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1Z0-481 exam Dumps Source : Oracle GoldenGate 11g Certified Implementation Essentials

Test Code : 1Z0-481
Test denomination : Oracle GoldenGate 11g Certified Implementation Essentials
Vendor denomination : Oracle
: 79 actual Questions

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Oracle Oracle GoldenGate 11g Certified

the way to Fail Over and Reinstate Oracle Database on Oracle Cloud | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

by Joel Pérez and Skant Gupta

in this article, they will array you how to fail over and reinstate Oracle Database in the cloud.

note: to beget consume of the system presented listed here, you want two Oracle Cloud database instances. also, the procedure offered turned into carried out on Oracle Database 11g; youngsters, the system may still work on later releases equivalent to Oracle Database 12c free up 1 and release 2.

Create the fundamental Database example
  • Log in to your Oracle Cloud capabilities account. Then fade to the Oracle Database Cloud provider web page and create a brand fresh carrier:

    - For service denomination enter fundamental.- From the carrier even checklist, opt for Oracle Database Cloud carrier.- From the Metering Frequency record, select anything frequency is arrogate to your ambiance.- From the utility free up record, opt for Oracle Database 11g liberate 2.- From the application version list, opt for commercial enterprise edition.- From the Database class checklist, select Single instance.

    Then click on next to proceed.

    Figure 1 Creating a fresh service

    figure 1. creating a fresh provider

  • in the provider details monitor, finish here:

    - For DB denomination (SID), enter ORCL.- Set an administrative password of your choice and authenticate the password (this could be your sys password).- For Usable Database Storage (GB), enter 25.- From the Compute shape listing, opt for OC3 -1 OCPU, 7.5GB RAM (here's the naked minimum required).- For SSH Public Key, enter rsa-key-20170111.pub.

    Then click next to continue.

    Figure 2 Specifying the service details

    determine 2. Specifying the provider particulars

  • finally, evaluation the configuration and click on Create to create your fundamental cloud database.

    Figure 3 Creating primary cloud db instance

    figure three. developing the primary cloud database instance

    After a yoke of minutes, the primary cloud database sample has been created effectively.

    Figure 4 Primary database created

    figure four. The simple database has been created

  • click the service denomination (primary) to open the main web page of the database.

    Figure 5 Main page of primary database

    figure 5. leading web page of the basic database

  • before making an attempt to hook up with the primary database sample on the cloud desktop, you need to allow the dblistener access rule. finish right here:

    a. Open the database provider and select access guidelines from the menu.

    Figure 6 Selecting the Access Rules item

    figure 6. identifying the entry suggestions item

      b. For the ora_p2_dblistener rule, opt for enable from the actions menu.

    Figure 7 Enabling the ora_p2_dblistener

    determine 7. Enabling the ora_p2_dblistener rule

  • Create the Standby Database example
  • Log in to your Oracle Cloud services account. Then fade to the Oracle Database Cloud carrier page and create a fresh service:

    - For service identify enter Standby.- From the carrier degree checklist, select Oracle Database Cloud service.- From the Metering Frequency record, opt for whatever frequency is applicable for your atmosphere.- From the utility release record, opt for Oracle Database 11g unlock 2.- From the application version record, select enterprise edition.- From the Database type record, opt for Single example.

    Then click on subsequent to proceed.

    Figure 8 Creating another fresh service

    figure eight. creating one other fresh provider

  • within the carrier particulars screen, finish the following:

    - For DB identify (SID), enter ORCL.- Set an administrative password of your option and ensure the password (this can be your sys password).- For Usable Database Storage (GB), enter 25.- From the Compute shape checklist, opt for OC3 -1 OCPU, 7.5GB RAM (here's the bare minimal required).- For SSH Public Key, enter rsa-key-20170111.pub.

    click on subsequent to continue.

    observe: This dummy database may be dropped later.

    Figure 9 Specifying service details

    figure 9. Specifying the carrier particulars

  • at last, assess the configuration and click Create to create your standby cloud database.

    Figure 10 Creating standby DB instance

    determine 10. creating the standby cloud database instance

    After a few minutes, the standby cloud database instance has been created successfully.

    Figure 11 standby database created

    figure eleven. The standby database has been created

  • click on the service denomination (Standby) to open the leading web page of the database.

    Figure 12 Main page standby DB

    figure 12. leading web page of the standby database

  • earlier than attempting to connect to the standby illustration on the cloud laptop, you fill to allow the dblistener access rule. finish right here:

    a. Open the database carrier and select entry suggestions from the menu.

    Figure 13 Selecting the Access Rules

    figure 13. identifying the access rules item

    b. For the ora_p2_dblistener rule, select permit from the actions menu.

    Figure 14 Enabling the ora_p2_dblistener

    determine 14. Enabling the ora_p2_dblistener rule

  • Open two several circumstances of the PuTTY executable and connect to both the machines using SSH.

    Figure 15 Connecting to both machines using PuTTY

    figure 15. Connecting to both machines the usage of PuTTY

    note: In the following figures, the fundamental sample is shown with a black inheritance and the standby instance is proven with a yellow background.

  • investigate the host identify and the pmon system on every server.

    Figure 16 Checking the host names

    determine sixteen. Checking the host names and pmon methods

  • Drop the default standby database.

    Figure 17 Dropping the standby database

    determine 17. dropping the standby database

    within the next steps, you will re-create the standby database manually

  • Configure the static registration of the standby illustration in the listener.ora file.

    also, since you'll deserve to configure the facts guard broking service in an upcoming step, add a static entry for its command-line interface (DGMGRL) within the listener.ora file on both the simple and standby servers. (The facts safeguard broker is a disbursed administration framework offered by way of Oracle Database, business version.)

    SID_LIST_LISTENER = (SID_LIST = (SID_DESC = (GLOBAL_DBNAME = STBY_DGMGRL) (ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/eleven.2.0/dbhome_1) (SID_NAME = STBY) ) (SID_LIST = (SID_DESC = (GLOBAL_DBNAME = STBY) (ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/eleven.2.0/dbhome_1) (SID_NAME = STBY) ) ) LISTENER = (DESCRIPTION_LIST = (DESCRIPTION = (address = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = Standby.compute-aeetisalat78358.oraclecloud.internal)(PORT = 1521)) (tackle = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = EXTPROC1521)) ) )

    Figure 18 Configuring the listener

    determine 18. Configuring the listener.ora files

  • Now, restart the listener.

    Figure 19 Restarting the listener

    determine 19. Restarting the listener

  • Configure the tnsnames.ora information with the generic public IP addresses of the fundamental and standby servers. as soon as the addresses are configured, they can furthermore be viewed on the console.

    Figure 20 Verifying the configuration

    figure 20. Verifying the configuration of the tnsnames.ora data

  • make unavoidable the tnsping command works on both sides.

    Figure 21 Running the tnsping command

    figure 21. operating the tnsping command

  • Create the pfile and password file on the standby laptop. also, create the requisite directories for the standby database.

    Figure 22 Creating directories

    determine 22. creating directories on the standby computing device

  • On the basic computer, set up right here parameters for developing the standby database: ALTER gadget SET LOG_ARCHIVE_CONFIG = 'DG_CONFIG=(ORCL,STBY)'SCOPE=both; ALTER system SET LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1='area=/u01/app/oracle/archive VALID_FOR=(ONLINE_LOGFILES, ALL_ROLES)DB_UNIQUE_NAME=ORCL'; ALTER device SET LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_2='service=STBY LGWR ASYNC affirm VALID_FOR=(ONLINE_LOGFILES, PRIMARY_ROLE) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=STBY'; ALTER gadget SET FAL_SERVER =STBY SCOPE=both; ALTER tackle SET STANDBY_FILE_MANAGEMENT = AUTO SCOPE = both; ALTER DATABASE drive LOGGING;
  • start the standby database the usage of the nomount option with the pfile clause. Then from the fundamental computer, consume the Oracle recovery supervisor (Oracle RMAN) rman target command to assess each connections.

    Figure 23 Starting the standby database

    figure 23. beginning the standby database and checking the connections

  • From the primary machine, consume the Oracle RMAN replica command to configure the standby database illustration. duplicate goal DATABASE FOR STANDBY FROM energetic DATABASEDORECOVER SPFILE set control_files='/u02/app/oracle/oradata/STBY/control01.ctl','/u03/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/STBY/control02.ctl' SET db_unique_name='STBY' remark 'Is standby' SET LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_2='carrier=ORCLASYNC VALID_FOR=(ONLINE_LOGFILES,PRIMARY_ROLE)DB_UNIQUE_NAME=ORCL' SET FAL_SERVER='ORCL' remark 'Is fundamental' set db_recovery_file_dest='/u01/app/' set db_file_name_convert='/ORCL/','/STBY/' set log_file_name_convert='/ORCL/','/STBY/' NOFILENAMECHECK;

    After a while, the standby database is created and running within the hooked up state.

    Figure 24 Standby database running

    figure 24. Standby database operating within the set up state

  • Now, open the standby database in examine-simplest mode and initiate the recuperation. furthermore verify that the physical database is practical.

    On the basic:

    create desk check as opt for * from dict;

    On the standby:

    alter database open; ALTER tackle SET LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1='location=/u01/app/oracle/archive VALID_FOR=(ALL_LOGFILES,ALL_ROLES) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=STBY'; ALTER tackle SET LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_2= 'carrier=ORCL LGWR ASYNC verify VALID_FOR=(ONLINE_LOGFILES, PRIMARY_ROLE) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=ORCL' scope=each; get well managed standby database the usage of present logfile disconnect;

    Figure 25 Opening the standby database

    figure 25. Opening the standby database and beginning the recuperation

  • Manually Fail Over to the Standby Database devoid of Flashback technology Enabled

    Failover is the technique of activating the standby database in case the production (primary) database is deformed with a view to minimize the risk of facts loss. It isn't reversible. When the failover system is enabled, the standby database is switched to function because the fundamental database and you would need to re-create the standby database.

    In a worst-case circumstance when the facts preserve basic database is not obtainable for construction, which you can prompt the standby database to be the simple production database via performing the following steps.

  • From the secondary database, rush right here SQL statements: get better managed standby database cancel; recuperate managed standby database conclude; alter database activate standby database; startup force

    Figure 26 Activating the standby database

    figure 26. Activating the standby database

  • because they finish not need flashback expertise enabled on each side, manually re-create the historic simple database as the physical standby database from the scratch.

    Figure 27 Re-creating musty primary database

    determine 27. Manually re-developing the historical basic database

  • start the musty simple database within the "nomount" state. Then reinstate it by running the Oracle RMAN replica command from the secondary machine: duplicate target database for standby from lively database nofilenamecheck;

    Figure 28 Starting musty primary database

    determine 28. beginning the historical simple database and reinstating it

    After a while, the historical fundamental database is re-created because the standby database and it is working within the established state.

    Figure 29 primary database mounted state

    determine 29. historical simple database running within the mounted state

  • Now, open the standby database in study-only mode and start the recuperation. additionally assess that the actual database is practical.

    On the simple:

    SQL> alter database open read only; SQL> recuperate managed standby database using current logfile disconnect; SQL> select matter number(*) from verify; count(*) ---------- 0 SQL> opt for name,db_unique_name,database_role,open_mode from v$database; name DB_UNIQUE_NAME DATABASE_ROLE OPEN_MODE --------- ------------------------------ ---------------- -------------------- ORCL ORCL actual STANDBY examine best WITH practice

    On the standby:

    SQL> select matter number(*) from verify; count(*) ---------- 2666 SQL> delete from examine; 2666 rows deleted. SQL> commit; Commit complete. SQL> select count(*) from test; count(*) ---------- 0

    Figure 30 Opening the standby database

    determine 30. Opening the standby database and beginning the restoration

  •   Use Flashback expertise to Reinstate a Standby Database After a Failover with the facts acquire trust of broking service

    Hardware crashes fill develop into very middling at the present time. this is why creating a catastrophe recuperation (DR) configuration for data protect is awfully advantageous for each database, regardless of its dimension. however the measurement of the database defines the tool a DBA can consume to re-create the fundamental database and deploy the DR configuration.

    If database is sort of small, doing an facile "cold copy" the usage of the Oracle RMAN replica command is respectable sufficient. despite the fact, within the case of great records warehouses or information marts, doing that takes too lengthy. hence, it is recommended to reinstate standby databases by using the Oracle Flashback Database capacity of Oracle Database.

  • On the basic computer, mount the database, configure flashback retention, delivery the Oracle Flashback Database ability, and open the database by using running the following statements: SHUTDOWN immediate; STARTUP MOUNT; ALTER device SET DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE=2g scope=both; ALTER tackle SET DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST='/u01/app/' scope=each; ALTER device SET DB_FLASHBACK_RETENTION_TARGET=240; ALTER DATABASE FLASHBACK ON; ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
  • On the standby laptop, cancel the recuperation, mount the database, configure flashback retention, start the Oracle Flashback Database capability, open the database in study-handiest mode, and initiate the recuperation process by way of running right here statements: ALTER DATABASE entrap well MANAGED STANDBY DATABASE CANCEL; STARTUP drive MOUNT; alter system set DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE=2g scope=each; alter system set db_recovery_file_dest='/u01/app/' scope=each; ALTER system SET DB_FLASHBACK_RETENTION_TARGET=240; ALTER gadget FLASHBACK ON; ALTER DATABASE OPEN read best; recover managed standby database using current logfile disconnect from session;

    Figure 31 Results of starting flashback

    determine 31. effects of starting the flashback know-how on both machines

    next, they will configure the information acquire trust of broking service.

    listed below are the primary and standby database server details:

    basic server: primary.compute-aeetisalat78358.oraclecloud.internalDatabase: ORCL

    Standby server: StandBy-1.compute-aeetisalat78358.oraclecloud.internalDatabase: STBY1 

  • On both the fundamental and the standby database server, birth the records defend broking service procedure:

    a. enable the broking service technique by using atmosphere the expense of the parameter DG_BROKER_START to actual.

    ALTER tackle SET DG_BROKER_START=genuine SCOPE=both;

    b. beget sure that the listener.ora file on each servers has a static entry for the DGMGRL command-line interface. (This changed into delivered previous in step 9.)

    c. On the primary server, create the facts examine after broker configuration through operating the statements:

    DGMGRL> CREATE CONFIGURATION 'Cloud DG' as primary DATABASE IS'ORCL' attachIDENTIFIER IS 'ORCL'; Configuration "CloudDG" created with primary database "ORCL" DGMGRL> expose CONFIGURATION Configuration - CloudDG coverage Mode :MaxPerformance contributors: ORCL - basic database quick-delivery Failover:DISABLED Configuration reputation: DISABLED

    d. Add the standby database to the configuration via operating here statements:

    DGMGRL> ADD DATABASE 'STBY' as connect IDENTIFIER IS 'STBY'; Database "STBY" added DGMGRL> demonstrate CONFIGURATION Configuration - CloudDG protection Mode :MaxPerformance Databases: ORCL - basic database STBY - actual standby database quick-delivery Failover:DISABLED Configuration fame: DISABLED

      e. permit the configuration with the aid of running here statements:

    DGMGRL> enable CONFIGURATION Enabled. DGMGRL> exhibit CONFIGURATION Configuration - CloudDG insurance policy Mode: MaxPerformance Databases: ORCL - fundamental database STBY - actual standby database speedy-start Failover: DISABLED Configuration reputation: SUCCESS

    Figure 32 Results of enabling broker

    figure 32. outcomes of enabling the broking service

  • Now, to proceed this simulation, crash the basic database.

    Figure 33 State of the primary database

    determine 33. State of the primary database after is it crashed

  • Now, achieve a failover to the standby server with the aid of working the following command: DGMGRL> failover to 'STBY' Performing failover NOW, tickle wait… Failover succeeded, fresh primary is "STBY"

    Figure 34 Performing a failover

    determine 34. Performing a failover

    be aware: Now the standby database becomes the fundamental database.

  • Reinstate the database.

    because we've Oracle Flashback Database already configured, which you could consume here command to reinstate database without restoring the backup:

    DGMGRL> reinstate database 'ORCL';

    Figure 35 Reinstating the database

    determine 35. Reinstating the database

    Failing which they might were required to configure flashback database as a way to reinstate the database instantly. As device 35 shows, the reinstate assignment failed as a result of flashback isn't configured to reinstate immediately throughout the Reinstate Database <DB name> command.

  • Now they are going to stream lower back to the historic configuration. function a switchover operation, as shown in device 36.

    Figure 36 Performing a switchover operation

    figure 36. Performing a switchover operation

  • Conclusion

    So now you comprehend that it is very convenient to function a failover over the cloud with and devoid of using Oracle Flashback Database.

    We hope this article is profitable and they invite you to proceed studying their subsequent publications focused on Oracle Cloud.

    about the Authors

    Joel Pérez is an authority DBA and Oracle ACE Director and an Oracle certified grasp in Oracle maximum Availability structure, Oracle Database cloud administration, and Oracle Database 11g and12c. He has over 17 years of real-world adventure with Oracle expertise and specializes within the design and implementation of solutions for the cloud, lofty availability (HA), disaster recovery, upgrades, replication, and most areas concerning Oracle Database. at the moment, he works as chief technologist and architect for cloud technologies, Oracle highest Availability architecture, and HA at Yunhe Enmo (Beijing) technology Co., Ltd. in Beijing, China.

    Skant Gupta is an Oracle certified Cloud knowledgeable in Oracle Database 12c, an Oracle certified professional in Oracle precise application Clusters (Oracle RAC) in Oracle Database 11g, and an Oracle certified expert in Oracle Database 10g, 11g, and 12c. He works at Vodafone know-how in the UK and formerly worked as a senior DBA at Etisalat in Dubai. He has six years of adventure with quite a few Oracle technologies, focusing mainly on cloud, database, and lofty availability solutions, Oracle WebLogic Suite, and Oracle GoldenGate. He has introduced at a few Oracle consumer agencies global, most these days in the US, the United Arab Emirates, and India.

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  • aiding elements

    About OracleOracle engineers hardware and application to work collectively in the cloud and on your data core. For greater tips about Oracle (ORCL), talk over with www.oracle.com.

    TrademarksOracle and Java are registered logos of Oracle and/or its affiliates. other names can be trademarks of their respective owners.


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    1Z0-481 Oracle GoldenGate 11g Certified Implementation Essentials

    Study lead Prepared by Killexams.com Oracle Dumps Experts


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    1Z0-481 exam Dumps Source : Oracle GoldenGate 11g Certified Implementation Essentials

    Test Code : 1Z0-481
    Test denomination : Oracle GoldenGate 11g Certified Implementation Essentials
    Vendor denomination : Oracle
    : 79 actual Questions

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    While many paranoid system administrators and users still reckon any WLAN to be a gaping hole, these networks can be successfully secured against snooping and unauthorized access with a puny thought and effort. Fortunately for us, Linux provides some flexibility when it comes to choosing a wireless safeguard. While it's the ultimate wireless attacker's platform, it's furthermore the optimal system to rely on when deploying a hardened WLAN. This is not surprising if you reckon that network assault and defense are two sides of the very coin.

    This article describes the security issues facing the modern 802.11 networks and the solutions available to mitigate these problems using the Linux platform.

    Main Security Problems The number one wireless security problem in the actual world is the ignorance of the users and system administrators. They fill wardriven for several years in different parts of the world collecting statistics about complete discovered WLANs. Unfortunately, the percent of completely open WLANs (roughly 70% of complete organize networks) still remains the same. It doesn't matter how fine the industry-provided safeguards are; they're entirely useless if not turned on and properly configured, and that's what they survey on every corner of every street they pass by. Some of the open access points they saw were clearly Linux HostAP-based, so Linux users are not spared and can be just as security-ignorant as well. In fact, several types of ignorance beget WLANs an facile prey for attackers on the streets or obnoxious neighbors:
  • Complete lack of information of Layer 1/radio frequency operation. Not knowing how far the signal can spread from the intended coverage zone and how far away a prepared attacker can pick it up and misuse it is probably the main judgement for leaving complete these completely unprotected WLANs around.
  • The lack of understanding about Layer 2 wireless security - there are still people who believe that WEP, closed ESSIDs, and even MAC address filtering are sufficient to stop the attackers artic (no, this is not a joke).
  • System administrators who are clueless about so-called "rogue" wireless devices being installed on their (not obviously wireless) networks by unruly users or even serious crackers using such appliances for out-of-bound backdoor access.
  • While everything mentioned above is related to the low even of user education and network mismanagement, there are unfortunately a few purely technical problems related to 802.11 security. First of all, 802.11 management frames are still not authenticated. The 802.11 "I" task group, assigned with improving wireless security, tried to implement unavoidable 802.11 frames authentication but did not succeed. Thus, any 802.11 WLAN can be easily DoS'ed by flooding it with spoofed deauthentication or deassociation frames. Such floods are more than a mere nuisance since they can be used as an integral fragment of the man-in-the-middle and even social engineering attacks. The only thing you can finish is install wireless IDS that will detect the flood, spot the attacker physically, and scare them away.

    Second, the tackle supporting the recently adopted 802.11i wireless security standard practically implemented by the Wireless Protected Access (WPA) Industry Certification still suffers from vendor interoperability problems, despite WPA version 1 being a fragment of the Wi-Fi Certification now. This presents a serious challenge for multivendor wireless networks, such as public erotic spots relying on users bringing their own cards. Finally, the 802.11i wireless security standard is actually more enjoy a set of standards, and some of these standards fill well-known weaknesses, e.g., lack of mutual authentication in EAP-MD5. Besides, even when the standard design is solid, there are always sinful implementations that nullify the advantages it presents.

    Why and How Crackers Exploit WLANs Knowing your enemy is an absolute requirement of proper network protection, and penetration testing should always be your first line of defense. It's highly suggested that as a system administrator or wireless community guru you spend some time trying to exploit your own WLAN. If you are an IT security professional, it's always fine to participate in ethical wardriving to survey what's really happening on the "wireless front lines" despite many "armchair expert" opinions. This is why they wrote Wi-Foo: The Secrets of Wireless Hacking. Since the final manuscript was submitted, nothing has changed when it comes to wireless attacker motivation and type. People still assault WLANs seeking fully anonymous access (no ISP logs) to conceal their tracks, looking for backdoor out-of-bound access to corporate networks (no egress filtering would embolden and IDS sensors can be circumvented), and free bandwidth. However, a variety of fresh public domain assault tools fill appeared, notably Hotspotter, aircrack, and wep_lab. These and many other tools can be organize at their site (www.wi-foo.com), which probably has the largest categorized collection of wireless security-related open source tools and is updated on a regular basis.

    Hotspotter allows successful man-in-the-middle attacks against unpatched Windows boxes, exploiting a flaw in Windows Profiles. Even the WPA-protected networks are vulnerable.

    Aircrack optimizes cracking WEP, achieving a much higher efficiency than AirSnort, used casually for this task, and implements WEP'ed packets reinjection to accelerate WEP cracking in a way that's similar to OpenBSD Wnet's reinj tool. WEPPlus, a proprietary Proxim's solution to the FMS assault against WEP now replaced by TKIP in WPA-certified Proxim/Orinoco products, is furthermore vulnerable to aircrack's novel statistical attack. Wep_labs is another optimized WEP cracking tool and its latest version, posted to Packetstorm two days before this article was written, has been successfully ported to MS Windows. This puts the final nail into the coffin of WEP. Those still relying on it as the main WLAN defense measure should immediately switch to TKIP or higher-layer defenses. WEP cracking is now as facile as it gets, and even a Netstumbler kiddie with XP Home Edition has a reasonable chance of getting your key.

    However, WPA version 1 is furthermore not without security problems. They fill mentioned the lack of mutual authentication with EAP-MD5, the first EAP type to be employed by 802.1x that is still widely in use, since any 802.1x implementation would most likely support it. Setting up HostAP plus accepting any authentication credentials on a Linux host and forcing the clients to associate with such a rogue AP is extinct easy. Cisco EAP-LEAP is furthermore flawed or, better to say, the MS-CHAP it uses is. The assault against EAP-LEAP (implemented by Asleap-imp) was first unleashed by Joshua Wright at Defcon 11. Since then more tools that consume it, such as THC-Leapcrack, were released. TKIP is vulnerable to offline dictionary attacks, at least in the SOHO preshared key (PSK) mode. A research paper describing these attacks in detail is available at http://wifinetnews.com/archives/002452.html. There is furthermore a lot of hype regarding the consume of the WPA version 1 hash message authentication code (HMAC) implementation as a vector for DoS attacks. However, launching such attacks in practical terms has been far from facile and they fill never encountered them in the actual world. tickle mention to Table 1 for a comparison of various wireless encryption schemes.

    Secure Wireless Networks Design and Deployment Using Linux Despite everything said above, WPAv1 (TKIP+802.1x+MIC hash or TKIP+PSK+MIC hash for SOHO mode) is far more secure than WEP, and WPAv2 (CCMP+802.1x+AES-based hash) is supposed to be even harder to crack than WPAv1. Here we'll recount how to implement these countermeasures to build a secure Linux wireless network that includes both Linux client hosts and Linux-based, custom-built access points. Many commercial access points, for example, those produced by Belkin and Netgear, are built on Linux anyway. They will extensively consume HostAP, open source software that can be downloaded from http://hostap.epitest.fi, for running and securing Linux clients and access points. Another common tool related to securing wireless networks is Xsupplicant (www.open1x.org), which provides Linux client-side support for the 802.1x port-based authentication standard. device 1 shows the 802.1x authentication mechanism. HostAP Jouni Malinen's HostAP is split into four parts: hostap-driver, hostapd, hostap-utils, and wpa-supplicant. The driver fragment is answerable for providing a springy interface to the hardware and firmware functions of your wireless card. HostAP has initially been developed to support Intersil Prism chipset cards, but has now been extended to support other wireless chipsets such as Orinoco (alas, not in an Access Point mode). The hostapd daemon enables us to consume a Prism chipset wireless card in Access Point mode (Master mode) with support for IEEE 802.1x and dynamic WEP rekeying, RADIUS Accounting, RADIUS-based ACLs for IEEE 802.11 authentication, minimal IAPP (IEEE 802.11f), WPAv1, and IEEE 802.11i/RSN/WPAv2. HostAP utilities provide extended capabilities to your wireless interface and embrace diagnostic and debugging utilities, firmware update tools, and various wireless scripting interfaces. The wpa-supplicant allows clients to utilize WLANs that support WPA-PSK (SOHO) and WPA Enterprise authentication methods. hostapd Many people wish to consume their Prism2 cards as a functional and secure access point. This task is very facile to accomplish with hostapd. Download and compile the latest version of hostapd and copy hostapd.conf and hostapd binary to your preferred location. Now you need to edit the hostapd.conf configuration file to specify the exact functionality of your Linux-based AP. The hostapd is very springy and extensive; it allows you to control every aspect and security function of the AP. On multiple occasions we've organize HostAP-based access points to be more stable and controllable than the industry-standard expensive APs. We'll briefly outline how to configure hostapd to support 802.1x, WPA-PSK, and WPA Enterprise even user/device authentication, and rekeying schemes. hostapd and 802.1x Authentication If your tackle is outdated or an implementation of WPA is not feasible for your organization for some bizarre reason, frequent 802.1x-based WEP key rotation is one of the few choices left to secure your WLAN. To support dynamic WEP rekeying using hostapd, you should fill the following configuration options enabled in hostapd.conf:

    ssid=Arhont-xmacaddr_acl=1accept_mac_file=/etc/hostapd.acceptdeny_mac_file=/etc/hostapd.denyieee8021x=1wep_key_len_broadcast=13wep_key_len_unicast=13wep_rekey_period=900own_ip_addr=192.168.111.22nas_identifier=hostap.arhont.comauth_server_addr=192.168.111.101auth_server_port=1812auth_server_shared_secret=Very-Secret_KEYacct_server_addr=192.168.111.101acct_server_port=1813acct_server_shared_secret=Very-Secret_KEY

    Adjust the following settings of your specific network setup: ssid, own_ip_addr, nas_identifier, auth_server_addr, auth_server_shared_ secret, acct_server_addr, and acct_server_shared_secret. The next step is to create /etc/hostapd.accept and /etc/hostapd.deny files, which will fill a list of MAC addresses of wireless cards that are allowed to connect to your AP. Once the configuration files are ready, launch hostapd in the following manner:

    hostapd /etc/hostapd.conf

    where /etc/hostapd.conf is the location of the hostapd configuration file. Don't forget that you'll furthermore need a working RADIUS server. The FreeRADIUS server is an excellent open source solution. You can download it from www.freeradius.org. Check out the freeradius mailing list and FAQ if you fill any difficulties with the RADIUS implementation.

    hostapd and WPA-PSK WPA-PSK is a replacement for static WEP on SOHO environment networks. To achieve WPA authentication using the Pre-Shared Key authentication, enable the following options in the hostapd.conf file:

    ssid=Arhont-Xmacaddr_acl=1accept_mac_file=/etc/hostapd.acceptdeny_mac_file=/etc/hostapd.denyauth_algs=1own_ip_addr=192.168.111.22wpa=1wpa_passphrase=secret-password-blahwpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSKwpa_pairwise=TKIP CCMP

    As with the previous example, adjust the settings to represent your network requirements. Unlike 802.1x and WPA Enterprise authentication means, with WPA-PSK there is no need to specify RADIUS server details. Once the configuration files are ready to be deployed, rush hostapd the very way you would with the 802.1x setup.

    Congratulations, you now fill a working hostapd with WPA-PSK support. However, don't forget to select a very strong PSK, taking into account its vulnerability to bruteforcing.

    hostapd and WPA Enterprise To enable the enterprise grade WLAN encryption, reckon using WPA-EAP authentication. The following settings in hostapd.conf are required to enable this mode:

    ssid=Arhont-xmacaddr_acl=1accept_mac_file=/etc/hostapd.acceptdeny_mac_file=/etc/hostapd.denyieee8021x=1own_ip_addr=192.168.111.22nas_identifier=hostap.arhont.comauth_server_addr=192.168.111.101auth_server_port=1812auth_server_shared_secret=Very-Secret_KEYacct_server_addr=192.168.111.101acct_server_port=1813acct_server_shared_secret=Very-Secret_KEYwpa=1wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-EAPwpa_pairwise=TKIP CCMPwpa_group_rekey=300wpa_gmk_rekey=6400

    As with dynamic WEP using 802.1x, WPA-EAP requires the consume of a RADIUS server to authenticate mobile users. Once the hostapd is restarted, to acquire upshot of the modified hostapd.conf file you should fill a perfectly working Linux AP with WPA-EAP authentication means.

    wpa_supplicant We've dealt with the server side of setting up a Linux AP with various authentication schemes; now it's time to contend a secure setup for the client side. Once the wpa-supplicant is downloaded (http://hostap.epitest.fi) and compiled (refer to the README file on how to create a .config file and compile the tool), you should edit the wpa_supplicant.conf configuration file. The default version of this file has already been provided for your convenience with a description of complete the necessary fields that you might need to enable in order to participate in the WPA-protected WLAN. For instance, to fill client-side support for the WLAN that authenticates its clients against the RADIUS server with EAP-TLS support, the following should be enabled: network={ ssid="Arhont-w" proto=WPA key_mgmt=WPA-EAP pairwise=CCMP TKIP group=CCMP TKIP eap=TLS identity="[email protected]" ca_cert="/etc/ssl/certs/cacert.pem" client_cert="/etc/ssl/certs/client-cert.pem" private_key="/etc/ssl/certs/client-priv.pem" private_key_passwd="client-secret-password" priority=1 }

    In case you don't need the WPA enterprise-level authentication and you simply want to enable the WPA-PSK support, the following setup should be reflected in the wpa_supplicant.conf file:

    network={ ssid="Arhont-w" psk="very surreptitious PSK passphrase" priority=5 }

    Once the configuration file is ready, you can launch the wpa-supplicant utility to associate and authenticate to the desired wireless network. It can be done the following way:

    wpa_supplicant -i wlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -D hostap -B

    This should rush wpa_supplicant in daemon mode using the hostap driver on a wlan0 interface with a configuration file located in /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf. You should entrap the following output from the iwconfig and iwlist commands once authentication is successful.

    wlan0 IEEE 802.11b ESSID:"Arhont-w" Mode:Managed Frequency:2.462GHz Access Point: 00:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX Bit Rate:11Mb/s Tx-Power:50 dBm Sensitivity=0/3 Retry:off RTS thr:off Fragment thr:off Encryption key:61CC-3D80-78CF-33D4-294F-B24F-C7C6-C6B8 Security mode:restricted Power Management:off Link Quality=26/94 Signal level=-69 dBm hubbub level=-95 dBm Rx invalid nwid:0 Rx invalid crypt:0 Rx invalid frag:0 Tx extravagant retries:0 Invalid misc:0 Missed beacon:0 ath0 3 key sizes : 40, 104, 128bits 4 keys available : [1]: E619-D524-557B-21A3-7B48-6E26-DB68-2272 (128 bits) [2]: 006E-D5E5-6EBC-F41B-A9EC-8906-74E6-DA7D (128 bits) [3]: off [4]: off Current Transmit Key: [1] Security mode:restricted Xsupplicant In a way the configuration of xsupplicant is quite similar to wpa-supplicant. To beget the setup work, you'll need an AP with 802.1x support, a RADIUS server, and a set of certificates. The clients should download and compile the xsupplicant tool and edit the xsupplicant.conf file that has various configuration options to be implemented by xsupplicant. Unfortunately, the scope of this article doesn't allow us to fade into the details of configuring and debugging 802.1x authentication schematics. More information on this topic can be easily Googled. If you prefer a difficult copy of systematic reading material, their reserve Wi-Foo: The Secrets of Wireless Hacking is a hands-on lead to wireless security and hacking.

    Once the configuration of xsupplicant is ready and configured for your WLAN, issue the following command to authenticate and entrap the per-session-based dynamic WEP key.

    xsupplicant -i ath0 -c /etc/xsupplicant.conf

    If complete goes well, you should fill a similar output to iwconfig command:

    ath0 IEEE 802.11g ESSID:"Arhont-x" Mode:Managed Frequency:2.462GHz Access Point: 00:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX Bit Rate:36Mb/s Tx-Power:50 dBm Sensitivity=0/3 Retry:off RTS thr:off Fragment thr:off Encryption key:A3D0-FF7F-AD85-E6AB-1808-38A8-90 Security mode:restricted Power Management:off Link Quality=28/94 Signal level=-67 dBm hubbub level=-95 dBm Rx invalid nwid:0 Rx invalid crypt:0 Rx invalid frag:0 Tx extravagant retries:0 Invalid misc:0 Missed beacon:0

    As you can see, the xsupplicant successfully authenticated to AP with 802.1x support and received a pair of keys that is used to encrypt the unicast and broadcast traffic. By issuing the iwlist wlan0 key command you can entrap the list of keys that has been assigned to you by the AP.

    ath0 3 key sizes : 40, 104, 128bits 4 keys available : [1]: A3D0-FF7F-AD85-E6AB-1808-38A8-90 (104 bits) [2]: CCD1-7D97-A2D3-9B4A-CAA1-DE7E-A6 (104 bits) [3]: off [4]: off Current Transmit Key: [1] Security mode:restricted

    You can control reauthentication and rekeying time intervals from an access point side. If WEP and not TKIP or CCMP is used, they suggest rotating the key every five minutes.

    Wireless Intrusion Detection (wIDS), Higher Layer Defenses, and Secure Wireless Gateways Apart from implementing 802.11i-based countermeasures, there are more things you can finish to secure your Linux-based wireless network. One is detecting attacks against your WLAN. This can be done by adding another wireless PCMCIA or PCI card to your Linux-based access point or building a specialized wIDS box, perhaps using a Soekris board (www.soekris.com) or a Linux PDA. This card will fill to stay in the RFMON mode with a selected wIDS tool (or set of tools) running to anatomize the traffic it picks. The defense fragment at www.wi-foo.com lists the currently available open source wIDS tools. Most of them are signature-based and facile and straightforward to configure. However, probably the best option for implementing now is to consume Kismet to monitor your WLAN. Kismet detects an extensive list of suspicious wireless events, including Netstumbler kids and floods with various 802.11 management frames. It will furthermore expose you rogue access points and other WLANs in the area, as well as unavoidable types of non-802.11 traffic using the very frequency range with Wi-Fi LANs.

    When a suspicious event is detected, a siren sounds and information about the event flashes at the bottom of the screen. To survey the info about recent suspicious events on your WLAN in a separate ncurses panel, press "w". If you're deploying a great WLAN, you can gain a much handicap from Kismet's client/server structure, with multiple clients installed along the network reporting the events to a centralized server.

    On the server side, you can easily integrate Kismet with Snort, providing intrusion detection on complete network layers. Open kismet.conf file, scroll toward the #fifo=/tmp/kismet_dump, uncomment this line, save the configuration file, and start kismet_server. Once started, Kismet will lock the /tmp/kismet_dump file until it's picked up by Snort. Now, let's start Snort. Configure it to your liking, but add an additional -r /tmp/kismet_dump switch when you rush it, so it will read data from the FIFO feed of Kismet. You can further install and rush ACID for pleasant and colorful IDS log viewing.

    Another thing to reckon is deploying higher-layer defenses instead of or with 802.11i (if the security requirements of the network are lofty or you're truly paranoid). Imagine a long-range point-to-point wireless link. Using IPSec as implemented by Linux OpenSwan or KAME suites to secure such a link provides more flexibility than using WPA, since you fill a much choice of (symmetric, assymmetric, and hash) ciphers and IPSec modes. You won't need the RADIUS server for the link a la WPA Enterprise and will achieve a higher even of security than provided by WPA SOHO.

    Make sure that the IPSec key distribution over such a link is mutually authenticated (Diffie-Hellman) to avoid crackerjack-style wireless man-in-the-middle attacks. If you reckon IPSec too difficult to consume or unnecessary, modern Linux PPTP with MPPE implementations are reasonably secure. Of course, in such cases you are limited to 128-bit RC4 and static PSK to encrypt wireless data.

    If you want to connect a limited resources device such as a Linux PDA or mobile phone without 802.11i/WPA support, SSH port forwarding can be an arrogate and facile choice that is highly interoperable and does not save a great affliction on the available device resources. beget sure that SSHv2 is running and there are no vulnerabilities in the sshd daemons used, since anyone can try to launch an assault against your link and daemons. There are many extensive sources that recount the practical consume of IPSec, PPTP, and other VPN protocols such as cIPE and SSH port forwarding on Linux so we're not going to compete with them here.

    Finally, it makes sense to separate your wireless and wired networks with a secure gateway. 802.11 Security by Bruce Potter and Bob Fleck (O'Reilly) goes to much lengths explaining how to build such gateways using stateful filtering and port/protocol forwarding with Linux Netfilter. The gateway must be as hardened as it can get: they strongly suggest using security-oriented distros such as Astaro or Immunix and implementing kernel-level security (OpenWall, Grsecurity, St Jude, etc.) alongside the standard Linux-hardening practices. Due to the flexibility of the OS, such a gateway can furthermore serve as an 802.11i-secured access point, wireless traffic load-balancer, wIDS/IDS sensor, VPN concentrator, and RADIUS server. Combine complete these properties in a commercial, proprietary, closed-source solution and you'll entrap a $100,000 product. With Linux, the opportunities are there and are only limited by your imagination, desire, and time.



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