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050-695 Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation :eDirectory 8.8

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050-695 exam Dumps Source : Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation :eDirectory 8.8

Test Code : 050-695
Test denomination : Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation :eDirectory 8.8
Vendor denomination : Novell
: 70 actual Questions

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Novell Novell eDirectory Design and

CNA watch at book: Novell eDirectory | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

David Clarke covers eDirectory checking out ambitions for Novell path 3001: Foundations of Novell Networking.

This chapter is from the engage 

This chapter covers birthright here checking out pursuits for Novell route 3001: Foundations of Novell Networking:

  • identify fundamental listing provider initiatives.

  • identify commonplace listing service uses.

  • Describe how a directory is structured.

  • identify the office and merits of eDirectory.

  • determine how eDirectory 8.6 works.

  • determine and describe the composition of eDirectory.

  • determine and describe eDirectory expostulate classes.

  • establish the inch and design of the eDirectory tree.

  • NetWare 6 introduces eDirectory 8.6, the gold standard edition to this point of Novell's world-category directory carrier.

    eDirectory is the world's main listing service. It provides a unifying, move-platform infrastructure for managing, securing, getting access to, and developing outright fundamental add-ons of your community. eDirectory scales to the biggest community environments, including the information superhighway. since it is in keeping with the X.500 ordinary, eDirectory helps lightweight listing access Protocol (LDAP), Hypertext transfer Protocol (HTTP), and the Java programming ambiance.

    eDirectory can retain and manipulate hundreds of thousands of objects in a seamless ballet of communications. It also provides the basis network provider for outright NetWare servers and community substances. definitely, after community communications, it is the most basic community service offered by NetWare 6.

    With outright this in mind, i'm sure you would coincide that eDirectory management is one in every of your key tasks as a Novell CNA (licensed community Administrator). during this chapter, you will explore four vital instructions related to eDirectory management:

  • Introduction to listing capabilities—you're going to originate with a short introduction to the fundamentals of directory features, together with some commonplace uses and the way a listing is structured.

  • understanding eDirectory eight.6—you then'll explore the architecture of Novell eDirectory version eight.6 and evaluate it to its predecessor, Novell directory functions (NDS).

  • the usage of eDirectory Objects—you're going to dig into the fundamentals at the back of eDirectory's three forms of objects: the Tree object, container objects, and leaf objects.

  • implementing eDirectory 8.6 Naming—ultimately, you will find out about naming conventions utilized in eDirectory, including naming context rules and inheritance.

  • As that you can see, there's a whole lot to learn in this chapter and when or not it's outright achieved, you're going to be an completed eDirectory administrator. So, let's accumulate outright started!

    check aims lined:

  • establish simple listing service projects.

  • establish usual directory carrier uses.

  • Describe how a directory is structured.

  • establish the role and benefits of eDirectory.

  • The directory carrier is one of the most simple community functions supplied by way of outright NetWare 6 servers. truly, it represents the communications hub for administrative connectivity between outright servers in a huge NetWare 6 community. As such, directory carrier management is one among your key responsibilities as the community administrator.

    As its denomination implies, the directory carrier gives access to a database, known as eDirectory, that incorporates outright components for the total community. This object-oriented database is organized into a hierarchical constitution called the tree. eDirectory offers the simple basis for the directory provider, together with capabilities for replication and distribution. listing is capitalized in this case to differentiate it from the listing (or folder) within the file equipment. actually, these two "directories" define the two essential roles of a NetWare 6 CNA: File gadget Administrator (directories and info) and eDirectory Administrator (The directory).

    The directory provider is your friend. it may possibly watch a bit intimidating at the start, however in the event you accumulate to grasp the directory service (and eDirectory, for that rely), it be basically fun. in fact.

    How listing features Work

    A directory carrier classifies outright community resources birthright into a finite variety of objects. These objects will also be organized with the aid of function, region, measurement, category, or colour—it would not remember. The factor is, a directory provider organizes network supplies independently from their actual locations. as an example, servers are equipped in response to function. Then users are positioned in the applicable containers to simplify connectivity. This raises productivity as a result of clients are proximate the resources they need. When a user logs in to the community, the user can access any expostulate in the Tree, inspite of its location. This gives a slick competence for managing now not only users, but additionally outright their hardware and purposes. Of direction, within the eDirectory tree (as in life), it's foremost to vicinity consumer objects and their resources (Printers, Servers, and Volumes) in proximate proximity to each different.

    A directory provider performs a yoke of basic projects, including the following:

  • Connecting disparate programs—A listing carrier integrates and organizes heterogeneous methods to allow them to share common administration. In cutting-edge traffic world, such programs are required now not only to communicate with each different, however also to share guidance and spend standard services to fulfill the ambitions of the organization.

  • enjoyable the needs of the consumer, corporation, and business—The community should be supple satisfactory to give a set of exciting features in keeping with individual wants.

  • Emulating outright company relationships—The network need to be capable of making inevitable that relied on relationships are built and maintained between people, enterprise, the enterprise's intranet, and the worldwide web.

  • Coordinating tips circulation—assistance may additionally emanate both from the enterprise (procedural) or from the community (technical). A directory carrier coordinates assistance circulate, no import number what the source or category of tips.

  • making inevitable suggestions availability—A directory carrier gives a way for making outright network tips obtainable to clients, gadgets, applications, or other elements.

  • TIP

    A listing and a Relational Database management tackle (RDBMS) are two separate entities with distinctive functions. although a listing is a collection of suggestions, it does not substitute the typical RDBMS. Directories and databases complement one one other, however they serve distinct functions.

    usually, a directory provider could be utilized in birthright here methods:

  • Organizing statistics—A directory service organizes records or suggestions for the network. In NetWare 6, eDirectory outlets outright user, server, printer, and other community machine counsel.

  • accessing tips conveniently—similar to the file-and-folder tackle used on a computer, a listing carrier makes information about network supplies purchasable to users, gadgets, and applications. A listing service gives employees with world entry to community resources. organizations and businesses additionally spend directory features to supply person authentication and authorization for using these network materials and functions. For businesses with big numbers of cellular clients, eDirectory provides a way for storing consumer counsel required by some applications. (Such functions are described as directory-enabled.) From the user's point of view, a listing carrier provides a world view of outright network materials, reminiscent of users, applications, capabilities, tackle substances, and contraptions.

  • presenting safety—A listing carrier uniquely identifies community components, locates community objects when required, supports improbable protection features, and controls the person entry to network components.

  • providing features to clients—For corporations taking capabilities of the points of digital company transactions, listing functions can support organize assorted databases whereas assisting to mesh disparate network techniques. This provides better administration of processes between consumers, personnel, and provide-chain companions. The ensuing benefits are as follows: reduced prices for administration and hardware, sooner access to statistics and tips, and at ease community access with sophisticated fault tolerance.

  • From a accepted standpoint, listing features can also give electronic provisioning, more suitable security, client profiling, electronic wallets, automatic notification techniques, custom-made web interfaces, and digital private networks (VPNs).

    be aware

    A virtual inner most community (VPN) regularly is used to switch sensitive company counsel throughout an untrusted network (such as the internet) in a restful vogue (customarily by encapsulating and encrypting statistics).

    So, what achieve you suppose? Is a listing carrier for you? Who knows—you might even adore it.

    listing architecture

    As you recollect, the listing carrier offers entry to the eDirectory database, which consists of outright materials for the complete network. What precisely does eDirectory watch like? From the backyard, it looks enjoy a huge cloud hovering over your network. On the internal, besides the fact that children, it follows a hierarchical tree structure corresponding to the information superhighway area gadget. it's, birth on the WWW Root and expanding to ".com" domains and finally to servers. In NetWare 6, this design is said because the listing suggestions Tree, which is shortened to the "tree" for purposes of their discussion.

    think of the tree as in reality being inverted. As in nature, the eDirectory tree starts with the Tree expostulate (referred to as the Tree Root) and builds from there. subsequent, it sprouts container objects, which might be branches accomplishing towards the sky. at last, leaf objects supply network functionality to clients, servers, and the file equipment. As that you may contemplate in determine 3.1, the tree analogy is alive and neatly.

    Figure 3.1determine 3.1 The figurative directory capabilities tree.

    The actual eDirectory tree is made of logical network objects. eDirectory objects define logical or physical entities that give organizational or technical characteristic to the community. As you will contemplate later during this chapter, they arrive in three flavors:

  • Tree Root

  • Container objects

  • Leaf objects

  • The Tree Root is the very auspicious of the eDirectory tree. since it represents the opening porthole to the eDirectory world, its icon is appropriately a picture of a tree. Container objects profile the organizational boundaries of the eDirectory tree and house different container objects and/or leaf objects. When a container expostulate includes other objects, it is known as a mum or dad object.

    eventually, leaf objects are the actual or logical network supplies that deliver technical functions and community functionality. Leaf objects define the lowest stage of the eDirectory constitution. you will learn about the most unique leaf objects later in this chapter.

    The constitution of the listing is ruled with the aid of a collection of rules jointly standard as the directory schema. These guidelines profile the type of records, the syntax of that records, and the objects the listing can include. Schema guidelines Fall into two vast categories:

  • Object class definitions—These profile the class of objects and the attributes of those objects.

  • Attribute definitions—These profile the constitution (syntax and constraints) of an attribute. with no application mentioned, the impute cost is the precise content or data.

  • remember when I instructed you that eDirectory become in accordance with the X.500 average? before you retract tree hiking and determine the dynamics of eDirectory, buy a quick anatomize that tolerable to peer what that outright ability. I assume you'll spot some outstanding similarities between X.500 and what you will contain just discovered about listing capabilities.

    knowing X.500

    X.500 is a global daily for naming services. a lot of industry requisites, comparable to DNA (Digital community structure), spend X.500 with their own naming capabilities to supply handle-to-identify determination and listing capabilities. This permits these allotted machines to exist in a huge hierarchical administration equipment.

    X.500 organizes community supplies (comparable to users and servers) into a globally attainable listing. The X.500 specification establishes instructions for representing, gaining access to, and the usage of assistance saved in a directory database. in fact, eDirectory is Novell's implementation of the following X.500 points:

  • Scalability—large databases can be subdivided into smaller listing gadget brokers (DSAs). A DSA can symbolize both a single company or assorted companies, and its contents can be distributed throughout assorted listing servers. eDirectory calls them partitions.

  • Replication—This characteristic allows the listing database, or parts thereof, to be replicated on backup listing servers create during the community.

  • Synchronization—because X.500 ought to manipulate a loosely coupled, allotted database, each server ought to be capable of synchronize its database contents with different servers. directory database updates may well be made either on the fashioned grasp database (grasp-shadow arrangement) or at any writable replica (peer-to-peer mechanism). In both case, X.500 propagates listing database exchange assistance to outright servers conserving replicas of the database or a DSA.

  • The X.500 listing is represented with the aid of a listing suggestions Tree (DIT) and directory suggestions groundwork (DIB). as a minimum a benign of should still sound common. The DIB carries objects (or nodes) and their associated homes and values. Intermediate objects act as containers that support in organizing the DIT. Leaf objects symbolize individual community entities, comparable to servers, printers, and so on. check with figure 3.2 for an illustration of the X.500 listing structure.

    The suggestions that verify the category of suggestions that may well be saved in the DIB are held within the directory's schema. (Now this should be sounding truly conventional.) each expostulate in an X.500 DIT has a distinct denomination that is referred to as its extraordinary identify, or DN, (it truly is, finished name). each expostulate may even be mentioned by means of a relative distinguished name, or RDN, (it's, partial name).

    listing database access is managed by using a DSA working on a local server. users entry the database through a listing person Agent (DUA). DUAs can be create in command-line, varieties-based, and browser-vogue interfaces. DSAs and DUAs communicate with each different the spend of the listing access Protocol (DAP). moreover, DSAs may additionally speak with one another the spend of the listing device Protocol (DSP), listing advice Shadowing Protocol (DISP), or the directory Operational Binding administration Protocol (DOP).

    Figure 3.2figure three.2 X.500 directory architecture.

    Now that you comprehend where directory capabilities got here from and generally how they work in NetWare 6, it's time to achieve some tree hiking! appears enjoy that enjoyable I promised you, does not it?

    Go In-Depth With LDAP and Novell's eDirectory | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps


    EUC with HCI: Why It matters

    you're answerable for managing 15,000 consumer bills and 20,000 computers in your company. it's 9 a.m. on Monday. were you vigilant where your users' computer systems are? if you're working for a typical company, well-nigh actually you achieve not. "British Telecom recently audited their IT property and located that they had 20,000 more computer systems than they notion," says Dave Bingham, Consulting Director, Fujitsu Consulting UK. Now that's a serious methods administration difficulty!

    Many organizations are sinking under the weight of their latest legacy community identification, entry handle, and provisioning systems. probably the most warning signals that you just may contain a problem:

  • clients can't be vigilant outright their passwords as a result of each and every utility requires its personal authentication
  • listing advice is out of date, or incomplete
  • Ex-personnel still contain access to native/far off community functions
  • It takes on commonplace, 22 steps to create a brand unusual worker e-mail handle
  • Little or no auditing of accounts and privileges, together with inch software comparisons to accumulate a valid feel of user actions
  • Redundant administration points and no pre-centered delegation guidelines
  • Proprietary access, authentication, and provisioning APIs for each and every software
  • As significant and small businesses alike struggle to manage IT belongings and fees, world community identity administration methods are searching increasingly pleasing. The Forrester neighborhood predicts most Fortune a hundred groups should be imposing these systems to reduce TCO (total charge of ownership), liquidate guide/legacy techniques, and streamline enterprise tactics.

    What achieve Novell, identification management and LDAP (light-weight directory access Protocol) ought to achieve with any of this? is that this the very moribund enterprise accepted for the ripen NetWare, NDS (Novell directory provider), and GroupWise product strains? yes, a revitalized Novell is aggressively pursuing the community identity management and directory services market with a unusual generation of LDAP-primarily based items and applied sciences. by constructing on Novell's common strengths in listing administration and de-coupling these products from their flagship NDS NOS product, it is hoping to compete at once with iPlanet, Oblix, essential path, Microsoft, and different identification administration vendors. The next few years may be a battleground for community identification companies and consultants as they fight to set up themselves in this unusual market. let us buy a greater intensive examine Novell's LDAP implementation and listing provider products to peer why be sure you be seriously because them if you want an enterprise scale LDAP equipment.

    Why Novell and LDAP?Novell realized it crucial an open commonplace for its entrance-conclusion application software. LDAP was the obvious option as a result of Novell had historically primarily based both the NetWare and NDS methods on the X.500 protocol and LDAP became firstly designed because the X.500 front conclusion. In March 1999, Novell released a copy of open source LDAP as a portion of its SDK (software developer's equipment) indicating its replete assist for the LDAP normal. on the time Kurt Zeilenga, chief architect of the OpenLDAP project, mentioned, "international adoption of technologies requires that builders contain access to open and reusable code. we're completely satisfied that Novell has chosen to spend OpenLDAP software and has made its changes accessible to the community so outright may improvement. They appear to be ahead to working with Novell in furthering open supply LDAP utility." It clearly had the entire steer of the developer neighborhood.

    youngsters LDAP has been round as a typical protocol since 1995 unless currently it has been a strictly lower back-workplace commercial enterprise network service. in the past, the most efficacious open typical for directories become X.500, delivered in 1988. considering X.500 was OSI model primarily based, LDAP became designed to serve as a translation protocol between the TCP/IP and OSI models. because it is essentially the most open and supple of outright of the network functions protocols, the network identification management group has embraced it as the core technology to unite person and machine identification advice together into one seamless whole. it's now the de facto ordinary for many essential identity management services applications. Openwave and iPlanet each spend LDAP as the underlying wield directory technology for enterprise email functions products. LDAP is an established, amazing, scalable open directory common -- a very alluring solution.

    Novell NDS and LDAPHow has that changed Novell's items? First, let us watch at the particulars of how the NDS system has wholly included LDAP. NDS eight gives powerful LDAP aid by using enabling entry without delay to a NDS data shop. This affords the better of both worlds -- open specifications for directory entry while leveraging Novell's safety strengths similar to strong authentication and server-server replication. This enhanced steer contains:

  • LDAP capabilities are installed via default, which competence that LDAP consumers can transparently access NDS objects the spend of SSL devoid of requiring any further client utility.
  • potential to set aside in writing without delay to LDAP schema. To alternate an LDAP-NDS mapping, retract to the ConsoleOne (Novell's Java-based server/computing device administration software) expose and pick LDAP neighborhood Object. commandeer click this expostulate and select residences. that you would be able to then retract to the impute map or class Map tab to add/modify/delete the commandeer object.
  • Full auxiliary type support, which competence if an NDS or LDAP expostulate is a member of multiple expostulate courses, it inherits the attributes of outright these expostulate classes. note there are three default auxiliary classes in NDS.
  • eDirectory - Novell's listing service ProducteDirectory, which advanced from NDS, is a listing provider it truly is scalable, extensible, and excessive efficiency. in reality, Novell has publicly validated that eDirectory can manage more than a billion objects in a single tree. This means some distance exceeds what most enterprise networks or e-organizations will ever require. some of eDirectory's primary add-ons enjoy world printing functions are integrated into NetWare 6.

    FeaturesSome of eDirectory's unusual or better points protected in version eight.7 - codenamed "Falcon" are:

  • Full steer on multiple systems, Netware, windows NT/2000, and UNIX flavors (Linux, AIX, and Solaris). here is excellent information for multi-platform enterprises.
  • eDirectory has replete assist for replication (diverse distributed copies of the directory in case of failover) and portioning (splitting directory logically to aid decentralized administration and superior community performance). here is principally vital in a 7x24, five 9s, mission vital deployments.
  • Full assist of LDAP over SSL/TLS (cozy Socket Layer & Transport Layer protection protocols). This office is terribly essential in the internet-based functions area.
  • supports SNMP monitoring. both directory monitoring and management consoles are available. ConsoleOne is a Java-based for servers/workstations, and iMonitor is an internet-based mostly monitoring and diagnostics for outright traffic eDirectories.
  • IManager is an internet-based mostly listing manager that performs operations on directory objects, including access, creation, directory portioning, and replication.
  • It contains an import/export utility the spend of LDAP listing Interchange format (LDIF) for simplified ports and integration with legacy systems. It can also be carried out from either the command line or the ConsoleOne or iManager products.
  • directory StructureHere is a short overview of the Novell directory constitution from desirable to bottom. Novell calls its directories "container objects."

  • TREE (once referred to as [ROOT]) is the auspicious of the listing hierarchy and carries outright objects in the directory. essentially used to grant or negative global rights.
  • firm consists of outright objects for a hard or enterprise. This contains the Administrator user. a country expostulate can also be created at this smooth for more refinement.
  • ORGANIZATIONAL UNIT (OU) - is an extra subdivision of a company structure (such as divisions, geographical, etc). clients are created at this stage.
  • domain (DNS Domains) - allows eDirectory interaction with DNS for region of features.
  • DirXMLDir XML provides bi-directional and Meta-listing capabilities between e-directory and different enterprise and legacy systems. The systems speak by directly processing XML files. DirXML runs on a lot of structures -- Linux, NetWare, Solaris, and home windows NT/2000, but requires eDirectory eight.5 or later. at the flash available DirXML drivers include:

  • LDAP Directories - IPlanet/Netscape listing Server, essential path InJoin listing, IBM SecureWay
  • electronic Messaging - Groupwise, Lotus Notes, Microsoft change
  • enterprise purposes - Peoplesoft, IBM WebSphere MQ, Oracle, IBM DB2, and Sybase
  • working device Domains - NT, energetic listing, NIS
  • Delimited textual content - Miscellaneous
  • DirXML ComponentsBetween eDirectory/DirXML there are two several types of facts flows.

  • writer Channel - Sends records from quite a few methods to eDirectory.
  • Subscriber Channel.- Sends statistics from eDirectory to a lot of methods.
  • DirXML Driver - Handles the conversation between DirXML engine and the utility however not the rule processing. This includes receiving the XML document and translating it into a group of instructions, that are then sent to the acceptable facts store. word that DirXML 1.1 not requires eDirectory and DirXML operating on the server permitting far off drivers to be dynamically loaded.
  • DirXML Engine - translates directory events reminiscent of add, regulate, or delete to an XML doc. Translation contains processing quite a few filters, rules, and style sheets to obtain the preferred outcome.
  • Objects - eDirectory operations involve inevitable key objects, DirXML-DriverSet, DirXML-Driver, DirXML-publisher, and DirXML-Subscriber.
  • Filters -- check which attributes such as denomination or address might be affected for this particular channel session.
  • guidelines sets
  • Object mapping -- buddies an expostulate within the eDirectory schema with an expostulate within the exterior utility.
  • Matching -- Determines the attributes and values in eDirectory and the corresponding application that ought to felicitous before developing an association attribute.
  • Create expostulate -- Specifies the impute and values that need to be in situation earlier than a unusual expostulate or checklist is created.
  • Placement -- Specifies the area within the software the objects are kept. distinctive guidelines are usually used.
  • XSLT style sheets - profile the XLST transformation rules that transforms commands or listing pursuits create in the XML files.
  • Developer ServicesAdditional functions and products Novell offers above outright designed to aid builders include:

  • customized DirXML Drivers -- Written in both C++ or Java. The Java drivers requires JDK 1.1.7b or later. developers can spend DSTrace facility and DirXML trace log for debugging.
  • XML Interfaces for C++ - allows the developer to jot down messages to DSTrace facility and DirXML trace log.
  • LDAP Extensions and control for JNDI (Java Naming and directory Interface).
  • look at various Server for LDAP
  • eDirectory category Libraries for C and Java - Used to operate operations comparable to query or add on a LDAP listing. a portion of the Novell Developer package (NDK), it uses open supply code from the OpenLDAP mission.
  • Some CautionsNovell is stirring the birthright direction by porting the tackle to distinct structures, but when you in fact need to contain a completely integrated system, execute sure you still be using the different Novell items together with eDirectory. besides the fact that children eDirectory has some first rate facets that execute it easier to boost traffic scaled listing services primarily based purposes, it is still at heart an NDS based mostly product. it is going to likely work most reliable for you in case you contain already got a NetWare setting up and a few familiarity with the Novell strategy to network based commercial enterprise features. Tony Neal, IT supervisor at Marriott overseas Inc. views Novell LDAP steer as "one more piece of the protocol puzzle to be able to tie every microscopic thing together, with NDS as the precise engine under". It is not pellucid when speakme to Novell how many of their eDirectory installations are in reality unusual clients and not just extra revenue to the existing Novell consumer base.

    a yoke of years back Novell took a significant misstep after they proposed a unusual good-level .dir domain for the information superhighway. The proposed .dir area become a so-referred to as chartered domain and would contain required .dir applicants to be utterly compliant with LDAP 2000, an LDAP conformance examine backed by using DIF. Novell claimed that establishing the .dir domain became essential since it would assure the class of websites that might spend it. The proposed domain immediately met with community resistance and became birthright now withdrawn. "Why is everybody looking to ICANN to rubber-stamp their traffic models?" referred to Rick Wesson, CEO of Alice's Registry, in Santa Cruz, Calif., a consultancy for ICANN-accepted registrars. "Novell desires to create a LDAP (lightweight listing access Protocol) root, however it would not need a TLD to achieve that. it might build the equal infrastructure below the present DNS domains."

    Is Novell fascinated about LDAP?Novell has been energetic with two rising IETF necessities businesses. These efforts will microscopic question stay up in future Novell net, working equipment, and listing items.

  • SAML (protection statement Markup Language) 1.0 makes it practicable for purposes to share authentication tips. In July, Novell participated in a SAML Interoperability forum as portion of the Burton neighborhood. however, the only sign-on solution remains a piece-in-progress.
  • The identical neighborhood OASIS (firm for the advancement of Structured tips requisites) that oversees SAML is also developing the UDDI (accepted Description, Discovery and Integration) specification. UDDI contains a protocol for describing internet capabilities and queries about organizations/items. Novell subsidized engineers authored a draft schema to region UDDI advice in an LDAP listing.
  • Liberty Alliance is creating a "federated" identification authentication protocol, referred to as "a coterie of believe", that enables clients to transparently navigate between affiliated businesses. There are a lot of security access concerns nevertheless to be determined before this becomes reality. It isn't pellucid what capabilities this schema has over present certification systems, enjoy PKI.
  • Novell builders are working on the next unencumber of Netware code named "Nakoma." it'll encompass more desirable DirXML aid for tighter integration between NetWare, Novell Portal services, and legacy company directories that require directory-based mostly identification and entry functions. current projected availability is summer season 2003.

    Some enhancements that are a portion of "challenge fate" the universal Novell eDirectory and listing enhancement application encompass:

  • UDDI server due by using year-end.
  • the future edition of eDirectory can be extra dynamic with more suitable guidelines-based "resolution-making" about individuals, and directory facts.
  • "Saturn" is a Novell application to execute eDirectory and iChain (identity-driven internet access) commandeer with the liberty Alliance specification. "Saturn" reportedly can be achieved via 12 months-conclusion.
  • Dynamic id capabilities and entry can be granted in accordance with the software.
  • In conclusion, Novell has been working complicated to situation itself within the forefront of the LDAP structure community. Novell has leveraged its skills with X.500 and NDS to create a powerful set of tackle the spend of LDAP and the NDS structure. if you're fascinated about big-scale identification management purposes and also you already contain some familiarity with the Novell environment, eDirectory can be simply the toolkit you should build your software.

    additional components

    Beth Cohen is president of Luth laptop consultants, Inc., a consulting succeed focusing on IT infrastructure for smaller companies. She has been in the trenches supporting company IT infrastructure for over twenty years in a few distinct fields including architecture, development, engineering, utility, telecommunications, and research. She is currently writing a e-book about IT for the small enterprise and pursuing an information Age MBA from Bentley college.

    Hallett German is an IT consultant who's experienced in enforcing strong IT infrastructures with an emphasis on digital messaging and directories. he's the founding father of the Northeast SAS clients community and former President of the REXX Language association. he is the author of three books on scripting languages.

    » contemplate outright Articles by way of Columnist Beth Cohen

    Palm seaside County Turns to Novell to at ease and manipulate Its community | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Novell identity and desktop management avow pays for itself, reducing helpdesk calls with the aid of ninety % and IT shuttle via seventy five percent

    WALTHAM, Mass. -- Dec. 13, 2006 -- Palm seaside County, probably the most 5 greatest counties within the U.S., has tapped Novell for identification and laptop administration throughout its community, resulting in enormously reduced IT administration costs and better protection. Challenged with lowering prices whereas maximizing the cost from its existing blended network, Palm beach County mandatory a comprehensive, go-platform solution to manipulate its distributed IT ambiance. Novell's id management avow is helping the county enhance protection, whereas presenting huge can charge discount rates on the identical time. Novell has additionally helped the county streamline computing device administration, together with patching, reducing IT commute time through 75 % and helpdesk administration time with the aid of ninety percent.

    "we've a heterogeneous environment and that isn't going to alternate," mentioned Robert Shafron, senior IS supervisor of method, Planning and structure for Palm beach County. "It became captious for us to locate an identification and computer management avow that works throughout varied structures. Novell's solution delivered."

    With 10,000 employees in a hundred and fifty areas serving 1.2 million citizens, Palm seashore County faces the constant problem of a becoming demand for national functions, an outright the time tight finances atmosphere, and the should leverage its present technology investments. With a dispersed IT team of workers and no unified approach for managing users, the county mandatory a comprehensive solution to integrate user identity counsel across dissimilar companies, places and structures. additionally, managing workstations throughout a dispersed hard kept the IT corpse of workers always on the street. The county crucial to enrich the safety of its methods with standard patches and updates, yet reduce charges by using centralizing the technique. The county additionally aimed to standardize pcs and laptops to slash back helpdesk calls.

    After evaluating options, Palm seaside County selected Novell® identity manager and Novell eDirectory(TM) because the core of its identity administration avow and Novell ZENworks® desktop management. The county uses Novell eDirectory as its principal repository for employee identities throughout varied systems, together with Microsoft windows*, NetWare®, UNIX* and Linux*. Novell identification manager instantly synchronizes person id assistance across dissimilar systems, enhancing safety and giving the IT corpse of workers the potential to provision entry rights for brand spanking unusual clients in minutes. The at ease id administration task enabled Palm beach County to standardize on better password guidelines for more than forty directories and purposes used via 38 supported businesses. Novell ZENworks allows for the county to centrally manage and birthright away dispense functions and patches to pcs throughout its Microsoft windows, NetWare and Linux environments. The IT staff has additionally created usual laptop photographs for different user agencies permitting them to troubleshoot considerations remotely in minutes, essentially disposing of helpdesk calls.

    "The outstanding effects Palm seashore County has seen with Novell solutions for identification and useful resource administration spotlight how corporations can achieve more with less, extracting further value from the systems they contain already got by automating their administration and using expertise to enhance enterprise processes," talked about Troy Richardson, president, Novell Americas. "by means of liberating IT workforce from mundane administrative projects, Palm beach County can focus on strategic IT initiatives to better provider delivery for its residents, using more cost for each tax dollar."

    About Novell

    Novell, Inc. (Nasdaq: NOVL) supplies infrastructure application for the Open commercial enterprise. we're a pacesetter in enterprise-vast operating programs based on Linux and open supply and the safety and techniques administration capabilities required to operate blended IT environments. They support their clients minimize can charge, complexity and risk, enabling them to focus on innovation and growth. For extra information, seek advice from

    Press contacts:Bruce LowryNovell,

    Danielle MancanoSHIFT

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    Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation :eDirectory 8.8

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    Novell eDirectory | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the engage 

    This chapter covers the following testing objectives for Novell Course 3001: Foundations of Novell Networking:

  • Identify basic Directory Service tasks.

  • Identify common Directory Service uses.

  • Describe how a Directory is structured.

  • Identify the role and benefits of eDirectory.

  • Identify how eDirectory 8.6 works.

  • Identify and describe the composition of eDirectory.

  • Identify and describe eDirectory expostulate classes.

  • Identify the rush and design of the eDirectory tree.

  • NetWare 6 introduces eDirectory 8.6, the greatest version to date of Novell's world-class directory service.

    eDirectory is the world's leading Directory service. It provides a unifying, cross-platform infrastructure for managing, securing, accessing, and developing outright major components of your network. eDirectory scales to the largest network environments, including the Internet. Because it is based on the X.500 standard, eDirectory supports Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and the Java programming environment.

    eDirectory can store and manage millions of objects in a seamless ballet of communications. It also provides the foundation network service for outright NetWare servers and network resources. In fact, after network communications, it is the most fundamental network service offered by NetWare 6.

    With outright this in mind, I'm sure you would coincide that eDirectory management is one of your key responsibilities as a Novell CNA (Certified Network Administrator). In this chapter, you will explore four essential lessons regarding eDirectory management:

  • Introduction to Directory Services—You'll originate with a brief introduction to the basics of Directory services, including some common uses and how a Directory is structured.

  • Understanding eDirectory 8.6—Then you'll explore the architecture of Novell eDirectory version 8.6 and compare it to its predecessor, Novell Directory Services (NDS).

  • Using eDirectory Objects—You'll dig into the basics behind eDirectory's three types of objects: the Tree object, container objects, and leaf objects.

  • Implementing eDirectory 8.6 Naming—Finally, you'll learn about naming conventions used in eDirectory, including naming context rules and inheritance.

  • As you can see, there's a lot to learn in this chapter and when it's outright done, you'll be an accomplished eDirectory administrator. So, let's accumulate started!

    Test Objectives Covered:

  • Identify basic Directory Service tasks.

  • Identify common Directory Service uses.

  • Describe how a Directory is structured.

  • Identify the role and benefits of eDirectory.

  • The Directory Service is one of the most fundamental network services provided by outright NetWare 6 servers. In fact, it represents the communications hub for administrative connectivity between outright servers in a big NetWare 6 network. As such, Directory Service management is one of your key responsibilities as the network administrator.

    As its denomination implies, the Directory service provides access to a database, called eDirectory, that contains outright resources for the entire network. This object-oriented database is organized into a hierarchical structure called the tree. eDirectory provides the basic foundation for the Directory service, including capabilities for replication and distribution. Directory is capitalized in this case to differentiate it from the directory (or folder) in the file system. In fact, these two "directories" define the two major roles of a NetWare 6 CNA: File System Administrator (directories and files) and eDirectory Administrator (The Directory).

    The Directory service is your friend. It may appear a microscopic intimidating at first, but when you accumulate to know the Directory service (and eDirectory, for that matter), it's actually fun. Really.

    How Directory Services Work

    A Directory service classifies outright network resources into a finite number of objects. These objects can be organized by function, location, size, type, or color—it doesn't matter. The point is, a Directory service organizes network resources independently from their physical locations. For example, servers are organized according to function. Then users are placed in the commandeer containers to simplify connectivity. This increases productivity because users are near the resources they need. When a user logs in to the network, the user can access any expostulate in the Tree, regardless of its location. This provides a slick means for managing not only users, but also outright their hardware and applications. Of course, in the eDirectory tree (as in life), it is best to situation User objects and their resources (Printers, Servers, and Volumes) in proximate proximity to each other.

    A Directory service performs several basic tasks, including the following:

  • Connecting disparate systems—A Directory service integrates and organizes heterogeneous systems to allow them to share common management. In today's traffic world, such systems are required not only to communicate with each other, but also to share information and spend common services to meet the objectives of the organization.

  • Satisfying the needs of the user, organization, and business—The network must be supple enough to provide a set of unique services based on individual needs.

  • Emulating outright traffic relationships—The network must be capable of ensuring that trusted relationships are built and maintained between people, business, the company's intranet, and the World Wide Web.

  • Coordinating information flow—Information may emanate either from the traffic (procedural) or from the network (technical). A Directory service coordinates information flow, no matter what the source or type of information.

  • Ensuring information availability—A Directory service provides a means for making outright network information available to users, devices, applications, or other resources.

  • TIP

    A Directory and a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) are two separate entities with different functions. Even though a Directory is a collection of information, it does not supplant the traditional RDBMS. Directories and databases complement one another, even though they serve different purposes.

    Typically, a Directory service may be used in the following ways:

  • Organizing data—A Directory service organizes data or information for the network. In NetWare 6, eDirectory stores outright user, server, printer, and other network device information.

  • Accessing information easily—Similar to the file-and-folder system used on a computer, a Directory service makes information about network resources available to users, devices, and applications. A Directory service provides employees with global access to network resources. Businesses and organizations also spend Directory services to provide user authentication and authorization for using these network resources and services. For organizations with big numbers of mobile users, eDirectory provides a means for storing user information required by some applications. (Such applications are described as Directory-enabled.) From the user's point of view, a Directory service provides a global view of outright network resources, such as users, applications, services, system resources, and devices.

  • Providing security—A Directory service uniquely identifies network resources, locates network objects when required, supports robust security features, and controls the user access to network resources.

  • Providing services to customers—For organizations taking handicap of the features of electronic traffic transactions, Directory services can befriend organize multiple databases while helping to mesh disparate network systems. This provides better management of processes between customers, employees, and supply-chain partners. The resulting benefits are as follows: reduced costs for administration and hardware, faster access to data and information, and secure network access with superior fault tolerance.

  • From a general perspective, Directory services can also provide electronic provisioning, enhanced security, customer profiling, electronic wallets, automated notification systems, customized Web interfaces, and virtual private networks (VPNs).


    A virtual private network (VPN) often is used to transfer sensitive company information across an untrusted network (such as the Internet) in a secure style (typically by encapsulating and encrypting data).

    So, what achieve you think? Is a Directory service for you? Who knows—you might even enjoy it.

    Directory Architecture

    As you recall, the Directory service provides access to the eDirectory database, which contains outright resources for the entire network. What exactly does eDirectory watch like? From the outside, it looks enjoy a huge cloud hovering over your network. On the inside, however, it follows a hierarchical tree structure similar to the Internet domain system. That is, starting at the WWW Root and expanding to ".com" domains and eventually to servers. In NetWare 6, this design is referred to as the Directory Information Tree, which is shortened to the "tree" for purposes of their discussion.

    Think of the tree as actually being inverted. As in nature, the eDirectory tree starts with the Tree expostulate (called the Tree Root) and builds from there. Next, it sprouts container objects, which are branches reaching toward the sky. Finally, leaf objects provide network functionality to users, servers, and the file system. As you can contemplate in figure 3.1, the tree analogy is alive and well.

    Figure 3.1Figure 3.1 The figurative Directory services tree.

    The actual eDirectory tree is made up of logical network objects. eDirectory objects define logical or physical entities that provide organizational or technical office to the network. As you will contemplate later in this chapter, they arrive in three flavors:

  • Tree Root

  • Container objects

  • Leaf objects

  • The Tree Root is the very top of the eDirectory tree. Because it represents the opening porthole to the eDirectory world, its icon is appropriately a picture of a tree. Container objects define the organizational boundaries of the eDirectory tree and house other container objects and/or leaf objects. When a container expostulate contains other objects, it is called a parent object.

    Finally, leaf objects are the physical or logical network resources that provide technical services and network functionality. Leaf objects define the lowest smooth of the eDirectory structure. You'll learn about the most engaging leaf objects later in this chapter.

    The structure of the Directory is governed by a set of rules collectively known as the Directory schema. These rules define the type of data, the syntax of that data, and the objects the Directory can contain. Schema rules Fall into two broad categories:

  • Object class definitions—These define the type of objects and the attributes of those objects.

  • Attribute definitions—These define the structure (syntax and constraints) of an attribute. Simply stated, the impute value is the actual content or data.

  • Remember when I told you that eDirectory was based on the X.500 standard? Before you retract tree climbing and explore the dynamics of eDirectory, buy a quick watch at that standard to contemplate what that outright means. I assume you'll spot some improbable similarities between X.500 and what you've just erudite about Directory services.

    Understanding X.500

    X.500 is an international standard for naming services. A variety of industry standards, such as DNA (Digital Network Architecture), spend X.500 with their own naming services to provide address-to-name resolution and directory services. This enables these distributed machines to exist in a big hierarchical management system.

    X.500 organizes network resources (such as users and servers) into a globally accessible Directory. The X.500 specification establishes guidelines for representing, accessing, and using information stored in a directory database. In fact, eDirectory is Novell's implementation of the following X.500 features:

  • Scalability—Large databases can be subdivided into smaller Directory System Agents (DSAs). A DSA can limn either a single organization or multiple organizations, and its contents may be distributed across multiple Directory servers. eDirectory calls them partitions.

  • Replication—This feature allows the Directory database, or portions thereof, to be replicated on backup Directory servers located throughout the network.

  • Synchronization—Because X.500 must manage a loosely coupled, distributed database, each server must be able to synchronize its database contents with other servers. Directory database updates may be made either at the original master database (master-shadow arrangement) or at any writable replica (peer-to-peer mechanism). In either case, X.500 propagates Directory database change information to outright servers holding replicas of the database or a DSA.

  • The X.500 Directory is represented by a Directory Information Tree (DIT) and Directory Information groundwork (DIB). At least one of those should sound familiar. The DIB consists of objects (or nodes) and their associated properties and values. Intermediate objects act as containers that aid in organizing the DIT. Leaf objects limn individual network entities, such as servers, printers, and so on. advert to figure 3.2 for an illustration of the X.500 Directory architecture.

    The rules that determine the type of information that may be stored in the DIB are held in the Directory's schema. (Now this should be sounding really familiar.) Each expostulate in an X.500 DIT has a unique denomination that is referred to as its distinguished name, or DN, (that is, complete name). Each expostulate may also be referred to by a relative distinguished name, or RDN, (that is, partial name).

    Directory database access is managed by a DSA running on a local server. Users access the database through a Directory User Agent (DUA). DUAs are available in command-line, forms-based, and browser-style interfaces. DSAs and DUAs communicate with each other using the Directory Access Protocol (DAP). Furthermore, DSAs may communicate with one another using the Directory System Protocol (DSP), Directory Information Shadowing Protocol (DISP), or the Directory Operational Binding Management Protocol (DOP).

    Figure 3.2Figure 3.2 X.500 Directory architecture.

    Now that you know where Directory services came from and generally how they work in NetWare 6, it's time to achieve some tree climbing! Sounds enjoy that fun I promised you, doesn't it?

    Certified Novell Engineer (CNE) | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Related Resources: Books   

    This vendor-specific Certification is Offered By:Novell CorporationWaltham, MA USAPhone: 1-800-529-3400Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    Skill Level: Intermediate                          Status: Active

    Low Cost: $375 (shortest track)               

    Summary:For individuals who solve advanced company-wide support problems and high-level network problems. They fulfill planning, installation, configuration, troubleshooting and upgrade services for networks. The Certified Novell Engineer (CNE) has been recognized as the IT industry's leading certification for advanced networking and troubleshooting.

    Initial Requirements:You must pass three exams: Foundations of Novell Open Enterprise Server fpr NetWare ($125), Novell Open Enterprise Server for NetWare promote Admin ($125) and Novell eDirerctory Design and Implementation: eDirectory 8.8 ($125).

    An upgrade exam is available for current NetWare 6 certified individuals.

    Continuing Requirements:From time to time, Novell Training Services may require you to buy an exam to retain current on the latest solutions and technologies. These exams are considered a Continuing Certification Requirement (CCR), which retain your skills up-to-date and retain your certification valuable in the marketplace.

    CNE Pay Chart:

    See outright Novell Certifications

    Vendor's page for this certification

    City of Apopka Selects Zvetco Biometrics and Viable Solutions, Inc. to Deliver Needed Strong Authentication for Compliance with CJIS Mandates | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Casselberry, FL (PRWEB) May 23, 2012

    Zvetco Biometrics, a leader in fingerprint identity and authentication solutions, today announced that the City of Apopka has deployed the company’s P4500 biometric fingerprint reader and the Authasas® enterprise grade biometric software, to achieve compliance with CJIS mandates at state and federal levels. The City of Apopka selected Zvetco and Viable Solutions, Inc. to provide and install a turn-key solution to secure mobile access to information, reduce helpdesk costs and simplify compliance with the FBI’s Criminal Justice Information System (CJIS) mandate. With this installation, the City of Apopka delivers extremely tall security and convenience through fingerprint scanning.

    Within the unusual mandates, agencies must invoke unique IDs, strong passwords, and comply with the CJIS Advanced Authentication requirement by 2013. However, Advanced Authentication is required for any system upgrade performed after 2005. This means that instead of a 2013 deadline, the mandates must be met at the time of the upgrade. Agencies that are audited and don’t comply with the CJIS policy could be denied access to CJIS systems or physiognomy penalties.

    The City of Apopka has chosen Zvetco Biometrics and their VAR, Viable Solutions, Inc. to deliver much needed biometric tools to achieve tight integration within a Novell eDirectory environment. In addition to their all-metal biometric readers, Zvetco provided Authasas®, advanced authentication software that enabled the first of its benign connectivity with Novell eDirectory.

    City of Apopka’s IT Supervisor, Robert Hippler, says, "Zvetco scanners are a cost efficacious product that easily connects to their VDI and Physical workstations. With those in situation they are able to deliver the unusual Authasas® Biometric Authentication to desktops, meeting and even exceeding the CJIS requirements."

    "Zvetco’s Verifi fingerprint readers deliver on the plight to provide simple yet secure access to organizations’ networks and applications," said Zavi Cohen, CEO at Zvetco Biometrics. "It’s gratifying to contemplate Zvetco solutions supporting government agencies’ needs for security and efficiency in their daily operations. He added, “The Zvetco solution can be utilized in a Novell environment as well as Windows dynamic Directory. By deploying Zvetco’s Enterprise grade fingerprint readers the City of Apopka achieved noteworthy cost benefits when compared with traditional AFIS type readers”.

    Eliot Lloyd Lanes, CEO, and CTO of Viable Solutions, Inc. states, “We contain supported the City of Apopka for decades, and they contain worked with Zvetco Biometrics for many years. The City’s IT Director, Donald Kahrs was vigilant that Viable Solutions, Inc. has helped with pioneering efforts in the sphere of Biometrics integration. So, when they needed to meet the CJIS requirements, they turned to us. They then looked to Zvetco Biometrics, who presented Authasas. During the project they built proximate ties with Authasas and together they contain now delivered a solution that will felicitous any current Novell and/or Microsoft environment with ease and cost effectiveness.”

    About Zvetco Biometrics

    Zvetco Biometrics is a manufacturer of best-in-class identity authentication hardware and provider of identity management solutions. Founded in 1999, Zvetco provides its customers in corporate enterprise, government, pecuniary services, healthcare, gaming, food services and point-of-sale with cost-effective network security tools that forestall identity theft, extend accountability and liquidate the cost and inconvenience of password-based access. Zvetco Biometrics' Verifi™ line of biometric products incorporates precision fingerprint-sensing technology into ergonomic computer peripherals that deliver unparalleled performance, reliability and convenience.

    Verifi™ is a trademark of Zvetco Biometrics. Authasas® is a trademark of Authasas, a provider of advanced authentication software. outright other trademarks, registered trademarks and service marks are the property of their respective owners.

    Media Contact: Christy Elliott, Zvetco Media DirectorPhone: (407) 681-0111 Extension: 804Web site:

    About Viable Solutions, Inc.

    Viable Solutions, Inc. is a world leader in networking and collaboration design, implementation, and support. They also provide a secure, robust, and reliable private corporate cloud. Founded in 1986, Viable Solutions, Inc. provides its customers in outright manner of industry cost-effective design, implementation, and support tools and services (on premise or cloud baased) to meet and exceed their traffic process needs. Information about Viable Solutions, Inc. and its products and services by calling (407) 249-9600 option 2.

    Media Contact: effect Grebinger, Sales ManagerPhone: (407) 249-9600 Extension: 502Web site:

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    AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

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