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Peter Gregory discusses user account configuration data; including, editing, and deleting person debts with Admintool and shell commands; user shells; and user account instructions in Solaris eight.
This pattern chapter is excerpted from solar licensed system Administrator for Solaris eight examine ebook, by way of Peter Gregory.This chapter is from the ebook
After finishing this chapter, you will exist able to
determine here login procedures: log privilege into a equipment, log off of a device, and change login passwords.
State the command used to identify which users are at present logged into the gadget.
State the steps required to create consumer bills on the aboriginal gadget the usage of the admintool utility.
State the command syntax so as to add, modify, or delete consumer/neighborhood accounts on the aboriginal equipment with the useradd, groupadd, usermod, groupmod, userdel, or groupdel commands.
Given a user's login shell, list the shell initialization info used to deploy a user's work environment at login.
to meet these targets, this chapter discusses:
consumer account configuration data;
including, modifying, and deleting user bills with Admintool;
including, enhancing, and deleting user accounts with shell commands;
person shells; and
user account commands.
Three primary information define the id of a consumer account: the password file, the shadow file, and the community file.The Password File
The password file contains the primary making a selection on suggestions for each and every consumer allowed to entry a system. The gadget vicinity of the password file is /and many others/passwd. The format of the password file is:username:password:uid:gid:gcos-field:home-dir:login-shell
These fields are:
username—the identify that identifies the consumer account.
password—in Solaris eight an "x" in this box signifies that the corresponding shadow file includes the encrypted password string.
uid—the lively numerical identity assigned to the account. The optimum cost for UID is 2147483647, but directors are urged to employ values below 60,000 to exist inevitable compatibility with the entire tools that are used to manage money owed or parade tips that includes usernames.
gid—the basic (default) numerical neighborhood identification assigned to the account. dote the UID field, the highest cost for GID is 2147483647, but a maximum of 60,000 is preferable.
gcos-field—here's the person's real identify (the time age "gcos-box" is the historical term for this container).
domestic-dir—the directory where the user is placed after logging in; this constantly includes the user's own files and directories.
login-shell—the prefatory shell it really is started on behalf of the user upon logging in. If this box is blank, then /usr/bin/sh is used.
The password file can exist examine by anyone on the equipment. There isn't any information that hold to exist stored furtive in this file. A sample password file feels dote this:root:x:0:1:super-user:/:/sbin/sh daemon:x:1:1::/: bin:x:2:2::/usr/bin: sys:x:three:three::/: adm:x:four:4:Admin:/var/adm: lp:x:seventy one:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp: uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp: nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico listen:x:37:four:community Admin:/usr/internet/nls: pete:x:a hundred:4:Peter Gregory:/export/home/pete:/bin/sh no one:x:60001:60001:no one:/:
Fields within the password file are delimited with the aid of colons (":"), and spotless fields are signified through two adjoining colons ("::"). as an example, exist vigilant that the account identify container for daemon is clean—simply two colons. additionally, daemon has no shell entry, so the ultimate character for daemon is the colon delimiter.
The colon delimiter is additionally used within the shadow and community info, that are mentioned in a later area.
it is viable and permissible to create a pair of username within the password file with the equal UID. every username may hold its personal wonderful password. despite the fact, tools comparable to ls and ps, when used with alternatives exhibiting username, will monitor the first username organize in the password file matching the UID.
When a modern account is brought, changed, or eliminated with the useradd, usermod, or userdel instructions (that are discussed later in this chapter), the gadget creates a backup copy of the password file, called /etc/opasswd.The Shadow File
The shadow file carries every consumer account's encrypted password, as well as specific per-account parameters governing "password aging." The gadget location of the shadow file is /etc/shadow. The format of the shadow file is:username:password:lastchg:min:max:warn:inactive:expire:flag
These fields are:
username—here is the equal username present in the password file.
password—a 13-character encrypted password. If this box consists of a lock string (e.g., "locked" or "NP"), the account is inaccessible; if blank, the account has no password.
lastchg—date of closing password trade (actually the variety of days between January 1, 1970, and the date the password become eventual modified).
min—minimum variety of days allowed earlier than the password may likewise exist modified.
max—optimum number of days allowed before the password expires.
warn—the number of days earlier than expiration that the consumer is warned.
inactive—the variety of days of state of being inactive allowed for the account before the account is immediately locked.
expire—the date when the user account is deactivated.
flag—a container reserved for future use.
The shadow file is restricted so that most effective the equipment administrator can study it. here's because an interloper could duty a "dictionary assault," the usage of guessable passwords in an try to assess the passwords for one or extra money owed. classes that "crack" account passwords are available for this goal; as a result, the shadow file isn't publicly readable.
A pattern shadow file feels dote this:root:Pe0iQfp2LcAig:10528:::::: daemon:NP:6445:::::: bin:NP:6445:::::: sys:NP:6445:::::: adm:nIP3GPx2FIZYQ:11053:::::: lp:NP:6445:::::: uucp:NP:6445:::::: nuucp:NP:6445:::::: hear:*LK*::::::: pete:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:11055:::::: nobody:NP:6445::::::
note that one of the crucial money owed within the instance shadow file hold "NP" ("no password") or "*LK*" (locked) in them. These are only two approaches of signifying that the bills are locked towards login. there's nothing truly magic about "NP" or "*LK*"—they are just one way of effectively displaying that these accounts are locked and going to stay that way. You could withhold other text within the password box to suit your wants; for instance, a helpdesk ticket quantity or a date.
When a consumer adjustments his or her password, the gadget creates a backup reproduction of the shadow file, referred to as /etc/oshadow. This additionally happens if root adjustments a consumer's password.
feel About It . . .
Why are encrypted passwords present in /etc/shadow and never in /and many others/passwd?
for many commands (ps, ls, and so forth.) to work properly, /etc/passwd should exist world readable. ahead of using /etc/shadow, every single clients' encrypted password strings were additionally publicly readable. This gave americans with "password cracking" courses a desultory to ascertain different users' passwords. by relocating the encrypted password strings to /and so on/shadow (which may likewise exist study simplest with the aid of root), the means to entry encrypted passwords is eradicated.
First, a slight bit of background. Older versions of UNIX did not hold a shadow file; instead, the encrypted password string become present in the password file, within the 2d box it really is usually stuffed with an "x" in Solaris. Solaris still supports the encrypted password acting in the password file, although this is no longer really useful, for the understanding that the password file is publicly readable.
Older versions of UNIX with out a shadow file additionally had no password-getting brokendown capability.
The network tips system (NIS) subsystem turned into designed around the brokendown shadow-much less architecture; this explains why NIS has no shadow map, nor does it lead password ageing.The neighborhood File
The group file carries a listing of the entire groups on the device, together with each and every group's numeric groupid and an inventory of each of the usernames which are secondary members of each and every community. The spot of the group file is /and so on/community. The layout of the neighborhood file is:groupname:password:gid:person-checklist
These fields are:
groupname—this is the name of the neighborhood.
password—this is an not obligatory password for the community.
gid—the lively numerical identity assigned to the community. The optimum value for GID is 2147483647, but administrators are advised to create employ of values less than 60,000 to create inevitable compatibility with every single of the tools which are used to control money owed or betray tips that comprises neighborhood names.
user-list—a comma-separated record of users allowed in the group. These businesses are clients' secondary community IDs.
A pattern group file follows.root::0:root other::1: bin::2:root,bin,daemon sys::three:root,bin,sys,adm adm::four:root,adm,daemon uucp::5:root,uucp mail::6:root tty::7:root,tty,adm lp::eight:root,lp,adm nuucp::9:root,nuucp team of workers:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:10:pete daemon::12:root,daemon sysadmin::14: no one::60001: noaccess::60002: nogroup::65534:
be vigilant the password bailiwick in the community "team of workers." groups can exist password included through inserting a password string into the password box. observe, though, that this is a very lead manner; there are no equipment supplied to spot the group password in for you.
trace: that you may assume a password string from the shadow file and employ the vi editor to splice it into the community file. The group password will exist the equal as the account password from the shadow entry the spot you took the password string.
When a group is password protected, any one who is not a member of the neighborhood could exist challenged for the neighborhood's password when they've entered the newgrp command.simple and Secondary Groupids
each and every consumer account has one fundamental groupid—here is the community defined in the password file. When a person logs on, here is his or her associated groupid.
each and every consumer account likewise has zero or more secondary groupids. A person's secondary corporations are those community entries that include the username of their lists of contributors.
There are some effective obstacles of groupids. as an instance, each user account may likewise exist in no greater than sixteen organizations, and a line in the neighborhood file can't exceed 512 characters (together with the newline persona).
What happens if you should add so many individuals to a gaggle that you just exceed the 512-personality entry limit? You simply create a different replica community entry—identical identify and community quantity—and list the extra individuals there.
The primary and secondary groupids at once influence file gadget entry permissions, which is explored thoroughly in Chapter 10.
consider About It . . .
What often is the sequel if a username hold been brought to a gaggle file entry when that group was the consumer's primary neighborhood?
The additional entry would hold no impact, considering the person is already configured for the fundamental neighborhood membership in the /and so on/passwd file.the root Account
the foundation account has particular privileges on a equipment: Root is permitted to study and write every file on a system, in spite of the file's ownership and authorization settings. system directors log in with the root account that allows you to operate administrative initiatives.
the root account gets its power and privilege from the cost of its user number: Root is person quantity zero, described in the password file.
think About It . . .
What could exist the consequences of changing a natural consumer's person quantity to zero? What potential could there exist of inserting root's entry at the conclusion of the passwd file (in its spot of the starting)?
altering a regular person's consumer number to zero gives the consumer root privileges.
One skills of inserting root on the conclusion of the password file is that if an interloper is in a position to adjust the password file to give another user root privilege (see the first question here), then output from commands equivalent to ls and ps would exhibit that different person because the owner of root strategies and data.
Juliana Taiwo-Obalonye, Abuja
President Muhammadu Buhari on Wednesday stated, past administrations abused the federal civil service and undermined provider birth to the individuals.
He cited this at the swearing in of eight everlasting secretaries from eight states the spot vacancies existed.
in response to him, past administrations “abused, undermined and destroyed the device of exams and balances inside the civil service that turned into intended to give protection to and maintain the activity of their residents.”
The president delivered that it turned into this systemic maltreat of energy that “significantly enriched just a few privileged individuals while on the identical time making the vast majority of their fellow citizens poorer and underserved.
“in consequence, many Nigerians misplaced self credit in the govt and its means to carry the required information and service to their individuals.”
President Buhari reiterated that his administration had considering he came into office in can likewise 2015, delivered on its three cardinal programmes: protection, inclusive and diverse economic pile and battle towards corruption and maltreat of vigour.
He expressed delight that in under 4 years, “we've made growth on every single fronts working very collaboratively with the civil carrier.”
Buhari charged the modern appointees to key “into the administration’s programmes aimed at reforming Nigeria and restoring the self assurance of Nigerians in executive and the civil provider.
“To enable you to achieve this, they approved the Federal Civil provider strategy and Implementation device 2017 to 2020. This device will create sure that the civil provider is sufficiently manned and fitted to duty successfully because it implements govt policies for inclusive boom and development.
“When thoroughly carried out, they would hold efficaciously transformed the civil service into an efficient, productive, incorruptible and citizen-centreded machinery of govt.
“therefore, l wish to assume this desultory to solicit your assist and cooperation as they implement every single of the programmes of executive in a influence-oriented manner on the way to recede away an indelible legacy.
“In doing this, you exigency to every single remain above board and eschew partisanship your selections and actions. You ought to strive to achieve excellence continually. Your motto may still exist civility and serviceability.”
President Buhari inevitable the entire civil provider and the broader public provider of the commitment of his administration to its welfare and skill construction consistently.
He congratulated the newly-sworn in everlasting secretaries, announcing “here's an outstanding fulfillment for which you should exist proud. best a tiny percent of Nigerians create it to this stage. i'm sure that your journey to attain this apex position within the federal civil provider has been replete of challenges and sacrifices.
“nowadays you and your households will hold a marvelous time the reward of the a long time of provider that you've withhold in.
“As you hold fun this miraculous achievement, I additionally are looking to remind you that the oath you simply took and the position you currently dangle near with loads of duties.
“Now more than ever earlier than, their nation needs a extremely vibrant, skilled and selfless civil service in an exertion to support their country overcome its urgent problems.
“As politicians, they expand policies and provide strategic course for the nation. despite the fact, the task of imposing these guidelines and methods rests within the arms of the civil carrier beneath the ready advice of the permanent secretaries.”
The everlasting secretaries had been sworn in presently earlier than the graduation of the Federal govt Council (FEC) meeting.
here's the 2d FEC meeting for the understanding that the yr started to exist presided over by way of President Buhari, the primary assembly held on January 9, where the institution of four modern deepest universities became accredited.
The permanent secretaries took their oaths of office in two batches.
the modern permanent secretaries are Abel, Olumuyiwa Enitan (Osun State), Dr. Mohammed Dikwa (Borno), Dr. Ajani Magdalene N. Olor (Delta) and Festus Yusuf Narai Daudu (Nasarawa). Others are Mbaeri, Maurice Nnamdi (Imo), Dr. Bakari Wadinga (Adamawa), Babatunde Lawal (Lagos), and Umakhihe Ernest Afolabi (Edo).
licensed Solaris administrators are specialized techniques administrators that preserve laptop programs and networks in keeping with Solaris expertise. massive organizations, non-earnings organizations and governmental businesses, among others, are ordinary employers of certified Solaris administrators. day-to-day responsibilities include presenting operational guide, conducting preventative upkeep, performing server optimization and making scheduled server backups.schooling Bachelor's degree in community or methods administration always required Job competencies communique, hardship fixing, evaluation, work experienceMedian earnings (2016)* $eighty two,548 for sun Solaris equipment directors Job growth (2014-2024)** eight% for community and computer programs directors
supply: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor informationRequired education
certified Solaris directors continually hold a bachelor's degree in community or programs administration. Core coursework usually covers issues in networking infrastructure, protocols and safety. students additionally learn the way to work with UNIX server and windows working programs. Prior journey as a community technician or support desk worker can exist primarily helpful. Certification courses and materials can exist organize during the Oracle trade enterprise or permitted practicing centers; candidates accept hold of their credentials after passing an examination.talents Required
systems directors in common may still hold strong analytical, communication and problem-solving competencies. a radical figuring out of the underlying technologies and ideas of Solaris working programs and know-how is elementary, as smartly as the capacity to deal with multiplie projects and responsibilities.Employment and salary Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics (BLS) stated that employment of network and computer methods directors, including certified Solaris administrators, will develop with the aid of an tolerable cost of eight% nationwide between 2014 to 2024. according to the BLS, the median annual salary for network and laptop techniques administrators became $seventy seven,810 in may likewise 2015. in line with statistics from PayScale.com, the median income for a sun Solaris techniques administrator changed into $82,548 in January 2016.
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Disks are divided into regions called “disk slices” or “disk partitions.” A slice is composed of a single purview of contiguous blocks. It is a physical subset of the disk (except for slice 2, which represents the entire disk). A UFS or the swap zone is built within these disk slices. The boundaries of a disk slice are defined when a disk is partitioned using the format utility, and the slice information for a particular disk can exist viewed by using the prtvtoc command. Each disk slice appears to the OS (and to the system administrator) as though it were a separate disk drive.
Disk slicing differs between the SPARC and x86 platforms. On the SPARC platform, the entire disk is devoted to the OS; the disk can exist divided into 8 slices, numbered 0 to 7. On the x86 platform, the disk is divided into fdisk partitions using the fdisk command. The fdisk partition is divided into 10 slices, numbered 0 to 9.
A physical disk consists of a stack of circular platters. Data is stored on these platters in a cylindrical pattern called “cylinders” as illustrated in figure 4-1. Cylinders can exist grouped and isolated from one another. A group of cylinders is referred to as a slice. A slice is defined with start and stop points, starting from the outside of the platters to the center of the stack of platters, which is called the “spindle.”
For example, a 73GB SCSI disk has 14,087 cylinders, numbered 0 to 14,086. Cylinder 0 is on the outside edge of the platters, and cylinder 14,086 is the closest to the spindle. Disk slices are defined by an offset and a size in cylinders. The offset is the distance from cylinder 0. To define a slice, the administrator provides a starting cylinder and an ending cylinder. A slice spanning from cylinder 0 to 14,086 would employ the entire disk and is typical of the slicing scheme used on a ZFS boot disk.
When setting up slices, bethink these rules:
When they debate ZFS in Chapter 5, you’ll learn how to accept around some of these limitations in file systems.Displaying Disk Configuration Information
As described earlier, disk configuration information is stored in the disk label. If you know the disk and slice number, you can parade information for a disk by using the print volume table of contents (prtvtoc) command. You can specify the volume by specifying any slice defined on the disk (for example, /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s2 or /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s*). Regardless of which slice you specify, every single slices defined on the disk will exist displayed. If you know the target number of the disk but achieve not know how it is divided into slices, you can demonstrate information for the entire disk by specifying either slice 2 or s*. The following steps demonstrate how you can examine information stored on a disk’s label by using the prtvtoc command.
Type the following text and press Enter.# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>
The system responds with the following:* /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 424 sectors/track * 24 tracks/cylinder * 10176 sectors/cylinder * 14089 cylinders * 14087 accessible cylinders * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * Unallocated space: * First Sector Last * Sector matter Sector * 0 10176 10175 * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector matter Sector Mount Directory 0 2 00 10176 143339136 143349311 2 5 01 0 143349312 143349311
The disk described is a SAS disk, target 0 with an SMI VTOC label. The prtvtoc command shows the number of cylinders and heads, as well as how the disk’s slices are arranged.
The following is an instance of running the prtvtoc command on a SCSI disk with an EFI label:# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1<cr> * /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 8385121 sectors * 8385054 accessible sectors * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector matter Sector Mount Directory 0 2 01 34 41006 41039 1 2 00 41040 8327663 8368702 /mnt 8 11 00 8368703 16384 8385086 Using the format Utility to Create Slices: SPARC
Before you can create a file system on a disk, the disk must exist formatted, and you must divide it into slices using the format utility. Formatting involves two separate processes:
When a disk is formatted, header and trailer information is superimposed on the disk. When the format utility runs a surface analysis, the controller scans the disk for defects. It should exist famous that defects and formatting information reduce the total disk space available for data. This is why a modern disk usually holds only 90% to 95% of its capacity after formatting. This percentage varies according to disk geometry and decreases as the disk ages and develops more defects.
The exigency to perform a surface analysis on a disk drive has dropped as more manufacturers ship their disk drives formatted and partitioned. You should not exigency to perform a surface analysis within the format utility when adding a disk drive to an existing system unless you Think disk defects are causing problems. The primary understanding that you would employ format is if you want to view or change the partitioning scheme on a disk.
The format utility searches your system for every single attached disk drives and reports the following information about the disk drives it finds:
In addition, the format utility is used in disk repair operations to achieve the following:
The installation program partitions and labels disk drives as share of installing the Oracle Solaris release. However, you might exigency to employ the format utility when doing the following:
The following instance uses the format utility to create disk slices on a disk.
The system responds with the following:Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c0t0d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@0,0 1. c0t1d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@1,0
Specify the disk (enter its number).
The system responds with the format main menu:FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk type - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - picture the current disk format - format and anatomize the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk anatomize - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and parade labels rescue - rescue modern disk/partition definitions inquiry - demonstrate vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
Table 4-4 describes the format main menu items.Table 4-4 Format Main Menu detail Descriptions
Lists every single of the system’s drives. likewise lets you pick the disk you want to employ in subsequent operations. This disk is referred to as the current disk.
Identifies the manufacturer and model of the current disk. likewise displays a list of known drive types. pick the Auto configure option for every single SCSI-2 disk drives.
Creates and modifies slices.
Describes the current disk (that is, device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and physical device name).
Formats the current disk using one of these sources of information in this order:
Information that is organize in the format.dat file.
Information from the automatic configuration process.
Information that you type at the prompt if no format.dat entry exists.
This command does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks are preformatted by the manufacturer.
x86 platform only: Runs the fdisk program to create an Oracle Solaris fdisk partition.
Used to repair a specific shroud on the current disk.
Writes a modern label to the current disk. This is not the selfsame as labeling the disk with volname.
Runs read, write, and compare tests.
Retrieves and displays defect lists. This feature does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks manage defects automatically.
Searches for backup labels if the VTOC becomes corrupted or gets deleted.
Displays information about the current disk such as device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and partition table.
Saves modern disk and partition information.
SCSI disks only: Displays the vendor, product name, and revision plane of the current drive. This will likewise parade the disk’s current firmware.
Labels the disk with a modern eight-character volume name that you specify. This is not the selfsame as writing the partition table to disk using label.
Exits the format menu. Pressing Ctrl+D will likewise exit the format utility from the main menu or from any submenu.
Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table name - name the current table print - parade the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
Type “print” to parade the current partition map.partition> print<cr>
The system responds with the following:Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 24620 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1418 - 9924 11.72GB (8507/0/0) 24576723 1 var wm 9925 - 13469 4.88GB (3545/0/0) 10241505 2 backup wm 0 - 24619 33.92GB (24620/0/0) 71127180 3 swap wu 0 - 1417 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 4 unassigned wm 13470 - 14887 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 5 unassigned wm 14888 - 16112 1.69GB (1225/0/0) 3539025 6 unassigned wm 16113 - 16821 1000.15MB (709/0/0) 2048301 7 home wm 16822 - 23910 9.77GB (7089/0/0) 20480121
The columns displayed with the partition table are
Tag: This is an optional value that indicates how the slice is being used. The value can exist any of the following names that best fits the duty of the file system you are creating:
unassigned, boot, root, swap, usr, backup, stand, var, home, alternates, reserved, system, BIOS_boot
Flag: Values in this column can be
Size: The slice size specified as
You can employ the name and rescue commands in the partition menu to name and rescue a newly created partition table to a file that can exist referenced by name later, when you want to employ this selfsame partition scheme on another disk. When issuing the name command, you’ll provide a unique name for this partition scheme and then issue the rescue command to rescue the information to the ./format.dat file. Normally this file is located in the /etc directory, so provide the replete pathname for /etc/format.dat to update the master file.
After you partition the disk, you must label it by typing label at the partition prompt:partition> label<cr>
You are asked for confirmation on labeling the disk as follows:Ready to label disk, continue? y<cr>
Enter “Y” to continue.
After labeling the disk, type “quit” to exit the partition menu or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility:partition> quit<cr>
Type “quit” again to exit the format utility:format> quit<cr>
It’s well-known to point out a few undesirable things that can betide when defining disk partitions with the format utility if you’re not careful. First, exist careful not to waste disk space. Wasted disk space can occur when you dwindle the size of one slice and achieve not adjust the starting cylinder number of the adjoining disk slice.
Second, don’t overlap disk slices. Overlapping occurs when one or more cylinders are allocated to more than one disk slice. For example, increasing the size of one slice without decreasing the size of the adjoining slice will create overlapping partitions. The format utility will not warn you of wasted disk space or overlapping partitions.
The main understanding a system administrator uses the format utility is to divide a disk into disk slices. In Oracle Solaris 11 11/11, for a bootable ZFS root pool, the disks in the pool must hold slices and must exist labeled with an SMI label. The simplest configuration would exist to withhold the entire disk capacity in slice 0 and employ that slice for the root pool. Bootable ZFS root pools are discussed further in Chapter 5.
I’ll picture how to employ the SMI label for SPARC-based systems. For example, on a SPARC-based system with a 72GB disk, you would exigency to hold 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. Similarly, on an x86-based system with a 72GB disk, you would likewise exigency to allow 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. A small amount of boot information is contained in slice 8. Slice 8 requires no administration and cannot exist changed.
Follow these steps to partition a disk (c2t0d0) to exist used as a ZFS boot disk (bootable ZFS root pool) on a SPARC-based system. If the disk has an EFI label, and the firmware has not been upgraded, you must first transmute it to an SMI label.
Use the prtvtoc command to verify the disk label as follows:# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>
The system displaysPart Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1 - 14086 68.35GB (14086/0/0) 143339136 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
Notice that slice 2 is labeled “backup” and the slices are numbered 0-7. This is an SMI label.
The following shows the output that is displayed for a disk with an EFI label:Part Tag Flag First Sector Size eventual Sector 0 usr wm 34 68.36GB 143358320 1 unassigned wm 0 0 0 2 unassigned wm 0 0 0 3 unassigned wm 0 0 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 0 8 reserved wm 143358321 8.00MB 143374704
Notice there is a slice 8 and slice 2 is NOT labeled “backup.” This is an EFI label and would exigency to exist changed. employ the following steps to change the label from an EFI label to an SMI label:
As root, employ the format -e command and select the disk to label as follows:# format –e<cr>
The system displays a list of disks. In the example, I selected disk 1 (c2t1d0):Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr> selecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
The main menu is displayed. Type “label” to label the disk:FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk type - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - picture the current disk format - format and anatomize the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk anatomize - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and parade labels inquiry - demonstrate disk ID scsi - independent SCSI mode selects cache - enable, disable or query SCSI disk cache volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit format> label<cr>
Select option 1 to label the disk with an SMI label and press Enter when prompted for autoconfiguration: SMI Label  EFI Label Specify Label type: 0<cr> Auto configuration via format.dat[no]?<cr> Auto configuration via generic SCSI-2[no]?<cr> format>
Exit the format utility.format> quit<cr>
To slice the disk so that it can exist used as a ZFS boot disk, result these steps:
As root, enter the format utility:# format<cr> Searching for disks ... done
Select the disk that is going to exist sliced. In the example, I will select disk 1 (c2t1d0):AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr>
The system responds withselecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table name - name the current table print - parade the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
Type “print” to parade the current partition map.partition> print<cr>
The system responds with the following:partition> print<cr> Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 25 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 1 swap wu 26 - 51 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 52 - 14086 68.10GB (14035/0/0) 142820160 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>
Enter “modify” to change the partition table:partition> modify<cr>
Select option 1 for “All Free Hog” when prompted:Select partitioning base: 0. Current partition table (original) 1. every single Free Hog Choose groundwork (enter number) ? 1<cr> Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
Type “yes” when asked whether to continue:Do you wish to continue creating a modern partition table based on above table[yes]? yes<cr>
Type “0” for the Free Hog partition:Free Hog partition? 0<cr>
The system will prompt you to enter a size for each partition. Press Enter when prompted as follows, and each slice will exist 0MB:Enter size of partition '1' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '3' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '4' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '5' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '6' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '7' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr>
Because every single of the slices hold been set to “0,” the free hog space is the entire disk. This space will exist allocated to slice 0 as specified in step 6.
When prompted to create this the current partition table, press Enter to employ the default value “yes”:Okay to create this the current partition table[yes]?<cr>
When prompted for a table name, enter “rootdisk.” This name is not significant and can exist any name.Enter table name (remember quotes): rootdisk<cr>
Enter “pr” to parade the modern partition table:partition> pr<cr> Current partition table (unnamed): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>
Notice that slice 0 is the entire disk.
Enter “quit” or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility.partition> quit<cr>
As described earlier in this chapter, Oracle Solaris on the x86 platform treats disk drives slightly differently than on the SPARC-based systems. Disks on the x86 platform must hold an fdisk partition table. The x86-based systems employ the fdisk partition table to identify parts of the disk reserved for different OSs and to identify the partition that the system will boot from. This boot partition is referred to as the “active disk” partition. You can assign one fdisk partition on a disk to exist used for Oracle Solaris.
On an x86-based system, once a disk drive has been physically installed and verified as working, you’ll employ the format command to slice the disk, but first an fdisk partition must exist created on the modern drive. You can create this fdisk partition using the fdisk command from the command line or through the format utility. The following steps picture how to create a fixed disk partition table on a disk using the format utility:
As root, type “format” to accept into the format utility.# format<cr>
The following menu appears:AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c1t0d0 <FUJITSU-M1606S-512-6234 cyl 3455 alt 2 hd 6 sec 102> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@0,0 1. c1t1d0 <IBM-DFHSS1W!e-4141 cyl 4071 alt 2 hd 4 sec 135> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@1,0 2. c1t2d0 <DEFAULT cyl 2928 alt 2 hd 6 sec 120> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@2,0 Specify disk (enter its number):
Enter the number corresponding to the modern drive and the following menu will exist displayed:FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk type - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - picture the current disk format - format and anatomize the disk fdisk - hasten the fdisk program repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk anatomize - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and parade labels rescue - rescue modern disk/partition definitions inquiry - demonstrate vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name5 quit format>
Select the fdisk option and the following menu appears:The recommended default partitioning for your disk is: a 100% "SOLARIS System" partition. To select this, tickle type "y". To partition your disk differently, type "n" and the "fdisk" program will let you select other partitions.
If you wish to employ the entire drive for Oracle Solaris, enter “Y.” This will revert you to the format menu. If “N” is entered, the fdisk menu will exist displayed.Total disk size is 4073 cylinders Cylinder size is 540 (512 byte) blocks Cylinders Partition Status Type Start stop Length ========= ====== ======== ===== === ====== === THERE ARE NO PARTITIONS CURRENTLY DEFINED SELECT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: 1. Create a partition 2. Change dynamic (Boot from) partition 3. Delete a partition 4. Exit (Update disk configuration and exit) 5. Cancel (Exit without updating disk configuration) Enter Selection:
Disks on x86-based systems can exist divided into 10 slices labeled slice 0 through slice 9. On Oracle Solaris 11/11, slices 0 through 7 are used for the selfsame purposes as disk slices organize on SPARC-based systems. Slice 2 represents every single of the space within the fdisk partition. As stated earlier, slices 8 and 9 are used for purposes specific to x86-based hardware. You cannot modify slices 8 and 9 using the format utility. birth with Oracle Solaris 11.1, the boot disk on an x86-based system can hold an EFI label, and the partition scheme is slightly different than the SPARC system. Slice 0 is reserved for the BIOS_boot information. I’ll picture this more in the next chapter.
Here’s an instance of the partition table on an IDE or SATA disk on an x86-based system running Oracle Solaris 11/11, as displayed by the format utility:Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 alternates wm 1 - 2 15.69MB (2/0/0) 32130
In the previous example, notice that slice 9 is defined and tagged as the alternates slice.
The next instance shows the partition table for a SCSI disk attached to an x86-based system. Notice that partition 8 is assigned, but slice 9 is not used:Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
One more detail of note: On standard UFSs, don’t change the size of disk slices that are currently in use. When a disk with existing slices is repartitioned and relabeled, any existing data will exist lost. Before repartitioning a disk, first copy every single of the data to tape or to another disk.
You can likewise create the fixed disk partition table on an x86-based system disk from the command line using a single command as follows:# fdisk –B c1t0d0<cr>
The –B option creates a single fixed disk partition that spans the entire disk. The following 36GB disk was formatted using the fdisk –B command:Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 4695 35.97GB (4696/0/0) 75441240 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
The fdisk –B command can likewise exist used to transmute a disk label from an EFI to SMI.
To verify that a disk contains a fixed disk partition table, issue the following command:
# fdisk -v -W - /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p<cr>
The system displays the fdisk table for disk c3t0d0:* /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p0 default fdisk table * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 63 sectors/track * 255 tracks/cylinder * 2088 cylinders * * systid: * 1: DOSOS12 * 2: PCIXOS * 4: DOSOS16 * 5: EXTDOS * 6: DOSBIG * 7: FDISK_IFS * 8: FDISK_AIXBOOT * 9: FDISK_AIXDATA * 10: FDISK_0S2BOOT * 11: FDISK_WINDOWS * 12: FDISK_EXT_WIN * 14: FDISK_FAT95 * 15: FDISK_EXTLBA * 18: DIAGPART * 65: FDISK_LINUX * 82: FDISK_CPM * 86: DOSDATA * 98: OTHEROS * 99: UNIXOS * 100: FDISK_NOVELL2 * 101: FDISK_NOVELL3 * 119: FDISK_QNX4 * 120: FDISK_QNX42 * 121: FDISK_QNX43 * 130: SUNIXOS * 131: FDISK_LINUXNAT * 134: FDISK_NTFSVOL1 * 135: FDISK_NTFSVOL2 * 165: FDISK_BSD * 167: FDISK_NEXTSTEP * 183: FDISK_BSDIFS * 184: FDISK_BSDISWAP * 190: X86BOOT * 191: SUNIXOS2 * 238: EFI_PMBR * 239: EFI_FS * Id Act Bhead Bsect Bcyl Ehead Esect Ecyl Rsect Numsect 191 128 0 1 1 254 63 1023 16065 33527655 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
When there are multiple disks of the selfsame type (manufacturer, model, size, and geometry) to exist sliced, you can rescue time by copying the label from a source disk over to a target disk without going through every single of the steps using the format utility. employ the prtvtoc command to accept the partition table from the source disk (c0t0d0) and write the table to the target disk (c0t1d0) using the fmthard command as follows:# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 | fmthard –s - /dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2<cr>
Richard N. Gardner, who helped mold U.S. alien policy and generations of policymakers as a Columbia Law School professor for nearly six decades and as a U.S. ambassador to Italy and Spain, died Feb. 16 at his home in modern York City. He was 91.
The occasions was congestive heart failure, said his daughter, Nina Gardner.
Gardner spent more than half a century stirring between academia and government, training the legal and economic expertise that he gained as a Yale law student and Rhodes scholar on some of the most pressing global concerns of the icy War and its aftermath.
At Columbia, he was best known for his seminar "Legal Aspects of U.S. alien Economic Policy," which he taught from 1955 until his retirement in 2012. Enrollment was famously competitive, and Gardner invited those admitted to complete notecards with their contact information and career aspirations.
He called upon those notecards years later to recommend his former students for influential posts in government and beyond, pile what the Chronicle of Higher Education once described as "a global network of lawyers, diplomats, trade leaders and policy makers."
Gardner held a series of his own influential government posts birth in the 1960s, when he served under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson as deputy aide secretary of state for international organization affairs. He later served as ambassador to Italy from 1977 to 1981, under President Jimmy Carter, and as ambassador to Spain from 1993 to 1997, under President Bill Clinton.
He was a forceful proponent of international institutions including the United Nations and their role in addressing such problems as environmental degradation - an zone where he was credited with sounding a prescient alarm.
"We are finally birth to recognize that how a nation deals with its national environment is no longer its own and nobody else's business," he wrote in a modern York Times commentary in 1970. "We are birth to comprehend the unity of the world's ecological system, which means that every single nations may exist affected by how any one of them treats its air, water and land."
He faced perhaps his most challenging government assignment as ambassador to Italy, at a time when the Communist Party seemed ascendant and when the country was in the throes of the violence sponsored by the leftist Red Brigades.
In the past, the United States had sought to influence Italian elections through CIA activity, according to journalist Tim Weiner's bespeak "Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA." Gardner said that as ambassador he vowed to deference Carter's inaugural engage that "we will not behave in alien places so as to violate their rules and standards here at home."
"I took that very seriously," Gardner recalled in remarks before the Council on alien Relations in 2005. "I said, they are going to combat the communists, but using public diplomacy. . . . There are going to exist no nasty tricks."
He invited to the U.S. Embassy Italian cultural figures including filmmaker Federico Fellini and writers Leonardo Sciascia and Alberto Moravia, who he said had been previously omitted from official guest lists because of their leftists politics. The Times described him as the "first American ambassador to Italy to create formal approaches to the Communist Party."
Writing in the Times in 1983, he recalled engaging in "much table pounding in Washington" to obtain funds to train Italian teachers of English and English-speaking teachers of Italian.
He likewise sought to expand the number of American texts available to Italian readers, noting ruefully that when he requested an Italian translation of the Federalist Papers, he scholarly they had been out of print in Italian for years. The works of Marx , Lenin and Stalin, however, were widely available.
He was credited with helping convince Italy to become the first European country to accept U.S. cruise missiles on its land, an well-known achievement at the time. But "we look to hold forgotten the obvious truth that you don't defend national security with arms alone," he wrote in the Times commentary. "The Soviet SS-20 missile is a threat to European security, but just as much a threat is the tedious and steady erosion of common values and interests that is the foundation of the Atlantic alliance."
Richard Newton Gardner was born in modern York City on July 9, 1927. His father was a lawyer, and his mother was a homemaker.
After stateside Army service during World War II, Gardner received a bachelor's degree in economics from Harvard University in 1948. He was a 1951 graduate of Yale Law School and received a PhD in economics from the University of Oxford in 1954.
His books included "Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy: The Origins and the Prospects of Their International Economic Order" (1956), "In Pursuit of World Order: U.S. alien Policy and International Organizations" (1964), and a memoir, "Mission Italy: On the Front Lines of the icy War" (2005).
Gardner advised two Democratic presidential candidates, Clinton in 1992 and Al Gore in 1998, on alien policy during their White House campaigns. As ambassador to Spain during the Clinton administration, he sought to defend intellectual property rights for U.S. software makers and to boost sales of U.S. helicopters.
His wife of 51 years, the former Danielle Luzzatto, died in 2008. Survivors include two children, Nina Gardner of Washington and Anthony Gardner, who served under President Barack Obama as U.S. ambassador to the European Union, of London; and three grandchildren.
His wife, whose family, dote Gardner's, was of Jewish heritage, was born in Italy and fled to the United States after the promulgation of the 1938 anti-Semitic racial laws under fascist dictator Benito Mussolini.
Gardner credited her as a co-ambassador, especially during their time in Italy. She once came home from the hairdresser and reported that she had heard from the mistress of "Minister X" that the minister was going to resign - "and it was an well-known minister," Gardner joked before the Council on alien Relations.
He informed his colleagues in the CIA, who did not believe the report, until the minister stepped down that Friday. The following Monday, his colleagues demanded to know where he had gotten his tip. "I took much joy," he recalled, "in saying to the CIA, 'I never disclose sources.' "
By Emily A. BenferFebruary 11
Emily A. Benfer is the director of the Health Justice Advocacy Clinic and a professor at Columbia Law School.
The modern York City Housing Authority, responsible for 176,000 apartments in 2,418 buildings, is by far the biggest public-housing system in the country. Beset by lead-paint hazards, mold, heating failures and habitual mismanagement, NYCHA buildings are likewise a danger to the authority’s 400,000 residents — the population of a mid-size American city.
On Jan. 31, modern York narrowly avoided a complete federal takeover of NYCHA by agreeing to spend $2.2 billion on a decade-long exertion to repair NYCHA’s decrepit buildings and by ceding much management responsibility to a powerful federal monitor. Housing and Urban progress Secretary Ben Carson and Mayor Bill de Blasio (D) announced the agreement at HUD’s Lower Manhattan offices on the deadline date set by a federal arbiter who eventual descend had rejected an earlier agreement as inadequate.
The modern agreement is likewise inadequate. That was made limpid Monday with news that interim NYCHA chairman Stanley Brezenoff refused to sign the agreement. The deal unfairly places “all of the pecuniary burden” on the city and not on the federal government, where it belongs, he told the modern York Times. The city had announced eventual week that he was being replaced.
Last summer, NYCHA estimated that $32 billion would exist needed over five years to fix its buildings, which are on tolerable more than 60 years old, according to the modern York Times. The city could never afford to spend that much on these essential repairs. Federal funding will exist required if the public-health exigency is going to exist effectively addressed and HUD is going to fulfill its duty to provide safe and decent housing. HUD provides $2 billion of NYCHA’s $3.2 billion annual operating budget.
The conditions of public housing in modern York City are deplorable. More than 59 percent of NYCHA residents surveyed reported mold in their units, and 52 percent reported leaking roofs, windows or plumbing. More than 800 children under age 6 and vital in NYCHA housing tested positive for towering levels of lead between 2012 and 2016. The housing authority had ignored lead-paint safety regulations for years.
The alarming deterioration of modern York’s public housing occurred in tandem with steady federal funding cuts to public housing nationwide, reductions that picked up speed under the Trump administration. According to the Wall Street Journal, the administration made an initial slit of at least $35 million for 2017 as share of an expected $150 million total.
When billions are needed but millions are being cut, the authorization of a federal monitor is the equivalent of nailing a 2-by-4 to a collapsing building.
NYCHA’s neglect has had staggering consequences for children’s health. Lead poisoning can result in reduced IQ, developmental delays, academic failure, juvenile delinquency, behavioral problems, biological and neurological damage and premature death. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention makes it clear: “There is no known safe plane of lead.” A modern York state report eventual year organize that 80 percent of NYCHA buildings, where mold is rife, had conditions that could contribute to asthma in children. As the CDC notes, asthma is a leading occasions of school absences and reduced daily activities; in 2008 alone, asthma caused 14.2 million missed days of work and 10.5 million missed days of school nationwide, affecting children from low-income families at the highest rates.
Yet NYCHA does not hold the funds necessary to address the more than 245,000 open work orders for repairs, let solitary employ enough lead-hazard risk investigators or mold remediation specialists to address these problems.
Shockingly, the modern NYCHA agreement with HUD provides no supplemental federal funding for mold and lead-hazard inspection and remediation. Instead, the agreement mandates the employ of “visual assessments” for lead hazards. As The Post reported in a tragic 2017 record about lead hazards in D.C. public housing, one of the “key weaknesses of federal guidelines” mandated by HUD and followed by the District is that inspectors reckon on visual inspections for peeling paint and deteriorating conditions “instead of specifically testing for lead or asthma-inducing mold.” In effect, children in federally assisted housing must develop lead poisoning before meaningful inspections occur.
HUD’s lack of oversight, compliance review and long-term planning is a problem that reaches far beyond NYCHA. June 2018 reports from HUD’s Inspector general and the Government Accountability Office on the conditions of federally assisted housing organize wide margins for fraudulent reporting. For example, the East Chicago Housing Authority in Indiana was allowed to falsely self-certify compliance as generations of families were exposed to lead and arsenic while residing in public housing on a Superfund site.
HUD’s perfunctory approach to its responsibilities, combined with inadequate federal funding, has resulted in squalid environments that threaten the health and livelihoods of public-housing residents. By disinvesting in housing for low-income families, Congress and HUD are thwarting progress, perpetuating racial segregation and increasing the cycle of poverty for future generations. The federal government has an responsibility to protect those who qualify for federal assistance. If generations of children are going to thrive, they first must live in homes and communities that government neglect and indifference haven’t made unsafe to their health.
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