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Due for a ultimate release this June, Novell NetWare 6.5 has entered open beta testing, finished with wait on for standard open source applications similar to Apache and MySQL.
Novell began beta trying out MySQL under NetWare final yr as a section of the business's efforts to position the community operating system as a workable platform for internet construction. The software kit, together dubbed NetWare AMP, features Hypertext Preprocessor and Perl language assist.
"NetWare brings shoppers closer to at least one web, the space counsel is devoid of boundaries, and every user has the preempt tools to finish his or her job where and when it must live completed," mentioned Novell CEO Jack Messman.
Code-named Nakoma, NetWare 6.5 additionally comprises the enterprise's prolong Java utility server, and Novell "virtual office" for organizing industry supplies by means of the web. Novell DirXML makes it workable for NetWare users to synchronize suggestions across different structures the consume of industry ordinary XML.
"NetWare 6.5 product enhancements enhance productiveness, expand clients' attain into the market and provide censorious savings in administration and hardware, whereas keeping the access, administration, reliability and safety of the award-profitable NetWare 6," pointed out Messman.
The Nakoma beta is attainable for download freed from can permeate after registering on Novell's net web site. Downloads include two ISO images that believe to live burned to CDs. Novell asks beta users to ship the company an e-mail with opinions on the upcoming unlock.
Pricing and packaging particulars of NetWare 6.5 haven't yet been announced.
NetWare 6.5 comprises iManager 2.0, a web-based tool for administering, managing, and configuring NetWare items, features, and eDirectory objects. iManager permits function-based mostly features (RBS) to provide you with a routine to focal point the person on a designated set of tasks and objects as decided with the aid of the user's position(s). What clients descry once they access iManager is in accordance with their position assignments in eDirectory.
iManager has been re-architected to consume Novell's prolong net capabilities platform, and is in effect a administration portal for Novell's items and functions. It runs on the Apache net server for NetWare. For greater suggestions on Apache internet server for NetWare, descry Chapter 9.
As you're going to see, many of the default administration tasks previously requiring ConsoleOne can now live completed through a typical internet interface with iManager. amongst other things, that you would live able to outline management roles to manage Novell Licensing features (NLS), iPrint, DNS/DHCP functions, and duty eDirectory remonstrate management. Over time, iManager will develop to exchange ConsoleOne absolutely as Novell's preferred management platform.installing iManager
In some NetWare 6.5 installations and patterns, iManager will not live save in automatically. if you didn't select to install iManager totality the way through the server setting up, it may too live manually re-put in via Deployment supervisor or the graphical server console. To deploy iManager by way of Deployment supervisor, finished here steps:
make inevitable you're logged in as a person with administrative rights to eDirectory and the NetWare server.
at the laptop, insert the NetWare 6.5 working system CD-ROM. run Deployment supervisor (NWDEPLOY.EXE) from the basis of the CD-ROM.
In Deployment manager, select deploy NetWare 6.5 items in the left pane, and click on far flung Product deploy within the birthright pane.
choose the target server from the listing of attainable servers, and then click next. provide admin user guidance when requested.
on the components monitor, select iManager 2.0 and Apache 2 web Server and Tomcat 4 Servlet Container and click subsequent. live sure totality other items are deselected. totality of the quintessential software information should live copied to the goal server. This may rob a few minutes. You could deserve to restart these services manually from the server console. To finish that, cease Tomcat by typing TC4STOP and obviate Apache with the aid of typing AP2WEBDN. Restart the capabilities through typing AP2WEBUP to restart Apache and TOMCAT4 to restart Tomcat.
on the setting up finished screen, click Reset Apache to restart Tomcat and the Apache net server. nigh Deployment supervisor once the setting up is finished.
as soon as the files believe been save in on the server, the extend atmosphere by which iManager runs should live configured. To operate this preliminary configuration, finished birthright here steps:
Open a browser and Go to birthright here URL:http://<server IP address>/nps/servlet/configure.
click the start button.
deliver the LDAP appellation of an Admin user for the eDirectory tree in which the server resides. consume commas (,) in its space of periods (.) in featuring the unusual appellation of the admin person object.
choose the PLATFORM.XAR file and click next.
settle for the Novell extend Director four.1 license agreement through making a election on I settle for the phrases of the License agreement, and click subsequent.
choose custom installation and click next.
Specify the portal remonstrate to work with and click on next. that you would live able to select an current remonstrate or settle to create a brand unique one. You should live asked to specify a exotic appellation and password for the article.
at the Configuration screen, click Configure to set up the portal remonstrate in eDirectory. totality of the portal modules to live configured should live listed.
as soon as the configuration has been written to eDirectory, and the portal remonstrate created, restart Tomcat and Apache 2 on the server console. To finish this, stop Tomcat by means of typing TC4STOP and forestall Apache with the aid of typing AP2WEBDN. Restart the functions through typing AP2WEBUP to restart Apache and TOMCAT4 to restart Tomcat.
you could now open iManager from its URL, using either HTTP or HTTPS, at <server IP handle>.iManager.html. You might live required to authenticate to live able to entry iManager, and may believe entry to best those facets to which you believe got rights. For complete entry to totality iManager facets, authenticate as a person with Supervisory rights to the eDirectory tree (see determine 3.4).
figure 3.4 The iManager 2.0 domestic page.
that you could too open iManager in basic mode (see determine three.5), proper for compliance with Federal accessibility guidelines. It provides the same functionality as bona fide mode, however with an interface optimized for accessibility by way of those with disabilities (as an example, extended menus for blind clients who depend upon spoken commands). to consume elementary mode, with no catastrophe exchange iManager.html with standard.html within the iManager URL. for instance:https://www.quills.com/nps/standard.html
figure three.5 The iManager 2.0 home web page in essential mode.
the usage of both interface, you could believe entry to simplest these elements to which you've got rights. For complete entry to totality iManager aspects, authenticate as a person with Supervisory rights to the eDirectory tree.iManager basics
As proven in determine 3.three, iManager is organized into three leading sections, or frames:
Header frame: The Header frame is located on the birthright of the reveal. It incorporates hyperlinks to the home, Roles and projects, Configuration, and wait on pages, as well as an Exit link to shut the browser window.
Navigation body: The Navigation frame is located on the left facet of the reveal. It permits you to navigate among the many quite a few management tasks or directory objects, reckoning on the view that is chosen. What you descry is additionally confined by means of the rights of your authenticated identity.
main content material body: The leading content frame occupies the middle-correct of the reveal. if you befall to select a link within the Header or Navigation frames, the acceptable web page can live displayed in universal content material frame.
in case you ever descry the searching Glass icon next to a container in iManager, which you can consume it to browse or search the tree for particular objects to accomplish consume of in developing, defining, and assigning roles.role-based administration with iManager
role-based mostly features allow administrators to apportion clients a bunch of specific set of services, or tasks, into role objects. When users are assigned a given position, what they descry once they access Novell iManager is based on their position assignments. handiest the projects assigned to the authenticated user are displayed. The position-based functions purchasable through iManager are represented by objects in eDirectory. the remonstrate types consist of
RBS collection: A container remonstrate that holds totality RBS position and task objects for an eDirectory tree. You specify the location for this remonstrate throughout NetWare 6.5 installing.
RBS position: Specifies the tasks that clients (contributors) are licensed to operate. Defining a task contains developing an RBS role remonstrate and linking it to the initiatives that the duty can function. RBS roles will too live created most effectual in an RBS assortment container.
RBS Module: A container internal of the RBS collection that organizes available RBS task objects into useful organizations. RBS modules assist you to apportion clients accountability for selected functionality inside a product or service.
RBS assignment: Represents a particular feature, such as resetting login passwords. RBS assignment objects can live organize best in RBS Module containers.
RBS Scope: Represents the context in the tree where a task should live performed, and is associated with RBS duty objects. This remonstrate is dynamically created when crucial, and immediately deleted when no longer vital.
by no means alternate the configuration of an RBS Scope object. Doing so can believe very censorious consequences and could probably damage the device.Configuring function-primarily based services
all over the iManager installation, the schema of your eDirectory tree become extended to support the RBS remonstrate forms targeted up to now. It too created an RBS collection container in your position-based capabilities and installed the iManager plug-ins to wait on totality at the minute available product applications. besides the fact that children, that you can complete these tasks manually from iManager, if necessary.
To deploy RBS schema extensions, finished birthright here steps in iManager:
choose the Configure button.
under RBS Configuration, opt for extend Schema.
select ok to add the brand unique role-primarily based features schema extensions to the tree. if you pick up a message that the schema extensions believe been in the past save in, you're first rate to move.
To create the RBS collection container, comprehensive birthright here steps:
select the Configure button.
below collection Configuration, select Create collection.
within the Create assortment monitor, enter the requested information and select adequate.
To installation product applications, complete here steps in iManager:
select the Configure button.
beneath RBS Configuration, select Configure iManager. This launches the iManager configuration wizard.
on the obtainable alternate options reveal, select upgrade Collections and click on next.
opt for the collection remonstrate with which you want to work and click on subsequent.
Modules to live save in: Specify totality RBS modules you desire linked to the collection.
Scope: Specify the container for which the unique duty assignments, which could live created for the modules you are installation, might live active.
Inheritable: Specifies even if the position rights will circulate down to totality containers beneath the specific scope.
supply the censorious tips and click birth.
click on shut once the supersede system has accomplished. this will recrudesce you to the iManager Configure monitor.
In most situations you might not should finish this manually, however its first-rate to know the way it's carried out...simply in case.Defining RBS Roles
RBS roles specify the initiatives that users are approved to function. The initiatives that RBS roles can duty are uncovered as RBS project objects in eDirectory. RBS projects are created instantly birthright through the installing of product packages. they are organized into one or more RBS Module containers, every of which corresponds to a special type of functionality within the product.
Create and apportion a task remonstrate through finishing the following steps in iManager:
choose the Configure button.
under position Configuration, select Create iManager role. select Create eGuide position in case you want to define a job inevitable to eGuide administration.
function name: Specify a reputation for the position object.
collection: Specify a collection to hang the item.
(not obligatory) Description: Enter a role description, if desired.
in the appellation monitor, enter the requested assistance and click subsequent.
From the totality projects box, opt for those initiatives that may still live assigned to the position you are developing and click on the rectify arrow to movement them to the Assigned tasks box. click on next.
Specify the eDirectory objects and scopes for the position you're creating and click on Add. you can opt for varied objects to occupy the position, and numerous scopes for each and every object. The scope specifies the container at which the duty should live energetic in the directory tree. as soon as totality objects and scopes were defined, click on subsequent.
overview the position summary, and click on finish to create the unique position object.
as soon as created, that you may alter RBS roles via finishing the following steps in iManager:
opt for the Configure button.
beneath role Configuration, select alter iManager function. opt for regulate eGuide position if you requisite to modify an eGuide-specific position.
Make the favored assignment or position occupant alterations. click on regulate projects to add or pick up rid of projects from the function. click regulate contributors to add or remove occupants from the position, or alternate the scope of an latest position occupant.
To delete any RBS remonstrate from your tree, comprehensive birthright here steps in iManager:
opt for the Configure button.
under the preempt RBS remonstrate heading, select Delete <object type>.
Specify the entire identify and context of the RBS remonstrate you wish to delete and click on ok.
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This chapter, from Upgrading and Repairing Networks, 5e, looks at the network's ratiocinative and physical design to assist your planning when creating a unique network.This chapter is from the bespeak
Many types of networks were discussed in Chapter 1, "A Short History of Computer Networking," from ARPANET to TCP/IP. And in Chapter 2, "Overview of Network Topologies," you learned about the various topologies you can employ when designing and creating a local area network (LAN), and they too looked at some scenarios in which several networks were connected to figure a wide area network (WAN). In this chapter, they will celebrate at another aspect of creating a network: the network's ratiocinative and physical design. The physical aspects of your LAN will depend on the underlying physical transport technology—Ethernet or Token-Ring, for example, or possibly ATM, which is supported as a LAN protocol in products such as Windows 2000/XP, Windows Server 2003, and Linux. Depending on which technology you use, there will live one or more LAN topologies from which to choose.
Before you can open to design a physical network, however, you first must determine your needs. What services must you provide to your user community? What are the resources you'll need? If you believe to compromise, what will it rob to meet the most users or to provide the more notable services? You then will believe to rob into account network protocols, applications, network speed, and, most important, network security issues; each of these figures into a network's ratiocinative design. Another notable factor your management will probably constrain you to respect is cost—you can't forget the budget. These factors accomplish up the ratiocinative design for your network. You first should settle what you requisite and what it will rob to provide for those needs.
If you are creating a unique network and purchasing unique applications, you will probably spend most of your time considering the licensing and other fiscal costs (training users, network personnel, and so on). If you are upgrading older applications, several other factors Come into consideration. Many applications that were coded using COBOL, BASIC, FORTRAN, and other languages that helped jumpstart the computer age may believe built-in network functionality based on older proprietary network protocols. If this is the case with your network, you believe to respect several things. What will it cost to update thousands of lines of code (or more) to more modern versions of the same programming language? What will it cost to upgrade these programs to newer object-oriented languages? To save money, can you upgrade section of your network and consume gateway hardware/software to connect to older network components?
Because of the costs associated with coding applications that were created many years ago, and the expenses that will live required to update them to modern programming languages, you may live forced to maintain legacy applications for a few years while replacement applications are designed and created. You may find a packaged application that can live used to supersede older programs. This problem will apply mostly to proprietary computer architectures, instead of Windows or Unix platforms. If you can simply accomplish minor changes and compile the source code so that it will run on a newer operating system, your costs will live much less than if you believe to re-create the applications your users requisite from scratch. Another cost associated with upgrading to unique programs is training users and help-desk personnel.
When you draw a ratiocinative network design, you can start from one of two places. You can design and install a unique network from scratch, or you can upgrade an existing network. Either way, you should accumulate information about several notable factors before you open the ratiocinative design. For example, depending on the services that will live provided to clients, you might requisite to resolve the workable traffic patterns that might result from your plan. Locate potential bottlenecks and, where possible, alleviate them by providing multiple paths to resources or by putting up servers that provide replicas of notable data so that load balancing can live provided. The following are other factors to consider:
This seems like a very simple question. However, I'm not saying, "What are your clients' names and how well finish you know their children?" I am referring instead to your erudition of the job descriptions for the users on the network. You requisite to assess work patterns for various departments so that you can appropriately space servers, high-bandwidth links, and other such things in the preempt physical location of the network. If most of the network traffic you expect to descry will Come from the engineering department, you'll requisite to provide that department with a big data pipe. In Chapter 4, "Upgrading Strategies and Project Management," you'll find more information about surveying the user community to Come up with a draw that places resources where they are needed.What Kinds of Services or Applications Will the Network Offer?
Of course, everyone knows that the most notable duty of a network today is to support multiuser gaming. Seriously, though, you requisite to accomplish a list of the kinds of applications currently in use, as well as a list of those requested by users. Each application should believe a written risk assessment document that points out potential security problems, if any. Typical network applications today include FTP, telnet, and, of course, browsing the Web. There are "secure" versions of these applications and there are versions that leave a door wide open into your network. Whatever list of applications you chose to support over the network, sustain in intellect two things:
A commonly overlooked routine for getting data files out of a network and onto the Internet is to simply ship the files as an attachment to an email. So if you contemplate you've blocked file transfers by disabling FTP access through the firewall, this case should display that you really finish requisite to finish a thorough evaluation of any unique application or service you will allow on the network. unique applications should live justified with facts that display why they are needed. If an existing application can live used to accomplish the same goal, why finish you requisite another application? Should you retire the older application and consume a newer one? Pay attention to the details. And don't forget to test unique applications to ensure that they perform as expected. The same goes for older applications—will they work on the unique or upgraded network?
Lastly, finish you monitor network usage? finish you want to permit users to spend their days browsing the Net, or checking personal email while at work? Many companies believe policies that apply to using the telephone for personal business. finish you overlook this situation when giving users email capability? Are you preventing access to sites that are obviously not business-related?What Degree of Reliability finish I Require for Each Network Link?
Just how much downtime is acceptable? For most users, the respond would live zero. notable components of your network, such as file servers, should believe failing tolerance built in from the bottom up. In big servers, you'll find dual-redundant power supplies (each connected to a separate UPS), and disk arrays set up using RAID techniques to provide for data integrity in the event that a disk goes south. If a link between two offices needs to live up 100% of the time, you should draw for multiple links between the two sites to provide a backup capability. In this case, you too can justify the cost of the extra link by using load balancing so that network response time is improved. And, if you are using multiple links to remote sites, it's always a excellent understanding to believe more than a single path to the site. At one site this author worked at, there were redundant power lines bringing electricity into the site—side-by-side. If a tree falls, will it bring down one or both of those power lines?
Another technology that can live used to provide an extra layer of redundancy, as well as high-speed access to storage devices, is the Storage area Network (SAN). A SAN is a network that is separate from the LAN and contains only storage devices and servers that requisite to access those devices. Because the network bandwidth is not shared with LAN users, multiple servers can access the same storage. If one server fails, other servers can live configured to provide redundant access to the data. Also, the same RAID and other redundancy techniques used for storage devices that are directly attached to a server (such as the SCSI hardware and protocols) can live used on a SAN.
The terms RAID and UPS are notable in today's networks, as is the concept of load balancing and dual-redundant power supplies in big networks. You can find out more about RAID (Redundant Array Of Independent Disks) and UPSs (uninterruptible power supplies) by reading Chapter 5, "Protecting the Network: Preventative Maintenance Techniques." For more information about SANs, descry Chapter 11.
The traditional epigram "If it ain't broke, don't fix it" doesn't apply to networks. You should always live proactively looking for potential single points of failure and doing something to fix them. By pile redundancy into the network design at the start, you'll save yourself a lot of grief in the future.
Chapter 5 can give you more suggestions about using clustering, backups, uninterruptible power supplies, and other techniques that can sustain the network up and running.Choosing a LAN Protocol
Today the de facto protocol of election has to live TCP/IP. However, other protocols believe their space in some vertical markets. In this book, they talk about NetWare. NetWare has been around so long that you might find you believe no election when designing an upgrade but to sustain using IPX/SPX, depending on the applications your network uses. However, even NetWare has moved toward using TCP/IP as the underlying protocol. This is basically the case for version 5.x and 6.x of NetWare. Older NetWare networks should upgrade, if possible, to one of these newer versions. If you will live connecting the network to the Internet, TCP/IP will live a necessity. Even if you don't expect to believe an Internet connection, you'll find that choosing TCP/IP is a more practical election today because most applications work with it and there is a big market of trained professionals who can live hired to manage a network built on TCP/IP. NetWare 6.x provides backward compatibility with IPX/SPX for the most part, but newer features such as the iPrint—which uses the Internet Printing Protocol—require TCP/IP.
In addition to transport protocols such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX, you must respect application protocols that can live used on the network. For example, to simplify administering configuration information for a big number of computers, you might want to consume the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), which is discussed in Chapter 28, "BOOTP and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)." If you want to provide a central appellation resolution service, you might select the Domain appellation Service (DNS), which is covered in Chapter 29, "Network appellation Resolution." If you are going to operate a Windows network that has pre–Windows 2000/XP clients, you might requisite to consume the Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) for backward compatibility.
So when thinking about a network protocol, recollect that it's not just one protocol you requisite to worry about. After you've decided which protocols are necessary, research the security implications of each.It's Virtually Universal: TCP/IP
For totality practical purposes, the standard LAN protocol today is TCP/IP. This is partly due to the rapid growth of the Internet, and the necessity of most businesses of having a Web presence, as well as the big number of vendors that believe adopted this protocol suite. If your LAN is still using an older proprietary network protocol, you should seriously respect what it would rob to upgrade to TCP/IP. Currently, TCP/IP version 4 is the most widely used protocol. In the future you can expect that the next version (IPv6) will start to find its way from the core of the Internet out to the edge, where your network resides. While technologies such as Network Address Translation (NAT) are widely employed to remedy the problem associated with the limited address space provided by IPv4, IPv6 will enable a much larger address space. Combine that with Network Address Translation, and the long-term bets are going to live on IPv6, or possibly some of the features that are section of IPv6. In addition to giving you a larger address space, IPv6 includes other notable features. Those that will touch your network the most are security mechanisms, which will only become more notable as Internet commerce continues to grow.
For a minute introduction to TCP/IP, descry Chapter 24, "Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite"; Chapter 25, "Basic TCP/IP Services and Applications"; and Chapter 27, "Troubleshooting Tools for TCP/IP Networks."
There is one very notable judgement you should respect TCP/IP as a LAN protocol: There are more trained professionals knowledgeable in TCP/IP than any other LAN protocol at this time. It is enthralling to note that in Windows NT 3.51, the default network protocol was Microsoft's implementation of IPX/SPX (NWLink). In Windows NT 4.0 (and successive operating systems, from Windows 2000, XP, and Server 2003), the default network protocol is TCP/IP.
If your network is composed of several operating systems, from Windows to NetWare to Unix and Linux, then the bottom line is that TCP/IP is the lowest common denominator that will allow the easiest connectivity and interaction between totality of these. Even Microsoft's now-legacy NetBIOS/NetBEUI protocols believe been adapted to run over TCP/IP.Novell's NetWare Version 6.5
NetWare was perhaps the first attempt at seriously providing a LAN protocol that was easy to use. The basic file and print services offered by early versions of NetWare were much better than other solutions available at that time. After it became established in the industry community, NetWare became the network solution of election in many industry environments that used the PC. Microsoft countered this success with its LANManager products, which were too marketed by other vendors in their own way, such as the Pathworks solution from Digital gear Corporation.
Today NetWare is a totally revamped solution to LAN connectivity. It provides many unique features that are addressed to specifically accomplish consume of the Internet, and allow mobile users to connect to their home networks, as well as to enable NetWare users to accomplish connections to outside networks. For example, the iPrint feature enables NetWare users to print to a printer on a remote network. For example, instead of sending a catalog that may live out of date in a month or so, you can consume iPrint to periodically ship specific information germane to each customer, by printing it directly to the customer's printer.
And NetWare's iFolder allows mobile users to synchronize data stored on remote computers (such as a laptop computer) with the data stored on the company's network. Microsoft and other vendors present similar features. However, the point to recollect is that if you already are a NetWare user, you don't believe to throw out your existing investment and saunter to a Microsoft network, or even a Unix/Linux environment. NetWare has changed as the market has changed, and you might find it less expensive to upgrade to NetWare 6.5 than to migrate to another platform. The bottom line involves not just the cost of migrating to another operating system, but the costs involved with retraining your network administrative personnel in unique technology.
Because NetWare 6.5 is so tightly integrated with the IP protocol, and too offers backward compatibility with IPX/SPX, admins for existing NetWare networks should respect upgrading to NetWare 6.5 as well as considering other options.
If you want to saunter to Linux, Novell makes it easy by incorporating an enhanced version of NetWare 6.5 and SuSE Linux into its Novell Open Enterprise Server. Open Enterprise Server supports both Linux and NetWare-specific software and features, enabling you to saunter to Linux gradually.Other LAN/WAN Protocols
The distinction between LAN and WAN (wide area networking) protocols is genesis to blur. Ethernet was once considered to live a LAN protocol. As time has passed, other technologies, such as Token-Ring, believe become minor players in the LAN world. Yet the contradictory is unbiased of Ethernet. It has grown from a modest specification endorsed by Intel, DEC, and other vendors, such that it now can live considered a WAN protocol. The capabilities introduced by current LAN technologies are genesis to erode the differences between a LAN and a MAN (metropolitan area network). When the fourth edition of this bespeak was published, Gigabit Ethernet was starting to descend into the inexpensive scope of network topologies. That trend has continued and now 10Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) is frequently being used in enterprise data centers. Today you may live using 100BASE-T for connecting client computers to the network, and Gigabit Ethernet to connect network segments via the network backbone. In some cases your network might even live exclusively based on 10GbE.
What does this signify to a network administrator today? With 10Gigabit Ethernet, you can consume TCP/IP not only to create a local area network backbone, but to extend that achieve to a metropolitan area network. And because TCP/IP is so intertwined with Ethernet, you can achieve an end-to-end MAN link that uses TCP/IP over faster Ethernet connections. Instead of employing more expensive solutions, such as SONET, you can now connect offshoot offices in the same geographical area using just TCP/IP.
You may not believe to worry about installing expensive gear used by SONET and other typical MAN protocols. Still, for the long haul—for example, between different cities—other protocols such as ATM and Frame Relay will Come into play.
For more information about SONET, ATM, and Frame Relay, descry Chapter 15, "Dedicated Connections."
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EUC with HCI: Why It Matters
In their previous tutorial, they looked at the various IPv6 test networks that believe been established around the world to accumulate deployment suffer with the unique protocol. But test networks are just that – testing – and if it's your reward on the line, you want to accomplish sure that the key vendors that support your network are too tuned in with the latest IPv6 enhancements.
But first, recall that the enhancements with IPv6 can live generalized in two categories. First are those that support the routing (or packet forwarding) process, including larger address formats (which impact routing table size and structure); improvements to the routing protocols, such as the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and the Open Shortest First Protocol (OSPF), to support these larger addresses; and support for the optional extension headers, including the Routing Header, which can streamline the packet forwarding process.
The second category of enhancements deal with the those that support the host (or computing) infrastructure, including the Stateless Autoconfiguration process (plug and play), enhancements to the Domain appellation System (DNS), brought on by the larger addresses; updates to the Application Programming Interfaces, or APIs, and upgraded Security, just to appellation a few.
With these two broad categories in mind, let's explore how far the networking industry has gone to embrace the IPv6 technology, and descry how some of the key networking vendors include support for IPv6 in their products.Apple Computer
Apple Computer's OS X operating system has an open source, UNIX-based architecture, which incorporates the advanced BSD networking functions, including advanced sockets and TCP/IP stack. Support for both IPv6 and IPsec is provided in the OS X 10.2 and later releases (see Apple Developer Connection: Networking and Mac OS X Technology Overview PDF - 2.7 MB).Cisco Systems
Cisco has been instrumental in the evolution and support for IPv6, introducing IPv6 in IOS version 12. This support is spread across their product line, and is so extensive that there are voluminous tables in the Cisco documentation that detail which IPv6 features are supported in each platform and release of IOS 12. The IPv6 features include: Neighbor Discovery, Stateless Autoconfiguration, MTU Path Discovery, Automatic and Configured tunneling, updated routing protocols, including RIPng, BGP extensions for IPv6, IS-IS support for IPv6 and OSPFv3, traffic shaping, many options for transmitting IPv6 packets over LANs, MANs and WANs, and others (see Cisco Systems IPv6).Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard's support of IPv6 can live traced to the Digital gear Corporation (DEC) assets that they acquired when they merged with Compaq Computer Corporation a few years ago. DEC was on the forefront of the IPv6 development, and those efforts are now evident in the HP-UX11i release that supports IPv6, and runs over Ethernet, FDDI and Infiniband links. The supported IPv6 features include Path Maximum Transmission Unit (PMTU) Discovery, Stateless Autoconfiguration, Automatic and Configured tunnels, IPv4/IPv6 dual stack protocols, basic and advanced sockets application programming interfaces (APIs) and others (see HP-UX 11i Internet Protocol version 6).Hitachi
Hitachi's GR2000 carrier-class gigabit routers support IPv6, at forwarding rates of up to 26 Mpps (millions of packets per second) and line rates up to OC-48 (2.4 Gbps). The systems are based upon custom Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), which support a dual stack IPv4/IPv6 architecture, with Stateless Autoconfiguration, packet filtering, trait of Service (QoS) capabilities with DiffServ (Differentiated Services), IPv6 routing and support for Static, RIPng, OSPFv3 and BGP4+ protocols, IPv6 over IPv4 and IPv4 over IPv6 tunneling, and others (see Hitachi GR2000 Hardware-Based IPv6 Routers - PDF 877 KB).IBM
IBM has supported IPv6 since 1997, with the release of an IPv6-enabled AIX system. Since that time, IBM has continued to add IPv6 capabilities to its products, including DB2 for Linux, Unix and Windows v9.1; IBM HTTP Server v6.0.2; Lotus Notes v7.0; Netcool/Precision for IP Networks; Tivoli Access Manager for Operating Systems v6.0; WebSphere Application Server v6.0.2; and others (see IPv6 at IBM).Linux
The Universal Playground for IPv6 (USAGI) Project is a collaborative trouble run by volunteers to deliver both IPv6 and IPsec (IP security, for both IPv4 and IPv6) protocols for the Linux system. This project was undertaken to rectify other Linux implementations that were organize to believe bugs and not live in conformance with the IPv6 specifications. This release supports Linux kernel tree 2.6, and includes improvements to the kernel, libraries and applications (see USAGI Linux IPv6 evolution Project).Microsoft
Support for IPv6 is built into many of the Windows operating system versions, including Windows Server 2003, Windows XP (Service Packs 1 or 2), Windows CE .NET, Windows Vista, and Windows Server Code appellation "Longhorn". Much of Microsoft's efforts cater to the application evolution community, with Windows Sockets and .NET framework programming tools, plus strategies for an systematic transition from IPv4 to IPv6 (see Microsoft TechNet IPv6).Nortel Networks
Nortel Networks' has substantial suffer in IPv6, dating to their acquisition of Bay Networks' router products in the late 1990s. Nortel's latest generation Ethernet Routing Switch 8600 provides terabit performance and wire speed support for IPv6. Release 4.1 supports Neighbor Discovery, Stateless Autoconfiguration, OSPFv3, DNS extensions to support IPv6, IPv6 Multicast, IPv4 to IPv6 Tunneling, and other features (see Nortel Ethernet Routing Switch 8600 - PDF 468 KB).Novell
IP on NetWare, available with NetWare 6.5, enables NetWare applications such as NDS and Winsock to consume IPv6 as a native transport protocol over the NetWare server platform. The IPv6 constituent functions as an add-on component to the existing TCP/IP protocol stack (using a dual IPv4/IPv6 protocol stack architecture), with IPv6 over Ethernet at the Data Link Layer. IPv6 functions that are supported include Neighbor Discovery, Stateless Address Autoconfiguration, the Basic Socket Interface Extensions, the Transmission Mechanisms for hosts and routers, Automatic and Configured tunneling, and others (see Novell NetWare 6.5 - PDF 621 KB).Sun Microsystems
Sun's Solaris 10 operating system includes support for key IPv6 specifications and programming interfaces, with the added profit of an integrated IP Security (IPsec) implementation, with Internet Key Exchange (IKE), which enables systems to connect using encryption and authentication. Other Solaris elements support the IPv6 infrastructure, including the Sun Java Enterprise System, mail server, web server, Network File Server (NFS), Domain appellation System server and application server. The system too supports dual stack tunneling, including IPv4 over IPv6 and IPv6 over IPv4 (see Solaris 10 Operating System).
The above list should pick up you started, but live sure to check with your specific vendors to understand their plane of support for IPv6 in greater detail. Their next tutorial will examine IPv6 network implementation, and examine strategies that you should respect as you upgrade your network to support the unique protocol.
Author's BiographyMark A. Miller, P.E. is President of DigiNet Corporation, a Denver-based consulting engineering firm. He is the author of many books on networking technologies, including Implementing IPv6, and the Internet Technologies Handbook, both published by John Wiley & Sons.
Article courtesy of Enterprise IT Planet, copyright 2007 DigiNet Corporation, totality Rights Reserved
Mark A. Miller, P.E. is President of DigiNetB. Corporation, a Denver-based consulting engineering firm. He is the author of many books on networking technologies, including Voice over IP Technologies, and Internet Technologies Handbook, both published by John Wiley & Sons.
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