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1Z0-460 exam Dumps Source : Oracle Linux 6 Implementation Essentials

Test Code : 1Z0-460
Test designation : Oracle Linux 6 Implementation Essentials
Vendor designation : Oracle
: 71 true Questions

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Oracle Oracle Linux 6 Implementation

Oracle Releases Oracle Linux 6.5

REDWOOD SHORES, CA--(Marketwired - Dec 5, 2013) - Oracle ( NYSE : ORCL )

news abstract Now purchasable, Oracle Linux 6.5 comprises the resourceful Unbreakable enterprise Kernel unencumber 3, establish in through default, to permit immediate entry to the newest Linux aspects and enhancements. The best Linux distribution to guide DTrace, Oracle Linux now offers complete integration with this regular dynamic tracing framework for advanced observability, troubleshooting, and performance evaluation. apart from a big number of different enhancements, it additionally presents production back for Linux Containers, enabling operating device virtualization.

information facts

  • Oracle today introduced Oracle Linux 6.5.
  • With Oracle Linux 6.5, the latest Unbreakable enterprise Kernel unlock 3 is installed as the default kernel, enabling valued clientele and companions to test, validate and certify in opposition t the most up-to-date Oracle Linux distribution.
  • Freely attainable for download from Oracle's software beginning Cloud, Oracle Linux 6.5 aspects plenary integration with DTrace, support for Linux Containers, and InfiniBand updates.
  • Oracle Linux 6.5 additionally comprises new security elements comparable to: the faculty for purposes to share a cryptographic facts store that crypto toolkits can utilize for processing relied on certificates; and smartcard authentication aid in a larger variety of utility subsystems for single sign on (SSO).
  • Oracle Linux gives the efficiency and reliability to back enterprise-essential workloads similar to Oracle Database 12c, and is obtainable on complete x86-based Oracle Engineered systems.
  • built-in Tracing, Consolidated Workloads, and efficiency Enhancements  With Oracle Linux 6.5, Oracle brings the newest Linux innovations to the market, providing extreme efficiency, advanced scalability and reliability for enterprise-essential enterprise purposes. The Unbreakable enterprise Kernel release 3, covered in Oracle Linux 6.5, is according to mainline Linux 3.8, which provides a host of scalability and steadiness improvements, in addition to new functionality. Highlights of the unlock consist of:

  • Full integration of DTrace: DTrace, a finished, dynamic tracing framework, is now a piece of the default Unbreakable commercial enterprise Kernel and can subsist used for precise-time tracing, troubleshooting and tuning. Oracle Linux 6.5 furthermore supports person-stage Statically described Tracing (USDT), enabling application developers to region DTrace probe elements into purposes for tuning, vicissitude isolation and reporting.
  • creation Linux Containers aid: Linux Containers supply very effectual working system degree virtualization and works in conjunction with Linux manage corporations, enabling valued clientele to straight away and simply consolidate workloads beneath a container and supply boundaries on materials including memory, CPU or disk I/O. With this know-how, consumers can isolate functions or OS cases on a given gadget with out overhead. Oracle VM Templates can furthermore subsist used to create a container.
  • InfiniBand updates: improved InfiniBand capabilities, including a merge of upstream OpenFabrics commercial enterprise Distribution (OFED) 2.0 facets relish IPoIB, eIPoIB, SRP, iSER, EoIP, and legitimate Datagram Sockets (RDS), including aid for netfilter, enable sophisticated throughput, low latency, and unbelievable scalability.
  • File system advancements: New facets for the btrfs file gadget permit directors to implement an effectual incremental backup mechanism using file gadget snapshots, set different size limits for volumes and subvolumes, and release cupboard space with file gap punching. This adds to enhancements throughout other supported file programs together with XFS, ext4, OCFS2, ASMLib and NFS. furthermore, with NFS 4.1, pNFS is now supported.
  • Intel Ivy Bridge Processor family assist: allows for valued clientele to construct the most of their Ivy Bridge-based servers as Oracle Linux hosts.
  • Paravirtualization drivers: consumers hold the skill to race Oracle Linux as a visitor on Microsoft Server Hyper-V and home windows Azure with new paravirtualization drivers.
  • further 6.5 enhancements: aid for NVM categorical (NVMe)-based SSDs, which may furthermore subsist used with Oracle Database wise shimmer Cache, a feature of Oracle Database.
  • The latest red Hat confiscate kernel is additionally blanketed in Oracle Linux 6.5.
  • aiding Quote

  • "Oracle continues to deliver the newest Linux innovations to the market, proposing purchasers with the aspects and capabilities fundamental for their business-vital workloads," referred to Wim Coekaerts, senior vice chairman of Linux and Virtualization Engineering, Oracle. "With plenary DTrace integration and default install of the Unbreakable commercial enterprise Kernel free up 3, elements that are above and beyond the accepted commercial enterprise Linux 6.5, Oracle Linux 6.5 can provide the most effectual commercial enterprise Linux solution to this point."
  • supporting supplies

    About Oracle Oracle engineers hardware and utility to work together within the cloud and for your records core. For more information about Oracle ( NYSE : ORCL ), quest counsel from www.oracle.com.

    emblems Oracle and Java are registered emblems of Oracle and/or its associates. other names could subsist logos of their respective homeowners.

    Oracle ports DTrace to Oracle Linux

    Oracle has ported one in complete its most coveted Solaris tools to the Linux platform, a real-time debugging tool referred to as DTrace, although the commerce has made it officially accessible most effectual for its own Oracle Linux distribution.

    With the unencumber of Oracle Linux 6.4, Oracle announced that members in its Unbreakable Linux network (ULN) -- purchasable with a paid Oracle assist license -- can down load a copy of DTrace for Linux.

    Many Linux builders and directors hold pined for a edition of DTrace to race on Linux, a pair of even citing DTrace -- along with the ZFS (Zettabyte File device) -- as an immense understanding of no longer affecting from Solaris to Linux. crimson Hat's SystemTap, amongst different alternate options, duplicates a few of DTrace's performance for Linux, however does not proffer the identical stage of granularity.

    originally developed by using solar Microsystems, which changed into obtained by means of Oracle in 2010, DTrace (Dynamic Tracing Facility) provides the means for builders to debug, or trace, complications in the working equipment kernel in addition to with courses that race on the equipment. The application changed into initially designed for solar's Solaris Unix distribution, however has considering that been ported to Mac OS X, FreeBSD and NetBSD.

    by using probes and a kernel module, the application presents fine-grained tips concerning the approaches working on a system at any given time, whereas adding only a minimal volume of overhead to that gadget. builders and administrators can write scripts that extract counsel about what the kernel, or an application, is doing, in terms of equipment calls and utilization of gadget resources.

    Oracle would not touch upon whether this version would race on different models of Linux. Oracle exams its edition of DTrace best in opposition t its personal Oracle Linux distribution. In an Oracle technology community discussion board, youngsters, a number of commenters referred to that while the utility kit itself doubtless would not race on other distributions, compiling a Linux kernel with a DTrace module may still now not subsist too tangled for these skilled in compiling kernels.

    Oracle isn't by myself in porting DTrace -- the code for which is obtainable below an open-source license -- to Linux. U.ok. developer Paul Fox is additionally leading an effort. In an electronic mail, Fox stated that whereas his version has greater features than Oracle's version, neither edition is as "hardened" because the Solaris edition.

    the manager challenge for porting DTrace to Linux has been around aiding the older Linux kernels, Fox noted. The DTrace core works well, but "refined kernel ameliorations" between Linux and Solaris can understanding kernel panics or instability, he referred to. and unlike Solaris, each new edition of the Linux kernel usually requires some adjustments in DTrace.

    unlike Oracle's edition, youngsters, Fox's port of DTrace works throughout varied distributions, including CentOS, Fedora, crimson Hat commerce Linux (RHEL), Suse and Arch, for types 2.6.18 to three.6 of the Linux kernel. It additionally works as a visitor on the Xen hypervisor, for i386 and AMD64 structures.

    Oracle Linux is Oracle's personal Linux distribution -- one, relish CentOS, heavily in response to the red Hat enterprise Linux (RHEL). Oracle Linux, youngsters, comes with a really expert kernel focused on safety it is maintained by way of Oracle.

    different new points to Oracle Linux 6.four encompass guide for XFS, which is a high-efficiency scalable file system, and an replace to its KSplice kernel updater. KSplice gives the potential to update the operating system kernel devoid of taking the device offline. This new version makes it feasible for the kernel to subsist up-to-date despite the fact that the system is not linked to the web at the time of the replace.

    Joab Jackson covers commercial enterprise software and well-known expertise breaking advice for The IDG information provider. supervene Joab on Twitter at @Joab_Jackson. Joab's e mail tackle is Joab_Jackson@idg.com

    join the community World communities on fb and LinkedIn to touch upon subject matters that are properly of intellect.

    Oracle Database certified for crimson Hat enterprise Linux 6, Oracle 6

    domestic   →   data administration   →   Oracle Database certified for purple Hat enterprise Linux 6, Oracle 6 Posted March 23, 2012 by way of Sean Michael Kerner     feedback

    Over a year after Oracle released its personal flagship Linux free up, its namesake database is at last certified to race on it.

    Of complete the functions and hardware Oracle has, the software huge is still perhaps premiere prevalent for its namesake database. one of the vital optimum locations to race the Oracle Database is on Linux and peculiarly Oracle Linux. Yet unless this week, the Oracle Database turned into no longer licensed to race on the latest version of Oracle Linux or the pink Hat commerce Linux 6 liberate that it's in accordance with.

    crimson Hat enterprise Linux 6 was first launched in November of 2010. The highway to certification turned into a long one for Oracle, and it involved a non-trivial volume of effort.

    "Certification means that Oracle has gone through giant amounts of checking out and is confident that shoppers can race their products in mission-important production environments with a degree of consolation reform from the delivery," notable Wim Coekaerts, senior vice president Linux and Virtualization Engineering at Oracle.  "aside from operating checks, in some instances they additionally may need to finish Oracle product adjustments, similar to adjustments in how upstart is used in Oracle Linux version 6."

    The certification fashion became performed thoroughly by Oracle, Coekaerts added.  pink Hat commerce Linux went via an identical system with SAP, which changed into certified for RHEL 6 in September of 2011.

    The Oracle certification manner contains what Coekaerts referred to as a finished test suite. it subsist no longer simply a simple installation verify, however a collection of tests that comprises workload checking out and stress trying out.

    "as an example, they subsist sure that after servers lose vigor they don't hold any statistics corruption. If they draw the community their inordinate Availability code kicks in," Coekaerts referred to.

    With Oracle Database, Oracle is first providing plenary certification for Oracle Linux working with the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Kernel unlock. The Unbreakable Kernel is an Oracle-developed kernel that replaces the stock RHEL kernel. free up 2.0 came out a few weeks ago, proposing an updated Linux 3.0-primarily based kernel and guide for the next generation Btrfs filesystem.

    "Oracle Linux and the Unbreakable Linux Kernel are their foundation Linux edifice platform, so the entire peep at various and construction work that occurs on a regular foundation is on Oracle Linux with this kernel," Coekaerts defined.

    Now that Oracle has database certification for Oracle Linux 6 and RHEL 6, users of those systems can officially start to construct utilize of the database as an authorized software. The direction forward to Oracle Linux 6 for existing Oracle Database clients can rob a few diverse routes.

    a kindly of routes is through the utilize of the Unbreakable Linux kernel.

    "The high-quality constituent with Oracle Linux 5 and the Unbreakable Linux Kernel, on both Oracle Linux 5 and Oracle Linux 6, is that consumers can construct utilize of the latest kernel points and newest hardware via just installation and using this kernel," Coekaerts observed. "Migrating from Oracle Linux 5 to Oracle Linux 6 in regular faculty a re-deploy, which is a heavier procedure."

    while the Unbreakable Kernel offers new help, additional capabilities provided in the Oracle Linux 6 free up may subsist desirable to Oracle database users.

    "a number of valued clientele will start deploying new environments on Oracle Linux 6. despite the fact they construct it facile for them to finish this on their own timescales in preference to forcing a flux to unlock 6, due to the way they unlock their kernel," Coekaerts said.

    Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at  InternetNews.com, the advice provider of the IT company piece community,  the network for know-how experts. commemorate him on Twitter @TechJournalist.

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    Oracle Linux 6 Implementation Essentials

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    Stunnel Security for Oracle

    Oracle has integrated modern Transport Layer Security (TLS) network encryption into its eponymous database product, and TLS usage no longer requires the Advanced Security option beginning with the 10.2 database release. Legacy configurations lacking TLS exchange encrypted passwords, but the session payload is transmitted in transparent text and is intercepted easily by anyone with control over the intermediate network. Databases holding sensitive content should avoid clear-text traffic configurations.

    It is feasible to utilize the stunnel utility to wrap the Oracle Transparent Network Substrate (TNS) Listener "invisibly" with TLS encryption as an isolated process, and this configuration appears to subsist compatible both with Oracle's sqlplus command-line utility and with database links that are used for distributed transactions between multiple database instances. There are several benefits to stunnel over the TNS Listener's autochthonous TLS implementation:

  • The stunnel utility can subsist far less expensive. Older Oracle database releases required the Advanced Security option to utilize TLS, which is licensed at $15,000 per CPU according to the latest pricing, but TLS is now included with Standard Edition SE2.

  • The stunnel utility and the associated dependent libraries (that is, OpenSSL) are patched far more often, and updates can subsist applied immediately with no database "bounce" if stunnel is used in an "inetd" configuration. Oracle issued eight total patched versions of OpenSSL in 2015 for Oracle Linux 7. Database patches are issued only four times per year at regular quarterly intervals and require instance bounces/outages. An urgent SSL/TLS update will hold lengthy delays when implemented as a database patch (due in piece to an overabundance of caution by most DBAs), but will subsist far easier to apply as a simple OS utility patch with no downtime. For this reason, security-sensitive code that may require immediate updates should subsist kept out of the database server whenever possible. The stunnel utility meets this requirement very well.

  • The stunnel utility can race as a divide user and group inside a "chroot jail" that has limited visibility to the relaxation of the system. Oracle's server TLS implementation runs with the plenary privilege of the TNS Listener. A compromise of the TLS engine can subsist drastically less uncertain if it is confined within a chroot() jail. Privilege separation and chroot() are well-recognized security techniques, and many security-sensitive installations likely will disable listener TLS for this understanding alone.

  • Let's proceed with adding stunnel TLS services to Oracle.

    Server Configuration

    I am assuming that the reader is familiar with Oracle databases and the procedures to start up an instance and the TLS Listener. For reference, let's assume that a database SID "mydb" is running, and an sample listener dæmon is launched on the IP address with the following commands:

    export ORACLE_SID=mydb ORACLE_HOME=~oracle/Ora12c/db $ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl start

    The listener will generate a startup message similar to the output below:

    LSNRCTL for Linux: Version - Production on ↪19-FEB-2016 13:18:55 Copyright (c) 1991, 2014, Oracle. complete rights reserved. Starting /home/oracle/Ora12c/db/bin/tnslsnr: gladden wait... TNSLSNR for Linux: Version - Production System parameter file is /home/oracle/Ora12c/db/network/ ↪admin/listener.ora Log messages written to /home/oracle/Ora12c/diag/tnslsnr/ ↪HOSTNAME/listener/alert/log.xml Listening on: (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST= ↪(PORT=1521))) Listening on: (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC))) Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST= ↪(PORT=1521))) STATUS of the LISTENER ------------------------ Alias LISTENER Version TNSLSNR for Linux: Version - Production Start Date 19-FEB-2016 13:18:55 Uptime 0 days 0 hr. 0 min. 0 sec Trace even off Security ON: Local OS Authentication SNMP OFF Parameter File /home/oracle/Ora12c/db/network/admin/listener.ora Listener Log File /home/oracle/Ora12c/diag/tnslsnr/HOSTNAME/listener/ ↪alert/log.xml Listening Endpoints Summary... (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST= (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC))) Services Summary... Service "mydb" has 1 instance(s). Instance "mydb", status UNKNOWN, has 1 handler(s) for this service... The command completed successfully

    It is principal that the listener not engage in "port redirection" of clients to divide server ports (most commonly seen in MTS/Shared Server). Any feature causing the TNS Listener to engage in such activity must subsist disabled.

    To configure stunnel, the root user must create a keypair for TLS. This keypair can subsist "signed" by a Certificate Authority (CA) if desired—this is conventionally useful for Web site encryption (HTTPS) since the need of a recognized CA signature will trigger browser security warnings. Oracle clients can verify server keys only when signed by a recognized CA, which is addressed in the final section of this article. To obtained signed keys, supervene the instructions on the stunnel Web site. Otherwise, for more informal use, a self-signed key can subsist generated with the following commands:

    cd /etc/pki/tls/certs make stunnel.pem

    The process of key generation will inquire a number of questions:

    Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key ....................................................................+++ .................................+++ writing new private key to '/tmp/openssl.hXP3gW' ----- You are about to subsist asked to enter information that will subsist incorporated into your certificate request. What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN. There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank For some fields there will subsist a default value, If you enter '.', the bailiwick will subsist left blank. ----- Country designation (2 missive code) [XX]:US State or Province designation (full name) []:IL Locality designation (eg, city) [Default City]:Chicago Organization designation (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:ACME Corporation Organizational Unit designation (eg, section) []:Widget Division Common designation (eg, your designation or your server's hostname) []:darkstar Email Address []:linus@posix.org

    The key produced above will subsist set for expiration in 365 days from the day it was created. If you would relish to generate a key with a longer life, you can summon OpenSSL directly:

    openssl req -new -x509 -days 3650 -nodes \ -out stunnel.pem -keyout stunnel.pem

    The key will peep something relish this:

    # cat /etc/pki/tls/certs/stunnel.pem -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY----- MIIEvgIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAASCBKgwggSkAgEAAoIBAQC23m+w0BLxI2zB /p8/TiuFcEurTLbLCQwcO/FE+vNcJpddckuF6/VgpBAJk+d9i7NZNqrjMH711H18 3AYhewZTCbRUMQE3ndaYEIxSt4Qhbm8XbfUfx6Fmg4CnWh/XzE7B8Z7XbHpwRQ4d kQOzICzb1nt96QKdWoAob73+hv7qdi3UjJ3/20z3Cx5LWfWoa32Y50//tvBjBtcQ H7QpiE2tfLWHTQ5tztkqVY/MZJWVgoT5LnqQlZeZB/C4izSYNo9EGAnw4ThaFJ/y NdvmyK6sYaO3Dq4eFO78O+zzqyfhPCtcfb8lMuRTZa8uiv7ziVf0A3eGSwKYonUf iL7su0kJAgMBAAECggEASyeDk5EQF9ZNPjUc0XGY5VBPaOkwPqVLOtdPwt+34Glj z93HOBTPVZZXmPgWLTyaytFyzcgChZl8sTHjuyLKaJoWaHtzWp4dsYUrhlsxjGPM eD6SfSsYI/9rglvBtnia7Y4Vj8dfUoCu2mvcr2NLzFWLjyWSE4U8ImI6HT7xyP1y 5Ab8JYX5C0qODTjjPldovz8Fm9XE7yKVg5XQ9aA8axq1uWY7ruzxXli/+h7TJLPe v/yCCeKLqL+gSkORjhg8ZsK/9p6InMN6uFUeSvb0Y9eLnLnJ6tCUGh4m+cgXulrD UleXxeFzxnS3ydCNHVDngXyaJ1U+bLGVeHOLRcZHAQKBgQDY5jU+rU8VPXrbPJae fZ8swf3Pi00QUKN4P5Zyy5cs18KMgDRHRaUdYmVCpTISR7Wi0XHEI7iHDpKlL//k zCT0LW+fk+4A7bP5yUhLLtd175RUpR3ieBuXbAZRqDaPMDJ1xpZj+hDiShPv+OGR k7ETnBDm/zk1T+F2Lu6qebLbcQKBgQDX1b6I7eRDkyFZITZX1v+S6PkoTMQMeCGX cSwVvuDuiszgbf7IImWvvFxd7h+WJZEVv4jV645LOsvkY6XyFXdW7iNJGkKgThg6 YNE3X5f1oGvo5E3+HNXS3vGs76YVKTraDd0SKIRT98m2jiXCVCw+KWlR5GR+xp2A 8exCoTYLGQKBgQDJdcmu1brGt7wNNlGQFI5sPCNLSs/hf4TWg/lx1rgr5pvFdK8a JA4hJOt444eGgySqfm91Bti2WUrMM7EzCoqoYitzxSsjoaWxNMv5SSDHYigcFuGT IIxAMQ4NenhytwmnazT016gnBzdNhZW+abfnxuXMKPMyGWgJJb54iWEfgQKBgQDV N3xgfNHwx5o8GIk8wVH86VWqMBvETbCxkMWCPeyq+kdmtoLpZsGZl7SPvjtJ8paf K3WcDnWlb9IYLzCyM+6O2/XTs7N59WwNz7MexrqxlebETTWXARlilYed1aj2YqKW 4vcvhwMiiDimtUor7Uc/qV033y4/5ymVRmilceiXkQKBgEbFhAKXP9qZMdfLevWp VXAZCc5mQ2hxQOSQRAL5VvTUXm6ZwVXVf/U42JH3YXiVXbwDbEjjxS/8MtSbQU9z LoVQ/+bvc3xQ08u8kxdQiWzTzwRxHJM/znxpoD9astItq4uWU58hCoUNItHEKGJt 60bczdu3rZLZIB1n2zSM6soF -----END PRIVATE KEY----- -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----- MIID/TCCAuWgAwIBAgIJALT/9skCvdR5MA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAMIGUMQswCQYD VQQGEwJVUzELMAkGA1UECAwCSUwxEDAOBgNVBAcMB0NoaWNhZ28xGTAXBgNVBAoM EEFDTUUgQ29ycG9yYXRpb24xGDAWBgNVBAsMD1dpZGdldCBEaXZpc2lvbjERMA8G A1UEAwwIZGFya3N0YXIxHjAcBgkqhkiG9w0BCQEWD2xpbnVzQHBvc2l4Lm9yZzAe Fw0xNTEwMzAwMzI2NTJaFw0yNTEwMjcwMzI2NTJaMIGUMQswCQYDVQQGEwJVUzEL MAkGA1UECAwCSUwxEDAOBgNVBAcMB0NoaWNhZ28xGTAXBgNVBAoMEEFDTUUgQ29y cG9yYXRpb24xGDAWBgNVBAsMD1dpZGdldCBEaXZpc2lvbjERMA8GA1UEAwwIZGFy a3N0YXIxHjAcBgkqhkiG9w0BCQEWD2xpbnVzQHBvc2l4Lm9yZzCCASIwDQYJKoZI hvcNAQEBBQADggEPADCCAQoCggEBALbeb7DQEvEjbMH+nz9OK4VwS6tMtssJDBw7 8UT681wml11yS4Xr9WCkEAmT532Ls1k2quMwfvXUfXzcBiF7BlMJtFQxATed1pgQ jFK3hCFubxdt9R/HoWaDgKdaH9fMTsHxntdsenBFDh2RA7MgLNvWe33pAp1agChv vf6G/up2LdSMnf/bTPcLHktZ9ahrfZjnT/+28GMG1xAftCmITa18tYdNDm3O2SpV j8xklZWChPkuepCVl5kH8LiLNJg2j0QYCfDhOFoUn/I12+bIrqxho7cOrh4U7vw7 7POrJ+E8K1x9vyUy5FNlry6K/vOJV/QDd4ZLApiidR+Ivuy7SQkCAwEAAaNQME4w HQYDVR0OBBYEFEgCdENJ+1y0STMyQtuz3uqDON3NMB8GA1UdIwQYMBaAFEgCdENJ +1y0STMyQtuz3uqDON3NMAwGA1UdEwQFMAMBAf8wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggEB AITW7cBNdWBcgagsinGKfyESBlJ7JvxvsMzYVhI8myC8ht/3nFMyTHmBgtmxdNbW mCCzDdeSigQf/iEzH02k/EK7L7I3DATGBW6w9WiYBdqrZJl98CIxoY9j+GV0AeL1 INMSb5G4R2ygnekXVNTJsICeVHTRujBJsD4psZB5dhSI888rA2MrdQ8jAFGDk7Z4 VYckA2gQ+70yXXxpFSD4n2ecq3ebNtej07zR2wAtAkt/JtuGiUjbl1m4ZFTPoTwr xDYMcezEgopMzYMihv6CQ0CEU+qL+92CYtEDsd1hzn74SlBK9HMKjMLrbBZPhbE4 /JMRW5oa/+TFZIRcacTxgAw= -----END CERTIFICATE-----

    The PRIVATE KEY section above is the most sensitive portion of the file; ensure that it is not seen or copied by anyone that you finish not trust, and any recordings on backup media should subsist encrypted. The inaugurate CERTIFICATE section is presented to TLS clients (that is, sqlplus) when they connect to stunnel.

    It is likely wise to compute custom primes for the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm, following guidance from the stunnel manual page:

    openssl dhparam 2048 >> stunnel.pem

    The previous command will add another section to your stunnel.pem file for high-security Diffie-Hellman primes:

    -----BEGIN DH PARAMETERS----- MIIBCAKCAQEAoHi5jzY5ZVwGCFFm1EhVsePXxNwCSs/eQbaC3rc+iXENL8xk21uq 6eSwYIQWUeDN/h6wBBDe6dpFoNDJQeqKCmUa8aojGHnkcqsJBdVUKVF5/7rWb1Yi TzvbeZt8UvYnNUErJEpgBMiKPDYipE2BZ6k61WwkK6WV6svGAHpIc3o/9kU+72uf dPFaNIygAb2HLaJYvXq9OYGvrMsmyZTh3fnpg2RiZSVJf+i4BfyeLiYkwnSZozAS 2rQ4hf2E5WY6jiAcNZBLKvqR8lUuIaXd9+VkiCSV0c2pXzb2ElxOk8sheAHliwip SaKC694z9l63eNKQW2J4WI97wkil0qa4MwIBAg== -----END DH PARAMETERS-----

    The Oracle TNS Listener conventionally runs at port 1521. In this exercise, let's race Oracle TLS services at port 1522, which has the current service name:

    # grep 1522 /etc/services ricardo-lm 1522/tcp # Ricardo North America License # Manager ricardo-lm 1522/udp # Ricardo North America License # Manager

    Place the following file to control stunnel for the "ricardo" service (alter the IP address to the location of your TNS Listener):

    # cat /etc/stunnel/ricardo.conf sslVersion = TLSv1.2 options = NO_SSLv3 options = NO_SSLv2 options = SINGLE_DH_USE options = SINGLE_ECDH_USE options = CIPHER_SERVER_PREFERENCE cert = /etc/pki/tls/certs/stunnel.pem FIPS = no debug = 6 syslog = yes chroot = /var/empty setuid = nobody setgid = nobody connect = ; best-practice ciphers: ; https://hynek.me/articles/hardening-your-web-servers-ssl-ciphers/ ciphers=ECDH+AESGCM:DH+AESGCM:ECDH+AES256:DH+AES256:ECDH+AES128: ↪DH+AES:ECDH+3DES:DH+3DES:RSA+AESGCM:RSA+AES:RSA+3DES: ↪!aNULL:!MD5:!DSS

    Note above that you are configuring TLS for best-practice encryption with the highest quality protocols and ciphers. The Oracle clients issue compatible with these settings. Note that Michal Trojnara, the author of stunnel, does "not recommend using DH ciphersuites in the hardened set. ECDH ciphersuites are much more secure and much faster - RFC 7525 should subsist considered outdated after the recent attacks on DH." On the other hand, there hold been recent questions of software patents on Elliptic Curve, although Sun/Oracle contributed the ECC implementation in OpenSSL and used remarkable trust to avoid patented methods. Red Hat/Fedora went further in enabling only the Suite B subset of NIST ECC curves for protection from Certicom (whether this is a sufficient courtroom defense against CryptoPeak is another matter). Beyond that, in my previous coverage of the Stribika SSH guide [see "Cipher Security: How to acclimatize TLS and SSH" by Charles Fisher, September 2015], I wrote that the author is "...advising against the utilize of NIST elliptic curves because they are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. So much so, that I wonder if it's intentional. Any simple implementation will seem to work but leak secrets through side channels. Disabling them doesn't seem to understanding a problem; clients either hold Curve25519 too, or they hold ample enough DH support." Trojnara has responded that the question of "side-channel attacks on ECDHE is sheer nonsense, since by definition (the last 'E' stands for 'ephemeral'), there is no persistent stealthy here an attacker might retrieve with [any available] side-channel attacks." In any case, Hynek Schlawack's Web site on the subject has not endorsed one over the other so far, while his silence on the growing questions behind Diffie-Hellman key exchange is significantly unsettling. Your legal environment and encryption stance will determine your cipher string.

    Use the following systemd unit files to configure stunnel for inetd-style operation (if you aren't using an OS based on systemd, behold my previous articles for a discussion of [x]inetd):

    # cat /etc/systemd/system/ricardo.socket [Unit] Description=oracle stunnel [Socket] ListenStream=1522 Accept=yes [Install] WantedBy=sockets.target # cat /etc/systemd/system/ricardo@.service [Unit] Description=oracle stunnel service [Service] ExecStart=-/usr/bin/stunnel /etc/stunnel/ricardo.conf StandardInput=socket

    Assuming that the above unit files are in place, connections on 1522 can subsist enabled both at boot and for the present environment with these commands:

    systemctl start ricardo.socket systemctl enable ricardo.socket

    The enable command will dwelling systemd's startup link:

    Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/sockets.target.wants/ricardo.socket to /etc/systemd/system/ricardo.socket.

    It might subsist useful to telnet to port 1522, as stunnel will print informative oversight messages to standard output in case of trouble. The most practical telnet client is likely BusyBox.

    Remote connections to port 1522 might subsist blocked by your Linux firewall. The root user can permit them to pass to stunnel with the following:

    iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 1522 --syn -j ACCEPT

    The TNS Listener can subsist instructed to restrict the root of sessions, and it can subsist used to ban clear-text traffic completely by adding your IP equivalent to the following fragment of the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora file on the server:


    Perform this modification after complete testing is successful, and note that any configured clients using the TNS Listener will subsist shut down if and when the configuration is thus restricted.

    It is likely wise to utilize a stunnel binary provided by Oracle Corporation, but the versions that it provides are rather old. If you can load stunnel version 5, you can omit the NO_SSL options shown above. However, the Oracle version 4 stunnel binaries are significantly more likely to subsist tolerated in a censorious support situation involving Oracle. On the other hand, commercial support from stunnel.org definitely prefers version 5. If support is an principal factor, the taste and availability of the utilize of both versions will subsist helpful.

    Special thanks to Michal Trojnara, the author of stunnel, for his helpful comments on this article and work in stunnel development. Commercial support, licensing and consulting for stunnel is available from his organization; gladden behold this page for his latest release.

    Database Client

    Using the sqlplus client utility that is bundled with a local database server, a TLS session can subsist established through the stunnel that was previously configured on the remote server. Doing so requires a new client key that is stored in a "wallet", which is created below.

    Use the following commands to configure the local sqlplus:

    export ORACLE_SID=yourdb ORACLE_HOME=/home/oracle/Ora12c/db mkdir /home/oracle/wallet $ORACLE_HOME/bin/orapki wallet create -wallet /home/oracle/wallet \ -pwd SECRET123 -auto_login_local $ORACLE_HOME/bin/orapki wallet add -wallet /home/oracle/wallet \ -pwd SECRET123 -dn "CN=%yourdb%" -keysize 2048 \ -self_signed -validity 3650

    The output of both calls to the orapki utility above should subsist this banner:

    Oracle PKI Tool : Version Copyright (c) 2004, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

    Directives furthermore must subsist placed to find the new wallet repository—add the following to your sqlnet.ora file:

    $ cat $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora WALLET_LOCATION = (SOURCE = (METHOD = FILE) (METHOD_DATA = (DIRECTORY = /home/oracle/wallet) ) ) SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION = FALSE

    Finally, summon sqlplus with a database account and a connect descriptor that invokes the TLS port at 1522 (note that the newlines within the single quotes are optional and are included here for clarity):

    $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus RemoteUser@'(description= (address= (protocol=tcps) (host= (port=1522) ) (connect_data=(sid=mydb)))'

    Assuming success, enter the password for your RemoteUser account, then issue an SQL command:

    SQL*Plus: Release Production on Fri Feb 19 13:26:56 2016 Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle. complete rights reserved. Enter password: Last Successful login time: Fri Feb 19 2016 13:15:54 -06:00 Connected to: Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release - 64bit Production With the Partitioning, OLAP, Advanced Analytics and Real Application Testing options SQL> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM DBA_OBJECTS; COUNT(*) ---------- 19633

    A few points to consider:

  • Changing protocol=tcps to protocol=tcp and further modifying port=1521 above will log in with a clear-text session (if your firewall and listener allow access).

  • The host= clause above can reference a DNS hostname instead of an IP address if that is more convenient.

  • The TWO_TASK environment variable can subsist set with the contents within the single quotation marks above. If this is done, then sqlplus will connect silently to the remote server as if it was local.

  • The connect descriptor definition within the single quotation marks above would likely subsist moved into your TNSNAMES.ORA or network TNS resolution fashion (ldap, onames).

  • The wallet is not required on the server—this functionality is handled by stunnel. The Oracle client needs the wallet if the client's TLS implementation will subsist used. It is feasible to configure stunnel in client mode, then dispense with wallets on both sides.

  • While the sqlplus session is active, a stunnel process will issue on the server (be cautious of NPROC or other kernel limits):

    # ps -ef | grep stunnel nobody 16810 1 0 13:26 ? 00:00:00 /usr/bin/stunnel ↪/etc/stunnel/ricardo.conf
  • Database Link

    With two or more Oracle database servers, sessions and transactions can subsist initiated between them to amass and modify data in "two-phase commits". Linkages between accounts and servers are established with the command below (if you hold moved tcps hosts into your TNSNAMES.ORA, you can reference them here also):

    SQL> CREATE DATABASE LINK MyDBLink CONNECT TO RemoteUser IDENTIFIED BY PassWord USING '(description= (address= (protocol=tcps) (host= (port=1522) ) (connect_data=(sid=mydb)))'; Database link created.

    Once the link is established, remote tables can subsist suffixed by the link designation (which can subsist joined to other local or remote tables):

    SQL> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ALL_OBJECTS@MyDBLink; COUNT(*) ---------- 1851 Server Verification

    It may subsist necessary for keys to subsist verified on either side of the connection to assure authorized use. The autochthonous Oracle TLS implementation requires complete keys subject to verification to subsist signed by a recognized CA (the CA's public keys may need to subsist added to the certificate store used by Oracle).

    Note that stunnel furthermore can verify keys and act as a client as well as a server. The stunnel verification options are much more springy than Oracle's, and if CA signatures are not desired but TLS verification is mandated, then Oracle's TLS should subsist disabled entirely.

    In the examples below, let's assume that the server's public key has a CA signature. To extract that public key, the following awk pattern is useful:

    awk '/BEGIN CERTIFICATE/,/END CERTIFICATE/' \ /etc/pki/tls/certs/stunnel.pem > /tmp/pkey

    Move the /tmp/pkey file to the client, then load it into the wallet:

    $ORACLE_HOME/bin/orapki wallet add -wallet /home/oracle/wallet \ -pwd SECRET123 -trusted_cert -cert /tmp/pkey

    After loading the key, verify that it is now present in the wallet:

    $ORACLE_HOME/bin/orapki wallet array -wallet /home/oracle/wallet \ -pwd SECRET123

    The key should issue in the Trusted Certificates section:

    Oracle PKI Tool : Version Copyright (c) 2004, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Requested Certificates: User Certificates: Subject: CN=%yourdb% Trusted Certificates: Subject: EmailAddress=linus@posix.org,CN=,OU=Widget ↪Division,O=ACME Corporation,L=Chicago,ST=IL,C=US Subject: CN=%yourdb%

    The client can verify the server keys with the SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN clause in the TNS descriptor:

    $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus fishecj@'(description= (address= (protocol=tcps) (host= (port=1522) ) (connect_data= (sid=mydb) (security=(SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN="CN=,OU=Widget Division, ↪O=ACME Corporation,L=Chicago,ST=IL,C=US") )))'

    If the CA signature is not recognized, the sqlplus login will fail with the following:

    ERROR: ORA-29024: Certificate validation failure

    Additionally, stunnel will record the following in /var/log/secure:

    LOG7: SSL alert (read): fatal: unknown CA LOG3: SSL_accept: 14094418: error:14094418:SSL routines:SSL3_READ_BYTES:tlsv1 alert unknown ca

    Such errors attest that the CA is not properly loaded into the bundle used by the database.


    Oracle database security has received pointed criticism through the years and releases, which has slowly improved the architecture and closed exploitable weaknesses. For many, these improvements are inadequate in both speed and scope. In such cases, stunnel is a valuable tool for authentication, isolation and privacy of censorious data within Oracle.

    Other Articles by Charles Fisher

    "Cipher Security: How to acclimatize TLS and SSH", LJ, September 2015.

    "Infinite BusyBox with systemd", LJ, March 2015.

    "Strengthening Diffie-Hellman in SSH and TLS", LinuxJournal.com, October 29, 2015.

    "Secure File Transfer", LJ, January 2016.

    Oracle's latest Java moves foil users and vendors

    Oracle, which officially took on the sizable job of shepherding Java two years ago this month, is traveling bumpy roads lately, with its modularization and licensing plans for Java raising eyebrows and security concerns coming to the fore as well.

    Plans for version 8 of Java Platform Standard Edition, which is due next year, summon for inclusion of Project Jigsaw to add modular capabilities to Java. But some organizations are concerned with how Oracle's plans might combat with the OSGi module system already geared to Java. In the licensing arena, Canonical, the maker of Ubuntu Linux, says Oracle is no longer letting Linux distributors redistribute Oracle's own commercial Java, causing difficulties for the company. Meanwhile, security vendor F-Secure views Java as security hindrance. (Oracle declined to contend these issues with InfoWorld.)

    [ More upset users: Oracle rankled backers of the Project Hudson continuous integration server and OpenOffice.org office suite after taking over those projects from Sun. | For the latest perspectives on software development, subscribe to InfoWorld's Developer World newsletter. | Check out JavaWorld.com for hands-on Java advice, tips, and discussions. ]

    Jigsaw's inclusion draws ire With Jigsaw, Oracle intends to provide an approachable and scalable module system for big legacy software systems in common and the JDK (Java evolution Kit) in particular, said imprint Reinhold, Oracle's chief architect of the Java platform group, in a recent blog post.

    But some behold combat between Oracle's Jigsaw endeavor and OSGi, a long-standing dynamic module system for Java adopted by organizations relish the Eclipse Foundation (of which Oracle is a member) for open source tools. "The major risk inherent in Project Jigsaw is that it is attempting to supplant an incumbent Java modularity system that has already seen a remarkable deal of success," says Eclipse representative Ian Skerrett. "OSGi is widely used across the Java ecosystem in the implementations of IDEs, enterprise service buses, and application servers. Project Jigsaw must not only support the modularization of the Java platform, it furthermore must provide seamless integration with the existing OSGi ecosystem."

    Rather than benefiting Java, Jigsaw will only complicate matters, says Peter Kriens, technical director of the OSGi Alliance: "Jigsaw is inventing something that doesn't really appropriate very well in Java."

    Help may subsist on the way, however.

    Floated in an OpenJDK online discussion group is a proposed endeavor called Penrose to implement interoperability between Jigsaw and OSGi implementations. This project would enable cooperation between Jigsaw and OSGi to expose how OSGi implementations would race on the OSGi runtime and how to load Jigsaw modules into OSGi frameworks.

    Both Skerrett and Kriens behold remarkable benefits to Oracle's goal of adding modularization to Java. "It dramatically improves the robustness and flexibility of software systems, especially big software systems.... By reducing the complexity of software, modularity allows greater reuse and easier deployment, which in turn allows systems to conform to change in easier and safer ways," Skerrett says.

    Java's licensing change troubles Canonical Oracle furthermore is raising dander over a recent license change limiting distribution of Oracle's commercial Java. Canonical says that Oracle has retired its license that permitted Linux distros to redistribute Java. Under the new Oracle license, users now must download Java directly from Oracle's website.

    "That left us in a pickle, because the current version of Java that we're distributing had known security issues that were being exploited," says Canonical CEO Jane Silber. Security problems in Java 6 include problems with remote exploits enabled through the Java browser plug-in, she says. To address the security issue, though not solve it, Canonical is pushing out an update that will disable piece of the Java version on users' machines.

    Canonical can still ration the open source OpenJDK version of Java, but it is not equivalent to the commercial Oracle implementation, Silber says. Canonical's troubles date back to Oracle's announcement last summer that OpenJDK would become the reference implementation of Java, which resulted in the discontinuance of the "non-free" operating system distributor license for Java used by Canonical. The bottom line is that Oracle wants Linux distributions to migrate to OpenJDK, even if a distributor believes the commercial version is better for its customers.

    Java's security questioned Oracle furthermore has been receiving flak elsewhere over the security of Java. F-Secure Security Labs recently posted a notice, "Java considered harmful," that advises people to remove the Java plug-in from their browsers. "The risks of Java are nicely illustrated by the recent Java Rhino vulnerability (aka CVE-2011-3544). If you're running Java, but not the latest version, you're vulnerable. So either you hold to check at complete times that you hold the latest version of Java -- or come by rid of it altogether," F-Secure writes.

    Keeping Java secure is no signify feat, as it is a common target for hackers. "Java is currently the lowest-hanging fruit of the third-party software that gets attacked," says Sean Sullivan, an F-Secure security advisor. While Java is a remarkable platform on back-end systems, Java on Windows PCs facilitates the running of undesirable code, he says.

    Oracle's thankless job Oracle has numerous Java projects to maintain and update, such as last week's release of the NetBeans 7.1 IDE equipped with support for the JavaFX 2.0 loaded Internet application platform. With Java being such a ubiquitous technology after 16-plus years, whoever is in permeate of it is sure to upset some folks with how the platform is proceeding. In fact, disagreements over Java are nothing new: The Apache Software Foundation's efforts to come by proper certification for its Apache Harmony implementation of Java hold spanned both the Sun and Oracle reigns over Java, for example.

    Oracle, however, perhaps should sever back on the heavy-handedness, perceived or actual, if it hopes to preserve and maximize its substantial investment in Java. Otherwise, Oracle risks sending users looking for alternatives.

    This story, "Oracle's latest Java moves foil users and vendors," was originally published at InfoWorld.com. supervene the latest developments in application evolution and Java at InfoWorld.com. For the latest developments in commerce technology news, supervene InfoWorld.com on Twitter.

    Stacking Up Cascade Lake Xeons Against AMD Epyc For HPC

    In theory, customers running HPC simulation and modeling applications want to cram as much compute in as small of a space as they can. In practice, the situation is a lot more tangled because workloads are changing as AI code enters the fray and accelerators – particularly GPUs but furthermore FPGAs here and there – are increasingly used even if simple vanilla CPU computational engines are the norm.

    HPC centers hold to weigh a lot of different factors when it comes to choosing their next platform, and the job is not getting any easier with the widening SKU stacks at Intel, particularly with the “Cascade Lake” Xeon SP processors announced two weeks ago and the competition coming from IBM Power9, AMD Epyc, and Marvell ThunderX2 processors as well as Nvidia Tesla and AMD Radeon Instinct GPU accelerators.

    Sorting out the best motor to foundation an HPC cluster upon is more tangled than calculating a raw cost per unit of floating point performance because price, remembrance bandwidth, and thermals furthermore hold to subsist taken into account. This is a lot of data to amass and synthesize, and they are going to finish their best to back with that process, starting with the initial comparative benchmarks that Intel has establish together to compare Cascade Lake-SP and Cascade Lake-AP processors, the latter of which cram two whole processors into a single socket to double up the density of a two-socket machine, to prior generations of Xeon processors and to AMD’s initial Epyc X86 server chips, code-named “Naples,” announced nearly two years ago. These comparisons approach as AMD is readying its second generation “Rome” processors for market, and AMD is interested this time to rob on Intel’s Xeons to race traditional simulation and modeling workloads.

    For those customers who bought first generation “Skylake” Xeon SP processors, furthermore announced nearly two years ago, there really is not a lot of understanding to lag on up to Cascade Lake processors of any kind, particularly given the fact that HPC centers tend to sustain their systems for three, four, or sometimes even five years. But some HPC shops add nodes to existing machines, and those who hold clusters currently running on “Haswell” Xeon E5 v3 from 2014 or “Broadwell” Xeon E5 v4 processors from 2016 will subsist able to add a lot more flops to their boxes and expand their clusters, or replace the whole shebang if that is how they want to roll.

    Given this, it is not surprising that Intel’s first benchmark tests pit a two-socket machine based on its Broadwell Xeon E5-2697 v4 processor, which has 18 cores spinning at 2.3 GHz, against two-socket machines based on its mainstream Cascade Lake SP-8260 Platinum processor, which has 24 cores running at 2.4 GHz, and on its doubled-up Cascade Lake AP-9242 Platinum processor, which has 48 cores running at 2.2 GHz. There is a three year gap between these machines, which is when the upgrade cycle starts happening at a lot of HPC shops.

    Here is how Intel stacks up these three machines running a variety of HPC benchmarks, including foundation CPU tests as well as codes commonly used in weather modeling, manufacturing, life sciences, and fiscal services:

    Click to enlarge

    None of the chips shown in the chart above are the top bin parts in their respective lines. They are processors that HPC customers who are looking for a reasonable amount of performance and reasonable bang for the buck might elect as the compute engines in their clusters.

    On the STREAM Triad remembrance bandwidth benchmark, the Cascade Lake SP-8260 is delivering about 60 percent better performance thanks in some measure to the extra compute but mainly due to the Skylake and Cascade Lake chips having six DDR4 remembrance channels rather than the four in the Broadwell and earlier designs; the Cascade Lake-AP system has two chips per socket, so it has twice as much remembrance capacity and bandwidth per socket (if complete of the remembrance channels are filled up, of course). The remembrance in the Cascade Lake systems is running at 2.93 GHz, compared to the Broadwell chip at 2.4 GHz, which helps on the remembrance bandwidth.

    Given that the Broadwell Xeons supported 256-bit AVX2 floating point engines and the Skylake and Cascade Lake chips hold 512-bit AVX-512 engines, it is no surprise that on raw Linpack matrix math or on the computationally dense and remembrance bandwidth violent HPCG benchmark that the simple vanilla Cascade Lake system delivers 1.73X the Broadwell system on HPCG  and 2.19X on Linpack. Given that the Cascade Lake-AP system has two chips per socket running at almost exactly the same clock speed as the Cascade Lake-SP system, it is furthermore no surprise that the quad-chip, two-socket Cascade Lake machine has double the performance of the regular two-socket, two-chip Cascade Lake-SP system. This is so by design – it is really a quad-socket system in two-socket clothing, after all.

    In general, as you peep across these HPC workloads, the simple vanilla Cascade Lake-SP machine delivers about 1.9X performance compared to the Broadwell system tested, and the Cascade Lake-AP delivers 3.7X. Their guess is that the Cascade Lake-AP system costs twice as much, and the bang for the buck is not complete that different. Dell, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, and Lenovo, the three biggest server OEMs who would normally hold pricing and configuration information on new Xeon systems hold not launched Cascade Lake-AP machines, and hold no plans to at this time except if customers finish a special bid, so they hold no belief what the system cost looks like. But they hold a difficult time believing that the bang for the buck will travel up much, if at all, compared to a regular two-socket server using the Cascade Lake-SP system. This is a density play, for the most part, and a machine that Intel launched so it could expose performance leadership in a “two-socket” server.

    No matter. The point is, customers with clusters based on Broadwell Xeons will subsist able to behold a sizable performance jump without having to scale out the node signify on their clusters, thanks in big piece to Moore’s Law (which in this case gave them 50 percent more cores) and fatter floating point units (which in theory should double floating point performance per core but in actuality on some workloads did not because of the way the second 256 bits of math were added to create AVX-512). As they explained back in the wake of the Skylake Xeon SP launch, rather than obstruct copy the AVX-512 math units that were a key architectural masterstroke in the “Knights Landing” Xeon Phi processors, Intel fused the two 256-bit math units on Port 0 and Port 1 of the Skylake core (and therefore the Cascade Lake core) to construct a single 512-bit unit and then it bolted a second fused multiply add (FMA) unit onto the outside of the core on Port 5 that delivers the second unit. In theory, with both FMAs activated, a Skylake and Cascade Lake core can process 64 single precision or 32 double precision floating operations per clock. But keeping that second FMA fed is not always easy, and therefore the performance of AVX-512 is not always 2X of that of AVX2 on true workloads. Moreover, if the cores are really assiduous and the plenary AVX-512 capability is being stressed, the vector unit clocks down a tiny bit to save on some energy dissipation.

    By the way, complete of these machines were running Linux with the latest Intel compilers and the companion math kernel libraries and MPI stacks to parallelize applications across the cores in the system.

    The sizable threat to Intel in the datacenter, which compelled the company to create the Cascade Lake-AP in the first place, is AMD’s Naples Epyc processors and the looming Rome kickers, which are coming out in two months or so if the rumors are right. As they hold already revealed, the Rome chips will hold twice as many cores as the Naples Epycs, at 64 cores, and will hold vector math units that will subsist able to process twice the floating point operations per clock cycle. So the fact that Intel can best an Epyc server today with a two-socket Cascade Lake-AP machine that is really a four-socket Cascade Lake-SP machine under the skins is significant, but not a long-term proposition.

    In a few months – and everybody who matters knows this already – AMD will subsist able to draw ahead of Intel’s Cascade Lake-AP machines when it comes to floating point performance on CPUs for true workloads, regardless of the peak Linpack performance that Intel is showing. And it will definitely therefore beat the standard Cascade Lake-SP and therefore furthermore the standard Cooper Lake-SP parts, the latter of which mainly will hold support for the bfloat16 vector data format favored by Google in its Tensor Processing Unit (TPU) 3.0 chips.

    In a twist on its benchmarks, Intel ran some of the same traditional HPC benchmarks on clusters of two-socket Xeon SP-9242 Platinum machines (that’s the double chip socket version with 48 cores per socket running at 2.2 GHz with both FMAs turned on in each chiplet in the socket) and did the same tests on clusters of two-socket systems using the current Epyc 7601 processors based on the Naples architecture. Intel tested machines with four and eight nodes, and conveniently left out the STREAM Triad remembrance benchmark test where it would not peep so ample compared to the Epyc chips. Here is what those tests peep like:

    Click to enlarge

    In the benchmarks race above, Intel is using its own S9200WK reference platform, which crams four two-socket Cascade Lake-AP servers into a 2U rack enclosure, which is pretty dense computing by any measure. The servers tested had a pair of the Xeon SP-9242 Platinum processors, which again hold 48 cores running at 2.2 GHz, and were are equipped with a measly 256 GB of remembrance per node using super skinny and supercheap (by comparison anyway) 16 GB DDR4 DIMMs running at 2.93 GHz. The systems hold an integrated shimmer drive for systems software, and link to each other using 48-port Omni-Path 100 switches and adapters, which race at 100 Gb/sec, and they link out to a Lustre parallel file system. They are configured with CentOS 7.7 and the Intel compiler and MPI stacks.

    The AMD machines tested were the Supermicro AS-1023US-TR4, which had a pair of the Epyc 7601 processors, which hold 32 cores running at 2.2 GHz. They had the same 256 GB of remembrance configuration (16 x 16 GB), although the remembrance ran at a slower 2.67 GHz, the top speed that the Epyc 7000 series supports. For whatever reason, Intel establish Oracle Linux Server 7.6 on the machines (which is compatible with CentOS 7.6) and in many cases Intel used its own compilers and MPI software on the AMD iron. (We are not sure how much that affected results, but they are skeptical here.) In other cases, the GNU GCC or LLVM/AOCC compilers were used in conjunction with the Intel MPI stack. The AMD systems were linked using 100 GB/sec EDR InfiniBand from Mellanox Technology, and they had a Panasas parallel file system feeding them data.

    We harmonize wholeheartedly with what Intel says at the bottom of the chart, which is that testing clusters of machines is more principal than testing single nodes, and would add that you hold to test the nodes separately so you hold some sense of what peak linear performance would subsist in a cluster absent latencies in network communication.

    This chart shows complete kinds of bright things. First, to their eyes, it doesn’t peep relish there is much of a disagreement on these workloads using Omni-Path or InfiniBand. But it is difficult to infer that with any precision without seeing the performance of a single node, a two server cluster, and maybe clusters with 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and 1,024 nodes in addition to the 4 and 8 node clusters tested. They hold yet to behold any publicly available benchmarks that expose the plenary orbit of scale so they can construct any kindly of intelligent assessment of the impress of the onload model of Omni-Path and the offload model of InfiniBand across the plenary orbit of standard HPC applications and the typical scales of compute they behold at HPC centers in academia, government, and industry.

    What this chart furthermore seems to expose is how well the Linpack benchmark is taking plenary edge of those two FMAs on the AVX-512 units in each core on the Cascade Lake-AP processor, but the tougher HPCG benchmark (which very few machines finish well on in terms of computational efficiency, to the point where it is embarrassing for all) does not expose as sizable of a jump in performance over the AMD Epyc 7601 clusters and neither so the WRF weather modeling, OpenFOAM computational fluid dynamics, NAMD molecular dynamics, VASP quantum mechanics, and LAMMP molecular dynamics applications. The latter does better than complete of the others, but doesn’t approach nigh to the multiples that Linpack is showing.

    If you want to subsist generous, you could pronounce that the Intel Cascade Lake-AP nodes, with 96 cores per node, are averaging around 2X the performance of the AMD Epyc 7601 nodes, which is the same thing as proverb that machines based on the simple vanilla Cascade Lake-SP processors are probably at parity. (The 56-core Cascade Lake-AP chips hold about 30 percent more performance on top of that, thanks to more cores and higher clock speeds, but at 400 watts per socket, this is a bridge too far for a lot of HPC shops.) This spread between the Xeon and Epyc processors is consistent with some comparative benchmarks they reviewed out of Intel back in November 2017 pitting Broadwell Xeons and Skylake Xeon SPs against Epyc 7601s.

    The question now facing the HPC sector is this: If AMD can deliver 4X the floating point performance, at either 32-bit single precision or 64-bit double precision, with the second generation Rome Epyc processors, how will that theoretical performance, which puts it at parity with the Cascade Lake AP at a socket even and damned near at the core level, translate into performance on the suite of HPC applications that Intel has tested here and on true world HPC applications? With complete of the tuning that HPC software makers must hold been doing in the past two years, they could behold the first true competition in the HPC arena where CPU-only architectures dominate (which is to pronounce most HPC centers outside of the national labs and a few academic centers that try to stay on the cutting edge with accelerators added to their CPUs). It is now going to approach down to software tuning by HPC software makers, whether they are commercial codes, open source codes, or homegrown codes. AMD has apparently laid the hardware foundation to compete with Intel, head to head and toe to toe. Now it depends on the software people to rob edge of it.

    The sizable factor in complete of this is what Intel does with the future “Ice Lake” Xeon SP processors, to subsist etched using 10 nanometer processes and to start shipping later this year for a ramp early next year. The “Sunny Cove” cores used in the Ice Lake Xeon SP processors will hold pipelines that are both wider to find more parallelism in code and deeper to subsist able to exploit it. The 10 nanometer shrink will allow more cores to subsist crammed onto a die, too, and Intel could travel even wider with the AVX vector engines (imagine 1,024 bits wide!) or finish a plenary and true implementation of AVX-512 relish that in the Xeon Phi chips and not one with the bolt-on FMA that was used in the Skylake, Cascade Lake, and Cooper Lake Xeon SPs.

    Don’t signify Intel out just yet as they behold the AMD market shares rise. They hold some true – and it looks relish sustainable – competition happening here. And it is exciting.

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