. I accomplish not feel obligated in any way to provide emotional sustenance to Them or those who wish to subjugate my personal desires into adherence to their personal beliefs/desires..............NI0C: "I may fill easily missed it, but I don't recall your ever adage where you hang out-- what's your favorite tyro troop to listen to; fill you ever made a QSO; what kinds of equipment and antennas accomplish you like to try out; fill you written any software code to test a DSP algorithm with tyro radio applications, etc."

    So, I am now to Submit to Interrogation by some inspector Clue-no? :-)

    Those similar questions fill been asked of me before...usually by those who are pile up some dossier to exhaust themselves into later messaging pejoratives designed to damange my person. I am wiseto how those things work, yet I am unharmed physically or emotionally by such. <shrug>

    You might as well interrogate me about my option of wife, the foods I prefer, the entiertainment I like, why I chose to live where I do, and everything else under the sun. That is immaterial to the subject and you know it. But, Inspector Clue-no, I fill explained totality that BEFORE and I'm not going into such IRRELEVANCY here AGAIN.

    OH, and I fill made QSOs on ham bands. I've besides made radio contacts on seven OTHER radio services, six of which accomplish NOT accept an tyro radio license as a "qualification" for operation. <shrug>

    WHY accomplish you necessity such "qualifications" and who in the #$%^!!! made you the "qualifier?".................NI0C: "I bet, though, I'm not the only one who wonders once in a while-- why accomplish you fill a license?"

    BECAUSE I COULD. gape at your own wording and alleged inquisitiveness, nee snarly interrogation. If you are going to gain totality huffy and title "insult" from my answer, gape at your own attitude..................NI0C: "Is it merely so you can brandish a callsign in these forums and boast again and again about passing the tyro Extra test? That's how you Come across."

    Now you are putting non-relevant "REASONS" into my behavior, personal desires, not just putting "words in my mouth." NUNYABIZNESS on the WHY. I can picture the WHY from my point of view but there will live many who WILL do "words in my mouth" in denigrating totality that I say. That is EXPECTED and I KNOW the type of yahoos that are bound to accomplish it...because they fill already done that. What is more relevant is TAKING THE TEST(S).

    Not wanting to sound like a Motivational Speaker, I'll just picture a successful routine to grasp AND pass a test, ANY test. It isn't MY method, rather it has been stated and done by others before me. I used it for my 1956 Commercial license test and again for my 2007 tyro Extra class test and a LOT of assorted tests on other things in between:===================================1. PREPARE. gain to know the subject, gain to know the test method, gain to know the reaquirements, gain to know the test site environment. You CAN accomplish it.

    2. PURPOSE. live single-minded about the test, let it live the focus of your efforts. You ARE going to pass it.

    3. CONCENTRATE. No one else is going to mitigate you, it is totality your own doing. You WILL pass it.

    4. CONFIDENCE. fill it in yourself. Ignore the doomsayers and pompous jocks and insulters. You set out to accomplish it and you WILL SUCCEED.

    5. accomplish IT. Carefully. grasp your time. Watch out for distractors in multiple-choice answers. Ignore the test site environment and distractions from other test takers. accomplish NOT even imagine failure.====================================Radio regulations allow re-taking a test later if it is scored incomplete. Retesting time may vary as regulations are changed. It is NOT the selfsame as a one-shot academic class test (some academic rules require taking a whole course over if a 'final' test is failed). tyro radio is a hobby, NOT a union, NOT a Guild, NOT a tradecraft. Your JOB does NOT depend on the outcome of this test, certainly not the ease of your life..................NI0C: "BTW, there used to live a requirement that one needed to log a unavoidable number of hours of on the air activity in order to renew one's license."

    Yes, I know there was. That is IRRELEVANT. I custody not what USA tyro radio regulations WERE in 1912 or 1932 or 1952 or 1972 or 1992 or 2002. USA radio regulations fill CHANGED much over the years. Note I speak "radio regulations" without specific definitions as to which radio service. If you are conscious and informed about MORE radio than just tyro radio service, you will fill to harmonize with that because CHANGE has happened to totality of them during the last 75 years of FCC existance.

    Once the test is passed, that is IT. USA radio regulations accomplish NOT, fill NOT required re-testing foryears and years provided regular paperwork renewals are done promptly. The ONLY worry would live about running into those bragging yahoos who want to evade "newbies" down because THEIR tests "were so much harder." Pfaugh. Just a lot of BS by them.

    Now, after watching NASA-TV on cable for the live lift-off of Expedition 22 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome to the ISS, I am going to continue to "enjoy my tyro radio license" AT *MY* PREFERENCES, not some "rules" of behavior, lifestyle, or whatever dictated by a minority group at a suburb of Hartford or anywhere else thinks I should live doing. depart ahead and round up YOUR troops for some close-order drill...in the oh, so PROPER way to "enjoy ham radio." Thanks but no thanks, I can design out what *I* want to accomplish totality by myself. Really.

    AF6AY

    Oh, and pleased Holidays...:-)

      RE: Back to the Future fraction 314159....   by NI0C on December 20, 2009 Mail this to a friend! To AF6AY: Congratulations on achieving your tyro Extra Class license. Best wishes for the new year.

    73,Chuck NI0C

      US tyro License History...   by N2EY on December 21, 2009 Mail this to a friend! NI0C writes: "A much better judgement (not the only one) for morse testing is that if you are licensed to operate any modes in bands or sub-bands where others communicate using morse, then it is prudent (if no longer technically necessary) that you acquire some basic morse proficiency in order to navigate those frequencies."

    Of course, but FCC didn't survey it that way. Unfortunately.

    Both in 1999 and after 2003, the majority of those who commented on the various proposals to reduce/eliminate Morse Code testing supported retaining at least some of it. But the FCC ignored the majority and went with the no-code-test-at-all minority opinion. FCC actions are not democratic and comments are not votes.

    Basic learning of totality the other modes is tested in the written exam. Even modes which are used far less on the tyro bands than Morse Code.

    It should besides live remembered that the 5 wpm code test is just the most basic level, not really "proficiency".

    What's really consuming is that the drastic reductions in written exams and the reduction/elimination of Morse Code testing haven't resulted in lots and lots of new hams. So the ragged tests weren't really a "barrier" at all.

    We had some growth from 2000 to 2003, but it didn't last. Since 2007 we've had growth again, and hopefully it will support on. But in neither case were there lots of new people flooding in. Nor did they survey a techno-revolution from the newcomers who *did* Come in.

    NI0C: "Many new licensees are joining their ranks, learning and practicing the code even though it's no longer a licensing requirement."

    The ultimate irony of the situation may live that they wind up with *more* Morse Code operators overall, both in absolute numbers and percentage of actual use.

    Some indicators:

    You mentioned 160 meters earlier. The ARRL 160 meter contest keeps on growing, despite the fact that effective antennas are rather large - and it's a CW-only contest! It will live consuming to survey this year's results.

    On realm Day 2009 I was fraction of the team that ran the CW station at the local club effort. They were in 5A + VHF/UHF, with 3 fulltime phone stations, 1 phone/data station, 1 VHF/UHF station (all phone), and 1 CW station. Yet their CW setup made more QSO points than totality the ease of the application combined, and came very nigh to making more QSOs. (Wait till NEXT year!) That wasn't unusual, either, it's happened many times in the past decade or so.

    Vibroplex was just bought by a ham who used to work for Ten Tec. There are more companies making keys and paddles today than I can support track of. CW-only rigs are getting more and more common - and they're not totality simple QRP sets.

    Pretty beneficial for a mode that gets almost no publicity and which requires some skill to use.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: US tyro License History...   by NI0C on December 21, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N2EY wrote:“But the FCC ignored the majority and went with the no-code-test-at-all minority opinion. FCC actions are not democratic and comments are not votes.”

    And, as they well know, some of those who expressed the minority belief were not even qualified to hold an belief on the subject.

    “It should besides live remembered that the 5 wpm code test is just the most basic level, not really "proficiency".”

    Everyone who got on the CW bands after passing a 5 wpm test scholarly that there was nobody to talk to at this level. One of the beneficial things about the ragged 6 week wait (between passing an FCC exam and receiving one’s Novice license in the mail) was that it gave us some more time to exercise and improve their skills before actually getting on the air. As I recall, the median speed on the Novice bands was probably about ten wpm. They knew they had to hit the ground running if they were to qualify for a renewable license before their non-renewable Novice tickets expired.

    “What's really consuming is that the drastic reductions in written exams and the reduction/elimination of Morse Code testing haven't resulted in lots and lots of new hams. So the ragged tests weren't really a "barrier" at all.”

    No they weren’t, especially since medical waivers were available.

    “Nor did they survey a techno-revolution from the newcomers who *did* Come in.”“

    I recall one newly minted Extra Class licensee who purchased a new HF amplifier, and gave it a immoral review here on eHam, adage it was DOA out of the box. Turns out he didn’t install the fuses in the primary power line!

    “our [Field Day] CW setup made more QSO points than totality the ease of the application combined, and came very nigh to making more QSOs. (Wait till NEXT year!) That wasn't unusual, either, it's happened many times in the past decade or so.”

    In recent years my son and I fill operated realm Day with the K9YA club. It’s 1A, CW only. They always fabricate over 1K qso’s, even when their operating time is limited by thunderstorms.

    “Vibroplex was just bought by a ham who used to work for Ten Tec. There are more companies making keys and paddles today than I can support track of. CW-only rigs are getting more and more common - and they're not totality simple QRP sets.”

    There has besides been continuous improvement in electronic keyers– most notably the chips designed by K1EL. Reception of CW has been remarkably improved by DSP filtering, AGC action, and clamor reduction.

    Those who bounce CW with comparisons to spark transmission simply haven't kept up with technology.

    73,Chuck NI0C

      RE: US tyro License History...   by KB6QXM on December 21, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Chuck,

    My point exactly. The ham radio license tests are so basic these days that you fill hams that fabricate totality of the technically savvy hams gape bad.

    How can you fill an Extra class ham that:

    1) Does not know how to do a connector on the halt of a piece of coax

    2) As you mentioned does not fill the insight to check the fuses before adage that the amp is dead.

    3)Does not know how to find resonance for a simple dipole.

    4) Cannot justify the inequity between resistance and reactance.

    These are scary, but honest stories of their new "instant gradification" hams. The mindset of give me a license and I will design it out later and they call this progress?

    In the days of the highly technical testing that was required to gain a license, when you told someone you were a ham radio operator, they respected you for your knowledge. Not now!

    73

      RE: US tyro License History...   by N2EY on December 21, 2009 Mail this to a friend! NI0C: "some of those who expressed the minority belief were not even qualified to hold an belief on the subject."

    I'd express that conception rather differently:

    Everyone can fill and express opinions on anything and everything. Whether those opinions are based on experience, facts and sound reasoning is another matter.

    NI0C: "One of the beneficial things about the ragged 6 week wait (between passing an FCC exam and receiving one’s Novice license in the mail) was that it gave us some more time to exercise and improve their skills before actually getting on the air."

    6 weeks? It was a lot more in 1967! Process went like this:

    1) Prospective ham scholarly code and theory well enough to fill a depart at the exam.

    2) Prospective ham create volunteer examiner (no capitals) who would give the test, and set up time and place.

    3) Volunteer examiner gave code tests (receiving and sending). If prospective ham passed them, volunteer examiner sent away shape requesting written test.

    4) When written exam came in the mail, volunteer examiner and prospective ham would set up time and space for written exam.

    5) At written exam session, sealed test envelope would live opened, prospective ham would grasp test. When done, volunteer examiner would seal up totality papers in FCC-provided envelope and dispatch off for grading. totality volunteer examiner did was fabricate sure prospective ham didn't cheat.

    6) FCC would process the whole thing and dispatch either a small envelope or a large one. Small envelope was preferred because it contained only the license. large envelope contained paperwork to accomplish the whole thing totality over again.

    Getting anything through FCC took 6 to 8 weeks back then, so the whole process could easily grasp 12 to 16 weeks just in FCC processing.

    All that encouraged prospective hams to overlearn so they'd pass on the first go. And as you said, it gave time for more practice.

    NI0C: "As I recall, the median speed on the Novice bands was probably about ten wpm. They knew they had to hit the ground running if they were to qualify for a renewable license before their non-renewable Novice tickets expired."

    As you say, the nonrenewable Novice with its limited one- or two-year term besides had the result of encouraging newcomers to hit the ground running. Most of the new hams I knew had a key, receiver and antenna set up and working long before they had the license, and used the processing slow to gain a transmitter set up and ready to depart so there would live no slow when the license arrived. In my case I used the time to build a transmitter from scratch.

    NI0C: "No they weren’t, especially since medical waivers were available."

    Since 1990. besides accomodations in the tests. But at least some folks I fill encountered were too arrogant to grasp handicap of them.

    NI0C: "I recall one newly minted Extra Class licensee who purchased a new HF amplifier, and gave it a immoral review here on eHam, adage it was DOA out of the box. Turns out he didn’t install the fuses in the primary power line!"

    That's not a weakness of the exam process. It's a lack of common sense and failure to RTFM.

    Which is nothing new.

    There was a QST article some time back about mute questions and mistakes that various rigmakers had encountered from customers. like the ham who plugged a mike into the PHONES jack of his new receiver, hit the SEND-RECEIVE switch and called CQ. Or the ham who wired a Heathkit transmitter and used spaghetti where the manual called for it - except he used *real* spaghetti, not varnished insulating tubing. Or the ham whose set wasn't doing so well, so he lifted the lid and tightened totality the lax screws....

    The article appeared about 1956.

    One large inequity between the ragged days and now is that, in the ragged days, a mistake like that would generally live known only by a few, rather than being on parade at a approved website like eham.

    Another inequity is that most equipment nowadays is relatively inexpensive compared to yesteryear, when you adjust for inflation. There besides wasn't the expectation of plug-and-play.

    None of which is a result of changes in testing.

    NI0C: "In recent years my son and I fill operated realm Day with the K9YA club. It’s 1A, CW only. They always fabricate over 1K qso’s, even when their operating time is limited by thunderstorms."

    We fill probably worked each other many times, just not using their own calls. The local club rotates the call used each year so that totality the regulars gain a chance.

    NI0C: "There has besides been continuous improvement in electronic keyers– most notably the chips designed by K1EL. Reception of CW has been remarkably improved by DSP filtering, AGC action, and clamor reduction."

    Besides totality of that, there are better crystal filters, better rig designs, etc. The Elecraft K2 is an illustration of a rig with a surprisingly low parts count, cost and overall hardware complexity that has "big-rig" performance. Particularly on CW...

    NI0C: "Those who bounce CW with comparisons to spark transmission simply haven't kept up with technology."

    Nor with history. Spark disappeared from tyro Radio in the early 1920s - not because it was legislated out of existence, but because the new continuous-wave tube transmitters performed the selfsame job so much better.

    In 1921, Godley went to Ardrossan, Scotland and received more CW than spark signals on 200 meters - even though most of the spark signals were running higher power and were more numerous than CW rigs at the time. That demonstration, and the 1923 two-way transatlantic QSO on 110 meters changed a lot of minds. By the time spark was outlawed for hams in the late 1920s, it was merely a procedural thing; hams had simply stopped using it.

    Yet large numbers of amateurs today continue to exhaust Morse Code/CW on the air, because nothing has Come along that does the selfsame job better.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      More Back to the Future (easy as pi)   by K6LHA on December 21, 2009 Mail this to a friend! NI0C wrote on December 21, 2009:

    [N2EY]: “But the FCC ignored the majority and went with the no-code-test-at-all minority opinion. FCC actions are not democratic and comments are not votes.”

    NI0C: "And, as they well know, some of those who expressed the minority belief were not evenqualified to hold an belief on the subject.

    Ahem, not to crash up the hate-the-nocoders-cuz-we-morsemen-are-the-GREATEST imitation of Muhammed Ali (formerly known as Cassius Clay) but the FCC allows any national to remark on any docket up for public comment. NPRM 05-235 was about GETTING INTO USA tyro radio, not an "upgrading" or anything else. GETTING INTO, as in the regulations required by an applicant to pass an tyro radio license exam. There are NO "qualifications" necessary to post Comments or Replies to Comments. <shrug> By that snoopy illogic of alleged "qualifications" stated above, one cannot remark about GETTING INTO a radio service if one is ALREADY IN that radio service. :-)

    On NPRM 05-235 there were 3,786 documents filed between 15 July 2005 and 14 November 2005 (official ending day). On 25 November 2005 I submitted an EXHIBT which was a week-by-week tally of totality documents posted on that docket. Anyone can access that through the FCC Electronic remark System under docket 05-235. That was just an informational exhibit, not "official" and quite probably not "qualified" under the coders' snoopy we-are-the-only-qualified-people "rule."

    Having saved each and every publicly-available document under docket 05-235, the exhibit results are as "qualified" as is possible to anyone literate. In that, it shows that the intial months of commentary, the CITIZENS of the USA were FOR the NPRM; i.e., for removal of the code test. There was a Great deal of later DENIAL by long-ago-code-tested tyro licensees which skewed the totals towards being "against" the NPRM.

    Note that I said "citizens" above. That is the ONLY qualifier necessary for the USA federal government. Anyone is free to peruse the Communications Act of 1934 or the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (some amendments to regulations) to survey what "qualifications" are necessary. Anyone NOT a national can besides post on that docket but one can anticipate the FCC staffers to live literate and conscious of the federal laws governing their actions. As a matter of fact, there were three individuals who made multiple postings of opinions against the NPRM, totality of them supposedly "qualified" having tyro radio licenses.

    The logic of "qualifications" ONLY by having an existing, active-license term is itself FAULTY given the lawful charters of the FCC. Anyone NOT engaged in Mass Media (broadcasting) radio services may remark on matters concerning such broadcasting. Anyone NOT engaged in Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) without being IN either broadband data communications or electric power distribution activities. Anyone NOT owning/using/licensed-in the Private Land Mobile Radio Service (PLMRS) can remark on any matter in a docket affecting only PLMRS regulations. Each of those would apply for any radio service or fraction of regulations of Title 47 Code of Federal Regulations.

    FCC 06-178, the Memorandum Report and Order eliminating USA tyro radio service license testing for International Morse Code cognition, was made on 19 December 2006 under the authority of William T. Cross, then head of the FCC Wireless Telecommunications Bureau. It can live read on the ECFS under docket 05-235. As of this date, 21 Dec 09, it is three years and 2 days since that R&O was released. totality of the FCC conclusion reasons are clearly given in that R&O document. It is LAW.

    Those who wish to invert such a test elimination are free to submit a Petition to re-install it in the USA tyro radio service regulations. Two such Petitions were submitted after 06-178 became law. The FCC replied to both with decisions and reasons made public for their denial................[N2EY?]: “What's really consuming is that the drastic reductions in written exams and thereduction/elimination of Morse Code testing haven't resulted in lots and lots of new hams. Sothe ragged tests weren't really a "barrier" at all.”

    [NI0C}: No they weren’t, especially since medical waivers were available.

    Curious sentence structure. There were no "medical waivers" for written tests...or were there? :-) "Lots and lots of new hams" is a subjective description, unquantifiable. The no-code-test Techncian class had been growing continuously between 1991 and 2000, continuaing to grow afterwards until that one class now accounts for 48% of totality licensees, a rate that is not affected by the allegations that "Tech plusses are renewing as Techs," a favorite reiterated "reason" of N2EY. N2EY's reiteration is NOT backed up by a shred of evidence proving his allegation. <shrug>..............[N2EY?] “Nor did they survey a techno-revolution from the newcomers who *did* Come in.”“

    Now, that's a new excuse/rationalization. :-) I'm not sure where THAT was some kindhearted of "reason" for removing the code test, but I'm sure N2EY will kluge together some kindhearted of "justifying" statement. sort of similar to his early-1970s "design" for a low-HF transceiver using vacuum tubes. Very advanced. [see listing of his "silver" photos sure to follow...:-)}...............NI0C: "Those who bounce CW with comparisons to spark transmission simply haven't kept up withtechnology."

    My apologies, I wasn't born until 1932. "Spark" was prohibited in the USA by 1927. Outside of some EMP testing, the only "spark" in my lifetime was with automobile sparkplugs, including early model gas engines (up to about 1948 or 1949, then replaced with "glow plugs").

    However, the TECHNOLOGY of COMMUNICATIONS - as used by other radio services - were already sending continuous teleprinter signals of eight such circuits plus two voice channels totality on one SSB radio in the 1930s on HF over long-haul communications paths. Those were a "radio extension" of existing landline wired carrier systems that came into exhaust in the late 1920s. Of course that was for commercial and military "carrier" services and would not live create in tyro radio. The FCC forbids communications carrier service in the USA tyro bands.

    On the other hand, the FCC does permit SOME Spread Spectrum operation above 30 MHz in USA tyro radio bands. They will besides permit Forward-Error-Correction for Data IF and only IF the format has been published elsewhere and is considered "public knowledge." Then there is PSK-31, a slow-speed data system that takes no more bandwidth than an OOK CW signal. Of course PSK-31 was innovated in the UK and air-tested in Europe before the ARRL bothered to publish anything about it. NIH factor? Well, there are "radio modems" in exhaust by radio amateurs today but the FCC does not yet permit high-rate modems (such as create in commercial radio services) for USA radio amateurs.

    The pre-(about)-1960 teleprinter rates used to live 60 WPM equivalent but were raised to 100 WPM before the Teletype Corporation electro-mechanical terminals were replaced by electronics versions with much higher throughput. Personal computers aren't necessary for all-electronic terminals (the first ones were done with digital circuitry as stand-alones) but the tremendous hard-disk mass storage capabilities of PCs of even a decade ago rescue having reels and reels of tape, paper or magnetic. totality that mass storage in PCs besides allows very quick retrieval of text data for smooth viewing off-line or on-line.

    But, I digress. The mighty morsemen of the tyro persuasion insist and insist on "Back to the Future" (easy as pi) modes as a "necessary qualifier" to speak anything at all. :-) Only They "know what is beneficial for totality amateurs." <shrug>

    AF6AY

      RE: More Back to the Future (easy as pi)   by NI0C on December 22, 2009 Mail this to a friend! AF6AY:Congratulations on achieving your tyro Extra Class license after petitioning the FCC to reduce the requirements.

    You might live interested in:http://eham.net/reviews/detail/6136

    Maybe the ARRL will endorse your certificate for your special efforts. Perhaps they will even print a billboard sized certificate for you.

      RE: US tyro License History...   by NI0C on December 22, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N2EY wrote:"NI0C: "Those who bounce CW with comparisons to spark transmission simply haven't kept up with technology."

    Nor with history. Spark disappeared from tyro Radio in the early 1920s - not because it was legislated out of existence, but because the new continuous-wave tube transmitters performed the selfsame job so much better. "

    It was a quantum leap in communications bandwidth efficiency, perhaps unequaled in terms of percentage improvement since then.

    73,Chuck NI0C

      RE: US tyro License History...   by NI0C on December 22, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N2EY wrote:"The Elecraft K2 is an illustration of a rig with a surprisingly low parts count, cost and overall hardware complexity that has "big-rig" performance. Particularly on CW... "

    The K2 is indeed a remarkable radio. In terms of picking up weak signals, it's extremely nigh to its large brother, the K3. I fill my K3 and K2 setup for dual receive now, using a splitter on the Rx antenna inputs, and an audio mixer on the outputs.

    73,Chuck NI0C

      RE: US tyro License History...   by N2EY on December 22, 2009 Mail this to a friend! NI0C writes: [CW] "was a quantum leap in communications bandwidth efficiency, perhaps unequaled in terms of percentage improvement since then."

    Yes, but the bandwidth improvement was only fraction of the story. A spark signal can actually live made relatively narrow (tens of kHz at HF) with proper techniques.

    What really made the inequity was that spark, being a damped (modulated) wave, was not as efficient in operation as an undamped (unmodulated/continuous) wave. This was particularly honest as frequency increased and better receivers (Godley used a superhet at Ardrossan) came into use.

    The very towering peak-to-average ratio of a spark signal meant that insulators and other components had to withstand higher voltages and currents than with "continuous" waves.

    There were existing 19-teens technologies that could generate undamped waves, such as Alexanderson alternators and Poulsen arc converters. But they tended to live practical only up to a few hundred kHz at most, far below the frequencies amateurs could exhaust after 1912.

    The halt result of totality this was that amateurs soon create that a 50 or 100 watt tube transmitter on 100 meters could accomplish what had required a kilowatt rotary spark on 200 meters. And often the refugee-from-the-lamp-factory could accomplish more, in both distance and in miles-per-dollar.

    That was the halt of spark in tyro radio.

    Oddly enough, spark continued to live used by other, "professional" radio services for many years. Most common was its exhaust in maritime radio, because many ship owners did not want to invest in new equipment every few years.

    (If you mediate technology changes posthaste these days, just gape at a typical 1920 tyro station, and then one from 1930).

    In fact, the exhaust of spark for back-up purposes in the maritime radio service was not outlawed until the 1960s.

    NI0C: "The K2 is indeed a remarkable radio. In terms of picking up weak signals, it's extremely nigh to its large brother, the K3."

    Not just in weak-signal reception, either. The K2 besides excels in strong-signal environments (very towering dynamic range) and in low angle clamor on both receive and transmit.

    It besides has very low power requirements for its flat of performance. On receive, my K2 typically requires about 250 mills at a nominal 12 volts. A typical Yaecomwood HF rig will draw four to ten times that!

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: US tyro License History...   by K6LHA on December 22, 2009 Mail this to a friend! NI0C wrote on 22 Dec 09 on "King Spark":

    "It was a quantum leap in communications bandwidth efficiency, perhaps unequaled in terms of percentage improvement since then."

    Tsk, tsk, tsk. Some folks just haven't kept up with the state of the technique in "communications bandwidth efficiency." :-)

    Disregarding commercial and military SSB formats that can carry two voice channels and eight TTY channels on the selfsame 12 KHz bandwidth over HF radio paths since the 1930s, the following are honest advancements in "communications bandwidth efficiency:"

    1. Claude Elwood Shannon's seminal paper of 1947 relating noise, bandwidth, and mistake rate and itsrelationship to temperature, Bell System Technical Journal 1947 (before the invention of the transistor at Bell Labs, done in a different fraction of that Laboratory). This established what would live universally known as "Shannon's Law" for totality communications circuits on this planet.

    2. Time-multiplexing of four TTY channels over one FSK CW radio circuit at 850 Hz "spread" (Mark to Space frequency shift), USN contract with DoD, in exhaust 1953 with the worldwide Army Command and Administrative Network (ACAN), later STARCOM. Required no more bandwidth than a single TTY FSK circuit at the time.

    3. The first of the voice channel modems faster than the 300 WPM Bell System. Those would peak at the present-day modems on the Internet sending/receiving 56,000 bits per second over a voice-bandwidth channel only 3000 Hz wide. Millions and millions in exhaust worldwide just prior to the new millennium. The USA FCC regulations for tyro radio communications on HF fill drastic limits on radio modem data rates.

    4. Spread Spectrum techniques, at first classified only for government use, now create in millions of cellular telephone sets/sites that allow many users to coexist WITHOUT INTERFERENCE in the selfsame bandspace and nigh geographical spacing. Makes exhaust of both Shannon's Laws and Information Theory techniques. There are still drastic limitations in FCC regulations on such techniques in USA tyro radio.

    5. Digitized voice, first used over wired telephone systems by individuals in the early 1970s expanded to commercial exhaust ON HF broadcasting, most prominanet routine being DRM (Digital Radio Mondial) that has been in-use now for six years. Digitized voice AND data has been in-use in small-unit portable radio of the DoD SINCGARS family, operational since 1989, and capable of selectable in-clear or on-line encrypted communications, besides adopted by most NATO military member forces. [digitization allows smooth encryption/decryption] A variation is the digitized modulation used in FRS/GMRS unlicensed portable/mobile radio use.

    6, UWB or Ultra WideBand techniques where bandspace is deliberately widened for many and varied not-communications-application such as short-range underground viaualization of buried objects, "looking through walls" of buildings, etc., etc., etc.

    There are hybrid systems which utilize Information Theory techniques, notably SONAR which was one of the first widespread uses of posthaste Fourier Transform signal characteristic detection. Such Sonar systems resulted in the "waterfall" parade now used in tyro experimentation for weak-signal communications, notably on LF (which the ARRL has not seen meet to promote although many European countries and the UK already fill tyro radio bands on LF). Yes, there is an underwater communications system in exhaust but it doesn't exhaust RF. :-)

    A common hybrid system is the "radio watch" and "radio clocks" now in exhaust by the (?) millions for automatic self-calibration that exhaust exceptionally-slow data rates permitting the miniature radio demodulators to reduce clamor with weak signals on LF (60 KHz in the USA and UK). Mine was "terribly expensive" three weeks ago ($27.45 with free shipping from Amazon for a Casio model that came out of the box already self-calibrated). I fill another, older radio watch which cost less than $30 including tax and shipping, does not fill the selectable UTC or strange time zone display.

    Another "hybrid system" is the USA DTV broadcast format that uses totality available techiques of Information Theory to collapse at least 18 MHz of bandwidth into a single 6 MHz bandspace AND adding quadraphonic sound, teletext (captions for the hearing impaired), plus a number of technical signals for constant checking of modulation quality. That system would live impossible to achieve without an easy-to-manufacture but highly-complex-in-structure Integrated Circuit. The MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group) extended known Information Theory techniques to the maximum in modulation-demodulation to enable bandwidth reduction. An added plus is the relative license of RFI compared to older, simpler analog modulation schemes and lack of "snow" with weak DTV signals.

    PSK-31 can live described as a "hybrid system" in that it permits low-rate text (roughly 30 WPM maximum) in a bandwidth no greater than 500 Hz. Innovated by Peter Martinex, G3PLX, it has been shunned and depreciated in the USA as being: (1) NIH; (2) "non-traditional"; (3) Does not demonstrate the remarkable, awesome, gloried expertise of heroic manual OOK CW telegraphy of the tyro radiotelegrapher. <shrug>

    I could picture some more systems which permit as Great (in a few cases greater, but those are not allowed in USA tyro radio) an advancement. And, I don't fill the personal taste with them as with those just listed...but that spoils your glory worship of the FIRST mode in totality radio.

    Happy Holidays from AF6AY

      RE: More Back to the Future (easy as pi)   by K6LHA on December 22, 2009 Mail this to a friend! NI0C snarled through his teeth on December 22, 2009:

    "AF6AY: Congratulations on achieving your tyro Extra Class license after petitioning the FCC to reduce the requirements."

    Wrong. I did not PETITION the FCC for anything. I merely made some Comments and Replies to Comments on the appropriate dockets before the Commision on NPRMs 98-143, 05-235, and some of the 18 Petitions made public by the FCC. call it LOBBYING in the mildest sense, availing myself of the liberty that any national of the United States of America has to speak to their government.

    Apparently the only "qualified" persons regarded by so many olde-tymers is THEM. Reflect on the FACT that the FCC (which regulates totality civil radio in the USA) does NOT require any Commissioners or staff to hold any radio licenses! [gasp, anomalous but true...]

    You will rebuff to believe it, but my "campaign" (exaggerated description) was solely to attempt modernization of existing USA tyro radio regulations. Having worked IN radio communications since 1953 and NEVER having had to know or exhaust it as fraction of that work, I had no jaundice or brainwashing about manual radiotelegraphy in radio. As far as I was concerned, it was an artifact of the past, used as the first mode of communications in early radio because early radio was extremely primitive, on-off keying was the only practical means and by 1896, a mature technique with (then) a half-century of existance in wired telegraphy.

    In the USA, the last remaining radio service to require International Morse Code testing for a license was tyro and only for those classes that allowed operation below 30 MHz. To me that was an anachronism, something that no longer belonged in law. It seemed privilege to me to attempt modernizing regulations for the FUTURE, not to glory in the past. When William Cross signed off on FCC 06-178 (published first on 19 Dec 06) I felt vindicated for my efforts and know that many of my radio hobbyist friends felt the selfsame way. For the ease of the 2006-2007 holiday time I made NO attempt nor worked up any interest in achieving my "own" license nor in "having my very own radio station." I enjoyed the Holiday time with friends who were not concerned with preserving the past forever, much less glorying in the alleged wonder of it all. At the time I had already worked as a professional IN radio-electronics for 54 years, had "my own radio station" (a commerce troop radio with a tripartite partnership), had my filligree-edged blue background First Class Radiotelephone Operator License certificate granted in March 1956, had been a hobbyist tinkering/dabbling/ building/learning by myself since 1947. Oh, and I'd already been a contributor, then Assciate Editor with Ham Radio magazine...all without any tyro radio license. Plus, I've had enough friends for years who were either hobbyists, licensed in some radio service, or just interested in the technology for their own sake.

    A brace weeks after New Years Day of 2007, in talking to my wife and a mutual friend about totality the "campaigning" I'd done, they suggested I depart for it. So I decided to accomplish just that. Not a problem. Once decided I set about to accomplish IT, disregarding totality of those who had thought me "unqualified" in anything over the past half century. :-) There was no emotional motivator, simply a personal conclusion made to accomplish IT. As the ragged Hawaiian colloquial phrase has it, "Go for broke!" :-)

    I was in a personal fiscal situation of being able to afford an entire HF-VHF station then and acquired good, but not necessarily "top-of-the-line" radio equipment. That is resented, sometimes bitterly, by those who are unable to accomplish so, and many of them vent their frustrations on me. I cannot nor will not mitigate such resentful individuals, certainly not totality those who insist and insist that "I should fill done what they did" from teen years through their middle age. tyro radio would NOT live my LIFE, just another avocation, non-professional, in short a HOBBY. I did it solely for myself, just for my interest, NOT to showcase myself to others of "mighty accomplishments."....................NI0C: "You might live interested in: http://eham.net/reviews/detail/6136"

    THANK YOU ever so much, Charles, haven't had such a beneficial laugh in days!

    Just imagine...a Product Review on a CERTIFICATE! :-) A non-legal certificate at that. That is SO arduous to believe! :-) Gotta fancy it!

    Thanks but no thanks. I fill my very own, rather plain, austere "license certificate" from the ONLY legal issuer in the USA, the FCC. I still fill totality my ragged commercial license certificates, as I said filligree-bordered blue background certificates for the first three radiotelephone (Commercial), then yellow background with less filligree on edges when it was changed to a GROL, until now, just an entry in the ULS database for commercial licensees once thzt license was made lifetime.

    Ten bucks for a non-member certificate, seven-fifty for a member charge? Oh, my, I'd gain as much or more sustenance from a meal at Home Town Buffet or satisfaction for corpse comfort from a three-pack of cotton socks from Target (upscale Hanes brand), and fill money left over from either one. I don't fill ANY certificates on their residence walls, much less at their northern house in Washington state, hardly any photographs. My wife has a BA degree and TWO Masters degrees (for Education and Social Work), using them totality when she was still working. Those three certificates are in storage up north. THEY don't necessity them for parade to others...................NI0C: "Maybe the ARRL will endorse your certificate for your special efforts. Perhaps they will even print a billboard sized certificate for you."

    Let's see, in getting into the spirit in the second week of March, 2007, I joined the ARRL on-line. My QST subscriptions were mis-labled in address for four months, despite the ARRL having my correct mailing address from their VE team that tested me a mile and a half from my house. In late April, 2007, the ARRL sent me an "offer" to relate and gain a freebie from them if I did. Six weeks LATER? Departments in Newington appeared to NOT being on communication terms. After a civil letter by surface mail asking if I could still avail myself of their freebie offer, I got a terse e-mail adage "I could not because I was already a member." [six weeks after joining] At least they NOW recognized that I really was a member. I've been in ONE "election" as a member over two years, that is, if one can call an unopposed candidate as being an "election." I've not had any responses to my two letters to "official representatives." On asking Newington for membership numbers of the organization I belonged to, I was referred to the Annual Report; they would not retort me immediately on the judgement that "demographics of membership are given only to potential advertisers." After a year and a half of growing frustration I decided to let membership lapse. The ARRL is primarily a PUBLISHING HOUSE and less a membership organization by their own attitudes, wordings, and phrases behind their PR propaganda. They hadn't done anything for me in two years.

    I just don't mediate highly over such pretty paper from a NON-legal "official source." Years ago at the availability of better photo programs for PCs, a friend of mine made up totality kinds of "certificates" which looked very, very "authentic" and would fill WOWED a casual observer. It was totality in sarcasm and humor at others' necessity for wallpaper bling. Some were devastatingly Funny but in a sneaky subtle way. :-)

    I carry ONE non-standard item in my wallet, a miniaturized photocopy of my DD-214 shape I got in 1956. If you are a veteran of the US armed forces you will know what a "DD-214" is (still used today but changed slightly to reflect different military regulations), non-veterans probably don't and don't much care. It is there because it can live there. I don't exhaust it for "certificate bling," just as a casual and different conversation starter in social gatherings. Gatherings of HUMANS who can communicate without radio. [gasp!]

    Oh, and pleased Holidays...:-)AF6AY

      RE: US tyro License History...   by NI0C on December 23, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I'm happy that words spewed out on eHam don't antecedent static crashes on 160m. This morning, there are over 9000 reported lightning events here in the midwest, and the troop is very noisy.

    If there were a prize for an individual's ratio of words uttered on eHam to number of QSO's on the air, you would definitely live a contender.

      RE: US tyro License History...   by K6LHA on December 23, 2009 Mail this to a friend! NI0C: "I'm happy that words spewed out on eHam don't antecedent static crashes on 160m. This morning, there are over 9000 reported lightning events here in the midwest, and the troop is very noisy."

    Please accept my sympathies on USA tyro radio not live made to your specific desires and geographic location.................NI0C: "If there were a prize for an individual's ratio of words uttered on eHam to number of QSO's on the air, you would definitely live a contender."

    Please reckon CHANGING your personal antipathic commentary to the e-ham Forum belief section. There you may vent totality you want without touching any of the article subjects that you look to despise.

    Meanwhile some of us custody to gape to the FUTURE and attempt to survey where USA tyro radio is going. I will leave you to the condemnation of the present that was not specifically to your liking.

    Happy Holidays

    AF6AY(born and raised in the midwest)

      RE: US tyro License History...   by K6LHA on December 23, 2009 Mail this to a friend! N2EY wrote on December 22, 2009, desperately trying to support redirecting the focus:

    "NI0C writes: [CW] "was a quantum leap in communications bandwidth efficiency, perhaps unequaled in terms of percentage improvement since then."

    N2EY: "Yes, but the bandwidth improvement was only fraction of the story. A spark signal can actually live made relatively narrow (tens of kHz at HF) with proper techniques."

    It could live made to fill an infinitely narrow bandwidth (as with an ideal, but impossible to achieve, Dirac filter). Such would besides fill an infinitely small power output.

    An arc discharge has extremely posthaste conduction/non-conduction transients...in terms of picoseconds or less, subject on the speed of electron flow, distance between discharge electrodes, plus the network's passive reactances supplying the source of electrons. As a result, the POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY of the total arc discharge is spread over hundreds of thousands of Hertz. The ACTUAL RF power out over "tens of KHz" (or low percentage-bandwidth in any fraction of the EM spectum) is very small. Passive networks connected to an arc discharge will not magically transform frequencies far from the desired frequency into the desired spectral region, they simply throw them away letting them dissipate that far-from-desired energy as HEAT. Heat is just wasted energy far above maximum-allocated radio frequencies (above 300 GHz).

    "Damped wave oscillaton" by arc-discharge into a resonant circuit, better known as "Spark transmitters" can live analyzed once totality the characteristics of the entire network are known/measured. There will live variables of everything in the total analysis which can grasp weeks to compute. But WHY bother? Measurement instruments to accurately measure/characterize everything just weren't available to the mediocre tyro experimenter prior to the 1930s and very few CARED to accomplish so. A Spark transmitter was SIMPLE. In addition it gave the ILLUSION of power with the visible and audible arc, generated ozone and arc content ash. Anyone who could manipulate hand tools could build one out of available wood and metal parts and wire. It was technically CRUDE. Cruder than a kluge.Spark transmitters, even with the most complicated of tuned networks were basically clamor Generators.

    Very early radio used a bestial constrain system of towering power RF sources with essentially-passive detectors as receivers, totality on relatively low-frequency circuits. It "worked" enough to demonstrate that radio (as it was) was a viable communications medium for relatively short distances. Commercial radio services used the much-more efficient (and expensive) alternators, a (relatively) high-frequency generator (alternator) working in the VLF and LF spectrum regions. Alternators were relatively absolute RF sources or the first honest Continuous Wave generators in the power category. Yes, alternators had harmonics, relatively low-power, nothing at totality like the clamor GENERATORS of Spark.

    Now, James, you should fill KNOWN this from your early work with Spark transmitters and your scholarly lessons in advanced radio theory obtained at the university later. Instead, you portrayed the very ragged ways in radio AS IF they could live done today or even a half century ago. It was simply not so comparable. Yet you had to glorify the early achievements in terms of others in print AS IF they were wonderous achievements of genius...and thus basking in their reflected glory..................As far as I know, the only surviving, useful arc-discharge RF generator is that used in testing electronic equipment designed to withstand EMP (Electro-Magnetic Pules) effects. Controlled power and PSD (Power Spectral Density) characteristics, carefully measured and calibrated. Such is not used for testing tyro radio equipment; there is no necessity to accomplish so.===========================

    This article was not remotely considered to live a treatise on ragged radio nor ragged regulations. It started off simply as a study of the number of license classes in USA tyro radio over a period of time following a milestone change in USA tyro radio regulations. As usual, it was hijacked by some unavoidable others who, having an antipathy/personality-conflicts with myself or some necessity to highlight themselves above others, took it far off the original intent.

    It is my interest - NOT shared by most others here - to gape towards the FUTURE, not to live in the relected glory of past radio pioneers...or to pretend to live pioneers of radio (just of HF) by developed skill in manual radiotelegraphy or reading ragged copies of tyro radio publications.

    Laws of Physics is actually a higher order than man-made laws. Man-made laws are a reinforcement of those physical laws as well as for mitigating interference to totality users of the EM spectrum. Laws of physics accomplish NOT recognize human desires, imaginations, nor the "history" aspect of early primitive radio.

    AF6AY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by KB0RDL on December 24, 2009 Mail this to a friend! I've been a certified county storm spotter for nearly 15 years and over half of their group hold advanced license, which is a bit more then the universal ham population. I don't know of anyone who doesn't fill equipment of their own. The greatest impediment to wanting to become a universal class or above ham isn't lack of interest in the hobby, it's housing association, condominium and apartment difficulties with antennas. Some of the tech class guys are wizards at VHF/UHF, interfacing with computers and so on, so the flat of technical know-how of the fraction of tyro radio that interests them is high.   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over T   by N2EY on December 26, 2009 Mail this to a friend! KB0RDL writes: "The greatest impediment to wanting to become a universal class or above ham isn't lack of interest in the hobby, it's housing association, condominium and apartment difficulties with antennas."

    I've said that for years; thanks for confirming it. I survey from QRZ that you live in KS, which means it's not just a big-coastal-city problem either.

    And it's not just about upgrading but about getting a license in the first place.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by KJ4KKI on December 30, 2009 Mail this to a friend! Wow, that is a Great idea! 'Nuff said... 73   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by KJ4KKI on December 30, 2009 Mail this to a friend! My club has at least 50 members and I believe the actual number is closer to 70-80 (I haven't looked at their outdated membership roster lately). Anyway, while a bunch of the hams accomplish fill some "experience," they fill a few intermittent college students and had some ladies recently become Techs. Their nightly ARES net turns into a rag chew after any official commerce is taken custody of, and they always fill at least 20 members checking in. They besides gain some Echolinks fairly frequently. They pulled a list of licensed hams in their county and the list was huge! Activity in their club was dwarfed by the number of licensees. I mediate promoting ham radio should live a fraction of any public school science or communications/technology course. I besides mediate there should live more ham clubs in colleges.   RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by KJ4KKI on December 30, 2009 Mail this to a friend! One has to live elastic with the times and needs of a population. I was fearful that I couldn't learn code and do off getting my Tech license for several years. I got it with the no-code; studying for hours daily, taking numerous on-line exams and answering every question in the back of the book. I besides bought a second ham reserve and read probably over a thousand pages of internet material. I made 100%. I plan to learn code...when I fill a time in my life to study it and exercise it. privilege now, I'm studying for my General. I accomplish local FM and satellites. Echolink exposed me to talking to people on other continents and across the nation. You Tube let me watch videos of people talking on their HF rigs. One has to gape at the overall mission of something. While I admit that the Tech manual isn't detailed when compared to the universal or Extra manuals/tests, it certainly gets one started with an HT or mobile FM rig...to gain their feet wet and chew on...so to speak. It showed me how much more I wanted to gain involved and learn. In my profession and flat of schooling, I've been guilty of complaining about "the way it used to be." Sometimes, in the end, change is good. Sometimes, they just don't realize it until they gain there and adjust to it. And for the fellow complaining that an Extra didn't know how to build a dipole...it's in the Tech manual and the General. He's obviously an idiot who either forgot the formula or got lucky on tests (2 in a row?). My consensus: The more I learn, the more I realize I don't know. Not because a Tech or universal license is "dumbed down," but due to my own self-realization. At least, that's my page worth.   Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Years   by K5ZTY on January 2, 2010 Mail this to a friend! Regarding the large numbers of non renewals, tyro Radio, like golf, archery and girl scouts, is not for everyone. However, the ARRL has made it their project to license every person in the world by dumbing down the license requirements nascence with the Volunteer Examiner program in the early '80s. The publishing of the exam questions and answers has given birth to totality sorts of short cuts to obtaining a license. There is no investment in the license other than some memorizing of answers. An applicant doesn't fill to learn or parade any learning of the hobby at totality to obtain any class of license. Hence, no investment, no pride of accomplishment, obtained a license and doesn't know how or why to exhaust it, no interest in renewing.We necessity to depart back to an entry flat license that is beneficial for one year. Upgrade or you're out. Publish the question pool but no answers. They wouldn't gain as many applicants but they would gain more Hams.   Don't blame ARRL For What FCC Did   by N2EY on January 2, 2010 Mail this to a friend! K5ZTY writes: "However, the ARRL has made it their project to license every person in the world by dumbing down the license requirements nascence with the Volunteer Examiner program in the early '80s."

    The changeover to the VE system wasn't the ARRL's idea, nor did they support it.

    FCC did it to rescue money. Commercial operator's license testing was privatized too. Thank the Reagan Administration for that one.

    Reducing the license requirements began, IMHO, in the late 1970s when the Morse Code sending test was "waived" - by FCC.

    K5ZTY: "The publishing of the exam questions and answers has given birth to totality sorts of short cuts to obtaining a license."

    Again, blame the FCC. They refused to depart after Dick Bash, and when they created the VE system, publishing the entire mp;A pool became a practical necessity.

    K5ZTY: "There is no investment in the license other than some memorizing of answers."

    That depends entirely on the licensee. A lot of the newcomers I encounter really want to learn and understand RADIO, not just pass the test. Some others just want to pass.

    K5ZTY: "We necessity to depart back to an entry flat license that is beneficial for one year. Upgrade or you're out."

    Nice wish but it's not going to betide because it would cost FCC more work.

    K5ZTY: "Publish the question pool but no answers."

    Won't work. What's to avert somebody from publishing the answers, selfsame as Bash did 30 years ago? (Except it would live easier this time.)

    --

    I harmonize that there are totality sorts of ways that the system could live improved, but most of them require changes FCC just won't fabricate because they will cost too much in the way of "big government" resources.

    The trick is to find those changes that will improve the system *without* requiring FCC to accomplish more.

    73 de Jim, N2EY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Ov   by N2EY on January 2, 2010 Mail this to a friend! KJ4KKI writes: "I was fearful that I couldn't learn code and do off getting my Tech license for several years."

    But did you actually try to learn it?

    KJ4KKI: "studying for hours daily, taking numerous on-line exams and answering every question in the back of the book. I besides bought a second ham reserve and read probably over a thousand pages of internet material. I made 100%."

    GREAT!

    But it's notable to understand that FCC doesn't require 100%, nor even 80%, to pass. IIRC 74% (give or grasp a fraction) is the passing grade for totality the written exams, and has been for decades.

    KJ4KKI: "I plan to learn code...when I fill a time in my life to study it and exercise it."

    15 to 30 minutes a day. The trick is, accomplish it every day.

    KJ4KKI: "In my profession and flat of schooling, I've been guilty of complaining about "the way it used to be."

    Then you understand that it's not totality without reason.

    KJ4KKI: "Sometimes, in the end, change is good. Sometimes, they just don't realize it until they gain there and adjust to it."

    And sometimes, in the end, change isn't good. Sometimes the folks who said "That's NOT a beneficial idea!" were right.

    KJ4KKI: "And for the fellow complaining that an Extra didn't know how to build a dipole...it's in the Tech manual and the General. He's obviously an idiot who either forgot the formula or got lucky on tests (2 in a row?)."

    Remember that it only takes 74% to pass. That means a person can fill large gaping holes in the stuff tested and still gain the license.

    FCC doesn't custody how somebody gets the privilege retort as long as they don't cheat. FCC doesn't custody if someone uses rote memorization, word-association, absolute guessing, or actual understanding of the material to pass, just as long as they don't cheat.

    Some may scoff at the conception that a person could memorize their way to a passing grade, given the size of the question pools. But "memorization" doesn't suggest somebody has to memorize totality the questions and answers verbatim. In the real world, totality it means is that a person has to recognize the privilege retort out of the given ones - 74% of the time.

    There's besides a large inequity between being able to retort the questions on the exam, and actually knowing how to accomplish something.

    KJ4KKI: "My consensus: The more I learn, the more I realize I don't know."

    That's not a consensus - it's wisdom!

    KJ4KKI: "Not because a Tech or universal license is "dumbed down," but due to my own self-realization."

    The problem is, too many hams of totality vintages don't fill that self-realization.

    73 es GL de Jim, N2EY

      RE: Trends in USA tyro Radio License Classes Over Three Y   by K6LHA on January 2, 2010 Mail this to a friend! K5ZTY complained on January 2, 2010:

    "Regarding the large numbers of non renewals, tyro Radio, like golf, archery and girl scouts, is not for everyone. However, the ARRL has made it their project to license every person in the world by dumbing down the license requirements nascence with the Volunteer Examiner program in the early '80s."

    NO way, senior. Privatization of testing was done by the FCC for BOTH commercial and tyro radio operator licenses...for BUDGET reasons. besides done was to establish frequency coordination groups for commerce troop radio users plus a Great overhaul of radio licenses for small boats and universal aviation aircraft, public safety agencies. The ARRL has NO POWER to fabricate regulations. The ARRL was besides among three to govern the NCVEC nascence in 1984. Note: PL 97-239 enacted on 13 Sep 82 made it possible for the FCC to enact privatization. [That's Public Law 97-239 and does not refer to fraction 97, Title 47 C.F.R.].................K5ZTY: "The publishing of the exam questions and answers has given birth to totality sorts of short cuts to obtaining a license. There is no investment in the license other than some memorizing of answers. An applicant doesn't fill to learn or parade any learning of the hobby at totality to obtain any class of license."

    That's your opinion, of course. When did you accomplish your last formal tyro radio license exam? I took mine on 25 Feb 07. For totality three test elements then, the Question Pool had an mediocre of 13 times the minimum required pool questions of 10. So, for 120 questions total, there would fill to live 1560 questions to "memorize," 6240 answers to "memorize" (have to avoid distractor-worded answers that look privilege but are wrong), for a total of 7,800 items "memorized." That's much more than I custody to memorize for any hobby test.

    By the way, the tyro Extra test factor of 50 questions had a tad over 16 times the number of pool questions of 10 so that would fill been more difficult for "memorization."...................K5ZTY: "Hence, no investment, no pride of accomplishment, obtained a license and doesn't know how or why to exhaust it, no interest in renewing."

    Ahem...the second-lowest "renewal" rate in USA tyro radio is Technician class. universal is third. tyro Extra is first (they are the arduous CORE amateurs). The number of licensees in Novice class, Technician Plus class, and Advanced class fill totality been dropping since 2000.

    Someone who got their first USA tyro radio license in the year 2007 will fill to wait 7 years before they CAM renew. Its the law. As to "investment," the ARRL VEC team of 2007 charged $14 for a test session, for factor testing or just for an administrative change not needing testing. I would assay at least 35 were there on the day of my test, so the team leader locked up (probably) $490 at the halt of that day. $14 is the charge for a simple breakfast for two at a Denny's. <shrug>[Jimmie M., "Denny's" logo has an apostrophe, "Ralphs" does not, tickle remember that]

    "No pride of accomplishment?" That's overly-cynical. I grasp PERSONAL pride in everything I've set out to accomplish and then complete satisfactorily. I don't work up a large head of steam and depart parading it around forums for decades. :-)

    "Don't know how or why to exhaust it?" Whooo...that's going overboard in a hurry. Unless there is some HUGE revision of fraction 97, Title 47 C.F.R., USA tyro radio is NOT a trade, NOT a union, NOT a guild, and cannot live a business/corporation (by LAW). Very few tyro radio RF emitter model numbers fill identical controls with identical characteristics. totality of them require reading the effing manual to exhaust them. Its the selfsame way with commercial RF emitters, believe it or not.

    If someone just doesn't know "WHY" to exhaust it, then I doubt they will ever pass a test for it. Just grasp a gape at the current NCVEC QP contents. You should inquire WHY they are AT a VEC test site if they "don't know why." That fraction is a nonsense question. <shrug>.................K5ZTY: "We necessity to depart back to an entry flat license that is beneficial for one year. Upgrade or you're out."

    By golly, then I "failed" this draconian pecification! I got my tyro license almost three years ago...and I've NEVER upgraded it!

    I must live one of those "worthless, beginner, know-nothings, ignorant, stupid, etc." beings who didn't accomplish tyro radio for years before being licensed in tyro radio!!! :-) Ah, no matter, I've been called totality of those names by already-licensed amateurs because I've been a professional in radio-electronics since 1952 and just didn't TRY to gain an tyro license until age 74. Oh, oh, OH, such a terrible, terrible attitude! :-)

    Oh, and how did you accomplish in your federal tests for golf, archery, and girl scouting? I'm really interested in HOW you passed the latter...;-)

    AF6AY

      Email SubscriptionYou are not subscribed to discussions on this article.

    Subscribe!My SubscriptionsSubscriptions Help

    Other Recent ArticlesRSGB ARDF Championships:Fire District Agrees to Sponsor CERT:Man's Electronics Disrupt Entire Neighborhood's Car Keys, Garage Openers:Bench Therapy Video -- AQRP Antenna Analyzer:Special Event for 75th Anniversary of the Battle of Cassino:





    Back to Main Page





    Killexams exams | Killexams certification | Pass4Sure questions and answers | Pass4sure | pass-guaratee | best test preparation | best training guides | examcollection | killexams | killexams review | killexams legit | kill example | kill example journalism | kill exams reviews | kill exam ripoff report | review | review quizlet | review login | review archives | review sheet | legitimate | legit | legitimacy | legitimation | legit check | legitimate program | legitimize | legitimate business | legitimate definition | legit site | legit online banking | legit website | legitimacy definition | pass 4 sure | pass for sure | p4s | pass4sure certification | pass4sure exam | IT certification | IT Exam | certification material provider | pass4sure login | pass4sure exams | pass4sure reviews | pass4sure aws | pass4sure security | pass4sure cisco | pass4sure coupon | pass4sure dumps | pass4sure cissp | pass4sure braindumps | pass4sure test | pass4sure torrent | pass4sure download | pass4surekey | pass4sure cap | pass4sure free | examsoft | examsoft login | exams | exams free | examsolutions | exams4pilots | examsoft download | exams questions | examslocal | exams practice |

    www.pass4surez.com | www.killcerts.com | www.search4exams.com | http://www.radionaves.com/