Perfect place for Killexams.com 000-N04 genuine questions | | Inicio RADIONAVES

Top 10 reasons to choose Killexams.com 000-N04 study guide with real Questions to prepare 000-N04 exam and boost your knowledge - - Inicio RADIONAVES

Pass4sure 000-N04 dumps | Killexams.com 000-N04 real questions | http://www.radionaves.com/

000-N04 IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Study guide Prepared by Killexams.com IBM Dumps Experts


Killexams.com 000-N04 Dumps and real Questions

100% real Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with lofty Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



000-N04 exam Dumps Source : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Test Code : 000-N04
Test designation : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1
Vendor designation : IBM
: 30 real Questions

am i able to find state-of-the-art dumps Q & A brand new 000-N04 exam?
the usual of killexams.com is lofty sufficient to assist the candidates in 000-N04 exam education. every bit of the products that I had used for 000-N04 exam coaching had been of the exceptional distinguished in order that they assisted me to cleanly the 000-N04 exam shortly.


Very smooth to Get licensed in 000-N04 examination with this possess a leer at manual.
To Get organized for 000-N04 exercise examination requires a number of tough paintings and time. Time control is this type of complicated trouble, that may exist hardly ever resolved. But killexams.Com certification has certainly resolved this issue from its root level, by using imparting variety of time schedules, so that you can effortlessly complete his syllabus for 000-N04 exercise exam. Killexams.Com certification provides every bit of of the educational courses which might exist necessary for 000-N04 rehearse exam. So I ought to speak with out losing a while, start your training beneath killexams.Com certifications to Get a unreasonable rating in 000-N04 exercise examination, and accomplish yourself experience at the pinnacle of this world of expertise.


wherein will I determine material for 000-N04 examination?
It ended up being a frail department of expertise to plot. I required a e-book which could kingdom query and retort and i without a doubt allude it. killexams.com Questions & answers are singularly in suffuse of every final one in every bit of credits. a whole lot obliged killexams.com for giving nice conclusion. I had endeavored the examination 000-N04 exam for 3 years continuously but couldnt accomplish it to passing score. I understood my cavity in information the subject of creating a session room.


wherein to register for 000-N04 examination?
000-N04 exam was really tough for me as I was not getting enough time for the preparation. Finding no way out, I took allay from the dump. I moreover took allay from Official Certification Guide. The dump was amazing. It dealt with every bit of the topics in an easy and friendly manner. Could Get through most of them with Little effort. Answered every bit of the question in just 81 minutes and got 97 mark. Felt really satisfied. Thanks a lot to killexams.com for their priceless guidance.


Is there 000-N04 exam new sayllabus?
i would clearly recommend killexams.com to each person whos giving 000-N04 examination as this now not just helps to skim up the concepts inside the workbook but additionally gives a exotic concept about the sample of questions. first rate allay ..for the 000-N04 examination. thank you a lot killexams.com crew !


Get cost percent of expertise to allocate together 000-N04 exam.
000-N04 questions from killexams.Com are splendid, and replicate precisely what check middle gives you at the 000-N04 exam. I cherished the entirety approximately the killexams.Com guidance material. I exceeded with over 80%.


virtually the ones 000-N04 modern-day day dumps and observe guide is required to skip the pick a leer at.
A portion of the lessons are quite problematic but I understand them utilising the killexams.Com and Exam Simulator and solved every bit of questions. Essentially on account of it; I breezed thru the test horribly essentially. Your 000-N04 dumps Product are unmatchable in fine and correctness. every bit of the inquiries in your remonstrate were inside the test as nicely. I was flabbergasted to examine the exactness of your material. Much obliged over again on your assistance and every bit of the assist that you furnished to me.


can i locate touch data trendy 000-N04 certified?
Going thru killexams.Com has forward to exist a addiction whilst exam 000-N04 comes. And with assessments springing up in pretty a whole lot 6 days changed into getting extra critical. But with subjects I want a few reference manual to toddle occasionally in order that i would Get better help. Manner to killexams.Com their that made it every bit of easy to Get the subjectsinterior your head easily which would in any other case might exist no longer viable. And its far every bit of because of killexams.Com products that I controlled to gain 980 in my exam. Thats the highest rating in my beauty.


These 000-N04 dumps works in the real test.
I used killexams.Com cloth which provides sufficient information to obtain my purpose. I commonly commonly memorize the matters earlier than going for any exam, but this is the distinguished one examination, which I took with out trulymemorizing the wished things. I thank you actually from the lowest of my heart. I am able to forward to you for my next examination.


proper source to locate 000-N04 real question paper.
i was approximately to give up examination 000-N04 because I wasnt confident in whether or not id bypass or not. With just a week last I decided to exchange to killexams.com for my examination education. in no way concept that the subjects that I had constantly dash away from might exist so much fun to possess a leer at; its smooth and quick manner of getting to the factors made my coaching lot less difficult. every bit of way to killexams.com , I by no means concept id skip my exam but I did bypass with flying colors.


IBM IBM Commerce Solutions Order

IBM (IBM) Down 10.three% when you consider that remaining salary document: Can It Rebound? | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

A month has passed by when you consider that the ultimate income record for IBM (IBM). Shares possess lost about 10.3% in that time frame, underperforming the S&P 500.

Will the concomitant terrible vogue proceed leading up to its next income liberate, or is IBM due for a breakout? earlier than they dive into how traders and analysts possess reacted as of late, let's pick a quick emerge on the most fresh income file to exist able to Get a stronger tackle on the critical catalysts.

IBM’s Q2 results capitalize from cost reducing, dwindle Share count

IBM mentioned third-quarter 2018 non-GAAP earnings of $3.forty two per share, which beat the Zacks Consensus assess by pair of cents. revenue per share (EPS) expanded 4.9% from the yr-ago quarter.

The year-over-12 months boom in EPS can moreover exist attributed to strong pre-tax margin operating leverage (28 cents contribution) and aggressive share buybacks (19 cents contribution). This become partially offset by way of dwindle revenues (seven cents impecunious influence) and better tax cost (17 cents impecunious possess an upshot on).

Revenues of $18.seventy six billion lagged the Zacks Consensus assess of $19.10 billion and declined 2.1% on a year-over-12 months foundation. At regular forex (cc), revenues remained flat.

IBM brought up that signings plunged 21% to $8 billion. services backlog declined 3% from the 12 months-ago quarter to $113 billion.

Geographic salary details

Revenues from Americas inched up 1%, driven with the aid of continued boom in Canada and Latin the united states and modest expand within the united states.

Europe, middle-East and Africa reduced 2% from the 12 months-in the past quarter, driven by decline in Germany and France, partially offset by expand in Spain and the UK.

Asia-Pacific revenues declined 1% on a year-over-yr groundwork with modest expand in Japan.

Strategic Imperatives expand Continues

Strategic Imperatives (cloud, analytics, mobility and security) grew 7% at cc from the year-in the past quarter to $9.three billion. protection revenues surged 34%. On a trailing 12-month groundwork, Strategic Imperatives revenues possess been $39.5 billion, up 13% (eleven% at cc).

Cloud revenues surged 13% from the yr-ago quarter to $4.6 billion. The annual dash expense for cloud as-a-service revenues elevated 24% at cc on a year-over-year basis to $11.4 billion.

Cloud revenues of $19 billion on a trailing 12-month basis increased 20% (18% at cc) and now debts for 24% of IBM’s complete revenues.

Cognitive Revenues Decline

Cognitive options’ revenues-external lowered 5.7% year over 12 months (down 5% at cc) to $4.15 billion. Segmental revenues relating Strategic Imperatives and Cloud declined 4% and 2%, respectively. Cloud as-a-provider salary annual dash rate was $2 billion.

solutions utility contains choices in strategic verticals relish health, area-certain capabilities relish analytics and security, and IBM’s emerging applied sciences of AI and blockchain. The segment moreover includes choices that address horizontal domains relish collaboration, commerce and skill. solutions utility revenues lowered 3% 12 months over year in the quarter.

IBM cited that in commerce belt the infusion of AI into choices relish consumer experience analytics helped SaaS signings to grow double digit in the quarter. The concomitant launch of Notes Domino version 10, which is optimized for cellular, and helps JavaScript and node.js will expand increase collaboration in 2019.

Transaction Processing software includes application that runs mission-vital workloads, leveraging IBM’s hardware platforms. Revenues fell 8% on a 12 months-over-year groundwork.

IBM witnessed growth in trade verticals relish health, key areas of analytics and security within the quarter. Watson health witnessed huge-based expand in Payer, issuer, Imaging and actuality Sciences domains.

all the way through the quarter, the Sugar.IQ software, developed by means of Medtronic in partnership with IBM, hit the market. The software is designed to simplify and enhance day by day diabetes administration.

IBM cited that analytics carried out smartly in the quarter, driven via statistics science offerings and IBM Cloud private for statistics offering.

all through the quarter, the traffic announced color detection services and launched new Watson functions on the IBM Cloud private platform.

safety boom changed into pushed by way of choices in orchestration, facts safety and endpoint management.

In blockchain, IBM food possess self-possession network for meals security went are vital within the quarter. Reatiler Carrefour joined IBM’s blockchain community. The company moreover collectively introduced TradeLens with Maersk that addresses inefficiencies in the global deliver chain. IBM currently supports 75 dynamic blockchain networks.

world enterprise functions Revenues raise

Revenues from world traffic services-exterior segment possess been $four.13 billion, up 0.9% from the year-in the past quarter (up three% at cc). Segmental revenues pertaining to Strategic Imperatives grew 9%. Cloud apply surged 18%. Cloud as-a-provider income annual dash rate turned into $1.9 billion.

utility management revenues declined 1% from the yr-in the past quarter. besides the fact that children, global system functions revenues climbed 2%. in addition, Consulting revenues improved 7% 12 months over year, pushed with the aid of robust efficiency from IBM’s digital business.

expertise capabilities & Cloud structures: Revenues Dip

Revenues from technology services & Cloud structures-external diminished 2% from the 12 months-in the past quarter (flat at cc) to $8.29 billion. Segmental revenues manner on Strategic Imperatives superior 16%, pushed through hybrid cloud features. Cloud surged 22% from the yr-ago quarter. Cloud as-a-provider salary annual dash rate was $7.5 billion.

Integration utility accelerated 1% from the 12 months-ago quarter. privilege through the quarter, ninety five organizations worldwide chosen IBM Cloud private providing. Infrastructure services revenues moreover elevated 1% on a yr-over-12 months groundwork.

however, Technical allay capabilities revenues diminished 3% from the yr-in the past quarter.

power & z14 constrain methods Revenues

techniques revenues expanded 0.9% on a year-over-12 months foundation (up 2% at cc) to $1.74 billion. Segmental revenues manner on Strategic Imperatives surged 5%, while Cloud revenues declined 8%.

IBM Z revenues improved 6% yr over year on greater than 20% MIPS growth, pushed by huge-primarily based adoption of the z14 mainframe.

vigor revenues expanded 17% from the yr-ago quarter. during the quarter, IBM launched its subsequent generation POWER9 processors for midrange and high-end systems which are designed for managing advanced analytics, cloud environments and records-intensive workloads in AI, HANA, and UNIX markets.

IBM moreover delivered new choices optimizing both hardware and application for AI. management believes that products relish PowerAI vision and PowerAI enterprise will assist constrain new consumer adoption.

although, storage hardware revenues declined 6% as a result of susceptible performance in the midrange and lofty conclusion, in portion offset via strong growth in every bit of glisten Arrays. IBM cited that pricing pressure in the immensely competitive storage market is hurting revenues. The traffic introduced its new FlashSystems with next technology NVMe expertise every bit of through the quarter.

operating methods utility revenues declined four%, while programs Hardware superior 4% from the year-in the past quarter.

eventually, world Financing (contains financing and used apparatus revenue) revenues decreased 9.1% at cc to $388 million.

working details

Non-GAAP uncouth margin remained unchanged from the yr-ago quarter at forty seven.4%. This become IBM’s most efficient uncouth margin performance in years and changed into essentially driven by 160 basis points (bps) expansion in functions margin. however, unfavourable combine in z14 mainframe and application fully offset this expansion.

working expense declined 4% 12 months over year, as a result of consciousness of acquisition synergies and improving operational efficiencies. IBM continues to allocate money into speedy turning out to exist fields relish hybrid cloud, synthetic intelligence (AI), protection and blockchain.

Pre-tax margin from continuing operations extended 50 bps on a year-over-yr basis to 19.2%.

Cognitive solutions and global enterprise functions section pre-tax margins increased one hundred ninety bps and 320 bps, respectively, on a 12 months-over-year basis. despite the fact, technology features & Cloud structures segment pre-tax margin shriveled one hundred bps.

techniques pre-tax profits become $209 million down 38% year over 12 months. world Financing section pre-tax income jumped 26.7% to $308 million.

stability Sheet & money stream details

IBM ended third-quarter 2018 with $14.70 billion in total cash and marketable securities in comparison with $11.ninety three billion at the conclusion of second-quarter 2018. total debt (together with world financing) was $46.9 billion, up $1.four million from the passe quarter.

IBM pronounced cash stream from operations (except world Financing receivables) of $3.1 billion and generated free cash circulation of $2.2 billion in the quarter.

in the suggested quarter, the enterprise returned $2.1 billion to shareholders through dividends and share repurchases. on the conclusion of the quarter, the company had $1.four billion remaining under existing buyback authorization.

tips

IBM reiterated EPS forecast for 2018. Non-GAAP EPS is expected to exist as a minimum $13.80.

IBM still anticipates 2018 free cash circulate of $12 billion.

Story Continues

How possess Estimates Been relocating since Then?

during the past month, buyers possess witnessed a downward vogue in sparkling estimates.

VGM ratings

at the present, IBM has an ordinary expand score of C, although it is lagging a Little bit on the Momentum ranking front with a D. however, the stock became allocated a grade of A on the value aspect, putting it within the suitable quintile for this funding method.

overall, the inventory has an composite VGM rating of B. if you don't seem to exist concentrated on one method, this score is the one recollect to exist attracted to.

Outlook

Estimates possess been generally trending downward for the inventory, and the magnitude of those revisions indicates a downward shift. specifically, IBM has a Zacks Rank #three (hold). They are expecting an in-line recrudesce from the inventory within the following pair of months.

need the newest techniques from Zacks investment analysis? these days, which you could down load 7 most desirable stocks for the subsequent 30 Days. click on to Get this free record foreign traffic Machines supplier (IBM) : Free inventory evaluation document To read this article on Zacks.com click on privilege here. Zacks funding research


Did IBM overhype Watson fitness's AI promise? | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

5 methods to accomplish windows 10 act relish home windows 7

Metro shoes taps IBM Watson For Digital Commerce | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

ibm shoes

Metro shoes Ltd, one in every bit of India’s leading multi-brand footwear chains, is launching a new Digital Commerce platform powered with the aid of Watson customer date hosted on IBM Cloud. this would include IBM Watson Order administration and Commerce for seamless digital engagement. Working with IBM company companion CEBS worldwide, IBM solutions will now not most efficient allay power advanced customer experiences and new levels of convenience however convey efficiencies to the give chain.

With a countrywide footprint of 350 actual showrooms, an expanding brand portfolio and changing client preferences, Metro shoes Ltd became dealing with challenges in managing orders coming from separate online structures.  previous dealt with by way of unreliable software, leading to want of visibility of real-time statistics of income, inventory region and returns. in addition to its stock management challenges, Metro shoes Ltd crucial to better on-line presence for a few of their regular inner manufacturers which possess been getting low visibility impacting usual earnings.

“expertise is redefining client date and will exist the Important thing differentiator for retail manufacturers of the long run. We’re excited to collaborate with IBM and CEBS to embark on their digital transformation journey,” noted Alisha Malik, vp, Digital, Metro shoes. “With IBM’s capabilities within the omni-channel commerce and retail area, we're assured that these alterations will now not handiest support accelerate the execution of their approach, but moreover supply us an edge over competitors. At Metro footwear, they strongly trust that the new solution will boost the ordinary person journey, thereby increasing revisits, site visitors and loyalty.”

With IBM, Metro footwear Ltd can profit new stages of consumer insight, which can exist used to personalize the online journey for every traveller as they navigate throughout the site. Delivered through a single platform, Metro footwear will exist in a position to exhibit every bit of of its brands and suggest specific objects in response to insights shared by customers. This personalised experience will include new and handy fulfillmentoptions corresponding to purchase on-line, select up in keep, reserve in maintain and simple returns. on account of these new capabilities, Metro shoes will exist able to elevate every vacationer’s event on the web page by enabling commerce practitioners with cognitive tools which support them bring omni-channel experiences that possess interaction shoppers and pressure revenue.

With IBM’s know-how capabilities and CEBS advantage with marketplace integration, Metro footwear as a manufacturer/vendor will moreover exist in a position to integrate with greater than 14 e-marketplaces relish Amazon, Flipkart and different leading portals with a centralized procedure and inventory engine to allow Metro to scale up to the needs of a becoming marketplace enterprise. extra, IBM Cloud will allay elevate the potential to configure cumbersome workloads and thereby convey performance required for height usage every bit of through the searching season.

speaking concerning the collaboration, Nishant Kalra, traffic unit leader – IBM Watson consumer date - India/South Asiaadded, “IBM is at the forefront of assisting valued clientele include more moderen the way to work and digitally reworking the way they interact with their conclusion purchasers. we're jubilant to exist portion of Metro shoes’ digital transformation adventure by means of delivering superior digital commerce experience, leveraging the stores by merging them with online, and eventually using company advocacy. IBM in association with CEBS will permit abysmal innovation, sooner-go-to-market and streamline tactics for scalability.”

The IBM platform will create a bridge between its online and offline company which the retailer previously lacked. With the brand new integrated single view, Metro shoes in the future could exist in a position to Use insights received from the digital realm to design special offering for purchasers as they stroll into any of their stores. in consequence, they can stand in intelligence what customers desire, accomplish certain availability when and the region they necessity it and even study toddle selling and upselling across their a considerable number of brands.

For Metro footwear, IBM Watson Order administration and Commerce solutions can pave way for IBM’s cognitive applied sciences to carry insights that allay them provide purchasers with customized ideas and an more advantageous user adventure –from click on to birth.

“With over 15 years of journey in establishing e-business equipment, CEBS has been a depended on options company and accomplice for groups throughout the globe,”talked about Satish Swaroop, President, CEBS international. Their positive and springy software options paired with IBM’s abysmal expertise potential will supply Metro footwear a real-time, centralized gadget for client administration.”


000-N04 IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Study guide Prepared by Killexams.com IBM Dumps Experts


Killexams.com 000-N04 Dumps and real Questions

100% real Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with lofty Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



000-N04 exam Dumps Source : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Test Code : 000-N04
Test designation : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1
Vendor designation : IBM
: 30 real Questions

am i able to find state-of-the-art dumps Q & A brand new 000-N04 exam?
the usual of killexams.com is lofty sufficient to assist the candidates in 000-N04 exam education. every bit of the products that I had used for 000-N04 exam coaching had been of the exceptional distinguished in order that they assisted me to cleanly the 000-N04 exam shortly.


Very smooth to Get licensed in 000-N04 examination with this possess a leer at manual.
To Get organized for 000-N04 exercise examination requires a number of tough paintings and time. Time control is this type of complicated trouble, that may exist hardly ever resolved. But killexams.Com certification has certainly resolved this issue from its root level, by using imparting variety of time schedules, so that you can effortlessly complete his syllabus for 000-N04 exercise exam. Killexams.Com certification provides every bit of of the educational courses which might exist necessary for 000-N04 rehearse exam. So I ought to speak with out losing a while, start your training beneath killexams.Com certifications to Get a unreasonable rating in 000-N04 exercise examination, and accomplish yourself experience at the pinnacle of this world of expertise.


wherein will I determine material for 000-N04 examination?
It ended up being a frail department of expertise to plot. I required a e-book which could kingdom query and retort and i without a doubt allude it. killexams.com Questions & answers are singularly in suffuse of every final one in every bit of credits. a whole lot obliged killexams.com for giving nice conclusion. I had endeavored the examination 000-N04 exam for 3 years continuously but couldnt accomplish it to passing score. I understood my cavity in information the subject of creating a session room.


wherein to register for 000-N04 examination?
000-N04 exam was really tough for me as I was not getting enough time for the preparation. Finding no way out, I took allay from the dump. I moreover took allay from Official Certification Guide. The dump was amazing. It dealt with every bit of the topics in an easy and friendly manner. Could Get through most of them with Little effort. Answered every bit of the question in just 81 minutes and got 97 mark. Felt really satisfied. Thanks a lot to killexams.com for their priceless guidance.


Is there 000-N04 exam new sayllabus?
i would clearly recommend killexams.com to each person whos giving 000-N04 examination as this now not just helps to skim up the concepts inside the workbook but additionally gives a exotic concept about the sample of questions. first rate allay ..for the 000-N04 examination. thank you a lot killexams.com crew !


Get cost percent of expertise to allocate together 000-N04 exam.
000-N04 questions from killexams.Com are splendid, and replicate precisely what check middle gives you at the 000-N04 exam. I cherished the entirety approximately the killexams.Com guidance material. I exceeded with over 80%.


virtually the ones 000-N04 modern-day day dumps and observe guide is required to skip the pick a leer at.
A portion of the lessons are quite problematic but I understand them utilising the killexams.Com and Exam Simulator and solved every bit of questions. Essentially on account of it; I breezed thru the test horribly essentially. Your 000-N04 dumps Product are unmatchable in fine and correctness. every bit of the inquiries in your remonstrate were inside the test as nicely. I was flabbergasted to examine the exactness of your material. Much obliged over again on your assistance and every bit of the assist that you furnished to me.


can i locate touch data trendy 000-N04 certified?
Going thru killexams.Com has forward to exist a addiction whilst exam 000-N04 comes. And with assessments springing up in pretty a whole lot 6 days changed into getting extra critical. But with subjects I want a few reference manual to toddle occasionally in order that i would Get better help. Manner to killexams.Com their that made it every bit of easy to Get the subjectsinterior your head easily which would in any other case might exist no longer viable. And its far every bit of because of killexams.Com products that I controlled to gain 980 in my exam. Thats the highest rating in my beauty.


These 000-N04 dumps works in the real test.
I used killexams.Com cloth which provides sufficient information to obtain my purpose. I commonly commonly memorize the matters earlier than going for any exam, but this is the distinguished one examination, which I took with out trulymemorizing the wished things. I thank you actually from the lowest of my heart. I am able to forward to you for my next examination.


proper source to locate 000-N04 real question paper.
i was approximately to give up examination 000-N04 because I wasnt confident in whether or not id bypass or not. With just a week last I decided to exchange to killexams.com for my examination education. in no way concept that the subjects that I had constantly dash away from might exist so much fun to possess a leer at; its smooth and quick manner of getting to the factors made my coaching lot less difficult. every bit of way to killexams.com , I by no means concept id skip my exam but I did bypass with flying colors.


Whilst it is very arduous task to elect amenable exam questions / answers resources regarding review, reputation and validity because people Get ripoff due to choosing incorrect service. Killexams. com accomplish it certain to provide its clients far better to their resources with respect to exam dumps update and validity. Most of other peoples ripoff report complaint clients forward to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams enjoyably and easily. They never compromise on their review, reputation and attribute because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams client self self-possession is Important to every bit of of us. Specially they manage killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com ripoff report complaint, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. If perhaps you notice any bogus report posted by their competitor with the designation killexams ripoff report complaint internet, killexams.com ripoff report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com complaint or something relish this, just maintain in intelligence that there are always wicked people damaging reputation of noble services due to their benefits. There are a great number of satisfied customers that pass their exams using killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams rehearse questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, their test questions and sample brain dumps, their exam simulator and you will definitely know that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.

Back to Braindumps Menu


6207-1 study guide | CTFA braindumps | 9L0-508 questions and answers | HP3-C24 bootcamp | 190-800 rehearse Test | 000-078 test prep | LOT-955 braindumps | 050-707 rehearse test | 010-111 questions and answers | COG-122 free pdf | 9A0-164 free pdf | 920-334 rehearse test | 200-045 rehearse exam | S90-02A study guide | 9L0-827 free pdf | CD0-001 real questions | 642-889 mock exam | HP0-450 exam prep | 1Z0-333 exam prep | HP0-D17 sample test |


000-N04 | 000-N04 | 000-N04 | 000-N04 | 000-N04 | 000-N04

Audit 000-N04 real question and answers before you step through exam
killexams.com offer bleeding edge and refreshed rehearse Test with Actual Exam Questions and Answers for new syllabus of IBM 000-N04 Exam. rehearse their real Questions and Answers to better your know-how and pass your exam with lofty Marks. They ensure your accomplishment in the Test Center, covering the majority of the points of exam and fabricate your information of the 000-N04 exam. Pass 4 beyond any doubt with their privilege questions.

killexams.com possess its specialists operative ceaselessly for the gathering of real test questions of 000-N04. every bit of the pass4sure Questions and Answers of 000-N04 accumulated by their team are appeared into and updated by their 000-N04 assured cluster. they possess an approach to maintain associated with the candidates showed up within the 000-N04 exam to induce their reviews regarding the 000-N04 exam, they possess an approach to accumulate 000-N04 exam tips and tricks, their Enjoy regarding the techniques applied as an belt of the Important 000-N04 exam, the errors they did within the actual test and presently modify their braindumps as required. Click http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/000-N04 killexams.com Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as underneath; WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for every bit of tests on website PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders over $69 DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders larger than $99 SEPSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for every bit of Orders When you fancy their pass4sure Questions and Answers, you will sense positive regarding each one of the topic matters of test and feel that your information has been notably captive forward. These pass4sure Questions and Answers are not merely rehearse questions, those are actual test Questions and Answers that are sufficient to pass the 000-N04 exam at the first attempt.

On the off danger which you are looking for 000-N04 rehearse Test containing real Test Questions, you're at revise location. They possess accumulated database of questions from Actual Exams with a specific suspension goal to enable you to devise and pass your exam at the primary undertaking. every bit of coaching materials at the web site are Up To Date and confirmed by means of their experts.

killexams.com supply most current and updated rehearse Test with Actual Exam Questions and Answers for new syllabus of IBM 000-N04 Exam. rehearse their real Questions and Answers to better your perception and pass your exam with lofty Marks. They guarantee your success within the Test Center, overlaying each one of the points of exam and construct your information of the 000-N04 exam. Pass beyond any doubt with their unique questions.

Our 000-N04 Exam PDF includes Complete Pool of Questions and Answers and Brain dumps checked and showed which include references and explanations (in which applicable). Their objective to accumulate the Questions and Answers isnt just to pass the exam before everything attempt however Really better Your information approximately the 000-N04 exam points.

000-N04 exam Questions and Answers are Printable in lofty attribute Study guide that you may down load in your Computer or a few other device and start setting up your 000-N04 exam. Print Complete 000-N04 Study Guide, deliver with you when you are at Vacations or Traveling and Enjoy your Exam Prep. You can Get to updated 000-N04 Exam from your on line document whenever.

killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for every bit of tests on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $ninety nine
OCTSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for every bit of Orders


Download your IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1 Study guide immediately next to purchasing and Start Preparing Your Exam Prep privilege Now!

000-N04 | 000-N04 | 000-N04 | 000-N04 | 000-N04 | 000-N04


Killexams HP0-281 questions and answers | Killexams A2090-312 rehearse test | Killexams E20-060 VCE | Killexams 000-M44 rehearse questions | Killexams ACCP test prep | Killexams 1Y0-A14 dumps | Killexams CAT-140 braindumps | Killexams 351-018 exam prep | Killexams 300-070 braindumps | Killexams H12-721 brain dumps | Killexams C2040-929 dump | Killexams 304-200 study guide | Killexams A2180-271 braindumps | Killexams 1Z0-338 questions and answers | Killexams FN0-202 study guide | Killexams 190-983 real questions | Killexams HP2-B121 free pdf | Killexams 70-765 real questions | Killexams HP2-E62 brain dumps | Killexams 000-779 study guide |


Exam Simulator : Pass4sure 000-N04 Exam Simulator

View Complete list of Killexams.com Brain dumps


Killexams NBCOT cheat sheets | Killexams 70-703 free pdf download | Killexams HP2-Q05 dumps questions | Killexams 050-890 questions and answers | Killexams 920-462 dumps | Killexams CTAL-TM_Syll2012 real questions | Killexams CTAL-TA VCE | Killexams HP0-M43 real questions | Killexams ACSM-GEI rehearse test | Killexams CEN test prep | Killexams COG-642 free pdf | Killexams 000-418 rehearse Test | Killexams 000-733 dump | Killexams JN0-520 cram | Killexams COG-112 brain dumps | Killexams M6040-520 sample test | Killexams 000-723 test prep | Killexams S10-100 exam prep | Killexams GB0-323 braindumps | Killexams 1Z0-228 rehearse questions |


IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Pass 4 sure 000-N04 dumps | Killexams.com 000-N04 real questions | http://www.radionaves.com/

HP TouchPad Needs 6 to 8 Weeks for Additional Shipments | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

First Name: Last Name: E-mail Address: Password: Confirm Password: Username:

Title: C-Level/President Manager VP Staff (Associate/Analyst/etc.) Director

Function:

Role in IT decision-making process: Align traffic & IT Goals Create IT Strategy Determine IT Needs Manage Vendor Relationships Evaluate/Specify Brands or Vendors Other Role commission Purchases Not Involved

Work Phone: Company: Company Size: Industry: Street Address City: Zip/postal code State/Province: Country:

Occasionally, they transmit subscribers special offers from select partners. Would you relish to receive these special ally offers via e-mail? Yes No

Your registration with Eweek will include the following free email newsletter(s): news & Views

By submitting your wireless number, you accord that eWEEK, its related properties, and vendor partners providing content you view may contact you using contact focus technology. Your consent is not required to view content or Use site features.

By clicking on the "Register" button below, I accord that I possess carefully read the Terms of Service and the Privacy Policy and I accord to exist legally bound by every bit of such terms.

Register

Continue without consent      

Uniqlo’s new Mobile e-Commerce traffic Model | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

By Si Chen

Article Rating:

February 20, 2015 01:26 PM EST

Reads:

318

Watch this video — it might just exist the future of mobile commerce:

Did you notice

  • A chilly mobile app
  • Creating DIY art
  • Did you moreover notice that it’s a traffic model without

  • Upfront design
  • Inventory
  • Advertising
  • Uniqlo is not just thinking, Gee how upshot they Get more Instagram followers to sell the same passe T-shirts?

    They’re creating a whole new traffic model by taking the mobile platform to its ratiocinative conclusion.  Their app, which does a lot more than Instagram’s simple filters, works hand-in-hand with a traffic model to turn a T-shirt (commodity) into your own work of know-how (priceless.)

    If Little Instagram could build a billion-dollar traffic by turning the mobile phone into the ultimate device of self-expression, why couldn’t Uniqlo…or you?

    Read the original blog entry...

    Si Chen is the founder of Open Source Strategies, Inc. and Project Manager for opentaps Open Source ERP + CRM (www.opentaps.org).

    Latest Stories

    By Elizabeth White

    Nov. 17, 2018 03:45 PM EST

    By Yeshim Deniz

    Nov. 17, 2018 11:15 AM EST

    By Zakia Bouachraoui

    Nov. 12, 2018 12:00 PM EST

    By Yeshim Deniz

    Nov. 12, 2018 09:00 AM EST

    By Pat Romanski

    Nov. 12, 2018 01:45 AM EST

    By Yeshim Deniz

    Nov. 12, 2018 12:00 AM EST

    By Pat Romanski

    Nov. 12, 2018 12:00 AM EST

    By Liz McMillan

    Nov. 11, 2018 10:45 PM EST

    By Zakia Bouachraoui

    David Friend is the co-founder and CEO of Wasabi, the chafed´ cloud storage company that delivers fast, low-cost, and amenable cloud storage. Prior to Wasabi, David co-founded Carbonite, one of the world's leading cloud backup companies. A successful tech entrepreneur for more than 30 years, David got his start at ARP Instruments, a manufacturer of synthesizers for rock bands, where he worked with leading musicians of the day relish Stevie Wonder, Pete Townsend of The Who, and Led Zeppelin. David has ...

    Nov. 11, 2018 05:30 PM EST

    By Liz McMillan

    Nov. 11, 2018 04:15 PM EST

    By Liz McMillan

    Nov. 11, 2018 04:00 PM EST  Reads: 3,170

    By Elizabeth White

    Nov. 11, 2018 02:45 PM EST

    By Zakia Bouachraoui

    Nov. 11, 2018 02:30 PM EST

    By Zakia Bouachraoui

    Nov. 11, 2018 02:15 PM EST

    By Pat Romanski

    Nov. 11, 2018 11:45 AM EST  Reads: 2,273


    Modeled larval connectivity of a multi-species reef fish and invertebrate assemblage off the coast of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Introduction

    Knowledge of population connectivity is necessary for efficient management in marine environments (Mitarai, Siegel & Winters, 2008; Botsford et al., 2009; Toonen et al., 2011). For many species of marine invertebrate and reef fish, dispersal is mostly limited to the pelagic larval life stage. Therefore, an understanding of larval dispersal patterns is critical for studying population dynamics, connectivity, and conservation in the marine environment (Jones, Srinivasan & Almany, 2007; Lipcius et al., 2008; Gaines et al., 2010; Toonen et al., 2011). Many coastal and reef species possess a bi-phasic life history in which adults panoply limited geographic compass and lofty site fidelity, while larvae are pelagic and highly mobile (Thorson, 1950; Scheltema, 1971; Strathmann, 1993; Marshall et al., 2012). This life history strategy is not only common to sessile invertebrates such as corals or limpets; many reef fish species possess been shown to possess a home compass of <1 km as adults (Meyer et al., 2000; Meyer, Papastamatiou & Clark, 2010). Depending on species, the mobile planktonic stage can last from hours to months and has the potential to transport larvae up to hundreds of kilometers away from a site of origin (Scheltema, 1971; Richmond, 1987; Shanks, 2009). information of larval dispersal patterns can exist used to inform efficient management, such as marine spatial management strategies that sustain source populations of breeding individuals capable of dispersing offspring to other areas.

    Both biological and physical factors impact larval dispersal, although the relative moment of these factors is likely variable among species and sites and remains debated (Levin, 2006; Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007; Cowen & Sponaugle, 2009; White et al., 2010). In situ data on pelagic larvae are sparse; marine organisms at this life stage are difficult to capture and identify, and are typically institute in low densities across great areas of the open ocean (Clarke, 1991; Wren & Kobayashi, 2016). A variety of genetic and chemistry techniques possess therefore been developed to assess larval connectivity (Gillanders, 2005; Leis, Siebeck & Dixson, 2011; Toonen et al., 2011; Johnson et al., 2018). Computer models informed by domain and laboratory data possess moreover become a valuable tool for estimating larval dispersal and population connectivity (Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007; Botsford et al., 2009; Sponaugle et al., 2012; Kough, Paris & Butler IV, 2013; Wood et al., 2014). Individual-based models, or IBMs, can incorporate both biological and physical factors known to influence larval movement. Pelagic larval duration (PLD), for example, is the amount of time a larva spends in the water column before settlement and can vary widely among or even within species ( Toonen & Pawlik, 2001). PLD affects how far an individual can exist successfully transported by ocean currents, and so is expected to directly affect connectivity patterns (Siegel et al., 2003; Shanks, 2009; Dawson et al., 2014). In addition to PLD, adult reproductive strategy and timing (Carson et al., 2010; Portnoy et al., 2013), fecundity (Castorani et al., 2017), larval mortality (Vikebøet al., 2007), and larval developmental, morphological, and behavioral characteristics (Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007) may every bit of play a role in shaping connectivity patterns. Physical factors such as temperature, bathymetry, and current direction can moreover substantially influence connectivity (Cowen & Sponaugle, 2009). In this study, they incorporated both biotic and abiotic components in an IBM coupled with an oceanographic model to forecast fine-scale patterns of larval exchange around the island of Moloka‘i in the Hawaiian archipelago.

    The main Hawaiian Islands are located in the middle of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, and are bordered by the North Hawaiian Ridge current along the northern coasts of the islands and the Hawaii Lee Current along the southern coasts, both of which dash east to west and are driven by the prevalent easterly trade winds (Lumpkin, 1998; Friedlander et al., 2005). The Hawai‘i Lee Countercurrent, which runs along the southern perimeter of the chain, flows west to east (Lumpkin, 1998). The pattern of mesoscale eddies around the islands is involved and varies seasonally (Friedlander et al., 2005; Vaz et al., 2013).

    Hawaiian marine communities physiognomy unprecedented pressures, including coastal development, overexploitation, disease, and increasing temperature and acidification due to climate change (Smith, 1993; Lowe, 1995; Coles & Brown, 2003; Friedlander et al., 2003; Friedlander et al., 2005; Aeby, 2006). Declines in Hawaiian marine resources bicker for implementation of a more holistic approach than traditional single-species maximum sustainable yield techniques, which possess proven ineffective (Goodyear, 1996; Hilborn, 2011). There is a generic movement toward the Use of ecosystem-based management, which requires information of ecosystem structure and connectivity patterns to establish and manage marine spatial planning areas (Slocombe, 1993; Browman et al., 2004; Pikitch et al., 2004; Arkema, Abramson & Dewsbury, 2006). Kalaupapa National Historical Park is a federal marine protected belt (MPA) located on the north shore of Moloka‘i, an island in the Maui Nui involved of the Hawaiian archipelago, that includes submerged lands and waters up to 1 4 mile offshore (NOAA, 2009). At least five IUCN red-listed coral species possess been identified within this area (Kenyon, Maragos & Fenner, 2011), and in 2010 the Park showed the greatest fish biomass and species diversity out of four Hawaiian National Parks surveyed (Beets, Brown & Friedlander, 2010). One of the major benefits expected of MPAs is that the protected waters within the belt provide a source of larval spillover to other sites on the island, seeding these areas for commercial, recreational, and subsistence fishing (McClanahan & Mangi, 2000; Halpern & Warner, 2003; Lester et al., 2009).

    In this study, they used a Lagrangian particle-tracking IBM (Wong-Ala et al., 2018) to simulate larval dispersal around Moloka‘i and to assess the larval exchange among sites at the scale of an individual island. They possess parameterized their model with biological data for eleven species covering a breadth of Hawaiian reef species life histories (e.g., habitat preferences, larval behaviors, and pelagic larval durations, Table 1), and of interest to both the local community and resource managers. Their goals were to examine patterns of species-specific connectivity, characterize the location and relative magnitude of connections around Moloka‘i, narrate sites of potential management relevance, and address the question of whether Kalaupapa National Historical Park provides larval spillover for adjacent sites on Moloka‘i, or connections to the adjacent islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, O‘ahu, Lana‘i, and Kaho‘olawe.

    Table 1:

    Target taxa selected for the study, based on cultural, ecological, and/or economic importance.

    PLD = pelagic larval duration. Short dispersers (3–25 day minimum PLD) in white, medium dispersers (30–50 day minimum PLD) in light gray, and long dispersers (140–270 day minimum PLD) in unlit gray. Spawn season and timing from traditional ecological information shared by cultural practitioners on the island. Asterisk indicates that congener-level data was used. Commonname Scientific name Spawn type # of larvae spawned Spawningday of year Spawning hour of day Spawning moon phase Larval depth (m) PLD (days) Habitat ’Opihi/ Limpet Cellana spp. Broadcast1 861,300 1–60 & 121–181 – New 0–5 3–181,2 Intertidal1 Ko’a/ Cauliflower coral Pocillopora meandrina Broadcast3 1,671,840 91–151 07:15–08:00 Full 0–54 5–90*5 Reef He’e/ Octopus Octopus cyanea Benthic6 1,392,096 1–360 – – 50–100 216 Reef, rubble7 Moi/ Pacific threadfin Polydactylus sexfilis Broadcast 1,004,640 152–243 – – 50–1008 259 Sand10 Uhu uliuli/ Spectacled parrotfish Chlorurus perspicillatus Broadcast 1,404,792 152–212 – – 0–120*11 30*12 Reef10 Uhu palukaluka/ Reddlip parrotfish Scarus rubroviolaceus Broadcast 1,404,792 152–212 – – 0–120*11 30*12 Rock, reef10 Kumu/ Whitesaddle Goatfish Parupeneus porphyreus Broadcast 1,071,252 32–90 – – 0–50*11 41–56*12 Sand, rock, reef10 Kole/ Spotted surgeonfish Ctenochaetus strigosus Broadcast 1,177,200 60–120 – – 50–10011 50*12 Rock, reef, rubble10 ‘Ōmilu/ Bluefin trevally Caranx melampygus Broadcast 1,310,616 121–243 – – 0–80*11 140*13,14 Sand, reef10 Ulua/ Giant trevally Caranx ignoblis Broadcast 1,151,040 152–243 – Full 0–80*11 14013,14 Sand, rock, reef10 Ula/ Spiny lobster Panulirus spp. Benthic15 1,573,248 152–243 – – 50–10016 27017 Rock, pavement16 Methods Circulation model

    We selected the hydrodynamic model MITgcm, which is designed for the study of dynamical processes in the ocean on a horizontal scale. This model solves incompressible Navier–Stokes equations to narrate the motion of viscous fluid on a sphere, discretized using a finite-volume technique (Marshall et al., 1997). The one-km resolution MITgcm domain for this study extends from 198.2°E to 206°E and from 17°N to 22.2°N, an belt that includes the islands of Moloka‘i, Maui, Lana‘i, Kaho‘olawe, O‘ahu, and Hawai‘i. While Ni‘ihau and southern Kaua’i moreover drop within the domain, they discarded connectivity to these islands because they palter within the 0.5° boundary zone of the current model. boundary conditions are enforced over 20 grid points on every bit of sides of the model domain. Vertically, the model is divided into 50 layers that expand in thickness with depth, from five m at the surface (0.0–5.0 m) to 510 m at the ground (4,470 –4,980 m). Model variables were initialized using the output of a Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) at a horizontal resolution of 0.04° (∼four km) configured for the main Hawaiian Islands, using the generic Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans database (GEBCO, 1/60°) (Jia et al., 2011).

    The simulation runs from March 31st, 2011 to July 30th, 2013 with a temporal resolution of 24 h and shows seasonal eddies as well as persistent mesoscale features (Fig. S1). They upshot not include tides in the model due to temporal resolution. Their model era represents a neutral ocean state; no El Niño or La Niña events occurred during this time period. To ground-truth the circulation model, they compared surface current output to real-time trajectories of surface drifters from the GDP Drifter Data Assembly focus (Fig. S2) (Elipot et al., 2016), as well as other current models of the belt (Wren et al., 2016; Storlazzi et al., 2017).

    Biological model

    To simulate larval dispersal, they used a modified version of the Wong-Ala et al. (2018) IBM, a 3D Lagrangian particle-tracking model written in the R programming language (R Core Team, 2017). The model takes the aforementioned MITgcm current products as input, as well as shoreline shapefiles extracted from the full resolution NOAA Global Self-consistent Hierarchical High-resolution Geography database, v2.3.0 (Wessel & Smith, 1996). Their model included 65 land masses within the geographic domain, the largest being the island of Hawai‘i and the smallest being Pu‘uki‘i Island, a 1.5-acre islet off the eastern coast of Maui. To model depth, they used the one arc-minute-resolution ETOPO1 bathymetry, extracted using the R package ‘marmap’ (Amante & Eakins, 2009; Pante & Simon-Bouhet, 2013).

    Each species was simulated with a separate model run. Larvae were modeled from spawning to settlement and were transported at each timestep (t = 2 h) by advection-diffusion transport. This transport consisted of (1) advective displacement caused by water flow, consisting of east (u) and north (v) velocities read from daily MITgcm files, and (2) additional random-walk displacement, using a diffusion constant of 0.2 m2/s−1 (Lowe et al., 2009). Vertical velocities (w) were not implemented by the model; details of vertical larval movement are described below. Advection was interpolated between data points at each timestep using an Eulerian 2D barycentric interpolation method. They chose this implementation over a more computationally intensive interpolation system (i.e., fourth-order Runge–Kutta) because they did not observe a dissimilarity at this timestep length. Biological processes modeled include PLD, reproduction timing and location, mortality, and ontogenetic changes in vertical distribution; these qualities were parameterized via species-specific data obtained from previous studies and from the local fishing and management community (Table 1).

    Larvae were released from habitat-specific spawning sites and were considered settled if they fell within a roughly one-km contour around reef or intertidal habitat at the suspension of their pelagic larval duration. Distance from habitat was used rather than water depth because Penguin Bank, a relatively shallow bank to the southwest of Moloka‘i, does not portray suitable habitat for reef-associated species. PLD for each larva was a randomly assigned value between the minimum and maximum PLD for that species, and larvae were removed from the model if they had reached their PLD and were not within a settlement zone. No data on pre-competency era were available for their study species, so this parameter was not included. Mortality rates were calculated as larval half-lives; e.g., one-half of every bit of larvae were assumed to possess survived at one-half of the maximum PLD for that species (following Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). Since their focus was on potential connectivity pathways, reproductive rates were calibrated to allow for saturation of viable settlement sites, equating from ∼900,000 to ∼1,7000,000 larvae released depending on species. Fecundity was therefore derived not from biological data, but from computational minimums.

    Development, and resulting ontogenetic changes in behavior, is specific to the life history of each species. Broadcast-spawning species with weakly-swimming larvae (P. meandrina and Cellana spp., Table 1) were transported as passive particles randomly distributed between 0–5 m depth (Storlazzi, Brown & Field, 2006). Previous studies possess demonstrated that fish larvae possess a lofty degree of control over their vertical position in the water column (Irisson et al., 2010; Huebert, Cowen & Sponaugle, 2011). Therefore, they modeled broadcast-spawning fish species with a 24-hour passive buoyant side to simulate eggs pre-hatch, followed by a pelagic larval side with a species-specific depth distribution. For C. ignoblis, C. melampygus, P. porphyreus, C. perspicillatus, and S. rubroviolaceus, they used genus-level depth distributions (Fig. S3) obtained from the 1996 NOAA ichthyoplankton vertical distributions data report (Boehlert & Mundy, 1996). P. sexfilis and C. strigosus larvae were randomly distributed between 50–100 m (Boehlert, Watson & Sun, 1992). Benthic brooding species (O. cyanea and Panulirus spp.) upshot not possess a passive buoyant phase, and thus were released as larvae randomly distributed between 50–100 m. At each time step, a larva’s depth was checked against bathymetry, and was assigned to the nearest available layer if the species-specific depth was not available at these coordinates.

    For data-poor species, they used congener-level estimates for PLD (see Table 1). For example, there is no assess of larval duration for Caranx species, but in Hawai‘i peak spawning occurs in May–July and peak recruitment in August–December (Sudekum, 1984; Longenecker, Langston & Barrett, 2008). In consultation with resource managers and community members, a PLD of 140 days was chosen pending future data that indicates a more accurate pelagic period.

    Habitat selection

    Spawning sites were generated using data from published literature and modified after input from autochthonous Hawaiian cultural practitioners and the Moloka‘i fishing community (Fig. 1). Species-specific habitat suitability was inferred from the 2013–2016 Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands (Costa & Kendall, 2016). They designated coral habitat as areas with 5–90% coral cover, or ≥1 site-specific coral species richness, for a total of 127 spawning sites on Moloka‘i. Habitat for reef invertebrates followed coral habitat, with additional sites added after community feedback for a total of 136 sites. Areas with a predicted reef fish biomass of 58–1,288 g/m2 were designated as reef fish habitat (Stamoulis et al., 2016), for a total of 109 spawning sites. Sand habitat was designated as 90–100% uncolonized for a total of 115 sites. Intertidal habitat was designated as any rocky shoreline belt not covered by sand or mud, for a total of 87 sites. Number of adults was assumed equal at every bit of sites. For regional analysis, they pooled sites into groups of two to 11 sites based on benthic habitat and surrounding geography (Fig. 1A). Adjacent sites were grouped if they shared the same benthic habitat classification and prevalent wave direction, and/or were portion of the same reef tract.

    Figure 1: Spawning sites used in the model by species. (A) C. perspicillatus, S. rubroviolaceus, P. porphyreus, C. strigosus, C. ignoblis, and C. melampygus, n = 109; (B) P. meandrina, n = 129;(C) O. cyanea and Panulirus spp., n = 136; (D) P. sexfilis, n = 115; and (E) Cellana spp., n = 87. Region names are displayed over associated spawning sites for fish species in (A). Regions are made up of two to 11 sites, grouped based on coastal geography and surrounding benthic habitat, and are designated in (A) by adjacent colored dots. Kalaupapa National Historical Park is highlighted in light green in (A). Source–sink dynamics and local retention

    Dispersal distance was measured via the distm office in the R package ‘geosphere’, which calculates distance between geographical points via the Haversine formula (Hijmans, 2016). This distance, measured between spawn and settlement locations, was used to cipher dispersal kernels to examine and compare species-specific distributions. They moreover measured local retention, or the percentage of successful settlers from a site that were retained at that site (i.e., settlers at site A that originated from site A/total successful settlers that originated from site A). To assess the role of specific sites around Moloka‘i, they moreover calculated a source–sink index for each species (Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014; Wren et al., 2016). This index defines sites as either a source, in which a site’s successful export to other sites is greater than its import, or a sink, in which import from other sites is greater than successful export. It is calculated by dividing the dissimilarity between number of successfully exported and imported larvae by the sum of every bit of successfully exported and imported larvae. A value <0 indicates that a site acts as a net sink, while a value >0 indicates that a site acts as a net source. While they measured successful dispersal to adjacent islands, they did not spawn larvae from them, and therefore these islands portray exogenous sinks. For this reason, settlement to other islands was not included in source–sink index calculations.

    We moreover calculated settlement balance between different regions for each species (Calabrese & Fagan, 2004). They calculated the forward settlement proportion, i.e., the balance of settlers from a specific settlement site (s) originating from an observed origin site (o), by scaling the number of successful settlers from site o settling at site s to every bit of successful settlers originating from site o. Forward balance can exist represented as Pso = Sos∕∑So. They moreover calculated rearward settlement proportion, or the balance of settlers from a specific origin site (o) observed at settlement site (s), by scaling the number of settlers observed at site s originating from site o to every bit of settlers observed at site s. The rearward balance can exist represented as Pos = Sos∕∑Ss.

    Graph-theoretic analysis

    To quantify connections between sites, they applied graph theory to population connectivity (Treml et al., 2008; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). Graph theoretic analysis is highly scalable and can exist used to examine fine-scale networks between reef sites up to broad-scale analyses between islands or archipelagos, mapping to both local and regional management needs. It moreover allows for both network- and site-specific metrics, enabling the comparison of connectivity between species and habitat sites as well as highlighting potential multi-generational dispersal corridors. Graph theory moreover provides a powerful tool for spatial visualization, allowing for rapid, intuitive communication of connectivity results to researchers, managers, and the public alike. This type of analysis can exist used to model pairwise relationships between spatial data points by breaking down individual-based output into a series of nodes (habitat sites) and edges (directed connections between habitat sites). They then used these nodes and edges to examine the relative moment of each site and dispersal pathway to the greater pattern of connectivity around Moloka‘i, as well as differences in connectivity patterns between species (Treml et al., 2008; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). They used the R package ‘igraph’ to examine several measures of within-island connectivity (Csardi & Nepusz, 2006). Edge density, or the balance of realized edges out of every bit of viable edges, is a multi-site measure of connectivity. Areas with a higher edge density possess more direct connections between habitat sites, and thus are more strongly connected. They measured edge density along and between the north, south, east, and west coasts of Moloka‘i to examine viable population structure and degree of exchange among the marine resources of local communities.

    The distribution of shortest path length is moreover informative for comparing overall connectivity. In graph theory, a shortest path is the minimum number of steps needed to connect two sites. For example, two sites that exchange larvae in either direction are connected by a shortest path of one, whereas if they both share larvae with an intermediate site but not with each other, they are connected by a shortest path of two. In a biological context, shortest path can correspond to number of generations needed for exchange: sites with a shortest path of two require two generations to accomplish a connection. middling shortest path, therefore, is a descriptive statistic to assess connectivity of a network. If two sites are unconnected, it is viable to possess infinite-length shortest paths; here, these sempiternal values were famed but not included in final analyses.

    Networks can moreover exist broken in connected components (Csardi & Nepusz, 2006). A weakly connected component (WCC) is a subgraph in which every bit of nodes are not reachable by other nodes. A network split into multiple WCCs indicates separate populations that upshot not exchange any individuals, and a great number of WCCs indicates a low degree of island-wide connectivity. A strongly connected component (SCC) is a subgraph in which every bit of nodes are directly connected and indicates a lofty degree of connectivity. A region with many small SCCs can argue lofty local connectivity but low island-wide connectivity. Furthermore, component analysis can identify sever nodes, or nodes that, if removed, demolish a network into multiple WCCs. Pinpointing these sever nodes can identify potential Important sites for preserving a population’s connectivity, and could inform predictions about the impact of site loss (e.g., a large-scale coral bleaching event) on overall connectivity.

    On a regional scale, it is Important to note which sites are exporting larvae to, or importing larvae from, other sites. To this end, they examined in-degree and out-degree for each region. In-degree refers to the number of inward-directed edges to a specific node, or how many other sites provide larvae into site ‘A’. Out-degree refers to the number of outward-directed edges from a specific node, or how many sites receive larvae from site ‘A’. Habitat sites with a lofty out-degree seed a great number of other sites, and argue potentially Important larval sources, while habitat sites with a low in-degree rely on a limited number of larval sources and may therefore exist conditional on connections with these few other sites to maintain population size. Finally, betweenness centrality (BC) refers to the number of shortest paths that pass through a given node, and may therefore argue connectivity pathways or ‘chokepoints’ that are Important to overall connectivity on a multigenerational timescale. BC was weighted with the balance of dispersal as described in the preceding section. They calculated in-degree, out-degree, and weighted betweenness centrality for each region in the network for each species.

    As with the source–sink index, they did not include sites on islands other than Moloka‘i in their calculations of edge density, shortest paths, connected components, sever nodes, in- and out-degree, or betweenness centrality in order to focus on within-island patterns of connectivity.

    Results Effects of biological parameters on fine-scale connectivity patterns

    The species-specific parameters that were available to parameterize the dispersal models substantially influenced final output (Fig. 2). The balance of successful settlers (either to Moloka‘i or to neighboring islands) varied widely by species, from 2% (Panulirus spp.) to 25% (Cellana spp.). Minimum pelagic duration and settlement success were negatively correlated (e.g., an estimated −0.79 Pearson correlation coefficient). Species modeled with batch spawning at a specific moon side and/or time of day (Cellana spp., P. meandrina, and C. ignoblis) displayed slightly higher settlement success than similar species modeled with constant spawning over specific months. On a smaller scale, they moreover examined middling site-scale local retention, comparing only retention to the spawning site versus other sites on Moloka‘i (Fig. 2). Local retention was lowest for Caranx spp. (<1%) and highest for O. cyanea and P. sexfilis (8.1% and 10%, respectively).

    Figure 2: Summary statistics for each species network. Summary statistics are displayed in order of increasing minimum pelagic larval duration from left to right. Heatmap colors are based on normalized values from 0–1 for each analysis. Successful settlement refers to the balance of larvae settled out of the total number of larvae spawned. Local retention is measured as the balance of larvae spawned from a site that settle at the same site. Shortest path is measured as the minimum number of steps needed to connect two sites. Strongly connected sites refers to the balance of sites in a network that belong to a strongly connected component. weigh in dispersal distance is measured in kilometers from spawn site to settlement site.

    We measured network-wide connectivity via distribution of shortest paths, or the minimum number of steps between a given two nodes in a network, only including sites on Moloka‘i (Fig. 2). O. cyanea and P. sexfilis showed the smallest shortest paths overall, signification that on average, it would pick fewer generations for these species to demographically bridge any given pair of sites. Using maximum shortest path, it could pick these species three generations at most to connect sites. Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, by comparison, could pick as many as five generations. Other medium- and long-dispersing species showed relatively equivalent shortest-path distributions, with trevally species showing the highest weigh in path length and therefore the lowest island-scale connectivity.

    The number and size of weakly-connected and strongly-connected components in a network is moreover an informative measure of connectivity (Fig. 2). No species in their study group was broken into multiple weakly-connected components; however, there were species-specific patterns of strongly connected sites. O. cyanea and P. sexfilis were the most strongly connected, with every bit of sites in the network falling into a single SCC. Cellana spp. and P. meandrina each had approximately 60% of sites included in a SCC, but both note fragmentation with seven and six SCCs respectively, ranging in size from two to 22 sites. This SCC pattern suggests low global connectivity but lofty local connectivity for these species. Medium and long dispersers showed larger connected components; 70% of parrotfish sites fell within two SCCs; 40% of P. porphyreus sites fell within two SCCs; 70% of C. strigosus sites, 55% of C. melampygus sites, and 40% of Panulirus sites fell within a single SCC. In contrast, only 26% of C. ignoblis sites fell within a single SCC. It is moreover Important to note that the lower connectivity scores observed in long-dispersing species likely reflect a larger scale of connectivity. Species with a shorter PLD are highly connected at reef and island levels but may note weaker connections between islands. Species with a longer PLD, such as trevally or spiny lobster, are likely more highly connected at inter-island scales which reflects the lower connectivity scores per island shown here.

    Figure 3: Dispersal distance density kernels. Dispersal distance is combined across species by minimum pelagic larval duration (PLD) length in days (short, medium, or long). Most short dispersers settle close to home, while few long dispersers are retained at or near their spawning sites.

    Minimum PLD was positively correlated with weigh in dispersal distance (e.g., an estimated 0.88 Pearson correlation coefficient with minimum pelagic duration loge-transformed to linearize the relationship), and dispersal kernels differed between species that are short dispersers (3–25 days), medium dispersers (30–50 days), or long dispersers (140–270 days) (Fig. 3). Short dispersers travelled a weigh in distance of 24.06 ± 31.33 km, medium dispersers travelled a weigh in distance of 52.71 ± 40.37 km, and long dispersers travelled the farthest, at a weigh in of 89.41 ± 41.43 km. However, regardless of PLD, there were essentially two peaks of weigh in dispersal: a short-distance peak of <30 km, and a long-distance peak of roughly 50–125 km (Fig. 3). The short-distance peak largely represents larvae that settle back to Moloka‘i, while the long-distance peak largely represents settlement to other islands; the low point between them corresponds to deep-water channels between islands, i.e., unsuitable habitat for settlement. Median dispersal distance for short dispersers was substantially less than the weigh in at 8.85 km, indicating that most of these larvae settled relatively close to their spawning sites, with rare long-distance dispersal events bringing up the average. Median distance for medium (54.22 km) and long (91.57 km) dispersers was closer to the mean, indicating more even distance distributions and thus a higher probability of long-distance dispersal for these species. Maximum dispersal distance varied between ∼150–180 km depending on species, except for the spiny lobster Panulirus spp., with a PLD of 270 d and a maximum dispersal distance of approximately 300 km.

    Settlement to Moloka‘i and other islands in the archipelago

    Different species showed different forward settlement balance to adjacent islands (Fig. 4), although every species in the study group successfully settled back to Moloka‘i. P. meandrina showed the highest percentage of island-scale local retention (82%), while C. ignoblis showed the lowest (7%). An middling of 74% of larvae from short-dispersing species settled back to Moloka‘i, as compared to an middling of 41% of medium dispersers and 9% of long dispersers. A great balance of larvae moreover settled to O‘ahu, with longer PLDs resulting in greater proportions, ranging from 14% of O. cyanea to 88% of C. ignoblis. Moloka‘i and O‘ahu were the most commonly settled islands by percentage. Overall, settlement from Moloka‘i to Lana‘i, Maui, Kaho‘olawe, and Hawai‘i was to some extent lower. Larvae of every species settled to Lana‘i, and settlement to this island made up less than 5% of settled larvae across every bit of species. Likewise, settlement to Maui made up less than 7% of settlement across species, with P. meandrina as the only species that had no successful paths from Moloka‘i to Maui. Settlement to Kaho‘olawe and Hawai‘i was less common, with the exception of Panulirus spp., which had 16% of every bit of settled larvae on Hawai‘i.

    Figure 4: Forward settlement from Moloka’i to other islands. Proportion of simulated larvae settled to each island from Moloka‘i by species, organized in order of increasing minimum pelagic larval duration from left to right.

    We moreover examined coast-specific patterns of rearward settlement balance to other islands, discarding connections with a very low balance of larvae (<0.1% of total larvae of that species settling to other islands). Averaged across species, 83% of larvae settling to O‘ahu from Moloka‘i were spawned on the north shore of Moloka‘i, with 12% spawned on the west shore (Fig. S4). Spawning sites on the east and south shores contributed <5% of every bit of larvae settling to O‘ahu from Moloka‘i. The east and south shores of Moloka‘i had the highest middling percentage of larvae settling to Lana‘i from Moloka‘i, at 78% and 20% respectively, and to Kaho‘olawe from Moloka‘i at 63% and 34%. Of the species that settled to Maui from Moloka‘i, on middling most were spawned on the east (53%) or north (39%) shores, as were the species that settled to Hawai‘i Island from Moloka‘i (22% east, 76% north). These patterns argue that multiple coasts of Moloka‘i possess the potential to export larvae to neighboring islands.

    Temporal settlement profiles moreover varied by species (Fig. 5). Species modeled with moon-phase spawning and relatively short settlement windows (Cellana spp. and C. ignoblis) were characterized by discrete settlement pulses, whereas other species showed settlement over a broader era of time. Some species moreover showed distinctive patterns of settlement to other islands; their model suggests specific windows when long-distance dispersal is possible, as well as times of year when local retention is maximized (Fig. 5).

    Figure 5: Species-specific temporal recruitment patterns. Proportion densities of settlement to specific islands from Moloka‘i based on day of year settled, by species. Rare dispersal events (e.g., Maui or Lana‘i for Cellana spp.) emerge as narrow spikes, while broad distributions generally argue more common settlement pathways. Regional patterns of connectivity in Moloka‘i coastal waters

    Within Moloka‘i, their model predicts that coast-specific population structure is likely; averaged across every bit of species, 84% of individuals settled back to the same coast on which they were spawned rather than a different coast on Moloka‘i. Excluding connections with a very low balance of larvae (<0.1% of total larvae of that species that settled to Moloka‘i), they institute that the balance of coast-scale local retention was generally higher than dispersal to another coast, with the exception of the west coast (Fig. 6A). The north and south coasts had a lofty degree of local retention in every species except for the long-dispersing Panulirus spp., and the east coast moreover had lofty local retention overall. Between coasts, a lofty balance of larvae that spawned on the west coast settled on the north coast, and a lesser amount of larvae were exchanged from the east to south and from the north to east. With a few species-specific exceptions, larval exchange between other coasts of Moloka‘i was negligible.

    Figure 6: Coast-by-coast patterns of connectivity on Moloka‘i. (A) middling rearward settlement balance by species per pair of coastlines, calculated by the number of larvae settling at site s from site o divided by every bit of settled larvae at site s. Directional coastline pairs (Spawn > Settlement) are ordered from left to privilege by increasing median settlement proportion. (B) Heatmap of edge density for coast-specific networks by species. Density is calculated by the number of every bit of realized paths out of total viable paths, disregarding directionality.

    We moreover calculated edge density, including every bit of connections between coasts on Moloka‘i regardless of settlement balance (Fig. 6B). The eastern coast was particularly well-connected, with an edge density between 0.14 and 0.44, depending on the species. The southern shore showed lofty edge density for short and medium dispersers (0.16–0.39) but low for long dispersers (<0.005). The north shore moreover showed relatively lofty edge density (0.20 on average), although these values were smaller for long dispersers. The west coast showed very low edge density, with the exceptions of O. cyanea (0.37) and P. sexfilis (0.13). Virtually every bit of networks that included two coasts showed lower edge density. One exception was the east/south shore network, which had an edge density of 0.10–0.65 except for Cellana spp. Across species, edge density between the south and west coasts was 0.12 on average, and between the east and west coasts was 0.04 on average. Edge density between north and south coasts was particularly low for every bit of species (<0.05), a divide that was especially separate in Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, which showed zero realized connections between these coasts. Although northern and southern populations are potentially weakly connected by sites along the eastern ( P. meandrina) or western (Cellana spp.) shores, their model predicts very little, if any, demographic connectivity.

    To explore patterns of connectivity on a finer scale, they pooled sites into regions (as defined in Fig. 1) in order to anatomize relationships between these regions. Arranging model output into node-edge networks clarified pathways and regions of note, and revealed several patterns which did not succeed simple predictions based on PLD (Fig. 7). Cellana spp. and P. meandrina showed the most fragmentation, with several SCCs and low connectivity between coasts. Connectivity was highest in O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, which had a single SCC containing every bit of regions. Medium and long dispersers generally showed fewer strongly connected regions on the south shore than the north shore, with the exception of C. strigosus. P. porphyreus showed more strongly connected regions east of Kalaupapa but lower connectivity on the western half of the island.

    Figure 7: Moloka’i connectivity networks by species. Graph-theoretic networks between regions around Moloka’i by species arranged in order of minimum pelagic larval duration. (A–D) Short dispersers (3–25 days), (E–G) medium dispersers (30–50 days), and (H–J) long dispersers (140–270 days). Node size reflects betweenness centrality of each region, scaled per species for visibility. Node color reflects out-degree of each region; yellow nodes possess a low out-degree, red nodes possess a medium out-degree, and black nodes possess a lofty out-degree. Red edges are connections in a strongly connected component, while gray edges are not portion of a strongly connected component (although may still portray substantial connections). Edge thickness represents log-transformed balance of dispersal along that edge.

    Region-level networks showed both species-specific and species-wide patterns of connectivity (Fig. 8). With a few exceptions, sites along the eastern coast—notably, Cape Halawa and Pauwalu Harbor—showed relatively lofty betweenness centrality, and may therefore act as multigenerational pathways between north-shore and south-shore populations. In Cellana spp., Leinapapio Point and Mokio Point had the highest BC, while in high-connectivity O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, regions on the west coast had lofty BC scores. P. meandrina and C. strigosus showed several regions along the south shore with lofty BC. For Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, regions in the northeast had the highest out-degree, and therefore seeded the greatest number of other sites with larvae (Fig. 8). Correspondingly, regions in the northwest (and southwest in the case of P. meandrina) showed the highest in-degree. For O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, regions on the western and southern coasts showed the highest out-degree. For most species, both out-degree and in-degree were generally highest on the northern and eastern coasts, suggesting higher connectivity in these areas.

    Figure 8: Region-level summary statistics across every bit of species. Betweenness centrality is a measure of the number of paths that pass through a certain region; a lofty score suggests potentially Important multi-generation connectivity pathways. In-degree and out-degree refer to the amount of a node’s incoming and outgoing connections. Betweenness centrality, in-degree, and out-degree possess every bit of been normalized to values between 0 to 1 per species. Local retention is measured as the balance of larvae that settled back to their spawn site out of every bit of larvae spawned at that site. Source-sink index is a measure of net export or import; negative values (blue) argue a net larval sink, while positive values (red) argue a net larval source. White indicates that a site is neither a strong source nor sink. Gray values for Cellana spp. denote a want of suitable habitat sites in that particular region.

    Several species-wide hotspots of local retention emerged, particularly East Kalaupapa Peninsula/Leinaopapio Point, the northeast point of Moloka‘i, and the middle of the south shore. Some species moreover showed some degree of local retention west of Kalaupapa Peninsula. While local retention was observed in the long-dispersing Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp., this amount was essentially negligible. In terms of source–sink dynamics, Ki‘oko‘o, Pu‘ukaoku Point, and West Kalaupapa Peninsula, every bit of on the north shore, were the only sites that consistently acted as a net source, exporting more larvae than they import (Fig. 8). Kaunakakai Harbor, Lono Harbor, and Mokio Point acted as net sinks across every bit of species. Puko‘o, Pauwalu Harbor, and Cape Halawa were either weak net sources or neither sources nor sinks, which corresponds to the lofty levels of local retention observed at these sites. Pala‘au and Mo‘omomi acted as either weak sinks or sources for short dispersers and as sources for long dispersers.

    Only four networks showed regional cut-nodes, or nodes that, if removed, demolish a network into multiple weakly-connected components (Fig. S5). Cellana spp. showed two cut-nodes: Mokio Point in northwest Moloka‘i and La‘au Point in southwest Moloka‘i, which if removed isolated Small Bay and Lono Harbor, respectively. C. perspicillatus, and S. rubroviolaceus showed a similar pattern in regards to Mokio Point; removal of this node isolated Small Bay in this species as well. In C. ignoblis, loss of Pauwalu Harbor isolated Lono Harbor, and loss of Pala‘au isolated Ilio Point on the northern coast. Finally, in Panulirus spp., loss of Leinaopapio Point isolated Papuhaku Beach, since Leinapapio Point was the only larval source from Moloka‘i for Papuhaku Beach in this species.

    Figure 9: Connectivity matrix for larvae spawned on Kalaupapa Peninsula. Includes larvae settled on Molokaí (regions below horizontal black line) and those settled on other islands (regions above horizontal black line), spawned from either the east (E) or west (W) coast of Kalaupapa. Heatmap colors portray rearward proportion, calculated by the number of larvae settling at site s from site o divided by every bit of settled larvae at site s. White squares argue no dispersal along this path. The role of Kalaupapa Peninsula in inter- and intra-island connectivity

    Our model suggests that Kalaupapa National Historical Park may play a role in inter-island connectivity, especially in terms of long-distance dispersal. Out of every bit of regions on Moloka‘i, East Kalaupapa Peninsula was the single largest exporter of larvae to Hawai‘i Island, accounting for 19% of every bit of larvae transported from Moloka‘i to this island; West Kalaupapa Peninsula accounted for another 10%. The park moreover contributed 22% of every bit of larvae exported from Moloka‘i to O‘ahu, and successfully exported a smaller percentage of larvae to Maui, Lana‘i, and Kaho‘olawe (Fig. 9). Kalaupapa was not marked as a cut-node for any species, signification that full population breaks are not predicted in the case of habitat or population loss in this area. Nevertheless, in their model Kalaupapa exported larvae to multiple regions along the north shore in every bit of species, as well as regions along the east, south, and/or west shores in most species networks (Figs. 9 and 10). The park may play a particularly Important role for long-dispersing species; settlement from Kalaupapa made up 18%–29% of every bit of successful settlement in Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp., despite making up only 12% of spawning sites included in the model. In C. strigosus, S. rubroviolaceus, and C. strigosus, Kalaupapa showed a particularly lofty out-degree, or number of outgoing connections to other regions, and West Kalaupapa was moreover one of the few regions on Moloka‘i that acted as a net larval source across every bit of species (Fig. 8). Their study has moreover demonstrated that different regions of a marine protected belt can potentially execute different roles, even in a small MPA such as Kalaupapa. Across species, the east coast of Kalaupapa showed a significantly higher betweenness centrality than the west (p = 0.028), while the west coast of Kalauapapa showed a significantly higher source–sink index than the east (p = 2.63e−9).

    Figure 10: Larval spillover from Kalaupapa National Historical Park. Site-level dispersal to sites around Moloka‘i from sites in the Kalaupapa National Historical Park protected area, by species. (A–D) Short dispersers (3–25 days), (E–G) medium dispersers (30–50 days), and (H–J) long dispersers (140–270 days). Edge color reflects balance of dispersal along that edge; red indicates higher balance while yellow indicates lower proportion. Kalaupapa National Historical Park is highlighted in light green. Discussion Effects of biological and physical parameters on connectivity

    We incorporated the distribution of suitable habitat, variable reproduction, variable PLD, and ontogenetic changes in swimming competence and empirical vertical distributions of larvae into their model to expand biological realism, and assess how such traits impact predictions of larval dispersal. The Wong-Ala et al. (2018) IBM provides a highly springy model framework that can easily exist modified to incorporate either additional species-specific data or entirely new biological traits. In this study, they included specific spawning seasons for every bit of species, as well as spawning by moon side for Cellana spp., P. meandrina, and C. ignoblis because such data was available for these species. It proved difficult to obtain the necessary biological information to parameterize the model, but as more data about life history and larval deportment become available, such information can exist easily added for these species and others. Some potential additions to future iterations of the model might include density of reproductive-age adults within each habitat patch, temperature-dependent pelagic larval duration (Houde, 1989), ontogenetic-dependent behavioral changes such as orientation and diel vertical migration (Fiksen et al., 2007; Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007), pre-competency period, and larval habitat preferences as such information becomes available.

    In this study, they possess demonstrated that patterns of fine-scale connectivity around Moloka‘i are largely species-specific and can vary with life history traits, even in species with identical pelagic larval duration. For example, the parrotfish S. rubroviolaceus and C. perspicillatus note greater connectivity along the northern coast, while the goatfish P. porphyreus shows higher connectivity along the eastern half of the island. These species possess similar PLD windows, but vary in dispersal depth and spawning season. Spawning season and timing altered patterns of inter-island dispersal (Fig. 5) as well as overall settlement success, which was slightly higher in species that spawned by moon side (Fig. 2). While maximum PLD did emerge play a role in the probability of rare long-distance dispersal, minimum PLD appears to exist the main driver of middling dispersal distance (Fig. 2). Overall, species with a shorter minimum PLD had higher settlement success, shorter weigh in dispersal distance, higher local retention, and higher local connectivity as measured by the amount and size of strongly connected components.

    The interaction of biological and oceanographic factors moreover influenced connectivity patterns. Because mesoscale current patterns can vary substantially over the course of the year, the timing of spawning for certain species may exist critical for estimating settlement (Wren et al., 2016; Wong-Ala et al., 2018). Intermittent ocean processes may influence the probability of local retention versus long-distance dispersal; a great balance of larvae settled to O‘ahu, which is to some extent surprising given that in order to settle from Moloka‘i to O‘ahu, larvae must cross the Kaiwi Channel (approx. 40 km). However, the intermittent presence of mesoscale gyres may act as a stabilizing pathway across the channel, sweeping larvae up either the windward or leeward coast of O‘ahu depending on spawning site. Likewise, in their model long-distance dispersal to Hawai‘i Island was viable at certain times of the year due to a gyre to the north of Maui; larvae were transported from Kalaupapa to this gyre, where they were carried to the northeast shore of Hawai‘i (Fig. S6). prefatory analysis moreover suggests that distribution of larval depth influenced edge directionality and size of connected components (Fig. 7); surface currents are variable and primarily wind-driven, giving positively-buoyant larvae different patterns of dispersal than species that disperse deeper in the water column (Fig. S7).

    Model limitations and future perspectives

    Our findings possess several caveats. Because fine-scale density estimates are not available for their species of interest around Moloka’i, they assumed that fecundity is equivalent at every bit of sites. This simplification may lead us to under- or over-estimate the strength of connections between sites. want of adequate data moreover necessitated estimation or extrapolation from congener information for larval traits such as larval dispersal depth and PLD. Since it is difficult if not impossible to identify larvae to the species even without genetic analysis, they used genus-level larval distribution data (Boehlert & Mundy, 1996), or lacking that, an assess of 50–100 m as a depth layer that is generally more enriched with larvae (Boehlert, Watson & Sun, 1992; Wren & Kobayashi, 2016). They moreover estimated PLD in several cases using congener-level data (see Table 1). While specificity is standard for making informed management decisions about a certain species, past sensitivity analysis has shown that variation in PLD length does not greatly impact patterns of dispersal in species with a PLD of >40 days (Wren & Kobayashi, 2016).

    Although their MITgcm current model shows annual consistency, it only spans two and a half years chosen as neutral state ‘average’ ocean conditions. It does not span any El Niño or La Niña (ENSO) events, which antecedent wide-scale sea-surface temperature anomalies and may therefore affect patterns of connectivity during these years. El Niño can possess a particularly strong impact on coral reproduction, since the warm currents associated with these events can lead to severe temperature stress (Glynn & D’Croz, 1990; Wood et al., 2016). While there has been Little study to date on the effects of ENSO on fine-scale connectivity, previous work has demonstrated increased variability during these events. For example, Wood et al. (2016) showed a dwindle in eastward Pacific dispersal during El Niño years, but an expand in westward dispersal, and Treml et al. (2008) showed unique connections in the West Pacific as well as an expand in connectivity during El Niño. While these effects are difficult to predict, especially at such a small scale, additional model years would expand self-possession in long-term connectivity estimations. Additionally, with a temporal resolution of 24 h, they could not adequately address the role of tides on dispersal, and therefore did not include them in the MITgcm. Storlazzi et al. (2017) showed that tidal forces did affect larval dispersal in Maui Nui, underlining the moment of including both fine-scale, short-duration models and coarser-scale, long-duration models in final management decisions.

    We moreover restrict their model’s scope geographically. Their goal was to determine whether they could resolve predictive patterns at this scale germane to management. Interpretation of connectivity output can exist biased by spatial resolution of the ocean model, since involved coastal processes can exist smoothed and therefore impact larval trajectories. To restrict this bias, they focused mainly on coastal and regional connectivity on scales greater than the current resolution. They moreover used the finest-scale current products available for their study area, and their results note generic agreement with similar studies of the region that Use a coarser resolution (Wren & Kobayashi, 2016) and a finer resolution (Storlazzi et al., 2017). Also, while information of island-scale connectivity is Important for local management, it does disregard potential connections from other islands. In their calculations of edge density, betweenness centrality and source-sink index, they included only settlement to Moloka‘i, discarding exogenous sinks that would color their analysis. Likewise, they cannot forecast the balance of larvae settling to other islands that originated from Moloka‘i, or the balance of larvae on Moloka‘i that originated from other islands.

    It is moreover Important to note scale in relation to measures of connectivity; they await that long-dispersing species such as Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp. will note much higher measures of connectivity when measured across the whole archipelago as opposed to a single island. The cut-nodes observed in these species may not actually demolish up populations on a great scale due to this inter-island connectivity. Nevertheless, cut-nodes in species with short- and medium-length PLD may indeed trace Important habitat locations, especially in terms of providing links between two otherwise disconnected coasts. It may exist that for certain species or certain regions, stock replenishment relies on larval import from other islands, underscoring the moment of MPA selection for population maintenance in the archipelago as a whole.

    Implications for management

    Clearly, there is no single management approach that encompasses the breadth of life history and deportment differences that impact patterns of larval dispersal and connectivity (Toonen et al., 2011; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). The spatial, temporal, and species-specific variability suggested by their model stresses the necessity for multi-scale management, specifically tailored to local and regional connectivity patterns and the suite of target species. Even on such a small scale, different regions around the island of Moloka‘i can play very different roles in the greater pattern of connectivity (Fig. 8); sites along the west coast, for example, showed fewer ingoing and outgoing connections than sites on the north coast, and therefore may exist more at risk of isolation. Seasonal variation should moreover exist taken into account, as mesoscale current patterns (and resulting connectivity patterns) vary over the course of a year. Their model suggests species-specific temporal patterns of settlement (Fig. 5); even in the year-round spawner O. cyanea, local retention to Moloka‘i as well as settlement to O‘ahu was maximized in spring and early summer, while settlement to other islands mostly occurred in late summer and fall.

    Regions that note similar network dynamics may capitalize from similar management strategies. Areas that act as larval sources either by balance of larvae (high source–sink index) or number of sites (high out-degree) should receive management consideration. On Moloka‘i, across every bit of species in their study, these sources fell mostly on the northern and eastern coasts. Maintenance of these areas is especially Important for downstream areas that depend on upstream populations for a source of larvae, such as those with a low source–sink index, low in-degree, and/or low local retention. Across species, regions with the highest betweenness centrality scores fell mainly in the northeast (Cape Halawa and Pauwalu Harbor). These areas should receive consideration as potentially Important intergenerational pathways, particularly as a means of connecting north-coast and south-coast populations, which showed a want of connectivity both in total number of connections (edge density) and balance of larvae. Both of these connectivity measures were included because edge density includes every bit of connections, even those with a very small balance of larvae, and may therefore include rare dispersal events that are of Little relevance to managers. Additionally, edge density comparisons between networks should exist viewed with the caveat that these networks upshot not necessarily possess the same number of nodes. Nevertheless, both edge density and balance note very similar patterns, and include both demographically-relevant common connections as well as rare connections that could influence genetic connectivity.

    Management that seeks to establish a resilient network of spatially managed areas should moreover consider the preservation of both weakly-connected and strongly-connected components, as removal of key cut-nodes (Fig. S5) breaks up a network. Sites within a SCC possess more direct connections and therefore may exist more resilient to local population loss. trust should exist taken to preserve breeding populations at larval sources, connectivity pathways, and cut-nodes within a SCC, since without these key sites the network can fragment into multiple independent SCCs instead of a single stable network. This rehearse may exist especially Important for species for which they assess multiple small SCCs, such as Cellana spp. or P. meandrina.

    Kalaupapa Peninsula emerged as an Important site in Moloka‘i population connectivity, acting as a larval source for other regions around the island. The Park seeded areas along the north shore in every bit of species, and moreover exported larvae to sites along the east and west shores in every bit of species except P. meandrina and Cellana spp. Additionally, it was a larval source for sites along the south shore in the fishes C. perspicillatus, S. rubroviolaceus, and C. strigosus as well as Panulirus spp. Western Kalaupapa Peninsula was one of only three regions included in the analysis (the others being Ki‘oko‘o and Pu‘ukaoku Point, moreover on the north shore) that acted as a net larval source across every bit of species. Eastern Kalaupapa Peninsula was particularly highly connected, and was portion of a strongly connected component in every species. The Park moreover emerged as a potential point of connection to adjacent islands, particularly to O‘ahu and Hawai‘i. Expanding the spatial scale of their model will further elucidate Kalaupapa’s role in the greater pattern of inter-island connectivity.

    In addition to biophysical modeling, genetic analyses can exist used to identify persistent population structure of relevance to managers (Cowen et al., 2000; Casey, Jardim & Martinsohn, 2016). Their finding that exchange among islands is generally low in species with a short- to medium-length PLD agrees with population genetic analyses of marine species in the Hawaiian Islands (Bird et al., 2007; Rivera et al., 2011; Toonen et al., 2011; Concepcion, Baums & Toonen, 2014). On a finer scale, they forecast some even of shoreline-specific population structure for most species included in the study (Fig. 6). Unfortunately, genetic analyses to date possess been performed over too broad a scale to effectively compare to these fine-scale connectivity predictions around Moloka‘i or even among locations on adjacent islands. These model results justify such small scale genetic analyses because there are species, such as the coral P. meandrina, for which the model predicts lucid separation of north-shore and south-shore populations which should exist simple to test using genetic data. To validate these model predictions with this technique, more fine-scale population genetic analyses are needed.

    Conclusions

    The maintenance of demographically connected populations is Important for conservation. In this study, they contribute to the growing carcass of work in biophysical connectivity modeling, focusing on a region and suite of species that are of relevance to resource managers. Furthermore, they demonstrate the value of quantifying fine-scale relationships between habitat sites via graph-theoretic methods. Multispecies network analysis revealed persistent patterns that can allay define region-wide practices, as well as species-specific connectivity that merits more individual consideration. They demonstrate that connectivity is influenced not only by PLD, but moreover by other life-history traits such as spawning season, moon-phase spawning, and ontogenetic changes in larval depth. lofty local retention of larvae with a short- or medium-length PLD is consistent with population genetic studies of the area. They moreover identify regions of management importance, including West Kalaupapa Peninsula, which acts as a consistent larval source across species; East Kalaupapa Peninsula, which is a strongly connected region in every species network, and Pauwalu Harbor/Cape Halawa, which may act as Important multigenerational pathways. Connectivity is only one piece of the bewilder of MPA effectiveness, which must moreover account for reproductive population size, long-term persistence, and post-settlement survival (Burgess et al., 2014). That being said, their study provides a quantitative roadmap of potential demographic connectivity, and thus presents an efficient tool for estimating current and future patterns of dispersal around Kalaupapa Peninsula and around Moloka‘i as a whole.

    Supplemental Information Current patterns in the model domain.

    Current direction and velocity is displayed at a depth of 55 m below sea surface on (A) March 31st, 2011, (B) June 30th, 2011, (C) September 30th, 2011, and (D) December 31st, 2011. Arrowhead direction follows current direction, and u/v velocity is displayed through arrow length and color (purple, low velocity, red, lofty velocity). Domain extends from 198.2°E to 206°E and from 17°N to 22.2°N. The island of Moloka‘i is highlighted in red.

    Subset of validation drifter paths.

    Drifter paths in black and corresponding model paths are colored by drifter ID. every bit of drifter information was extracted from the GDP Drifter Data Assembly focus (Elipot et al., 2016). Drifters were included if they fell within the model domain spatially and temporally, and were tested by releasing 1,000 particles on the revise day where they entered the model domain, at the uppermost depth layer of their oceanographic model (0–5 m).

    Selected larval depth distributions.

    Modeled vertical larval distributions for Caranx spp. (left), S. rubroviolaceus and C. perspicillatus (middle), and P. porphyreus (right), using data from the 1996 NOAA ichthyoplankton vertical distributions data report (Boehlert & Mundy 1996).

    Coast-specific rearward settlement patterns by island

    Proportion of simulated larvae settled to each island from sites on each coast of Moloka‘i, averaged across every bit of species that successfully settled to that island.

    Regional cut-nodes for four species networks

    Mokio Point and La‘au Point were cut-nodes for Cellana spp., Mokio Point was a cut-node for C. perspicillatus and S. rubroviolaceus, Pauwalu Harbor and Pala‘au were cut-nodes for C. ignoblis, and Leinaopapio Point was a cut-node for Panulirus spp.

    Selected dispersal pathways for Panulirus spp. larvae

    500 randomly sampled dispersal pathways for lobster larvae (Panulirus spp.) that successfully settled to Hawai‘i Island after being spawned off the coast of Moloka‘i. Red tracks argue settlement earlier in the year (February–March), while black tracks argue settlement later in the year (April–May). Most larvae are transported to the northeast coast of Hawai‘i via a gyre to the north of Maui, while a smaller balance are transported through Maui Nui.

    Eddy differences by depth layer.

    Differences in eddy pattern and strength in surface layers (A, 2.5 m) vs. abysmal layers (B, 55 m) on March 31, 2011. Arrowhead direction follows current direction, and u/v velocity is displayed through arrow length and color (purple, low velocity, red, lofty velocity). While great gyres remain consistent at different depths, smaller features vary along this gradient. For example, the currents around Kaho‘olawe, the small gyre off the eastern coast of O‘ahu, and currents to the north of Maui every bit of vary in direction and/or velocity.



    Direct Download of over 5500 Certification Exams

    3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [47 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
    College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [746 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1530 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [368 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [269 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]





    References :


    Dropmark : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/11740004
    Wordpress : http://wp.me/p7SJ6L-1p8
    Dropmark-Text : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12306763
    Issu : https://issuu.com/trutrainers/docs/000-n04
    Blogspot : http://killexamsbraindump.blogspot.com/2017/11/actual-000-n04-take-look-at-questions-i.html
    RSS Feed : http://feeds.feedburner.com/LookAtThese000-n04RealQuestionAndAnswers
    Box.net : https://app.box.com/s/ku8wklwvkv74u16ironofoix7saenwk1
    zoho.com : https://docs.zoho.com/file/62c50ac24b7cc66ba4c739e95c2efed11f358






    Back to Main Page





    Killexams exams | Killexams certification | Pass4Sure questions and answers | Pass4sure | pass-guaratee | best test preparation | best training guides | examcollection | killexams | killexams review | killexams legit | kill example | kill example journalism | kill exams reviews | kill exam ripoff report | review | review quizlet | review login | review archives | review sheet | legitimate | legit | legitimacy | legitimation | legit check | legitimate program | legitimize | legitimate business | legitimate definition | legit site | legit online banking | legit website | legitimacy definition | pass 4 sure | pass for sure | p4s | pass4sure certification | pass4sure exam | IT certification | IT Exam | certification material provider | pass4sure login | pass4sure exams | pass4sure reviews | pass4sure aws | pass4sure security | pass4sure cisco | pass4sure coupon | pass4sure dumps | pass4sure cissp | pass4sure braindumps | pass4sure test | pass4sure torrent | pass4sure download | pass4surekey | pass4sure cap | pass4sure free | examsoft | examsoft login | exams | exams free | examsolutions | exams4pilots | examsoft download | exams questions | examslocal | exams practice |

    www.pass4surez.com | www.killcerts.com | www.search4exams.com | http://www.radionaves.com/