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000-911 System and Administration: Informix Dynamic Server

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000-911 exam Dumps Source : System and Administration: Informix Dynamic Server

Test Code : 000-911
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Vendor designation : IBM
: 142 actual Questions

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IBM IBM System and Administration:

main European corporations opt for IBM Blockchain to constrain Innovation | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

No outcomes discovered, are attempting newfangled key phrase!The necessary fiscal institution of the Republic of Azerbaijan and IBM are establishing a Digital Identification system in response to Hyperledger cloth, A Linux basis framework, to examine the reliability of the docume...

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IBM’s blockchain-powered AR gaming system is dangerously flawed | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

You can subsist difficult-pressed to factor to a provider that productively combines the utilize of augmented fact (AR), desktop discovering, and blockchain – but that doesn’t appear to hassle IBM.

The business has filed a patent application for a posh AR gaming equipment, designed to pilot players away from doubtlessly unhealthy actual areas. To this end, IBM intends to utilize machine getting to know and blockchain tech to construct this newfangled system.

however does this strategy obtain sense? well, let’s dig into into the patent file.

inner the patent

in response to the patent (spotted by using CCN), the gadget will notify gamers any time they method a local marked as undesirable (like “high risk places, culturally sensitive places, locations marked by way of house owners”). IBM hopes this may support avid gamers navigate away from situation.

The documentation notes that as soon as players savor agreed to having their station statistics tracked, the system might subsist in a position to compare clients’ station against a database of physical spaces marked as undesirable. each time a player enters such areas, the system will notify clients they’re going for walks on potentially hazardous turf.

due to the fact the litany of trespassing incidents they saw during the Pokémon Go craze, making a system that directs avid gamers away from restrained areas sounds like a noble suggestion on paper. however there are a few technological challenges to boost note of – dawn with IBM’s utilize of blockchain.

The difficulty with the usage of blockchain

IBM says it intends to obtain utilize of blockchain to set up “have confidence” about “actual world places” and stop malicious avid gamers from offering delusive station facts for private positive factors.

“A blockchain is a allotted database that maintains a constantly-transforming into checklist of data facts hardened against tampering and revision,” the patent reads. “The blockchain materiel securely tracks, shops, and keeps vicinity related transactions together with different location metadata.”

but there are some pretty gargantuan question marks with this implementation.

For one, using blockchain does not with the aid of itself proffer protection to towards the possibility of recording delusive (or straight-up false) data. It purely implies that as soon as recorded, statistics may subsist immutable (until the blockchain has backdoors developed into it). but that doesn’t imply the system might subsist resistant to manipulation.

as an instance, malicious actors will still subsist in a position to feed erroneous location facts to IBM’s blockchain-powered equipment, until it besides comes with oracles – sensors chiefly designed to validate movements that boost location outdoor of a blockchain. Worryingly, there is no mention of an oracle implementation in IBM’s patent application.

To create this sort of “have faith,” IBM will deserve to boost sensors that may safely ascertain the authenticity of any area records within the proper world earlier than storing it on its own blockchain.

Blockchainifying computing device researching

much more puzzling is IBM’s design to utilize desktop gaining information of to interpret blockchain-saved vicinity statistics and warn users of information possibility.

The patent suggests that, because of superior neural networks, the device could subsist able to conducting possibility prediction projects with “various levels of confidence.” these predictions will then subsist forwarded to any clients who should subsist would becould very well subsist in danger, or in the vicinity of risky areas.

IBM aspects out clients will even subsist able to utilize this performance to specify what they'd want to subsist covered from. for example, a diabetic player can require the gadget to notify them every time they’ve strayed away from any viable help.

however devoid of oracles in region, it may pomp too handy for cheaters to misuse the device. indeed, a malicious participant could label protected areas as “harmful” to maintain competing avid gamers away from inescapable locations. Or on the other hand, scammers could misuse the materiel to ticket in any other case hazardous areas as “protected,” and trap unsuspecting victims into hazardous instances.

IBM and the blockchain

All these concerns apart, IBM has yet to point out how severe it is ready its patent. in any case, blockchain might now not subsist the most suitable option for this specific utility.

As is the case with most patent filings, there is no telling when – if ever – IBM will greenlight the thought for building. but when it does, it more advantageous tackle these considerations before it puts someone at risk.

And for what it’s worth, I essentially hope IBM’s other blockchain-connected initiatives are a limited more advantageous concept out.

published November 5, 2018 — 17:28 UTC

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000-911 System and Administration: Informix Dynamic Server

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000-911 exam Dumps Source : System and Administration: Informix Dynamic Server

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Vendor designation : IBM
: 142 actual Questions

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System and Administration: Informix Dynamic Server

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IBM and AGS proclaim Availability of newfangled Solutions for Informix Dynamic Server | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

SOURCE: IBM

July 05, 2007 12:00 ET

New Server Studio and Sentinel R. 6.1 to Enable Rapid Adoption of IDS 11 "Cheetah"

ARMONK, NY and newfangled YORK, NY--(Marketwire - July 5, 2007) - IBM (NYSE: IBM) and AGS Ltd., a privately held purveyor of management solutions for data servers, today announced that the newfangled Server Studio and Sentinel R. 6.1 -- the principal suite of integrated system management tools for IBM Informix Dynamic Server (IDS) -- is now available, with editions offered by both IBM and AGS.

The IDS data server is a strategic element of IBM's Information Management software portfolio and the recently announced IDS 11 -- code named Cheetah -- delivers increased performance, reliability and scalability, along with the talent to exploit massive volumes of tangled data at very tall speeds. IDS 11 is besides the industry's first data server to provide clustered data centers with continuous data availability and catastrophe recovery regardless of the geographic location or distance between backup data hub sites.

Server Studio and Sentinel together figure a powerful infrastructure of multi-platform tools that befriend both seasoned database professionals and novices alike manage IBM Informix data server environments with an unprecedented ease and productivity. native support of IDS 11 newfangled functionality in the Release 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel further enhances talent to deliver optimal performance, availability and maintainability of Informix databases throughout their entire operational life cycle.

"Our long-term partnership with AGS underscores IBM's steadfast commitment to providing IDS clients with the performance optimization, availability and compliance management solutions they need," said Bernie Spang, director IBM data servers. "The newfangled Release 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel will befriend protect the investment that their customers savor made in their Informix data server infrastructures."

The versatility, rich functionality and ease-of-use provided by Server Studio and Sentinel build on the legendary reliability and simple administration of IDS. The newfangled tool set offered by AGS helps companies and organizations ensure that faultfinding database applications remain up and achieve at peak levels, allowing them to effectively manage change, exploit regulatory compliance and assure availability of vital business information.

Bank of America recently selected Server Studio and Sentinel for its IDS environment -- one of the world's largest distributed data centers processing online fiscal transactions.

"The latest release of Server Studio and Sentinel provide a collection of integrated, highly productive system management tools that developers and DBAs working with IBM's Informix data servers savor been demanding and waiting for. Informix now has very powerful graphical tools that exceed the capabilities of native and third party offerings available for any other database platform. couple this with outstanding technical support and you obtain products with excellent value and a quick ROI," said Kevin Kleinhomer, Vice President at Bank of America. "In their great distributed environment, Server Studio and Sentinel savor simplified and automated many DBA tasks. With these additions, IBM's Informix data servers savor been made significantly easier to administer and monitor."

Server Studio provides a comprehensive collection of easy-to-use, proven tools for DBAs and developers that improve efficiency of performing common database tasks such as: SQL evolution and debugging, schema management, configuration auditing and change management, performance tuning, data storage management and reorganization, security administration and more -- everyone from an integrated graphical console that unites development, administration and maintenance activities for an entire Informix infrastructure at a central point of control.

Sentinel provides 24 × 7 operational monitoring, alerting, issue discovery, analysis and autonomic response automation infrastructure for IBM Informix data servers' environment. It's easy to deploy agent-less architecture equips DBAs with sophisticated diagnostics and remediation facilities which befriend pinpoint and resolve the underlying causes of performance bottlenecks and resources contention issues that adversely influence databases' availability and impact stay users.

Smaller companies and organizations that conclude not savor great IT staffs to manage great data servers infrastructure savor besides benefited from the robust application evolution and administration capabilities provided by IDS and Server Studio.

"As a software developer and DBA, Server Studio is a tool that I utilize every day, and it is exactly what I require from my tools -- stable, reliable, and powerful," said Sean Durity, Manager of IT for CornerCap Investment Counsel. "Even the 'small' features of Server Studio are gargantuan timesavers. I can't imagine working with Informix and not using Server Studio. I won't work with anything less."

The relationship between AGS and IBM began in 2000 when IBM began distributing AGS' Server Studio as the primary database evolution and administration tools suite with Informix data servers. Product management, engineering and QA teams of both companies work closely on product direction, technology evolution and QA testing of Server Studio and Sentinel.

"We are haughty of and greatly value their strategic partnership with IBM. Selection of AGS data servers' management solutions by IBM is a testament to their industry-leading technology," said Anatole Vishon, CEO of AGS Ltd. "We understand the vital flash of Informix, particularly in the retail, financial, telecommunications, healthcare, government and SMB sectors. AGS is committed to supporting existing capabilities and developing newfangled technologies for Informix data servers to add value for IBM customers."

Pricing and Availability

The Release 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel are available now through IBM and AGS worldwide. The Core Edition of Server Studio is provided by IBM to Informix customers at no additional cost. Its basic functionality can subsist extended by purchase of various premium editions available directly from AGS.

Additional information about Server Studio is available at: http://www.ibm.com/software/data/informix/serverstudio/, or http://www.serverstudio.com/products/serverstudio/

Additional information about Sentinel is available at: http://www.ibm.com/software/data/informix/sentinel/, or http://www.serverstudio.com/products/sentinel/

Additional information about Informix Dynamic Server is available at: http://www.ibm.com/software/data/informix/ids/

AGS, Server Studio and Sentinel are trademarks or registered trademarks of Advanced Global Systems, Ltd. For a list of additional AGS trademarks, tickle survey http://www.ags.com

IBM, Informix Dynamic Server and the IBM e-business logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of International business Machines Corporation. For a list of additional IBM trademarks, tickle survey www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml

All other company, product or service names may subsist trademarks or registered trademarks of others. Statements concerning IBM's future evolution plans and schedules are made for planning purposes only, and are subject to change or withdrawal without notice. Reseller prices may vary.


Efficient Vehicle Tracking System Software Solution with Informix Dynamic Server | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

Nov 10, 2011

Vaibhav Dantale

Although  it is viable to develop an efficient Vehicle Tracking System using any database server, and many such solutions are already available in the market, Informix offers many advantages. Informix can reduce your disk space requirement, improve your query performance, and reduce your application evolution efforts, without special training or buying additional technology. The built-in technologies of Informix will reduce your total cost of ownership, so if these benefits are necessary to you, preserve reading!

A Vehicle Tracking System (VTS) tracks vehicles and provides different analytics, such as the total distance travelled, the total fuel consumption, the best routes, and so on. Certainly having more and more different kinds of alerts improves the efficiency of system. This system encompasses three phases of implementation: instrumentation, integration, and intelligence.

Instrumentation: Each vehicle has a special device that records different parameters related to a vehicle, such as, speed, current location, fuel status, ignition status, and so on.

Integration: Devices implemented in the field transmit information through an integrated system that includes a GPRS system and stores the information in a database.

Intelligence: The intelligence on the information collected from the field is stored in a database, including different kinds of MIS reports, dashboards, current locations of vehicles, travel information, and reports of exceptions like geo-fence violations and fuel theft.

Some of the characteristics of a VTS are:

  • Information about vehicles is collected every few minutes or as often as every minute
  • The volume of the data is huge
  • Performance is critical
  • Accuracy of the data matters the most
  • The application logic is specific to the industry (for example, geo-fencing, distance calculations, and so on)
  • Now let's survey the advantages of Informix built-in technologies over the traditional relational approach.

    Disk Space Saving (62%)

    A vehicle tracking system collects the vehicle-related information, including a time stamp, with a specific frequency. Informix provides a data type that stores this type of time series information more efficiently than any traditional RDBMS approach. The following tables compare both approaches.

    Traditional RDBMS approach

    This table shows the structure of the tracking table in a traditional RDBMS.

    Vehicle number

    Timestamp

    Longitude

    Latitude

    Fuel

    Speed

    1

    2010-12-01 01:00:00.00000

    72.844060

    19.116280

    85.00

    40.00

    1

    2010-12-01 01:00:10.00000

    72.853800

    19.113470

    84.90

    39.00

    1

    2010-12-01 01:00:20.00000

    72.855000

    19.116560

    84.80

    42.00

    .

    .

    2

    2010-12-01 01:00:00.00000

    72.855370

    19.116570

    100.00

    45.00

    2

    2010-12-01 01:00:10.00000

    72.885120

    19.106000

    99.90

    45.00

    .

    .

    Informix TimeSeries data type approach

    Informix stores time series data in a specialized data type, called TimeSeries, which stores everyone the time series data for a particular vehicle in the identical row. Informix supports two different types of time series: regular time series that stores the data with a fixed frequency, and irregular time series that stores the data for arbitrary points in time. A regular time series is the most suitable for a VTS. In a regular time series, the time stamp is stored only once as the root of the time series and the time stamps of the ease of the rows are calculated using the offset from the origin.

    This table shows the structure of the tracking table in Informix, using the TimeSeries data type.

    Vehicle number

    TimeSeries column

    1

    [(72.844060, 19.116280,85.00,40.00), (72.853800, 19.113470,84.90, 39.00)....]

    2

    [(72.855370, 19.116570, 100.00,45.00), (72.885120, 19.106000, 99.90, 45.00)..]

    ..

    ..

    The data for each vehicle is stored in contiguous disk space on a page.

     

    Traditional RDBMS approach

    We create the traditional RDBMS table for storing vehicle tracking information, called vehicle_tracking:

    create table vehicle_tracking

    (

       vehicle_number integer, - 4 (bytes)

       timestamp datetime year to fraction(5) - 11(bytes)

       longitude decimal(10,8), - 6(bytes)

       latitude decimal(10,8)     - 6(bytes)

       speed decimal(5,2) - 4(bytes)

    );

    We create an index on the vehicle_number and timestamp columns.

    Suppose they savor 10,000 vehicles to subsist tracked every minute and they need to store information for 90 days. Let's cipher the storage requirements.

    Record size                  = 4+11+6+6+4 = 31

    Record/slot overhead    = 4 bytes

    Total size of record       = 31 + 4 = 35 bytes

    Page overhead for maintaining page information = 28bytes per page

    Total free space on 2 K page size                                 = 2048-28 = 2020byte

    Total records on each page                                           = 2020/35=57

    Total number of records                                                = 10000*60*24*90 = 1296000000

    Total number of pages used                                          = 1296000000 / 57 = 22736842

    Total space required for data                                        = 22736842 * 2 KB = 43 GB

    Total space required for the index                                 =  34 GB

    The total space required for the vehicle_tracking table = 43 + 34 = 77GB

    Informix TimeSeries data type approach

    We create a TimeSeries data type, named vehicle_tracking_rt, and then create a table, named vehicle_tracking_ts, that includes the vehicle_tracking_rt column:

    create row type vehicle_tracking_rt

    (

       timestamp datetime year to fraction(5)

       longitude decimal(10,8),

       latitude decimal(10,8),

       speed decimal(5,2)

    );

     

    create table vehicle_tracking_ts

    (

       vehicle_number integer,

       vehicle_info timeseries(vehicle_tracking_rt)

    )

    We create an index on only the vehicle_number column.

    We store the vehicle number only once, hence the space required for the vehicle_number column = 10000*4 = 40000bytes=39 KB.

    We create the index on only the vehicle_number column, hence the total space required for the index = 10000*4=40000 bytes = 39 KB.

    We store the time stamp only once for each vehicle, hence the space required for the time stamp = 10000*11 = 110000 bytes = 107 KB.

    The space required for everyone remaining columns is:

    Record size                  = 6+6+4 = 16

    Record/slot overhead    = 4 bytes

    Total size of record       = 16 + 4 = 20 bytes

    Page overhead for maintaining page information = 28bytes + 16 bytes slot overhead Total free space on 2 K page size                           = 2048-44 = 2004 bytes

    Total records on each page                                           = 2004/20=100

    Total number of pages used per vehicle per day =  1440 / 100 = 15

    Total pages used per day                                              = 10000*15 = 150000

    Total space required for data on first day                       = 150000 * 2 KB = 0.29 GB

    Daily increment in data                                      = 0.27 GB

    Total space required for data of 90 days                       = 25 GB

    The total space required for the vehicle_tracking_ts table = 25 GB +39 KB +29 KB+ 107 KB = 25 GB

    This is a 68% disc space saving compared to a traditional RDBMS approach.

    Performance (up to 54 times faster)

    Let's account few utilize cases:

  • Fuel theft information
  • Geo-fence exceptions
  • Total fuel consumption
  • For everyone of these utilize cases, the application scans through the data for one day.

    Traditional RDBMS performance

    The report generation requires the following disk reads:

    At least 5 disk reads through the index to achieve to leaf nodes

    Each vehicle has 60*24 records per day = 1440

    Each vehicle needs 1440 non-cached disk reads

    Total non-cached distributed disk reads = 1440 * 10000 = 14.4 million

    Informix TimeSeries data type performance

    Because the index is only 39 KB, the scan application is minimal.

    Because the TimeSeries data type stores data in contiguous space on a page, for a 2 K page size each page contains at least 2004/20  = 100 rows.

    Each vehicle needs 1440/100 = 15 pages = 15 disk reads.

    Total non-cached distributed disk reads = (15+ 1) * 10000 = 160,000

    Comparison table:

    Space

    Performance

    Traditional RDBMS

    77GB

    8.64 million

    Informix TimeSeries type

    25GB

    160,000

    Benefit

    68% space saving

    54 times faster

    The advantages of using the Informix TimeSeries implementation are:

  • Disk space reduction:  almost 62% disc space saving
  • Performance improvement is multifold: up to 110 times faster
  • Faster development: Informix has more than 80 built-in SQL functions to achieve different operations on time series data, such as, aggregation, running average, slimming algorithms, interpolation and extrapolation, and so on.
  • Customized development: Informix provides C and Java APIs to let developers develop their own time series functions.
  • Application Development

    Because many operations in a VTS application are time based, the available built-in routines for the Informix TimeSeries data type makes evolution easy and fast.

    If they want to survey the unconcerned speed of vehicle every 30 minutes, the RDBMS approach requires a great programming application and a performance challenge. Whereas, with the Informix TimeSeries data type, they utilize the simple AggregateBy duty to roll-up the information to any required time frequency.

    If they want to survey the unconcerned speed of vehicle in ultimate 30 days, the best method is to examine its running unconcerned (not its gardenvariety average). Again, showing the running unconcerned speed of vehicles with the RDBMS approach is a gargantuan programming and performance challenge. Whereas with the Informix TimeSeries data type, they utilize the simple TSRunningAvg duty with the age and frequency that they want.

    Another basic need of VTS is storing location-related information. Location information can subsist in the figure of a point specifying the location of vehicle, a LineString specifying the route, or a Polygon specifying the geo-fence of the vehicle. The easiest way to exploit this type of information is by using the Informix spatial data types. Informix spatial data types not only optimally maintain the data, but besides provide built-in routines that improve the accuracy and ease the evolution of your solution.

    Let's examine the utilize case of geo-fencing. Geo-fencing refers to the rehearse of limiting the vehicle movements to a specific geographical area by defining the latitude and longitude of the area in the figure of a LineString or polygon.

    A geo-fence system raises an tocsin if one of the vehicles leaves the fenced area and deviates from its designated route. This might befall because of the personal interest of the vehicle driver or because the vehicle is stolen.

    Traditional RDBMS approach

    We identify the different locations on the route the vehicle is supposed to travel and insert multiple rows into a fence table, comprising information like the vehicle ID and its location (latitude and longitude) information. If they need to track 200 different locations on the designated route for a particular vehicle, they insert 200 rows for that vehicle. To check if the vehicle is outside the fence area, they develop their own logic and Run the cursor through these 200 rows to check if the current location is within any two points.

    To pomp the geo-fence on an online map, they create an XML file by running a cursor through everyone 200 records and then parse through the XML to pomp each point on the map.

    Informix spatial data types approach

    We define a column called geofence in the master table with a data type of either polygon or LineString. They store everyone 200 location co-ordinates in this single column.

    To check if the vehicle is within the fence area, they utilize the SQL duty ST_Within (curr_loc,geofence). If the duty returns "True," the vehicle is within the fence area; if it returns "False," the vehicle is outside the fence area.

    To pomp the geo-fence on an online map, they utilize SE_askml(geofence) function, which creates a KML file that they can import into the map.

    Advantages of using Informix spatial data types

  • Faster development:  functions like ST_within and SE_askml are readily available
  • Better performance: they don't need to Run through multiple records
  • Assured accuracy:  they are using Open GIS Consortium-compliant function
  • More analytics: they can find the nearest location or the distance between any two locations using functions like Nearest and ST_distance
  • Summary

    Systems like a Vehicle Tracking System can subsist developed using any benign of database as a back-end. But using by the Informix TimeSeries and spatial built-in data types, the identical system can subsist many times more efficient. The disk space saving of 60% and up to 54 times faster performance compared to traditional relational approach can enable you to increase the frequency of data collection, which means better accuracy.  The built-in functions for the  TimeSeries and spatial data types makes the application evolution task easier and provides for increased accuracy.

    About the author:

    Vaibhav Dantale is a software engineer within IBM Information Management division. He has been working on Informix for ultimate 12 years, in various development, QA and technical management roles. Currently, Dantale focuses on  evangelizing Informix product in ASIA Pacific region. He is one of the Informix TimeSeries technical experts and has been involved in several  customer engagements on Informix TimeSeries. He has patents under his designation and is co-author of a red book on Informix security features.


    Database Administration: Creating the Database Environment | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Establishing a usable database environment requires a distinguished deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will outline the principles involved in establishing a usable database environment.

    This chapter is from the book 

    One of the primary tasks associated with the job of DBA is the process of choosing and installing a DBMS. Unfortunately, many business executives and IT professionals without database management background assume that once the DBMS is installed, the bulk of the work is done. The truth is, choosing and installing the DBMS is hardly the most difficult portion of a DBA’s job. Establishing a usable database environment requires a distinguished deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will outline the principles involved in establishing a usable database environment.

    The process of choosing a suitable DBMS for enterprise database management is not as difficult as it used to be. The number of major DBMS vendors has dwindled due to industry consolidation and domination of the sector by a few very great players.

    Yet, great and medium-size organizations typically Run multiple DBMS products, from as few as two to as many as ten. For example, it is not uncommon for a great company to utilize IMS or IDMS and DB2 on the mainframe, Oracle and MySQL on several different UNIX servers, Microsoft SQL Server on Windows servers, as well as pockets of other DBMS products such as Sybase, Ingres, Adabas, and PostgreSQL on various platforms, not to mention single-user PC DBMS products such as Microsoft Access, Paradox, and FileMaker. Who chose to install everyone these DBMSs and why?

    Unfortunately, often the reply is that not much thought and planning went into the decision-making process. Sometimes the decision to purchase and install a newfangled DBMS is driven by a business need or a newfangled application. This is reasonable if your organization has no DBMS and must purchase one for the first time. This is rarely the case, though. Regardless of whether a DBMS exists on-site, a newfangled DBMS is often viewed as a requirement for a newfangled application. Sometimes a newfangled DBMS product is purchased and installed without first examining if the application could subsist successfully implemented using an existing DBMS. Or, more likely, the DBAs know the application can subsist implemented using an existing DBMS but need the organizational power or support to reject a newfangled DBMS proposal.

    There are other reasons for the actuality of multiple DBMS platforms in a single organization. Perhaps the company purchased a commercial off-the-shelf application package that does not Run on any of the current DBMS platforms. Sometimes the decision to buy a newfangled DBMS is driven by the crave to support the latest and greatest technology. For example, many mainframe shops affecting from a hierarchic (IMS) or CODASYL (IDMS) database model to the relational model deployed DB2, resulting in an additional DBMS to learn and support. Then, when client/server computing became popular, additional DBMSs were implemented on UNIX, Linux, and Windows servers.

    Once a DBMS is installed, removal can subsist difficult because of incompatibilities among the different DBMSs and the necessity of converting application code. Furthermore, when a newfangled DBMS is installed, feeble applications and databases are usually not migrated to it. The feeble DBMS remains and must continue to subsist supported. This complicates the DBA’s job.

    So what should subsist done? Well, the DBA group should subsist empowered to obtain the DBMS decisions for the organization. No business unit should subsist allowed to purchase a DBMS without the permission of the DBA group. This is a difficult provision to implement and even more difficult to enforce. business politics often work against the DBA group because it frequently possesses less organizational power than other business executives.

    Choosing a DBMS

    The DBA group should set a policy regarding the DBMS products to subsist supported within the organization. Whenever possible, the policy should minimize the number of different DBMS products. For a shop with multiple operating systems and multiple types of hardware, elect a default DBMS for the platform. discourage aberration from the default unless a compelling business case exists—a business case that passes the technical inspection of the DBA group.

    Most of the major DBMS products savor similar features, and if the feature or functionality does not exist today, it probably will within 18 to 24 months. So, exercise caution before deciding to elect a DBMS based solely on its talent to support a specific feature.

    When choosing a DBMS, it is wise to select a product from a tier-1 vendor as listed in Table 2.1. Tier 1 represents the largest vendors having the most heavily implemented and supported products on the market. You cannot Go wrong with DB2 or Oracle. Both are approved and support just about any type of database. Another major player is Microsoft SQL Server, but only for Windows platforms. DB2 and Oracle Run on multiple platforms ranging from mainframe to UNIX, as well as Windows and even handheld devices. Choosing a DBMS other than these three should subsist done only under specific circumstances.

    Table 2.1. Tier-1 DBMS Vendors

    DBMS Vendor

    DBMS Product

    IBM Corporation

    DB2

    New Orchard Road

    Armonk, NY 10504

    Phone: (914) 499-1900

    Oracle Corporation

    Oracle

    500 Oracle Parkway

    Redwood Shores, CA 94065

    Phone: (650) 506-7000

    Microsoft Corporation

    SQL Server

    One Microsoft Way

    Redmond, WA 98052

    Phone: (425) 882-8080

    After the gargantuan three advance MySQL, Sybase, Teradata, and Informix. Table 2.2 lists these tier-2 DBMS vendors. everyone of these offerings are property DBMS products, but their installed foundation is smaller, their products are engineered and marketed for niche purposes, or the companies are smaller with fewer resources than the gargantuan Three (IBM, Oracle, and Microsoft), so there is some risk in choosing a DBMS from tier 2 instead of tier 1. However, there may subsist solid reasons for deploying a tier-2 solution, such as the tall performance offered by Informix or the data warehousing and analytics capabilities of Teradata.

    Table 2.2. Tier-2 DBMS Vendors

    DBMS Vendor

    DBMS Product

    IBM Corporation

    Informix Dynamic Server

    New Orchard Road

    Armonk, NY 10504

    Phone: (914) 499-1900

    Sybase Inc. (an SAP Company)

    Adaptive Server Enterprise

    6475 Christie Avenue

    Emeryville, CA 94608

    Phone: (510) 922-3500

    Teradata Corporation

    Teradata

    10000 Innovation Drive

    Dayton, OH 45342

    Phone: (937) 242-4030

    MySQL (a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation)

    MySQL

    Phone: (208) 338-8100

    Of course, there are other DBMS products on the market, many of which are fine products and worthy of consideration for specialty processing, inescapable predefined needs, and niche roles. If your company is heavily into the open-source software movement, PostgreSQL, EnterpriseDB, or MySQL might subsist viable options. If an demur DBMS is necessary for a specific project, you might account ObjectDesign or Versant. And there are a variety of NoSQL DBMS offerings available, too, such as Hadoop, Cassandra, and MongoDB.1

    However, for the bulk of your data management needs, a DBMS from a tier-1, or perhaps tier-2, DBMS vendor will deliver sufficient functionality with minimal risk. A myriad of DBMS products are available, each with inescapable features that obtain them worthy of consideration on a case-by-case basis. Choosing any of the lower-tier candidates—even such major names as Software AG’s Adabas and Actian’s Ingres—involves incurring additional risk. mention to Appendix B for a list of DBMS vendors.

    I conclude not want it to sound as if the selection of a DBMS is a no-brainer. You will need a strategy and a design for selecting the preempt DBMS for your specific situation. When choosing a DBMS, subsist sure to account each of these factors:

  • Operating system support. Does the DBMS support the operating systems in utilize at your organization, including the versions that you are currently using and design on using?
  • Type of organization. boost into consideration the corporate philosophy when you elect a DBMS. Some organizations are very conservative and like to preserve a tight rein on their environments; these organizations tend to gravitate toward traditional mainframe environments. Government operations, fiscal institutions, and insurance and health companies usually tend to subsist conservative. More-liberal organizations are often willing to account alternative architectures. It is not uncommon for manufacturing companies, dot-coms, and universities to subsist less conservative. Finally, some companies just conclude not trust Windows as a mission-critical environment and prefer to utilize UNIX; this rules out some database vendors (Microsoft SQL Server, in particular).
  • Benchmarks. What performance benchmarks are available from the DBMS vendor and other users of the DBMS? The Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC) publishes official database performance benchmarks that can subsist used as a guideline for the basic overall performance of many different types of database processing. (Refer to the sidebar “The Transaction Processing Performance Council” for more details.) In general, performance benchmarks can subsist useful as a broad indicator of database performance but should not subsist the only determinant when selecting a DBMS. Many of the TPC benchmarks are Run against database implementations that are not representative of most production database systems and therefore are not indicative of the actual performance of a particular DBMS. In addition, benchmarks are constantly updated to pomp newfangled and improved performance measurements for each of the major DBMS products, rendering the benchmark “winners” obsolete very quickly.
  • Scalability. Does the DBMS support the number of users and database sizes you intend to implement? How are great databases built, supported, and maintained—easily or with a lot of pain? Are there independent users who can substantiate the DBMS vendor’s scalability claims?
  • Availability of supporting software tools. Are the supporting tools you require available for the DBMS? These items may include query and analysis tools, data warehousing support tools, database administration tools, backup and recovery tools, performance-monitoring tools, capacity-planning tools, database utilities, and support for various programming languages.
  • The Transaction Processing Performance Council is an independent, not-for-profit organization that manages and administers performance benchmark tests. Its mission is to define transaction processing and database benchmarks to provide the industry with objective, verifiable performance data. TPC benchmarks measure and evaluate computer functions and operations.

    The definition of transaction espoused by the TPC is a business one. A typical TPC transaction includes the database updates for things such as inventory control (goods), airline reservations (services), and banking (money).

    The benchmarks produced by the TPC measure performance in terms of how many transactions a given system and database can achieve per unit of time, for example, number of transactions per second. The TPC defines three benchmarks:

  • TPC-C, for planned production workload in a transaction environment
  • TPC-H, a decision support benchmark consisting of a suite of business-oriented ad hoc queries and concurrent data modifications
  • TPC-E, an updated OLTP workload (based on fiscal transaction processing)
  • Additional information and in-depth definitions of these benchmarks can subsist found at the TPC Web site at www.tpc.org (see figure 2.1).

  • Technicians. Is there a sufficient supply of skilled database professionals for the DBMS? account your needs in terms of DBAs, technical support personnel (system programmers and administrators, operations analysts, etc.), and application programmers.
  • Cost of ownership. What is the total cost of ownership of the DBMS? DBMS vendors impregnate wildly varying prices for their technology. Total cost of ownership should subsist calculated as a combination of the license cost of the DBMS; the license cost of any required supporting software; the cost of database professionals to program, support, and administer the DBMS; and the cost of the computing resources required to operate the DBMS.
  • Release schedule. How often does the DBMS vendor release a newfangled version? Some vendors savor rapid release cycles, with newfangled releases coming out every 12 to 18 months. This can subsist noble or bad, depending on your approach. If you want cutting-edge features, a rapid release cycle is good. However, if your shop is more conservative, a DBMS that changes frequently can subsist difficult to support. A rapid release cycle will antecedent conservative organizations either to upgrade more frequently than they would like or to live with outdated DBMS software that is unlikely to savor the identical plane of support as the latest releases.
  • Reference customers. Will the DBMS vendor supply current user references? Can you find other users on your own who might provide more impartial answers? Speak with current users to elicit issues and concerns you may savor overlooked. How is support? Does the vendor respond well to problems? conclude things generally work as advertised? Are there a lot of bug fixes that must subsist applied continuously? What is the property of newfangled releases? These questions can subsist answered only by the folks in the trenches.
  • When choosing a DBMS, subsist sure to boost into account the complexity of the products. DBMS software is very tangled and is getting more tangled with each newfangled release. Functionality that used to subsist supported only with add-on software or independent programs is increasingly being added as features of the DBMS, as shown in figure 2.2. You will need to design for and support everyone the features of the DBMS. Even if there is no current requirement for inescapable features, once you implement the DBMS the programmers and developers will find a judgement to utilize just about anything the vendor threw into it. It is better to design and subsist prepared than to allow features to subsist used without a design for supporting them.

    Figure 2.2

    Figure 2.2. Convergence of features and functionality in DBMS software

    DBMS Architectures

    The supporting architecture for the DBMS environment is very faultfinding to the success of the database applications. One wrong altenative or poorly implemented component of the overall architecture can antecedent poverty-stricken performance, downtime, or unstable applications.

    When mainframes dominated enterprise computing, DBMS architecture was a simpler concern. Everything ran on the mainframe, and that was that. However, today the IT infrastructure is distributed and heterogeneous. The overall architecture—even for a mainframe DBMS—will probably consist of multiple platforms and interoperating system software. A team consisting of business and IT experts, rather than a single person or group, should obtain the final architecture decision. business experts should include representatives from various departments, as well as from accounting and legal for software compress issues. Database administration representatives (DA, DBA, and SA), as well as members of the networking group, operating system experts, operations control personnel, programming experts, and any other interested parties, should subsist included in this team.

    Furthermore, subsist sure that the DBMS you select is preempt for the nature and type of processing you design to implement. Four levels of DBMS architecture are available: enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile.

    An enterprise DBMS is designed for scalability and tall performance. An enterprise DBMS must subsist capable of supporting very great databases, a great number of concurrent users, and multiple types of applications. The enterprise DBMS runs on a large-scale machine, typically a mainframe or a high-end server running UNIX, Linux, or Windows Server. Furthermore, an enterprise DBMS offers everyone the “bells and whistles” available from the DBMS vendor. Multiprocessor support, support for parallel queries, and other advanced DBMS features are core components of an enterprise DBMS.

    A departmental DBMS, sometimes referred to as a workgroup DBMS, serves the middle ground. The departmental DBMS supports small to medium-size workgroups within an organization; typically, it runs on a UNIX, Linux, or Windows server. The dividing line between a departmental database server and an enterprise database server is quite gray. Hardware and software upgrades can allow a departmental DBMS to tackle tasks that previously could subsist performed only by an enterprise DBMS. The steadily falling cost of departmental hardware and software components further contributes to lowering the total cost of operation and enabling a workgroup environment to scale up to serve the enterprise.

    A personal DBMS is designed for a single user, typically on a low- to medium-powered PC platform. Microsoft Access, SQLite, and FileMaker2 are examples of personal database software. Of course, the major DBMS vendors besides market personal versions of their higher-powered solutions, such as Oracle Database Personal Edition and DB2 Personal Edition. Sometimes the low cost of a personal DBMS results in a misguided attempt to elect a personal DBMS for a departmental or enterprise solution. However, conclude not subsist lured by the low cost. A personal DBMS product is suitable only for very small-scale projects and should never subsist deployed for multiuser applications.

    Finally, the mobile DBMS is a specialized version of a departmental or enterprise DBMS. It is designed for remote users who are not usually connected to the network. The mobile DBMS enables local database access and modification on a laptop or handheld device. Furthermore, the mobile DBMS provides a mechanism for synchronizing remote database changes to a centralized enterprise or departmental database server.

    A DBMS designed for one type of processing may subsist ill suited for other uses. For example, a personal DBMS is not designed for multiple users, and an enterprise DBMS is generally too tangled for single users. subsist sure to understand the differences among enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile DBMS software, and elect the preempt DBMS for your specific data-processing needs. You may need to elect multiple DBMS types—that is, a DBMS for each level—with usage determined by the needs of each evolution project.

    If your organization requires DBMS solutions at different levels, favor the selection of a group of DBMS solutions from the identical vendor whenever possible. Doing so will minimize differences in access, development, and administration. For example, favor Oracle Database Personal Edition for your single-user DBMS needs if your organization uses Oracle as the enterprise DBMS of choice.

    DBMS Clustering

    Clustering is the utilize of multiple “independent” computing systems working together as a single, highly available system. A modern DBMS offers clustering support to enhance availability and scalability. The two predominant architectures for clustering are shared-disk and shared-nothing. These names conclude a noble job of describing the nature of the architecture—at least at a tall level.

    Shared-nothing clustering is depicted in figure 2.3. In a shared-nothing architecture, each system has its own private resources (memory, disks, etc.). The clustered processors communicate by passing messages through a network that interconnects the computers. In addition, requests from clients are automatically routed to the system that owns the resource. Only one of the clustered systems can “own” and access a particular resource at a time. In the event a failure occurs, resource ownership can subsist dynamically transferred to another system in the cluster. The main edge of shared-nothing clustering is scalability. In theory, a shared-nothing multiprocessor can scale up to thousands of processors because they conclude not tamper with one another—nothing is shared.

    In a shared-disk environment, everyone the connected systems share the identical disk devices, as shown in figure 2.4. Each processor still has its own private memory, but everyone the processors can directly address everyone the disks. Typically, shared-disk clustering does not scale as well for smaller machines as shared-nothing clustering. Shared-disk clustering is better suited to large-enterprise processing in a mainframe environment. Mainframes—very great processors—are capable of processing immense volumes of work. distinguished benefits can subsist obtained with only a few clustered mainframes, while many PC and midrange processors would need to subsist clustered to achieve similar benefits.

    Shared-disk clustering is usually preferable for applications and services requiring only modest shared access to data and for applications or workloads that are very difficult to partition. Applications with massive data update requirements are probably better implemented as shared-nothing. Table 2.3 compares the capabilities of shared-disk and shared-nothing architectures.

    Table 2.3. Comparison of Shared-Disk and Shared-Nothing Architectures

    Shared-Disk

    Shared-Nothing

    Quick adaptability to changing workloads

    Can exploit simpler, cheaper hardware

    High availability

    Almost unlimited scalability

    Performs best in a massive read environment

    Works well in a high-volume, read-write environment

    Data need not subsist partitioned

    Data is partitioned across the cluster

    The major DBMS vendors provide support for different types of clustering with different capabilities and requirements. For example, DB2 for z/OS provides shared-disk clustering with its Data Sharing and Parallel Sysplex capabilities; DB2 on non-mainframe platforms uses shared-nothing clustering. Oracle’s actual Application Clusters provide shared-disk clustering.

    For most users, the primary capitalize of clustering is the enhanced availability that accrues by combining processors. In some cases, clustering can befriend an enterprise to achieve five-nines (99.999 percent) availability. Additionally, clustering can subsist used for load balancing and failover.

    DBMS Proliferation

    As a rule of thumb, create a policy (or at least some simple guidelines) that must subsist followed before a newfangled DBMS can subsist brought into the organization. Failure to conclude so can antecedent a proliferation of different DBMS products that will subsist difficult to support. It can besides antecedent confusion regarding which DBMS to utilize for which evolution effort.

    As mentioned earlier, there is a plethora of DBMS vendors, each touting its benefits. As a DBA, you will subsist bombarded with marketing and sales efforts that attempt to convince you that you need another DBMS. Try to resist unless a very compelling judgement is given and a short-term revert on investment (ROI) can subsist demonstrated. Even when confronted with valid reasons and noble ROI, subsist sure to double-check the arguments and ROI calculations. Sometimes the reasons specified are outdated and the ROI figures conclude not boost everything into account—such as the additional cost of administration.

    Remember, every DBMS requires database administration support. Moreover, each DBMS uses different methods to achieve similar tasks. The fewer DBMS products installed, the less complicated database administration becomes, and the better your chances become of providing efficient data management resources for your organization.

    Hardware Issues

    When establishing a database environment for application development, selecting the DBMS is only portion of the equation. The hardware and operating system on which the DBMS will Run will greatly impact the reliability, availability, and scalability (RAS) of the database environment. For example, a mainframe platform such as an IBM zEC12 running z/OS will probably provide higher RAS than a midrange IBM xSeries machine running AIX, which in turn will probably exceed a Dell server running Windows. That is not to jabber everything should Run on a mainframe; other issues such as cost, experience, manageability, and the needs of the applications to subsist developed must subsist considered. The bottom line is that you must subsist sure to factor hardware platform and operating system constraints into the DBMS selection criteria.

    Cloud Database Systems

    Cloud computing (see the sidebar) is increasing in usage, especially at small to medium-size businesses. A cloud implementation can subsist more cost-effective than building an entire local computing infrastructure that requires management and support.

    A cloud database system delivers DBMS services over the Internet. The trade-off essentially comes down to trusting a cloud provider to store and manage your data in revert for minimizing database administration and maintenance cost and effort. Using cloud database systems can enable organizations, especially smaller ones without the resources to invest in an enterprise computing infrastructure, to focus on their business instead of their computing environment.

    By consolidating data sources in the cloud, it is viable to improve collaboration among partners, arm offices, remote workers, and mobile devices, because the data becomes accessible as a service. There is no need to install, set up, patch, or manage the DBMS software because the cloud provider manages and cares for these administrative tasks. Of course, the downside is that your data is now stored and controlled by an external agent—the cloud provider. Another inherent risk of cloud computing is the possibility of nefarious agents posing as legitimate customers.

    An instance of a cloud database platform is Microsoft SQL Azure. It is built on SQL Server technologies and is a component of the Windows Azure platform.



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