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Test Code : 1Z0-058
Test denomination : Oracle true Application Clusters 11g(R) Release 2 and Grid Infrastructure Administration
Vendor denomination : Oracle
: 139 true Questions

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Oracle Oracle true Application Clusters

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Oracle Clusterware and Oracle prerogative software Clusters | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter introduces Oracle Clusterware and Oracle precise application Clusters (Oracle RAC) by describing these items as well as a way to installation, administer, and installation them. This chapter describes Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC architectures as neatly as the software and hardware accessories for each of those products. This chapter moreover in brief describes workload management, services, and tall availability for each single-instance Oracle databases and Oracle RAC environments. This chapter comprises here themes:

Oracle Clusterware and Oracle true application Clusters

A cluster includes multiple interconnected computer systems or servers that issue as if they're one server to conclusion clients and applications. Oracle Database 10g prerogative application Clusters (Oracle RAC) enables the clustering of the Oracle Database. Oracle RAC makes expend of Oracle Clusterware for the infrastructure to bind distinctive servers so that they operate as a single system.

Oracle Clusterware is a conveyable cluster administration reply it really is integrated with the Oracle database. The Oracle Clusterware is additionally a required portion for the usage of Oracle RAC. additionally, Oracle Clusterware enables both single-instance Oracle databases and Oracle RAC databases to expend the Oracle tall availability infrastructure. The Oracle Clusterware enables you to create a clustered pool of storage for expend by means of any combination of single-example and Oracle RAC databases.

Oracle Clusterware is the simplest clusterware that you simply necessity for most systems on which Oracle RAC operates. that you can additionally expend clusterware from different vendors if the clusterware is certified for Oracle RAC.

Single-example Oracle databases possess a one-to-one relationship between the Oracle database and the illustration. Oracle RAC environments, although, possess a one-to-many relationship between the database and cases. In Oracle RAC environments, the cluster database cases access one database. The combined processing vigor of the dissimilar servers can supply enhanced throughput and scalability than is accessible from a single server. Oracle RAC is the Oracle Database option that offers a single paraphernalia photograph for multiple servers to entry one Oracle database. In Oracle RAC, each and every Oracle illustration usually runs on a separate server.

Oracle RAC is a special technology that provides excessive availability and scalability for complete software varieties. The Oracle RAC infrastructure is moreover a key factor for enforcing the Oracle commercial enterprise grid computing architecture. Having dissimilar cases entry a single database prevents the server from being a single point of failure. Oracle RAC enables you to amalgamate smaller commodity servers prerogative into a cluster to create scalable environments that aid mission crucial company applications. applications that you installation on Oracle RAC databases can function with out code alterations.

The Oracle Clusterware structure and Oracle Clusterware Processing

The Oracle Clusterware is application that when installed on servers operating the equal working device, allows for the servers to breathe sure collectively to function as if they were one server. The Oracle Clusterware requires two clusterware accessories: a vote casting disk to listing node membership counsel and the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) to listing cluster configuration suggestions. The vote casting disk and the OCR possess to dwell on shared storage. The Oracle Clusterware requires that every node breathe linked to a personal network by the expend of a personal interconnect.

The inner most interconnect that Oracle Clusterware requires is a separate community that you just configure between the cluster nodes. This interconnect, which is required by means of Oracle RAC, can moreover breathe the identical community that the clusterware makes expend of, however the interconnect should no longer breathe purchasable through nodes that don't seem to breathe a portion of the cluster.

Oracle recommends that you simply configure a redundant interconnect to stay away from the interconnect from being a single factor of failure. Oracle additionally recommends that you just expend user Datagram Protocol (UDP) on a Gigabit Ethernet in your cluster interconnect. Crossover cables are not supported to breathe used with Oracle Clusterware or Oracle RAC databases.

The Oracle Clusterware manages node membership and prevents split wit syndrome wherein two or extra cases try and handle the database. this can ensue in cases where there's a spoil in conversation between nodes throughout the interconnect.

The Oracle Clusterware architecture helps excessive availability via instantly restarting stopped add-ons. The Oracle Clusterware can automatically re-start a node to evade issues with that node from affecting the supply of the leisure of the Oracle RAC environment. In an Oracle RAC atmosphere, complete Oracle techniques are under the handle of the Oracle clusterware. The Oracle Clusterware moreover provides an utility programming interface (API) that allows you to control different Oracle processes with Oracle Clusterware.

Oracle Clusterware application factor Processing particulars

The Oracle Clusterware contains a pair of inheritance tactics that facilitate cluster operations. The Cluster Synchronization service (CSS), experience administration (EVM), and Oracle Cluster components communicate with other cluster portion layers within the different cases in the equal cluster database ambiance. These components are moreover the main verbal exchange hyperlinks between the Oracle Clusterware excessive availability accessories and the Oracle Database. additionally, these components computer screen and manage database operations.

the following list describes the services of one of the most principal Oracle Clusterware accessories. This listing includes these components which are procedures on Unix and Linux working techniques or functions on home windows.


On home windows-based mostly working techniques, most of the add-ons are threads of the Oracle process in its site of separate strategies.
  • Cluster Synchronization capabilities (CSS)—Manages the cluster configuration by way of controlling which nodes are members of the cluster and with the aid of notifying participants when a node joins or leaves the cluster. when you are using third-celebration clusterware, then the css mode interfaces with your clusterware to manage node membership suggestions.

  • Cluster ready functions (CRS)—The simple program for managing excessive availability operations within a cluster. anything else that the crs technique manages is referred to as a cluster useful resource which generally is a database, an illustration, a service, a Listener, a virtual IP (VIP) tackle, an application procedure, and so forth. The crs procedure manages cluster components in line with the resource's configuration guidance that is saved in the OCR. This includes delivery, cease, panoply screen and failover operations. The crs process generates activities when a useful resource fame changes. when you've got installed Oracle RAC, crs displays the Oracle instance, Listener, and so on, and instantly restarts these accessories when a failure occurs. by using default, the crs technique makes five attempts to restart a useful resource after which does not Make further restart makes an attempt if the aid does not restart.

  • adventure administration (EVM)—A historical past mode that publishes pursuits that crs creates.

  • Oracle Notification provider (ONS)—A post and subscribe service for communicating quick software Notification (FAN) hobbies.

  • RACG—Extends clusterware to assist Oracle-selected requirements and complicated materials. Runs server callout scripts when FAN hobbies happen.

  • system monitor Daemon (OPROCD)—This manner is locked in reminiscence to monitor the cluster and provide I/O fencing. OPROCD performs its assess, stops working, and if the wake up is past the expected time, then OPROCD resets the processor and reboots the node. An OPROCD failure results in Oracle Clusterware restarting the node. OPROCD makes expend of the hangcheck timer on Linux systems.

  • In here table, if a process has a (r) beside it, then the procedure runs as the root consumer. in any other case the process runs as the oracle person.

    table 1-1 checklist of strategies and home windows functions linked to Oracle Clusterware

    Oracle Clusterware part Linux/Unix system windows servicesWindows processes

    process monitor Daemon

    oprocd (r)



    racgmain, racgimon

    racgmain.exe racgimon.exe

    Oracle Notification service (ONS)



    experience manager

    evmd (r), evmd.bin, evmlogger


    evmlogger.exe, evmd.exe

    Cluster in a position

    crsd.bin (r)



    Cluster Synchronization capabilities

    init.cssd (r), ocssd (r), ocssd.bin



    The Oracle Clusterware software add-ons

    When Oracle Clusterware operates, a pair of platform-certain methods or features will moreover breathe running on each node within the cluster to aid Oracle Clusterware. The Oracle Clusterware platform-particular UNIX-based mostly procedures and home windows-based services are described below here headings:

    Oracle Clusterware approaches on UNIX-primarily based techniques

    The Oracle Clusterware techniques on UNIX-based programs are:

  • crsd—Performs excessive availability healing and management operations corresponding to preserving the OCR and managing utility substances. This technique runs as the root user, or through a consumer within the admin neighborhood on Mac OS X-based programs. This system restarts automatically upon failure.

  • evmd—adventure supervisor daemon. This system additionally begins the racgevt mode to manipulate FAN server callouts.

  • ocssd—Manages cluster node membership and runs because the oracle user; failure of this process results in cluster restart.

  • oprocd—method panoply screen for the cluster. solemnize that this technique best looks on structures that don't expend dealer clusterware with Oracle Clusterware.

  • notice:

    Oracle RAC on Linux platforms can possess multiple threads that seem as separate methods with separate procedure identifiers. Oracle Clusterware capabilities on windows-based mostly techniques

    The Oracle Clusterware features on windows-primarily based methods are:

  • OracleCRService—Performs tall availability restoration and administration operations similar to retaining the OCR and managing application resources. This mode runs because the root user, or with the aid of a user within the admin community on Mac OS X-primarily based systems. This mode restarts immediately upon failure.

  • OracleCSService—Manages cluster node membership and runs as oracle person; failure of this mode consequences in cluster restart.

  • OracleEVMService—adventure supervisor daemon. This technique moreover starts the racgevt manner to control FAN server callouts.

  • OraFenceService—process monitor for the cluster. notice that this mode handiest appears on systems that don't expend dealer clusterware with Oracle Clusterware.

  • The Oracle precise utility Clusters structure and Oracle true utility Clusters Processing

    An Oracle RAC database is a logically or physically shared every cramped thing database. complete datafiles, control info, PFILEs, and redo log files in Oracle RAC environments necessity to live on cluster-conscious shared disks so that complete of the cluster database situations can entry them. complete the situations must moreover share the same interconnect. additionally, Oracle RAC databases can share the identical interconnect that Oracle Clusterware makes expend of.

    as a result of an Oracle RAC database makes expend of a shared every cramped thing architecture, Oracle RAC requires cluster-aware storage for complete database data. it's your option as to the way to configure your disk, but you necessity to expend a supported cluster-conscious storage solution. Oracle Database 10g offers automated Storage administration (ASM), which is the advised solution to control your disk. despite the fact you may moreover additionally expend a cluster-conscious quantity supervisor or a cluster file device (no longer required). In Oracle RAC, the Oracle Database utility manages disk entry and the Oracle utility is licensed to breathe used on a variety of storage architectures. An Oracle RAC database can possess as much as 100 instances. reckoning on your platform, which you could expend the following file storage alternatives for Oracle RAC:

  • ASM, which Oracle recommends

  • Oracle Cluster File device (OCFS), which is purchasable for Linux and windows structures, or a 3rd-birthday celebration cluster file device this is licensed for Oracle RAC

  • A network file device

  • raw contraptions

  • Oracle RAC databases fluctuate architecturally from Oracle RACsingle-instance Oracle databases in that every Oracle RAC database sample moreover has:

    All nodes in an Oracle RAC environment should hook up with a endemic area network (LAN) to allow users and functions to access the database. purposes may still expend the Oracle Database capabilities characteristic to hook up with an Oracle database. functions allow you to define suggestions and features to manage how clients and functions hook up with database instances. These traits consist of a special name, workload balancing and failover options, and excessive availability traits. Oracle web functions allows the weight balancing of utility connections across complete of the circumstances in an Oracle RAC database.

    users can entry an Oracle RAC database using a consumer-server configuration or through one or more middle tiers, with or with out connection pooling. clients can breathe DBAs, builders, software users, energy users, akin to data miners who create their personal searches, and so on.

    Most public networks customarily expend TCP/IP, however you can expend any supported hardware and application aggregate. Oracle RAC database circumstances may moreover breathe accessed through a database's described, default IP tackle and thru VIP addresses.


    do not to Make expend of the interconnect or the deepest community for person conversation as a result of Cache Fusion uses the inner most interconnect for inter-illustration communications.

    apart from the node's host denomination and IP address, you possess to moreover apportion a digital host denomination and an IP handle to each and every node. The digital host denomination or VIP may still breathe used to connect with the database example. for example, you might enter the digital host denomination CRM in the handle listing of the tnsnames.ora file.

    A virtual IP handle is an alternate public tackle that client connections expend as an alternative of the routine public IP handle. To configure VIP addresses, you deserve to reserve a spare IP handle for every node that makes expend of the equal subnet because the public network.

    If a node fails, then the node's VIP fails over to a further node on which the VIP can't settle for connections. often, VIPs fail over when the node on which a VIP runs fails or if complete interfaces for the VIP fail or are disconnected from the network. valued clientele that try to hook up with the VIP receive a speedy connection refused error as a substitute of awaiting TCP connect timeout messages. You configure VIP addresses in the tackle checklist to your database connection definition to allow connectivity. here section describes the Oracle RAC software accessories in additional detail.

    The Oracle precise software Clusters software add-ons

    Oracle RAC databases possess two or greater database cases that every hold recollection buildings and history procedures. An Oracle RAC database has the same tactics and reminiscence buildings as a single-example Oracle database in addition to extra system and reminiscence structures that are selected to Oracle RAC. anyone example's database view is practically just fancy another instance's view in the identical Oracle RAC database; the view is a single system graphic of the atmosphere.

    each and every instance has a buffer cache in its paraphernalia international area (SGA). the usage of Cache Fusion, Oracle RAC environments logically amalgamate each and every illustration's buffer cache to allow the situations to technique facts as if the statistics resided on a logically combined, single cache.


    The SGA size necessities for Oracle RAC are greater than the SGA requirements for single-illustration Oracle databases as a result of Cache Fusion.

    To Make sure that each Oracle RAC database instance obtains the shroud that it should fulfill a question or transaction, Oracle RAC situations expend two approaches, the world Cache service (GCS) and the global Enqueue service (GES). The GCS and GES preserve information of the statuses of every facts file and each cached shroud using a worldwide aid listing (GRD). The GRD contents are allotted throughout complete the lively cases, which comfortably increases the measurement of the device global area for an Oracle RAC instance.

    After one illustration caches records, every other sample in the same cluster database can purchase a shroud graphic from one other sample in the equal database faster than by means of analyzing the shroud from disk. for this reason, Cache Fusion moves existing blocks between situations rather than re-reading the blocks from disk. When a consistent shroud is required or a modified shroud is required on another illustration, Cache Fusion transfers the shroud photograph without detain between the affected cases. Oracle RAC uses the deepest interconnect for inter-instance communication and shroud transfers. The international Enqueue service panoply screen and the instance Enqueue mode manages entry to Cache Fusion materials in addition to enqueue recuperation processing.

    These Oracle RAC methods and the GRD collaborate to allow Cache Fusion. The Oracle RAC strategies and their identifiers are as follows:

  • LMS—international Cache provider technique

  • LMD—global Enqueue carrier Daemon

  • LMON—global Enqueue carrier panoply screen

  • LCK0—instance Enqueue technique

  • in case you expend community connected Storage (NAS), then you are required to configure a 2nd deepest community. entry to this network is usually controlled by way of the supplier's utility. The deepest community makes expend of static IP addresses.

    be aware:

    most of the Oracle accessories that this section describes are moreover the add-ons which are described for single-illustration Oracle databases in Oracle Database ideas. Oracle Clusterware accessories and excessive Availability

    should you amalgamate Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC, which you can obtain dazzling scalability and tall availability. The Oracle Clusterware achieves this the expend of the components that this portion describes under prerogative here subject matters:

    The Oracle Clusterware balloting Disk and Oracle Cluster Registry

    The Oracle Clusterware requires prerogative here two captious info:

  • vote casting Disk—Manages cluster membership by the expend of a health examine and arbitrates cluster ownership among the many cases in case of network disasters. Oracle RAC makes expend of the vote casting disk to investigate which cases are contributors of a cluster. The vote casting disk should stay on shared disk. for prime availability, Oracle recommends that you've varied balloting disks. The Oracle Clusterware allows distinct vote casting disks but you should possess an odd variety of vote casting disks, akin to three, 5, etc. if you define a single vote casting disk, then you should definitely expend exterior mirroring to deliver redundancy.

  • Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)—keeps cluster configuration information as well as configuration suggestions about any cluster database inside the cluster. The OCR moreover manages counsel about strategies that Oracle Clusterware controls. The OCR stores configuration suggestions in a sequence of key-value pairs inside a listing tree structure. The OCR ought to reside on shared disk it truly is purchasable by using complete of the nodes on your cluster. The Oracle Clusterware can multiplex the OCR and Oracle recommends that you expend this function to Make sure cluster excessive availability. that you could change a failed OCR online, and you can supersede the OCR via supported APIs comparable to commercial enterprise supervisor, the Server handle Utility (SRVCTL), or the Database Configuration second (DBCA).

  • be aware:

    both the vote casting disks and the OCRs possess to live on either cluster file gadget data or on shared raw devices that you configure prior to installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. Oracle Clusterware tall Availability and the application Programming Interface

    Oracle Clusterware offers a tall availability application programming interface (API) so you might expend to enable Oracle Clusterware to control functions or approaches that dash a cluster. This makes it workable for you to give excessive availability for complete your functions. The Oracle Clusterware with ASM makes it workable for you to create a consolidated pool of storage to guide both the single-instance Oracle databases and the Oracle RAC databases which are operating on your cluster.

    To maintain excessive availability, Oracle Clusterware add-ons can respond to status changes to restart functions and tactics based on described excessive availability suggestions. in addition, that you can expend the Oracle Clusterware tall availability framework by way of registering your applications with Oracle Clusterware and configuring the clusterware to start, stop, or relocate your utility methods. this is, you can Make custom functions tremendously obtainable through the expend of Oracle Clusterware to create profiles that computer screen, relocate, and restart your applications. The Oracle Clusterware responds to FAN activities which are created by an Oracle RAC database. Oracle broadcasts FAN pursuits when cluster servers can moreover turn into unreachable and community interfaces are sluggish or non-practical.

    Workload management with Oracle true application Clusters

    Workload administration allows you to manipulate the distribution of workloads to deliver optimal efficiency for users and purposes. This includes proposing the highest availability for database connections, speedy failure healing, and balancing workloads optimally throughout the dynamic configuration. Oracle Database 10g with Oracle RAC contains many features that may expand workload management equivalent to connection load balancing, quick connection failover (FCF), the load balancing advisory, and Runtime Connection Load Balancing. Workload administration offers the most excellent advantages to Oracle RAC environments. which you can, youngsters, purchase competencies of workload administration by using Oracle services in single-example Oracle Databases, especially those who expend information safeguard or Streams. Workload management contains here components:

  • excessive Availability Framework—The Oracle RAC excessive availability framework enables the Oracle Database to retain accessories in a running state consistently. Oracle excessive availability implies that Oracle Clusterware screens and restarts crucial accessories in the event that they cease, unless you override the restart processing. The Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC moreover provide alerts to clients when configurations exchange. This allows for consumers to instantly react to the alterations, enabling software developers to conceal outages and reconfigurations from stop users. The scope of Oracle excessive availability spans from the restarting of stopped Oracle approaches in an Oracle database instance to failing over the processing of an entire sample to other available circumstances.

  • Load Balancing Advisory—here's the ability of the database to give tips to purposes about the current service levels being offered by way of the database and its circumstances. applications can purchase competencies of this suggestions to direct connection requests to the illustration that will provide the application request with the optimum service first-class to comprehensive the utility's processing. Oracle has integrated its Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) and Oracle facts company for .web (ODP.web) connection pools to work with the weight balancing counsel. purposes can expend the built-in connection swimming pools devoid of programmatic changes.

  • capabilities—Oracle Database 10g introduces a powerful computerized workload management facility, referred to as capabilities, to enable the industry grid vision. capabilities are entities for you to outline in Oracle RAC databases. features enable you to community database workloads and route the work to the optimal situations that are assigned to system the carrier. in addition, that you could expend functions to outline the elements that Oracle assigns to process workloads and to computer screen workload substances. applications that you apportion to functions transparently acquire the defined workload administration features, together with tall availability and cargo balancing guidelines. Many Oracle database points are integrated with services, akin to useful resource supervisor, which allows you to preclude the elements that a carrier can expend within an illustration. Some database features are additionally integrated with Oracle Streams, advanced Queuing, to achieve queue site transparency, and the Oracle Scheduler, to map capabilities to sure job courses.

    In Oracle RAC databases, the service performance rules that you just configure handle the quantity of labor that Oracle allocates to every attainable sample for that provider. As you extend your database by way of including nodes, purposes, accessories of applications, and so forth, you can add extra capabilities.

  • Connection Load Balancing— Oracle internet functions provides connection load balancing for database connections. Connection load balancing occurs when the connection is created. Connections for a given carrier are balanced across complete of the running cases that present the carrier. you should definitely outline the way you want connections to breathe balanced within the service definition. despite the fact, you possess to nonetheless configure Oracle web functions. when you enable the load balancing advisory, the Listener uses the load balancing advisory for connection load balancing.

  • Introduction to installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle precise software Clusters

    This area introduces the storage alternate options for Oracle RAC and the setting up techniques for both Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC under here themes:

    Oracle Clusterware setting up mode Description

    The Oracle Clusterware is allotted on the Oracle Database 10g installing media. The Oracle conventional Installer (OUI) installs Oracle Clusterware prerogative into a directory constitution, which may moreover breathe called CRS_home, that is become independent from other Oracle software working on the laptop. as a result of Oracle Clusterware works carefully with the working equipment, gadget administrator entry is required for some of the installing initiatives. additionally, one of the Oracle Clusterware techniques necessity to dash because the device administrator, which is often the root person on Unix and Linux systems and the system Administrator user on home windows methods.

    prior to installing Oracle Clusterware, Oracle recommends that you dash the Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to ensure that your atmosphere meets the Oracle Clusterware installation requirements. The OUI additionally instantly runs CVU at the conclusion of the clusterware setting up to examine quite a few clusterware add-ons. The CVU simplifies the setting up, configuration, and standard management of the Oracle Clusterware installing system through settling on complications in cluster environments.

    throughout the Oracle Clusterware installing, you should determine three IP addresses for every node that is going to breathe portion of your installation. One IP handle is for the deepest interconnect and the other is for the general public interconnect. The third IP address is the virtual IP tackle that purchasers will expend to connect with every example.

    The Oracle Clusterware installation process creates the vote casting disk and OCR on cluster-conscious storage. in case you pick the option for standard redundant copies throughout the setting up manner, then Oracle Clusterware instantly continues redundant copies of these data to avoid the info from becoming single elements of failure. The ordinary redundancy feature moreover eliminates the necessity for third birthday celebration storage redundancy options. if you expend usual redundancy, Oracle Clusterware instantly keeps two copies of the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) file and three copies of the balloting Disk file.


    in case you opt for exterior redundancy for the OCR and voting disk, then to permit redundancy, your disk subsystem ought to breathe configurable for RAID mirroring. otherwise, your gadget could breathe susceptible because the OCR and vote casting disk are single elements of failure. Oracle prerogative utility Clusters installation and Database introduction process Description

    The Oracle RAC application is disbursed as a portion of the Oracle Database 10g installation media. via default, the commonplace Oracle Database 10g software installation mode installs the Oracle RAC election when it recognizes that you're performing the installing on a cluster. The OUI installs Oracle RAC into a directory constitution, which can moreover breathe referred to as Oracle_home, this is shatter away different Oracle software running on the laptop. as a result of OUI is cluster-mindful, it installs the Oracle RAC utility on the entire nodes that you just defined to breathe a portion of the cluster. if you're the usage of a certified cluster file gadget for the Oracle home, then only opt for the node that you're connected to for the installing.

    You possess to first installation Oracle Clusterware earlier than setting up Oracle RAC. After Oracle Clusterware is operational, that you would breathe able to expend OUI to install the Oracle database utility with the Oracle RAC add-ons. complete through the setting up, OUI runs DBCA to create your Oracle RAC database in response to the alternatives that you simply choose. The DBCA additionally runs the web Configuration second (NETCA) to configure the community for your Oracle RAC environment.

    Oracle recommends that you simply pick ASM during the setting up to simplify storage management; ASM instantly manages the storage of complete database files within disk businesses. which you can moreover configure capabilities prerogative through setting up, counting on your processing necessities. if you are the usage of the Oracle Database 10g general version, then you definately ought to expend ASM for storing complete the database information.

    via default, DBCA creates one carrier on your environment and this service is for the database. The default carrier is attainable on complete circumstances in an Oracle RAC environment, except the database is in restricted mode.

    Cloning Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC application in Grid Environments

    This area in short summarizes the tactics for deploying Oracle RAC in grid environments that possess tremendous numbers of nodes using cloned photographs for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. Oracle cloning is the preferred components of extending your Oracle RAC atmosphere with the aid of adding nodes and situations. To function the cloning tactics which are summarized in this section, advert to the Oracle commonplace Installer and OPatch consumer's ebook.which you could additionally expend industry manager Grid handle to discharge cloning.

    The cloning system assumes that you simply correctly installed an Oracle Clusterware home and an Oracle home with Oracle RAC on at least one node. furthermore, complete root scripts should possess dash efficiently on the node from which you're extending your cluster database. to Make expend of Oracle cloning, first clone the Oracle Clusterware home and then clone the Oracle home with the Oracle RAC application.

    To clone the Oracle Clusterware home, on UNIX-primarily based methods create a tar file of the Oracle Clusterware home and duplicate the file to the newfangled node's Oracle Clusterware domestic. On home windows-based mostly programs you necessity to create zip info. Then on UNIX-based mostly systems create the necessary users and companies on the brand newfangled nodes. On home windows-based techniques, you upshot not necessity to create users and corporations, however the user that performs the cloning should breathe the equal consumer that performed the setting up.

    Extract the tar file, or unzip the zip file, and dash the Oracle regular Installer (OUI) in clone mode as described within the Oracle frequent Installer and OPatch person's guide. Then dash the setting up scripts and reiterate these steps on every node that you are including. The system for cloning the Oracle home onto newfangled nodes is comparable to the technique for cloning the Oracle Clusterware home. in addition, you necessity to dash the Oracle net Configuration second (NETCA) on each and every newfangled node to create a Listener.

    if you possess not already created a database, then which you can dash the Database Configuration second (DBCA) to create one. at last, solemnize the submit-cloning procedures to comprehensive the extension of your Oracle RAC ambiance onto the brand newfangled nodes.

    further considerations and contours for Oracle precise application Clusters

    in addition to configuring services to manipulate your workloads, additionally accept as prerogative with the expend of the following aspects in the event you installation Oracle RAC:

  • Scaling Your Oracle RAC Database—As mentioned, that you could add nodes and cases to your Oracle RAC environment the expend of Oracle cloning. if you settle to not expend cloning, then that you can extend your database through the expend of the manual processes that are described in Chapter 10, "including and Deleting Nodes and situations on UNIX-based mostly systems" or Chapter 11, " adding and Deleting Nodes and cases on home windows-primarily based systems".

  • business manager—Use industry supervisor to administer your total Oracle RAC ambiance, no longer simply the Oracle RAC database. expend enterprise manager to create and modify services, and to delivery and stop the cluster database cases and the cluster database. enterprise manager has extra aspects as exact within the portion "Overview of using enterprise manager with Oracle actual utility Clusters".

  • healing manager (RMAN)—RMAN backs up, restores, and recovers datafiles, control information, server parameter data (SPFILEs) and archived redo logs. that you may expend RMAN with a media supervisor to returned up data to external storage. that you can additionally configure parallelism when backing up or recuperating Oracle RAC databases. In Oracle RAC, RMAN channels can breathe dynamically allocated across the entire Oracle RAC circumstances. Channel failover makes it workable for failed operations on one node to continue on a different node. that you can expend RMAN in Oracle RAC from the Oracle enterprise manager Backup supervisor or from a command line.

  • automated undo management—automatically manages undo processing.

  • computerized segment space management (ASSM)—immediately manages facet freelists and freelist companies.

  • locally managed tablespaces—Enhances space management efficiency.

  • Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)—Use CVU to examine the repute of your clusterware in case you journey problems or expend it each time you reconfigure your cluster.

  • Sequences—if you expend sequence numbers, then complete the time expend CACHE with the NOORDER option for top of the line sequence number generation performance. With the CACHE choice, despite the fact, you can moreover possess gaps within the sequence numbers. in case your atmosphere cannot tolerate sequence quantity gaps, then expend the NOCACHE alternative or agree with pre-generating the sequence numbers. if your utility requires sequence number ordering but can tolerate gaps, then expend CACHE and ORDER to cache and order sequence numbers in Oracle RAC. if your application requires ordered sequence numbers with out gaps, then expend NOCACHE and ORDER. This combination has essentially the most sinister upshot on efficiency in comparison to other caching and ordering combinations.

  • Indexes—if you expend indexes, trust options, such as transpose key indexes, to optimize index performance. transpose key indexes are particularly valuable you probably possess conventional inserts to one side of an index, similar to indexes which are according to insert date.

  • Managing Oracle actual utility Clusters Environments

    This area describes here Oracle RAC ambiance management subject matters:

    Designing Oracle prerogative application Clusters Environments

    believe performing here steps complete through the design and construction of functions that you're deploying on an Oracle RAC database. account tuning:

  • The design and the application

  • The recollection and that i/O

  • contention

  • The operating equipment

  • word:

    If an utility doesn't scale on an SMP computer, then stirring the utility to an Oracle RAC database can't enrich performance.

    agree with the usage of hash partitioning for insert-intensive online transaction processing (OLTP) purposes. Hash partitioning:

  • Reduces contention on concurrent inserts into a single database structure

  • influences sequence-based indexes when indexes are in the community partitioned with a desk and tables are partitioned on sequence-based keys

  • Is transparent to the software

  • if you hash partitioned tables and indexes for OLTP environments, then that you may significantly enhance performance to your Oracle RAC database. word that you just can not expend index latitude scans on an index with hash partitioning.

    if you're the expend of sequence numbers, then always expend the CACHE choice. if you expend sequence numbers with the CACHE choice, then:

    Administrative paraphernalia for Oracle actual utility Clusters Environments

    Oracle permits you to administer a cluster database as a single device picture through commercial enterprise supervisor, SQL*Plus, or via Oracle RAC command-line interfaces reminiscent of Server handle (SRVCTL). that you would breathe able to moreover expend a few paraphernalia and utilities to manipulate your Oracle RAC atmosphere and its add-ons as follows:

  • enterprise manager—enterprise supervisor has each the Database manage and Grid handle GUI interfaces for managing each single instance and Oracle RAC environments.

  • Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)—CVU is a command-line tool for you to expend to examine a number cluster and Oracle RAC-certain components akin to shared storage instruments, networking configurations, paraphernalia requirements, and Oracle Clusterware, in addition to working system corporations and users. you can expend CVU for pre-installing exams as well as for post-setting up assessments of your cluster atmosphere. CVU is notably helpful complete through pre-setting up and throughout setting up of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC components. The OUI runs CVU after Oracle Clusterware and the Oracle installing to check your environment.

  • Server manage (SRVCTL)—SRVCTL is a command-line interface for you to expend to manipulate an Oracle RAC database from a single factor. you can expend SRVCTL to birth and forestall the database and circumstances and to delete or rush instances and features. that you may moreover expend SRVCTL to control configuration advice.

    See additionally:

    Appendix E for extra assistance about SRVCTL
  • Cluster ready capabilities control (CRSCTL)—CRSCTL is a command-line device so that you can expend to control Oracle Clusterware. that you may expend CRSCTL to delivery and forestall Oracle Clusterware. CRSCTL has many options akin to enabling online debugging,

  • Oracle Interface Configuration tool (OIFCFG)—OIFCFG is a command-line device for both single-example Oracle databases and Oracle RAC environments so you might expend to earmark and de-allocate network interfaces to add-ons. that you would breathe able to additionally expend OIFCFG to direct accessories to Make expend of specific community interfaces and to retrieve component configuration suggestions.

  • OCR Configuration tool (OCRCONFIG)—OCRCONFIG is a command-line device for OCR administration. that you can moreover expend the OCRCHECK and OCRDUMP utilities to troubleshoot configuration complications that possess an upshot on the OCR.

  • Monitoring Oracle precise software Clusters Environments

    internet-based commercial enterprise supervisor Database control and Grid handle permit you to computer screen an Oracle RAC database. The enterprise manager Console is a principal point of manage for the Oracle atmosphere that you simply access by the expend of a graphical person interface (GUI). expend the enterprise manager Console to excite cluster database administration projects. expend commercial enterprise manager Grid control to administer dissimilar Oracle RAC databases. moreover word here aspects about monitoring Oracle RAC environments:

  • The international views, or GV$ views, are in accordance with V$ views. The catclustdb.sql script creates the GV$ views. dash this script in case you don't create your database with DBCA. otherwise, DBCA runs this script for you.

  • Statspack is Oracle RAC-mindful.


    as a substitute of the usage of Statspak, Oracle recommends that you expend the greater refined administration and monitoring elements of the Oracle Database 10g Diagnostic and Tuning packs which consist of the automated Database Diagnostic panoply screen (ADDM).
  • Evaluating performance in Oracle prerogative application Clusters Environments

    You don't deserve to discharge special tuning for Oracle RAC; Oracle RAC scales with out special configuration adjustments. if your utility performed neatly on a single-example Oracle database, then it's going to operate neatly in an Oracle RAC environment. many of the tuning initiatives that you'd discharge on a single-example Oracle database can moreover ameliorate Oracle RAC database efficiency. this is very prerogative in case your atmosphere required scalability throughout a more suitable variety of CPUs.

    some of the Oracle RAC performance elements are:

  • Dynamic useful resource Allocation

  • Cache Fusion permits A Simplified Tuning Methodology

  • You upshot not necessity to tune any parameters for Cache Fusion

  • No software-level tuning is quintessential

  • that you can expend a bottom-up tuning mode with essentially no repercussion on your current applications

  • extra unique efficiency facts

  • New Oracle VM Templates for Oracle true application Clusters Now obtainable | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    New Oracle VM Templates for Oracle true utility Clusters Now available

    supply: Oracle supplier

    Oracle Corporation

    November 15, 2010 08:00 ET

    Simplifies Deployment of a extremely purchasable, Virtualized Database

    REDWOOD SHORES, CA--(Marketwire - November 15, 2010) - Oracle (NASDAQ: ORCL)

    news records

  • Enabling consumers to abruptly install a enormously accessible, virtualized database, Oracle today introduced the supply of latest Oracle VM Templates for Oracle Database 11g release 2 and Oracle precise application Clusters.
  • by way of featuring pre-put in and pre-configured application photos, Oracle VM Templates supply an inventive approach to deploying a fully configured application stack and permit digital and cloud environments to breathe provisioned directly, with no trouble, always, and with simplified management.
  • the brand newfangled Oracle VM Templates for Oracle actual utility Clusters supply a fleet and straightforward way to deploy a database cluster on Oracle VM for building, check and production environments. Clusters of any variety of nodes may moreover breathe constructed, and the whole installation is computerized, requesting minimal guidance from the user when visitors are booted.
  • Combining the merits of Oracle VM for x86 and Oracle precise utility Clusters presents a enormously accessible database cloud answer with complete the merits of a completely virtualized atmosphere.
  • the newfangled Oracle VM Templates are available in 32-bit or sixty four-bit device formats.
  • exciting amalgam of Virtualization and Clustering Speeds Time to Market and makes it workable for larger Availability

  • Use of Oracle VM Templates vastly simplifies setting up and configuration, assisting cleave back prefatory and ongoing maintenance costs and allowing corporations to obtain faster time to market and reduce cost of operations.
  • by using deploying Oracle prerogative application Clusters in Oracle VM environments with the brand newfangled templates, valued clientele can improvement from greater database availability. 
  • The combination of Oracle VM and Oracle actual software Clusters allows perpetual availability in the mug of hardware and software screw ups, an Awful lot bigger availability than would historically be acquired via hypervisor-handiest options from providers fancy VMware, that may handiest rush and restart failed virtual machines. 
  • Oracle VM Templates are moreover purchasable for Oracle purposes, Oracle Fusion Middleware, Oracle Database, Oracle Linux, Oracle Solaris and other Oracle items.
  • assisting Quote

  • "best Oracle presents the pleasing amalgam of clustering and virtualization," stated Wim Coekaerts, senior vp, Linux and Virtualization Engineering, Oracle. "the expend of an Oracle VM infrastructure mixed with the efficiency, scalability and resiliency of Oracle prerogative application Clusters and Oracle VM Templates, they help customers tremendously in the reduction of deployment and operational charges while enabling a tremendously obtainable infrastructure."
  • helping elements

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    trademarks Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. other names may breathe emblems of their respective homeowners.

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    With stop users getting accustomed to instantaneous response times, Oracle, more than ever, is challenged to provide continuous availability to its database products. An principal tool the folks at Redwood Shores possess to support them accomplish that is Oracle true Application Clusters (RAC).

    What is RAC? In a nutshell, it is a software tool that allows a single database to breathe accessed by many Oracle programs. If one server fails, transactions can breathe redirected to another live server with a minimum of downtime.

    Oracle advertises RAC as a cure for many ailments. IT shops can misunderstand such marketing hype, however, and not recognize the cost and benefits of using RAC in a tall availability (HA) environment.

    Let’s explore some Oracle RAC best practices and in the process shed some light on common mistakes users Make when using this cluster-based technology. In this Oracle RAC guide, we’ll purchase a gawk at:

  • RAC planning best practices
  • RAC implementation best practices
  • RAC infrastructure considerations
  • Hardware architecture and RAC performance 
  • RAC backup and recovery best practices
  • Performance and tuning best practices
  • One of the most common mistakes with Oracle RAC is misunderstanding its functions and limitations. Oracle true Application Clusters is used as portion of a comprehensive capacity planning strategy, but the technology’s strengths and limitations are not always understood. Here is a list of the most common misperceptions about the technology.

    Oracle RAC is model for scalability

    Even though Oracle Corporation wants you to buy tiny “blade servers” and expend their grid computing solution for “horizontal scaling,” that’s not how most shops expend RAC. sustain in wit that RAC is only a legitimate scalability option for very large IT shops that necessity more horsepower than a single server can deliver.

    Instead, it’s an Oracle best drill to scale-up first, and then scale out by first pile up within a single server through “vertical scaling.” Only after you possess saturated a large server upshot you necessity to expend RAC to “scale out” the application across multiple servers. Today, a single server’s recollection and CPU horsepower can breathe significantly expanded compared with just several years ago, making it easier to add resources instead of plunking in a newfangled server to the RAC environment. In real-world environments, a single server can handle thousands of transactions per second. Only the world’s largest Oracle databases necessity to scale-out using RAC nodes.

    Oracle RAC is a standalone high-availability solution

    Remember that RAC only protects you against instance failure, and that’s only one of many components that can occasions an unplanned outage. For prerogative continuous availability, they must deploy triple-mirrored disks (with a mean-time-to-failure rate expressed in centuries) and redundant network components.

    For complete availability on each RAC server node, you will want multiple host bus adapters, multiple network cards and multiple power sources. Just as they possess failover at the instance layer, you necessity to purchase software to allow the multiple host bus adapter cards to automatically failover and issue a notification that one has failed.

    As they possess noted, RAC systems require a cluster interconnect in order to accommodate RAM-to-RAM transfers of data blocks in the RCA cache fusion layer. This interconnect must breathe very fast, with tall bandwidth and low latency. Interconnects include:

  • Dark fiber: Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology
  • Infiniband
  • Myrinet
  • This cache fusion bottleneck is another intuition why RAC scale-out, or horizontal scalability, is problematic. If your cluster interconnect cannot handle the traffic, extra servers will actually degrade your performance instead of helping it. The only way around this problem is to change your entire application to accommodate RAC, or to purchase faster storage such as Solid State Disk.

    Oracle RAC ensures fleet response time

    Response time for transactions is always important, but it’s especially principal for RAC databases. This is because of the connection wait-time that is used to detect whether a RAC node, or server, has failed. Consequently, you must draw to ensure that newfangled transactions are serviced in less than one second wall-clock time so that you can set a failover time of two seconds.

    Oracle RAC does not necessity a catastrophe recovery component

    Except in the rare cases where you can deploy Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology, known as dismal fiber, you still necessity to create a catastrophe recovery solution. Because RAC nodes are normally located within a few miles of each other, a natural catastrophe fancy a hurricane would still occasions a global outage. So it has become a RAC best drill to moreover deploy a fast-failover geographical solution fancy Data Guard -- or better still, n-way Streams.

    Now that they understand the planning aspect of best practices, let’s purchase a closer gawk at RAC best practices issues after they possess implemented their newfangled database.

    Oracle RAC implementation best practices

    Operational RAC databases supervene many of the same best practices as any Oracle database, but there are some that are unique to Oracle RAC systems. First, it’s an principal best drill to draw RAC servers in a way that minimizes the geographical distance between the RAC nodes while still keeping them separate, in order to avoid a failure of complete nodes.

    As a reference, you can purchase a gawk at what I wrote on how to implement RAC implementation guidelines.

    In a sedulous RAC database, the speed of the server interconnect is captious for fleet response times. It’s a commonly accepted best drill to expend the fastest workable interconnect, typically a fiber optics solution fancy dismal fiber.

    Some shops will site RAC nodes in separate buildings in the same neighborhood, but with the advent of the superfast dismal fiber interconnect, you can expend “Extended RAC” and site RAC nodes up to 100 miles apart. This allows you to combine tall availability with catastrophe recovery.

    Dark fiber is rather expensive, however. To reduce costs, most shops adopt a best drill where they combine RAC with catastrophe recovery solutions fancy n-way Streams replication.

    The whole point of RAC is to Make stop users automatically reconnect to a surviving server when one server fails. This is done either at the Web-server flush or with the Oracle Transparent Application Failover (TAF) option. Whichever tool you choose, you should wait about three seconds before assuming that the server is inanimate and re-trying a newfangled RAC server.

    Next, let’s purchase a closer gawk at specific RAC technical best practices.

    Oracle RAC interconnect best practices

    Since RAC is a mode in which many instances share the same database, shared data blocks are transferred between the servers using a high-speed interconnect called “cache fusion.” In order to sustain performance fast, it’s captious that you pay immediate attention to the interconnect layer and recollect these points:

    RAC likes small shroud sizes, the interconnect must possess extremely fleet network hardware, and RAC load balancing is captious to performance.

    Oracle RAC node load balancing best practices

    I disagree with Oracle’s drill of load balancing using a least-loaded approach because of the overhead it lays on top of the cache fusion layer. In the true world, like-minded stop users are directed to the same RAC server. If they possess a RAC system with different types of stop users, they would want to load equilibrium according to their data needs. For example, customer processing might breathe on node one, order processing on node two, and product processing on node three. Grouping RAC stop users by data needs ensures that cache fusion overhead is minimized.

    Oracle RAC disk storage management best practices

    In order to implement a RAC system, you should expend a shared storage device because many servers must possess concurrent access to the disks. A single instance database can, however, expend Direct Attached Storage (DAS), which is an array of inexpensive disks connected to a single server. You must now expend what is known as a Storage area Network (SAN). A SAN, which is more expensive and complex, is a disk array capable of connecting to many servers, usually through Fibre Channel. This requires a unique set of hardware, ranging from host bus adapters to the SAN itself. It’s principal that your DBA possess complete knowledge of the internals of the data storage layer.

    Oracle RAC shroud size best practices

    It has become a best drill in RAC to expend a small 2 kilobyte shroud size in order to minimize the “baggage” shipped across the cache fusion layer. Because the shroud size is the unit of work, the smaller the shroud size, the higher the granularity of data being transferred, with less overhead. If you possess long rows (greater than 2 kilobytes), then you will want to slip to a 4 kilobyte shroud size.

    The implementation of a RAC cluster is only the beginning, and it’s captious to constantly monitor the health of your RAC clusters so that you can spot and fix impending problems before you inconvenience your stop users.

    Oracle RAC monitoring best practices

    To ensure that a RAC node never experiences a global problem, a proper monitoring infrastructure is an absolute requirement. RAC databases rarely fail without warning. If the DBA understands the proper metrics to watch, he can create an alert system that notifies him of a looming problem so that he can fix it before the instance crashes.

    The DBA must monitor the cluster, the shared disk setup, ASM (or OCFS), the database instance, listeners, and more in-depth metrics such as cache coherency, interconnect latency, disk times from multiple systems, and a scope of other things.

    While higher-cost performance monitoring tools such as Oracle Grid Control can support discharge rudimentary RAC monitoring for beginners, a RAC DBA should possess the coding skills to build his own RAC monitoring infrastructure using dictionary queries, dbms_scheduler and email alert mechanisms.

    Wrapping up the discussion of Oracle RAC best practices, let’s focus on the best way to define job roles for a RAC database.

    Oracle RAC staffing best practices

    One best drill for RAC databases is to always hire an experienced RAC DBA to manage your cluster, avoiding people who possess had the RAC training but possess no job experience.

    It’s principal to recognize that human resource costs are the most expensive portion of an Oracle shop. Over the decades, hardware costs possess steadily fallen while manpower costs possess remained the same.

    It’s principal to note that Oracle professionals with RAC skills command a hefty premium over an ordinary DBA. A recent Oracle salary survey notes that an tolerable DBA earns about $97,000 per year, whereas RAC experts commonly rate $140,000 a year. Those who manage multi-billion-dollar RAC databases typically command upwards of $250,000 per year.

    Sadly, there is no simple way to “grow your own” RAC DBA. The training courses are very expensive, and there is no substitute for real-world experience. And training your own DBA in RAC may Make him more marketable. It’s not uncommon to spend tens of thousands of dollars teaching RAC to your DBA only to lose him to a better job offer.

    Oracle RAC job role best practices

    There is a perpetual affray between systems administrators (SAs), who traditionally manage servers and disks, and the RAC DBAs who are amenable for managing the RAC database. There are moreover clearly defined job roles for network administrators, who are especially challenged in a RAC database environment to manage the cluster interconnect and packet shipping between servers.

    If your DBA is going to breathe held amenable for the performance of the RAC database, then it’s only honest that he breathe given root access to the servers and disk storage subsystem. However, not every DBA will possess the required computer science skills to manage a knotty server and SAN environment, so each shop makes this conclusion on a case-by-case basis.

    Oracle RAC training best practices

    One of the sure ways to set your company up for an unplanned outage is to fail to train your SA, DBA and network administrator properly. SAN environments fancy EMC, Tagmastore and NetApp possess knotty architectures, and they frequently require training classes.

    Disk configuration is moreover challenging, and RAC will function only when using specific disk setups such as ASM, OCFS, RAW, or a third-party cluster file system. These tools require training classes.

    Network administrators must moreover receive training on how to work with the cluster interconnect, as well as specialized interconnects such as Infiniband and DWDM.

    Of complete those on a RAC staff, DBAs will possess the greatest learning curve. They will possess to understand how to set up and administer complete of the knotty RAC components, including the clusterware and file system storage.


    In summary, while RAC offers continuous availability, it’s not magic. There is a lot of work required to ensure that a RAC database is always available. Every RAC database has some unique properties, but there are some well-known perils and pitfalls as well. Using Oracle RAC best practices from other shops is a must for ensuring success. The vast majority of the best practices with RAC relate to properly planning the infrastructure and configuring and deploying the RAC database.

    About the author:

    Donald K. Burleson is a leading Oracle expert, with more than 25 years of DBA experience. He has authored more than 30 Oracle books, including five officially authorized O books on Oracle tuning. Burleson moreover manages a accepted DBA website,

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    How Garbage Collection Differs in the Three stupendous JVMs | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    (Note: If you’re interested in WebSphere in a production environment, check out Michael's upcoming webinar with The Bon-Ton Stores)

    Most articles about Garbage Collection ignore the fact that the Sun Hotspot JVM is not the only game in town. In fact whenever you possess to work with either IBM WebSphere or Oracle WebLogic you will dash on a different runtime. While the concept of Garbage Collection is the same, the implementation is not and neither are the default settings or how to tune it. This often leads to unexpected problems when running the first load tests or in the worst case when going live. So let’s gawk at the different JVMs, what makes them unique and how to ensure that Garbage Collection is running smooth.

    The Garbage Collection ergonomics of the Sun Hotspot JVMEverybody believes to know how Garbage Collection works in the Sun Hotspot JVM, but lets purchase a closer gawk for the purpose of reference.

    The recollection model of the Sun Hotspot JVM

    The recollection model of the Sun Hotspot JVM

    The Generational HeapThe Hotspot JVM is always using a Generational Heap. Objects are first allocated in the young generation, specifically in the Eden area. Whenever the Eden space is full a young generation garbage collection is triggered. This will copy the few remaining live objects into the blank survivor space. In addition objects that possess been copied to Survivor in the previous garbage collection will breathe checked and the live ones will breathe copied as well. The result is that objects only exist in one survivor, while eden and the other survivor is empty. This contour of Garbage Collection is called copy collection. It is fleet as long as nearly complete objects possess died. In addition allocation is always fleet because no fragmentation occurs. Objects that survive a pair of garbage collections are considered veteran and are promoted into the Tenured/Old space.

    Tenured Generation GCsThe brand and Sweep algorithms used in the Tenured space are different because they upshot not copy objects. As they possess seen in one of my previous posts garbage collection takes longer the more objects are alive. Consequently GC runs in tenured are nearly always expensive which is why they want to avoid them. In order to avoid GCs they necessity to ensure that objects are only copied from Young to veteran when they are permanent and in addition ensure that the tenured does not dash full. Therefore generation sizing is the single most principal optimization for the GC in the Hotspot JVM. If they cannot forestall objects from being copied to Tenured space once in a while they can expend the Concurrent brand and Sweep algorithm which collects objects concurrent to the application.

    Comparision of the different Garbage Collector Strategies

    Comparison of the different Garbage Collector Strategies

    While that shortens the suspensions it does not forestall them and they will occur more frequently. The Tenured space moreover suffers from another problem, fragmentation. Fragmentation leads to slower allocation, longer sweep phases and eventually out of recollection errors when the holes collect too small for stupendous objects.

    Java heap before and after compacting

    Java heap before and after compacting

    This is remedied by a compacting phase. The serial and parallel compacting GC discharge compaction for every GC dash in the Tenured space. principal to note is that, while the parallel GC performs compacting every time, it does not compact the whole Tenured heap but just the area that is worth the effort. Worth the endeavor means when the heap has reached a sure flush of fragmentation. In contrast, the Concurrent brand and Sweep does not compact at all. Once objects cannot breathe allocated anymore a serial major GC is triggered. When choosing the concurrent brand and sweep strategy they possess to breathe alert of that side affect.

    The second stupendous tuning option is therefore the election of the prerogative GC strategy. It has stupendous implications for the repercussion the GC has on the application performance. The ultimate and least known tuning option is around fragmentation and compacting. The Hotspot JVM does not provide a lot of options to tune it, so the only way is to tune the code directly and reduce the number of allocations.

    There is another space in the Hotspot JVM that they complete came to adore over the years, the Permanent Generation. It holds classes and string constants that are portion of those classes. While Garbage Collection is executed in the permanent generation, it only happens during a major GC. You might want to read up what a Major GC actually is, as it does not sordid a veteran Generation GC. Because a major GC does not happen often and mostly nothing happens in the permanent generation, many people assume that the Hotspot JVM does not upshot garbage collection there at all.

    Over the years complete of us dash into many different forms of the OutOfMemory situations in PermGen and you will breathe delighted to hear that Oracle intends to upshot away with it in the future versions of Hotspot.

    Oracle JRockitNow that they had a gawk at Hotspot, let us gawk at the difference in the Oracle JRockit. JRockit is used by Oracle WebLogic Server and Oracle has announced that it will merge it with the Hotspot JVM in the future.

    Heap Strategy

    The biggest difference is the heap strategy itself. While Oracle JRockit does possess a generational heap it moreover supports a so called continuous heap. In addition the generational heap looks different as well.

    Heap of the Oracle JRockit JVM

    Heap of the Oracle JRockit JVM

    The Young space is called Nursery and it only has two areas. When objects are first allocated they are placed in a so called sustain Area. Objects in the sustain area are not considered during garbage collection while complete other objects still alive are immediately promoted to tenured. That has major implications for the sizing of the Nursery. While you can configure how often objects are copied between the two survivors in the Hotspot JVM,  JRockit promotes objects in the second Young Generation GC.

    In addition to this difference JRockit moreover supports a completely continuous heap that does not distinguish between young and veteran objects. In sure situations, fancy throughput orientated batch jobs, this results in better overall performance. The problem is that this is the default setting on a server JVM and often not the prerogative choice. A typical Web Application is not throughput but response time orientated and you will necessity to explicitly pick the low intermission time garbage collection mode or a generational garbage collection strategy.

    Mostly Concurrent brand and SweepIf you pick Concurrent brand and Sweep strategy you should breathe alert about a pair of differences here as well. The mostly concurrent brand facet is divided into four parts:

  • Initial marking, where the root set of live objects is identified. This is done while the Java threads are paused.
  • Concurrent marking, where the references from the root set are followed in order to find and brand the rest of the live objects in the heap. This is done while the Java threads are running.
  • Precleaning, where changes in the heap during the concurrent brand facet are identified and any additional live objects are found and marked. This is done while the Java threads are running.
  • Final marking, where changes during the precleaning facet are identified and any additional live objects are found and marked. This is done while the Java threads are paused.
  • The sweeping is moreover done concurrent to your application, but in contrast to Hotspot in two separate steps. It is first sweeping the first half of the heap. During this facet threads are allowed to earmark objects in the second half. After a short synchronization intermission the second half is sweeped. This is followed by another short final synchronization pause. The JRockit algorithm therefore stops more often than the Sun Hotspot JVM, but the remark facet should breathe shorter. Unlike the Hotspot JVM you can tune the CMS by defining the percentage of free recollection that triggers a GC run.

    CompactingThe JRockit does compacting for complete Tenured Generation GCs, including the Concurrent brand and Sweep. It does so in an incremental mode for portions of the heap. You can tune this with various options fancy percentage of heap that should breathe compacted each time or how many objects are compacted at max. In addition you can turn off compacting completely or force a full one for every GC. This means that compacting is a lot more tunable in the JRockit than in the Hotspot JVM and the optimum depends very much on the application itself and needs to breathe carefully tested.

    Thread Local AllocationHotspot does expend thread local allocation, but it is arduous to find anything in the documentation about it or how to tune it. The JRockit uses this on default. This allows threads to earmark objects without any necessity for synchronization, which is profitable for allocation speed. The size of a TLA can breathe configured and a large TLA can breathe profitable for applications where multiple threads earmark a lot of objects. On the other hand a too large TLA can lead to more fragmentation. As a TLA is used exclusively by one thread, the size is naturally limited by the number of threads. Thus both decreasing and increasing the default can breathe respectable or sinister depending on your applications architecture.

    Large and small objectsThe JRockit differentiates between large and small objects during allocation. The restrict for when an protest is considered large depends on the JVM version, the heap size, the garbage collection strategy and the platform used. It is usually somewhere between 2 and 128 KB. large objects are allocated outside thread local area in in case of a generational heap directly in the veteran generation. This makes a lot of sense when you start thinking about it. The young generation uses a copy ccollection. At some point copying an protest becomes more expensive than traversing it in ever garbage collection.

    No permanent GenerationAnd finally it needs to breathe eminent that the JRockit does not possess a permanent generation. complete classes and string constants are allocated within the routine heap area. While that makes life easier on the configuration front it means that classes can breathe garbage collected immediately if not used anymore. In one of my future posts I will illustrate how this can lead to some arduous to find performance problems.

    The IBM JVMThe IBM JVM shares a lot of characteristics with JRockit: The default heap is a continuous one. Especially in WebSphere installation this is often the initial occasions for sinister performance. It differentiates between large and small objects with the same implications and uses thread local allocation on default. It moreover does not possess a permanent generation, but while the IBM JVM moreover supports a generational heap model it looks more fancy Sun’s rather than JRockit.

    The IBM JVM generational heap

    The IBM JVM generational heap

    Allocate and Survivor act fancy Eden and Survivor of the Sun JVM. newfangled objects are allocated in one area and copied to the other on garbage collection. In contrast to JRockit the two areas are switched upon gc. This means that an protest is copied multiple times between the two areas before it gets promoted to Tenured. fancy JRockit the IBM JVM has more options to tune the compaction phase. You can turn it off or force it to happen for every GC. In contrast to JRockit the default triggers it due to a series of triggers but will then lead to a full compaction. This can breathe changed to an incremental one via a configuration flag.

    ConclusionWe remark that while the three JVMs are essentially trying to achieve the same goal, they upshot so via different strategies. This leads to different behaviour that needs tuning. With Java 7 Oracle will finally declare the G1 (Garbage First) production ready and the G1 is a different beast altogether, so stay tuned.

    If you’re interested in hearing me discuss more about WebSphere in a production environment, then check out their upcoming webinar with The Bon-Ton Stores. I’ll breathe joined by Dan Gerard, VP of Technical & Web Services at Bon-Ton, to discuss the challenges they’ve overcome in operating a knotty Websphere production eCommerce site to deliver powerful web application performance and user experience. Reserve your seat today to hear me recede into more detail about Websphere and production eCommerce environments.

    Related reading:

  • The repercussion of Garbage Collection on Java performance // In my ultimate post I explained what a major...
  • Major GCs – Separating Myth from Reality In a recent post they possess shown how the Java...
  • JDK6 Update 23 changes CMS Collection counters Stefan Frandl, Test Automation Team Lead at dynaTrace, recently tested...
  • The Top Java recollection Problems – portion 1 // recollection and Garbage Collection problems are still the most...
  • Troubleshooting response time problems – why you cannot trust your system metrics // Production Monitoring is about ensuring the stability and health...

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