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000-886 IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation

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000-886 exam Dumps Source : IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation

Test Code : 000-886
Test cognomen : IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 152 true Questions

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IBM IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1

Tivoli are animate Monitoring features Launched by means of IBM | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM is neatly customary for its developments in excessive-performance computing, eco-friendly computing, enterprise server and cloud computing alike. huge Blue doesn't look to breathe taking any breaks and, no longer long after disclosing plans for the advent of yet an extra enormously powerful and environmentally pleasant supercomputer (the Blue Waters), it has now offered yet an additional progress, this time in the locality of cloud computing features. This advancement, accepted as the Tivoli monitoring platform, will allow medium-sized corporations to extra effectively tackle as many as 500 monitored resources.

"With digital tips because the lifeblood of more agencies, even the smallest organizations or divisions accord with the information core's functionality mission-crucial," Al Zollar, common supervisor of IBM Tivoli, observed. "With this unusual provider, IBM is offering their smartest statistics core software in which agencies opt for and pay for what they want. it breathe so convenient that they are expecting most businesses can sign up for it on Monday and beget it operating by Friday. The simplicity is a fine looking addition to their provider administration portfolio."

The respective resources that the Tivoli monitoring platform can deal with are every thing from working techniques to applications and gadgets at once connected to the monitored network. The Tivoli is an on-demand service that immediately detects vigor outages and bottlenecks, automatically notifying the IT supervisor and infrequently even resolving notable considerations without the want for person involvement. The service helps Linux, AIX, HP-UX and Microsoft windows operating programs, and utter Tivoli Monitoring services could breathe dedicated and preconfigured.

adventure notwithstanding the carrier will require a month-to-month payment, no software licensing is required. The set-up payment costs $6,500 and contracts may additionally cowl time intervals of ninety days to a few years. The "touchless" agent-less Tivoli Monitoring 6.2.1. (which displays devices and materiel application) begins at $44 per thirty days per node, with the agent-primarily based OS and software monitoring option costing $58 per node every month.


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No outcome discovered, try unusual keyword!income-oriented americans took one of the most belongings that wasn't even on the acquisition crew's radar screen and extracted a alternative for IBM Tivoli Monitoring. It has produced a whole lot of thousands and thousands of doll...

IBM Spectrum | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM Spectrum is the manufacturer the seller gave to its storage software in 2015, when it moved six items below the Spectrum umbrella.

The six items IBM Spectrum items comprise accelerate, Scale, Virtualize, control, protect and Archive.

IBM Spectrum accelerate is obscure storage in response to IBM's XIV storage technology. it can scale up to tens of petabytes of potential and breathe deployed on commodity servers, XIV or within the cloud. it's attainable for purchase as software or as cloud provider with IBM SoftLayer.

IBM Spectrum Scale acts as a control pane to exploit policy-based records move. it's based on IBM's universal Parallel File device technology. it is attainable for buy as stand-on my own software, bundled on IBM hardware because the IBM Elastic Storage Server or as a cloud service.

IBM Spectrum Virtualize is storage virtualization utility formerly known as IBM SAN quantity Controller. It permits storage capability from distinctive storage systems to breathe pooled so aspects such as compression and auto tiering can moreover breathe unfold across utter storage capability, and for management from a single location.

IBM Spectrum control is management software that runs in IBM's cloud for virtualized, cloud and utility-described storage. It offers clients with performance monitoring and skill planning for on-premises storage.

IBM Spectrum protect is a backup and restoration product based mostly formerly known as IBM Tivoli Storage manager. It may moreover breathe used with actual, digital or cloud storage.  It gives snapshots, multi-web site replication and catastrophe recovery administration.

IBM Spectrum Archive application turned into previously known as Linear Tape File system and allows access to IBM tape drives using a 1:1 mapping of file folders to tape drives. It eliminates the requisite for separate management utility for archival storage and amenities movement of facts between construction and archival ability.


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IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation

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Software proactively manages availability and performance. | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

Press Release Summary:

Integrating with Tivoli OMEGAMON and IBM Tivoli System Automation for Multiplatforms v2.1, IBM Tivoli System Automation for z/OS v3.1 can wait on optimize z/OS application availability, and automate I/O, processor, and system operations. It integrates z/OS into end-to-end automation of heterogeneous on-demand applications. Self-configuration minimizes automation implementation time with 12 add-on policies, policy import and mass update, and GDPS(TM) integration.

Original Press Release:

IBM Tivoli System Automation for z/OS V3.1 Proactively Manages Availability and Performance

At a glanceIBM Tivoli System Automation for z/OS V3.1 integrates with Tivoli OMEGAMON and IBM Tivoli System Automation for Multiplatforms V2.1 to wait on you:Proactively manage availability and performance through performance-driven automationIntegrate z/OS into end-to-end automation of heterogeneous on require applicationsV3.1 self-configuration advances wait on reduce automation implementation time and cost with:Twelve add-on policies including WebSphere high-availability automationPolicy import and mass updateSelf-configuration of IMS and CICS messages 1.2GDPS(TM) IntegrationV3.1 is easier to employ with:New command for stirring a sysplex applicationDisplay of captured system messages and more IMS, CICS and VTAM® information

For ordering, contact:Your IBM representative, an IBM industry Partner, or IBM Americas muster Centers at 800-IBM-CALL (Reference: YE001).

OverviewIBM Tivoli® System Automation for z/OS® V3.1 can wait on increase z/OS application availability, and automate I/O, processor, and system operations. IBM Tivoli System Automation for z/OS V3.1 is easier to employ than ever and can wait on enable you to:Unite the islands of automation through integration with Tivoli OMEGAMON and IBM Tivoli System Automation for MultiplatformsReduce automation implementation time and cost through self-configuration advancesPerformance-driven automation

IBM Tivoli System Automation for z/OS helps you proactively manage availability and performance through performance-driven automation, which is integrated with IBM Tivoli OMEGAMON for CICS®, DB2®, IMS(TM), and MVS(TM).

END-to-end automation

z/OS applications can now breathe integrated into end-to-end automation of heterogeneous on require applications, provided by the unusual Tivoli System Automation for Multiplatforms V2.1. This allows you to:Ease operations through a Web-based single point of control across z/OS, Linux(TM), and AIX®Increase application availability by resolving cross-platform dependenciesSelf-configuration advances with plug'n play automation modules

The plug'n play automation modules comprise foundation and add-on policies. A collection of twelve add-on policies, based on best practices, can wait on reduce time and exertion to create a unusual or update an existing policy. unusual plug'n play automation modules wait on you to:Increase WebSphere® Application Server for z/OS V5.1 availability and ease operationsImplement a Geographically Dispersed Parallel Sysplex(TM)

Key prerequisitesIBM Tivoli System Automation for z/OS V3.1 requires IBM zSeries® hardware supporting:z/OS (5694-A01) V1.4, or laterTivoli NetView® for OS/390® (5697-B82) V1.4 or Tivoli NetView for z/OS (5697-ENV) V5.1, or later

Planned availability dateSeptember 30, 2005

Related Thomas Industry Update Thomas For Industry

GSSAPI Authentication and Kerberos v5 | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the book 

This section discusses the GSSAPI mechanism, in particular, Kerberos v5 and how this works in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software and what is involved in implementing such a solution. delight breathe awake that this is not a trivial task.

It’s worth taking a brief witness at the relationship between the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) and Kerberos v5.

The GSSAPI does not actually provide security services itself. Rather, it is a framework that provides security services to callers in a generic fashion, with a sweep of underlying mechanisms and technologies such as Kerberos v5. The current implementation of the GSSAPI only works with the Kerberos v5 security mechanism. The best way to contemplate about the relationship between GSSAPI and Kerberos is in the following manner: GSSAPI is a network authentication protocol abstraction that allows Kerberos credentials to breathe used in an authentication exchange. Kerberos v5 must breathe installed and running on any system on which GSSAPI-aware programs are running.

The support for the GSSAPI is made viable in the directory server through the introduction of a unusual SASL library, which is based on the Cyrus CMU implementation. Through this SASL framework, DIGEST-MD5 is supported as explained previously, and GSSAPI which implements Kerberos v5. Additional GSSAPI mechanisms achieve exist. For example, GSSAPI with SPNEGO support would breathe GSS-SPNEGO. Other GSS mechanism names are based on the GSS mechanisms OID.

The Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software only supports the employ of GSSAPI on Solaris OE. There are implementations of GSSAPI for other operating systems (for example, Linux), but the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software does not employ them on platforms other than the Solaris OE.

Understanding GSSAPI

The Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) is a standard interface, defined by RFC 2743, that provides a generic authentication and secure messaging interface, whereby these security mechanisms can breathe plugged in. The most commonly referred to GSSAPI mechanism is the Kerberos mechanism that is based on surreptitious key cryptography.

One of the main aspects of GSSAPI is that it allows developers to add secure authentication and privacy (encryption and or integrity checking) protection to data being passed over the wire by writing to a single programming interface. This is shown in device 3-2.

03fig02.gifFigure 3-2. GSSAPI Layers

The underlying security mechanisms are loaded at the time the programs are executed, as opposed to when they are compiled and built. In practice, the most commonly used GSSAPI mechanism is Kerberos v5. The Solaris OE provides a few different flavors of Diffie-Hellman GSSAPI mechanisms, which are only useful to NIS+ applications.

What can breathe confusing is that developers might write applications that write directly to the Kerberos API, or they might write GSSAPI applications that request the Kerberos mechanism. There is a mammoth difference, and applications that talk Kerberos directly cannot communicate with those that talk GSSAPI. The wire protocols are not compatible, even though the underlying Kerberos protocol is in use. An example is telnet with Kerberos is a secure telnet program that authenticates a telnet user and encrypts data, including passwords exchanged over the network during the telnet session. The authentication and message protection features are provided using Kerberos. The telnet application with Kerberos only uses Kerberos, which is based on secret-key technology. However, a telnet program written to the GSSAPI interface can employ Kerberos as well as other security mechanisms supported by GSSAPI.

The Solaris OE does not deliver any libraries that provide support for third-party companies to program directly to the Kerberos API. The goal is to inspirit developers to employ the GSSAPI. Many open-source Kerberos implementations (MIT, Heimdal) allow users to write Kerberos applications directly.

On the wire, the GSSAPI is compatible with Microsoft’s SSPI and thus GSSAPI applications can communicate with Microsoft applications that employ SSPI and Kerberos.

The GSSAPI is preferred because it is a standardized API, whereas Kerberos is not. This means that the MIT Kerberos progress team might change the programming interface anytime, and any applications that exist today might not work in the future without some code modifications. Using GSSAPI avoids this problem.

Another profit of GSSAPI is its pluggable feature, which is a mammoth benefit, especially if a developer later decides that there is a better authentication fashion than Kerberos, because it can easily breathe plugged into the system and the existing GSSAPI applications should breathe able to employ it without being recompiled or patched in any way.

Understanding Kerberos v5

Kerberos is a network authentication protocol designed to provide strong authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography. Originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it is included in the Solaris OE to provide strong authentication for Solaris OE network applications.

In addition to providing a secure authentication protocol, Kerberos moreover offers the capacity to add privacy support (encrypted data streams) for remote applications such as telnet, ftp, rsh, rlogin, and other common UNIX network applications. In the Solaris OE, Kerberos can moreover breathe used to provide strong authentication and privacy support for Network File Systems (NFS), allowing secure and private file sharing across the network.

Because of its widespread acceptance and implementation in other operating systems, including Windows 2000, HP-UX, and Linux, the Kerberos authentication protocol can interoperate in a heterogeneous environment, allowing users on machines running one OS to securely authenticate themselves on hosts of a different OS.

The Kerberos software is available for Solaris OE versions 2.6, 7, 8, and 9 in a separate package called the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) software. For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is included as piece of the Solaris simple Access Server 3.0 (Solaris SEAS) package. For Solaris 8 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software package is available with the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack.

For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is freely available as piece of the Solaris simple Access Server 3.0 package available for download from:

http://www.sun.com/software/solaris/7/ds/ds-seas.

For Solaris 8 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is available in the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack, available for download from:

http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/content/adminPack/index.html.

For Solaris 9 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is already installed by default and contains the following packages listed in TABLE 3-1.

Table 3-1. Solaris 9 OE Kerberos v5 Packages

Package Name

Description

SUNWkdcr

Kerberos v5 KDC (root)

SUNWkdcu

Kerberos v5 Master KDC (user)

SUNWkrbr

Kerberos version 5 support (Root)

SUNWkrbu

Kerberos version 5 support (Usr)

SUNWkrbux

Kerberos version 5 support (Usr) (64-bit)

All of these Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software distributions are based on the MIT KRB5 Release version 1.0. The client programs in these distributions are compatible with later MIT releases (1.1, 1.2) and with other implementations that are compliant with the standard.

How Kerberos Works

The following is an overview of the Kerberos v5 authentication system. From the user’s standpoint, Kerberos v5 is mostly invisible after the Kerberos session has been started. Initializing a Kerberos session often involves no more than logging in and providing a Kerberos password.

The Kerberos system revolves around the concept of a ticket. A ticket is a set of electronic information that serves as identification for a user or a service such as the NFS service. Just as your driver’s license identifies you and indicates what driving permissions you have, so a ticket identifies you and your network access privileges. When you discharge a Kerberos-based transaction (for example, if you employ rlogin to log in to another machine), your system transparently sends a request for a ticket to a Key Distribution Center, or KDC. The KDC accesses a database to authenticate your identity and returns a ticket that grants you consent to access the other machine. Transparently means that you achieve not requisite to explicitly request a ticket.

Tickets beget certain attributes associated with them. For example, a ticket can breathe forwardable (which means that it can breathe used on another machine without a unusual authentication process), or postdated (not valid until a specified time). How tickets are used (for example, which users are allowed to obtain which types of tickets) is set by policies that are determined when Kerberos is installed or administered.

You will frequently observe the terms credential and ticket. In the Kerberos world, they are often used interchangeably. Technically, however, a credential is a ticket plus the session key for that session.

Initial Authentication

Kerberos authentication has two phases, an initial authentication that allows for utter subsequent authentications, and the subsequent authentications themselves.

A client (a user, or a service such as NFS) begins a Kerberos session by requesting a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) from the Key Distribution hub (KDC). This request is often done automatically at login.

A ticket-granting ticket is needed to obtain other tickets for specific services. contemplate of the ticket-granting ticket as something similar to a passport. like a passport, the ticket-granting ticket identifies you and allows you to obtain numerous “visas,” where the “visas” (tickets) are not for alien countries, but for remote machines or network services. like passports and visas, the ticket-granting ticket and the other various tickets beget limited lifetimes. The dissimilarity is that Kerberized commands notice that you beget a passport and obtain the visas for you. You don’t beget to discharge the transactions yourself.

The KDC creates a ticket-granting ticket and sends it back, in encrypted form, to the client. The client decrypts the ticket-granting ticket using the client’s password.

Now in possession of a valid ticket-granting ticket, the client can request tickets for utter sorts of network operations for as long as the ticket-granting ticket lasts. This ticket usually lasts for a few hours. Each time the client performs a unique network operation, it requests a ticket for that operation from the KDC.

Subsequent Authentications

The client requests a ticket for a particular service from the KDC by sending the KDC its ticket-granting ticket as proof of identity.

  • The KDC sends the ticket for the specific service to the client.

    For example, suppose user lucy wants to access an NFS file system that has been shared with krb5 authentication required. Since she is already authenticated (that is, she already has a ticket-granting ticket), as she attempts to access the files, the NFS client system automatically and transparently obtains a ticket from the KDC for the NFS service.

  • The client sends the ticket to the server.

    When using the NFS service, the NFS client automatically and transparently sends the ticket for the NFS service to the NFS server.

  • The server allows the client access.

    These steps profile it appear that the server doesn’t ever communicate with the KDC. The server does, though, as it registers itself with the KDC, just as the first client does.

  • Principals

    A client is identified by its principal. A principal is a unique identity to which the KDC can allot tickets. A principal can breathe a user, such as joe, or a service, such as NFS.

    By convention, a principal cognomen is divided into three parts: the primary, the instance, and the realm. A typical principal could be, for example, lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM, where:

    lucy is the primary. The primary can breathe a user name, as shown here, or a service, such as NFS. The primary can moreover breathe the word host, which signifies that this principal is a service principal that is set up to provide various network services.

    admin is the instance. An instance is optional in the case of user principals, but it is required for service principals. For example, if the user lucy sometimes acts as a system administrator, she can employ lucy/admin to distinguish herself from her usual user identity. Likewise, if Lucy has accounts on two different hosts, she can employ two principal names with different instances (for example, lucy/california.example.com and lucy/boston.example.com).

    Realms

    A realm is a logical network, similar to a domain, which defines a group of systems under the identical master KDC. Some realms are hierarchical (one realm being a superset of the other realm). Otherwise, the realms are non-hierarchical (or direct) and the mapping between the two realms must breathe defined.

    Realms and KDC Servers

    Each realm must comprise a server that maintains the master copy of the principal database. This server is called the master KDC server. Additionally, each realm should accommodate at least one slave KDC server, which contains duplicate copies of the principal database. Both the master KDC server and the slave KDC server create tickets that are used to establish authentication.

    Understanding the Kerberos KDC

    The Kerberos Key Distribution hub (KDC) is a trusted server that issues Kerberos tickets to clients and servers to communicate securely. A Kerberos ticket is a obscure of data that is presented as the user’s credentials when attempting to access a Kerberized service. A ticket contains information about the user’s identity and a temporary encryption key, utter encrypted in the server’s private key. In the Kerberos environment, any entity that is defined to beget a Kerberos identity is referred to as a principal.

    A principal may breathe an entry for a particular user, host, or service (such as NFS or FTP) that is to interact with the KDC. Most commonly, the KDC server system moreover runs the Kerberos Administration Daemon, which handles administrative commands such as adding, deleting, and modifying principals in the Kerberos database. Typically, the KDC, the admin server, and the database are utter on the identical machine, but they can breathe separated if necessary. Some environments may require that multiple realms breathe configured with master KDCs and slave KDCs for each realm. The principals applied for securing each realm and KDC should breathe applied to utter realms and KDCs in the network to ensure that there isn’t a single weak link in the chain.

    One of the first steps to assume when initializing your Kerberos database is to create it using the kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin. When running this command, the user has the selection of whether to create a stash file or not. The stash file is a local copy of the master key that resides on the KDC’s local disk. The master key contained in the stash file is generated from the master password that the user enters when first creating the KDC database. The stash file is used to authenticate the KDC to itself automatically before starting the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons (for example, as piece of the machine’s boot sequence).

    If a stash file is not used when the database is created, the administrator who starts up the krb5kdc process will beget to manually enter the master key (password) every time they start the process. This may look like a typical trade off between convenience and security, but if the ease of the system is sufficiently hardened and protected, very small security is lost by having the master key stored in the protected stash file. It is recommended that at least one slave KDC server breathe installed for each realm to ensure that a backup is available in the event that the master server becomes unavailable, and that slave KDC breathe configured with the identical flat of security as the master.

    Currently, the Sun Kerberos v5 Mechanism utility, kdb5_util, can create three types of keys, DES-CBC-CRC, DES-CBC-MD5, and DES-CBC-RAW. DES-CBC stands for DES encryption with Cipher obscure Chaining and the CRC, MD5, and RAW designators mention to the checksum algorithm that is used. By default, the key created will breathe DES-CBC-CRC, which is the default encryption type for the KDC. The type of key created is specified on the command line with the -k option (see the kdb5_util (1M) man page). choose the password for your stash file very carefully, because this password can breathe used in the future to decrypt the master key and modify the database. The password may breathe up to 1024 characters long and can comprise any combination of letters, numbers, punctuation, and spaces.

    The following is an example of creating a stash file:

    kdc1 #/usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key cognomen 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will breathe prompted for the database Master Password. It is captious that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: master_key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: master_key

    Notice the employ of the -s controversy to create the stash file. The location of the stash file is in the /var/krb5. The stash file appears with the following mode and ownership settings:

    kdc1 # cd /var/krb5 kdc1 # ls -l -rw------- 1 root other 14 Apr 10 14:28 .k5.EXAMPLE.COM

    The directory used to store the stash file and the database should not breathe shared or exported.

    Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File

    The KDC and Administration daemons both read configuration information from /etc/krb5/kdc.conf. This file contains KDC-specific parameters that govern overall conduct for the KDC and for specific realms. The parameters in the kdc.conf file are explained in detail in the kdc.conf(4) man page.

    The kdc.conf parameters record locations of various files and ports to employ for accessing the KDC and the administration daemon. These parameters generally achieve not requisite to breathe changed, and doing so does not result in any added security. However, there are some parameters that may breathe adjusted to enhance the overall security of the KDC. The following are some examples of adjustable parameters that enhance security.

  • kdc_ports – Defines the ports that the KDC will listen on to receive requests. The standard port for Kerberos v5 is 88. 750 is included and commonly used to support older clients that still employ the default port designated for Kerberos v4. Solaris OE still listens on port 750 for backwards compatibility. This is not considered a security risk.

  • max_life – Defines the maximum lifetime of a ticket, and defaults to eight hours. In environments where it is desirable to beget users re-authenticate frequently and to reduce the random of having a principal’s credentials stolen, this value should breathe lowered. The recommended value is eight hours.

  • max_renewable_life – Defines the age of time from when a ticket is issued that it may breathe renewed (using kinit -R). The standard value here is 7 days. To disable renewable tickets, this value may breathe set to 0 days, 0 hrs, 0 min. The recommended value is 7d 0h 0m 0s.

  • default_principal_expiration – A Kerberos principal is any unique identity to which Kerberos can allot a ticket. In the case of users, it is the identical as the UNIX system user name. The default lifetime of any principal in the realm may breathe defined in the kdc.conf file with this option. This should breathe used only if the realm will accommodate temporary principals, otherwise the administrator will beget to constantly breathe renewing principals. Usually, this setting is left undefined and principals achieve not expire. This is not insecure as long as the administrator is vigilant about removing principals for users that no longer requisite access to the systems.

  • supported_enctypes – The encryption types supported by the KDC may breathe defined with this option. At this time, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software only supports des-cbc-crc:normal encryption type, but in the future this may breathe used to ensure that only strong cryptographic ciphers are used.

  • dict_file – The location of a dictionary file containing strings that are not allowed as passwords. A principal with any password policy (see below) will not breathe able to employ words create in this dictionary file. This is not defined by default. Using a dictionary file is a edifying way to forestall users from creating trivial passwords to protect their accounts, and thus helps avoid one of the most common weaknesses in a computer network-guessable passwords. The KDC will only check passwords against the dictionary for principals which beget a password policy association, so it is edifying practice to beget at least one simple policy associated with utter principals in the realm.

  • The Solaris OE has a default system dictionary that is used by the spell program that may moreover breathe used by the KDC as a dictionary of common passwords. The location of this file is: /usr/share/lib/dict/words. Other dictionaries may breathe substituted. The format is one word or phrase per line.

    The following is a Kerberos v5 /etc/krb5/kdc.conf example with suggested settings:

    # Copyright 1998-2002 Sun Microsystems, Inc. utter rights reserved. # employ is subject to license terms. # #ident "@(#)kdc.conf 1.2 02/02/14 SMI" [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] ___default_realm___ = { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s default_principal_flags = +preauth Needs stirring -- dict_file = /usr/share/lib/dict/words } Access Control

    The Kerberos administration server allows for granular control of the administrative commands by employ of an access control list (ACL) file (/etc/krb5/kadm5.acl). The syntax for the ACL file allows for wildcarding of principal names so it is not necessary to list every single administrator in the ACL file. This feature should breathe used with majestic care. The ACLs used by Kerberos allow privileges to breathe broken down into very precise functions that each administrator can perform. If a certain administrator only needs to breathe allowed to beget read-access to the database then that person should not breathe granted plenary admin privileges. Below is a list of the privileges allowed:

  • a – Allows the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • A – Prohibits the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • d – Allows the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • D – Prohibits the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • m – Allows the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • M – Prohibits the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • c – Allows the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • C – Prohibits the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • i – Allows inquiries to the database.

  • I – Prohibits inquiries to the database.

  • l – Allows the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • L – Prohibits the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • * – Short for utter privileges (admcil).

  • x – Short for utter privileges (admcil). Identical to *.

  • Adding Administrators

    After the ACLs are set up, actual administrator principals should breathe added to the system. It is strongly recommended that administrative users beget separate /admin principals to employ only when administering the system. For example, user Lucy would beget two principals in the database - lucy@REALM and lucy/admin@REALM. The /admin principal would only breathe used when administering the system, not for getting ticket-granting-tickets (TGTs) to access remote services. Using the /admin principal only for administrative purposes minimizes the random of someone walking up to Joe’s unattended terminal and performing unauthorized administrative commands on the KDC.

    Kerberos principals may breathe differentiated by the instance piece of their principal name. In the case of user principals, the most common instance identifier is /admin. It is standard practice in Kerberos to differentiate user principals by defining some to breathe /admin instances and others to beget no specific instance identifier (for example, lucy/admin@REALM versus lucy@REALM). Principals with the /admin instance identifier are assumed to beget administrative privileges defined in the ACL file and should only breathe used for administrative purposes. A principal with an /admin identifier which does not match up with any entries in the ACL file will not breathe granted any administrative privileges, it will breathe treated as a non-privileged user principal. Also, user principals with the /admin identifier are given separate passwords and separate permissions from the non-admin principal for the identical user.

    The following is a sample /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file:

    # Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Sun Microsystems, Inc. # utter rights reserved. # #pragma ident "@(#)kadm5.acl 1.1 01/03/19 SMI" # lucy/admin is given plenary administrative privilege lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM * # # tom/admin user is allowed to query the database (d), listing principals # (l), and changing user passwords (c) # tom/admin@EXAMPLE.COM dlc

    It is highly recommended that the kadm5.acl file breathe tightly controlled and that users breathe granted only the privileges they requisite to discharge their assigned tasks.

    Creating Host Keys

    Creating host keys for systems in the realm such as slave KDCs is performed the identical way that creating user principals is performed. However, the -randkey option should always breathe used, so no one ever knows the actual key for the hosts. Host principals are almost always stored in the keytab file, to breathe used by root-owned processes that wish to act as Kerberos services for the local host. It is rarely necessary for anyone to actually know the password for a host principal because the key is stored safely in the keytab and is only accessible by root-owned processes, never by actual users.

    When creating keytab files, the keys should always breathe extracted from the KDC on the identical machine where the keytab is to reside using the ktadd command from a kadmin session. If this is not feasible, assume majestic custody in transferring the keytab file from one machine to the next. A malicious attacker who possesses the contents of the keytab file could employ these keys from the file in order to gain access to another user or services credentials. Having the keys would then allow the attacker to impersonate whatever principal that the key represented and further compromise the security of that Kerberos realm. Some suggestions for transferring the keytab are to employ Kerberized, encrypted ftp transfers, or to employ the secure file transfer programs scp or sftp offered with the SSH package (http://www.openssh.org). Another safe fashion is to position the keytab on a removable disk, and hand-deliver it to the destination.

    Hand delivery does not scale well for great installations, so using the Kerberized ftp daemon is perhaps the most convenient and secure fashion available.

    Using NTP to Synchronize Clocks

    All servers participating in the Kerberos realm requisite to beget their system clocks synchronized to within a configurable time limit (default 300 seconds). The safest, most secure way to systematically synchronize the clocks on a network of Kerberos servers is by using the Network Time Protocol (NTP) service. The Solaris OE comes with an NTP client and NTP server software (SUNWntpu package). observe the ntpdate(1M) and xntpd(1M) man pages for more information on the individual commands. For more information on configuring NTP, mention to the following Sun BluePrints OnLine NTP articles:

    It is captious that the time breathe synchronized in a secure manner. A simple denial of service beset on either a client or a server would involve just skewing the time on that system to breathe outside of the configured clock skew value, which would then forestall anyone from acquiring TGTs from that system or accessing Kerberized services on that system. The default clock-skew value of five minutes is the maximum recommended value.

    The NTP infrastructure must moreover breathe secured, including the employ of server hardening for the NTP server and application of NTP security features. Using the Solaris Security Toolkit software (formerly known as JASS) with the secure.driver script to create a minimal system and then installing just the necessary NTP software is one such method. The Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    http://www.sun.com/security/jass/

    Documentation on the Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    http://www.sun.com/security/blueprints

    Establishing Password Policies

    Kerberos allows the administrator to define password policies that can breathe applied to some or utter of the user principals in the realm. A password policy contains definitions for the following parameters:

  • Minimum Password Length – The number of characters in the password, for which the recommended value is 8.

  • Maximum Password Classes – The number of different character classes that must breathe used to profile up the password. Letters, numbers, and punctuation are the three classes and valid values are 1, 2, and 3. The recommended value is 2.

  • Saved Password History – The number of previous passwords that beget been used by the principal that cannot breathe reused. The recommended value is 3.

  • Minimum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The minimum time that the password must breathe used before it can breathe changed. The recommended value is 3600 (1 hour).

  • Maximum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The maximum time that the password can breathe used before it must breathe changed. The recommended value is 7776000 (90 days).

  • These values can breathe set as a group and stored as a single policy. Different policies can breathe defined for different principals. It is recommended that the minimum password length breathe set to at least 8 and that at least 2 classes breathe required. Most people tend to choose easy-to-remember and easy-to-type passwords, so it is a edifying belief to at least set up policies to inspirit slightly more difficult-to-guess passwords through the employ of these parameters. Setting the Maximum Password Lifetime value may breathe helpful in some environments, to force people to change their passwords periodically. The age is up to the local administrator according to the overriding corporate security policy used at that particular site. Setting the Saved Password History value combined with the Minimum Password Lifetime value prevents people from simply switching their password several times until they find back to their original or favorite password.

    The maximum password length supported is 255 characters, unlike the UNIX password database which only supports up to 8 characters. Passwords are stored in the KDC encrypted database using the KDC default encryption method, DES-CBC-CRC. In order to forestall password guessing attacks, it is recommended that users choose long passwords or pass phrases. The 255 character limit allows one to choose a small sentence or simple to remember phrase instead of a simple one-word password.

    It is viable to employ a dictionary file that can breathe used to forestall users from choosing common, easy-to-guess words (see “Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File” on page 70). The dictionary file is only used when a principal has a policy association, so it is highly recommended that at least one policy breathe in upshot for utter principals in the realm.

    The following is an example password policy creation:

    If you specify a kadmin command without specifying any options, kadmin displays the syntax (usage information) for that command. The following code box shows this, followed by an actual add_policy command with options.

    kadmin: add_policy usage: add_policy [options] policy options are: [-maxlife time] [-minlife time] [-minlength length] [-minclasses number] [-history number] kadmin: add_policy -minlife "1 hour" -maxlife "90 days" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 passpolicy kadmin: get_policy passpolicy Policy: passpolicy Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of extinct keys kept: 3 Reference count: 0

    This example creates a password policy called passpolicy which enforces a maximum password lifetime of 90 days, minimum length of 8 characters, a minimum of 2 different character classes (letters, numbers, punctuation), and a password history of 3.

    To apply this policy to an existing user, modify the following:

    kadmin: modprinc -policy passpolicy lucyPrincipal "lucy@EXAMPLE.COM" modified.

    To modify the default policy that is applied to utter user principals in a realm, change the following:

    kadmin: modify_policy -maxlife "90 days" -minlife "1 hour" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 default kadmin: get_policy default Policy: default Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of extinct keys kept: 3 Reference count: 1

    The Reference matter value indicates how many principals are configured to employ the policy.

    The default policy is automatically applied to utter unusual principals that are not given the identical password as the principal cognomen when they are created. Any account with a policy assigned to it is uses the dictionary (defined in the dict_file parameter in /etc/krb5/kdc.conf) to check for common passwords.

    Backing Up a KDC

    Backups of a KDC system should breathe made regularly or according to local policy. However, backups should exclude the /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab file. If the local policy requires that backups breathe done over a network, then these backups should breathe secured either through the employ of encryption or possibly by using a separate network interface that is only used for backup purposes and is not exposed to the identical traffic as the non-backup network traffic. Backup storage media should always breathe kept in a secure, fireproof location.

    Monitoring the KDC

    Once the KDC is configured and running, it should breathe continually and vigilantly monitored. The Sun Kerberos v5 software KDC logs information into the /var/krb5/kdc.log file, but this location can breathe modified in the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file, in the logging section.

    [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log

    The KDC log file should beget read and write permissions for the root user only, as follows:

    -rw------ 1 root other 750 25 May 10 17:55 /var/krb5/kdc.log Kerberos Options

    The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file contains information that utter Kerberos applications employ to determine what server to talk to and what realm they are participating in. Configuring the krb5.conf file is covered in the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism Software Installation Guide. moreover mention to the krb5.conf(4) man page for a plenary description of this file.

    The appdefaults section in the krb5.conf file contains parameters that control the conduct of many Kerberos client tools. Each tool may beget its own section in the appdefaults section of the krb5.conf file.

    Many of the applications that employ the appdefaults section, employ the identical options; however, they might breathe set in different ways for each client application.

    Kerberos Client Applications

    The following Kerberos applications can beget their conduct modified through the user of options set in the appdefaults section of the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file or by using various command-line arguments. These clients and their configuration settings are described below.

    kinit

    The kinit client is used by people who want to obtain a TGT from the KDC. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following kinit options: renewable, forwardable, no_addresses, max_life, max_renewable_life and proxiable.

    telnet

    The Kerberos telnet client has many command-line arguments that control its behavior. mention to the man page for complete information. However, there are several appealing security issues involving the Kerberized telnet client.

    The telnet client uses a session key even after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. This means that the telnet session remains vigorous even after the ticket originally used to gain access, is no longer valid. This is insecure in a strict environment, however, the trade off between ease of employ and strict security tends to rawboned in favor of ease-of-use in this situation. It is recommended that the telnet connection breathe re-initialized periodically by disconnecting and reconnecting with a unusual ticket. The overall lifetime of a ticket is defined by the KDC (/etc/krb5/kdc.conf), normally defined as eight hours.

    The telnet client allows the user to forward a copy of the credentials (TGT) used to authenticate to the remote system using the -f and -F command-line options. The -f option sends a non-forwardable copy of the local TGT to the remote system so that the user can access Kerberized NFS mounts or other local Kerberized services on that system only. The -F option sends a forwardable TGT to the remote system so that the TGT can breathe used from the remote system to gain further access to other remote Kerberos services beyond that point. The -F option is a superset of -f. If the Forwardable and or forward options are set to unfounded in the krb5.conf file, these command-line arguments can breathe used to override those settings, thus giving individuals the control over whether and how their credentials are forwarded.

    The -x option should breathe used to turn on encryption for the data stream. This further protects the session from eavesdroppers. If the telnet server does not support encryption, the session is closed. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following telnet options: forward, forwardable, encrypt, and autologin. The autologin [true/false] parameter tells the client to try and attempt to log in without prompting the user for a user name. The local user cognomen is passed on to the remote system in the telnet negotiations.

    rlogin and rsh

    The Kerberos rlogin and rsh clients behave much the identical as their non-Kerberized equivalents. Because of this, it is recommended that if they are required to breathe included in the network files such as /etc/hosts.equiv and .rhosts that the root users directory breathe removed. The Kerberized versions beget the added profit of using Kerberos protocol for authentication and can moreover employ Kerberos to protect the privacy of the session using encryption.

    Similar to telnet described previously, the rlogin and rsh clients employ a session key after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. Thus, for maximum security, rlogin and rsh sessions should breathe re-initialized periodically. rlogin uses the -f, -F, and -x options in the identical style as the telnet client. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following rlogin options: forward, forwardable, and encrypt.

    Command-line options override configuration file settings. For example, if the rsh section in the krb5.conf file indicates encrypt false, but the -x option is used on the command line, an encrypted session is used.

    rcp

    Kerberized rcp can breathe used to transfer files securely between systems using Kerberos authentication and encryption (with the -x command-line option). It does not prompt for passwords, the user must already beget a valid TGT before using rcp if they wish to employ the encryption feature. However, beware if the -x option is not used and no local credentials are available, the rcp session will revert to the standard, non-Kerberized (and insecure) rcp behavior. It is highly recommended that users always employ the -x option when using the Kerberized rcp client.The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the encrypt [true/false] option.

    login

    The Kerberos login program (login.krb5) is forked from a successful authentication by the Kerberized telnet daemon or the Kerberized rlogin daemon. This Kerberos login daemon is separate from the standard Solaris OE login daemon and thus, the standard Solaris OE features such as BSM auditing are not yet supported when using this daemon. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the krb5_get_tickets [true/false] option. If this option is set to true, then the login program will generate a unusual Kerberos ticket (TGT) for the user upon proper authentication.

    ftp

    The Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) version of the ftp client uses the GSSAPI (RFC 2743) with Kerberos v5 as the default mechanism. This means that it uses Kerberos authentication and (optionally) encryption through the Kerberos v5 GSS mechanism. The only Kerberos-related command-line options are -f and -m. The -f option is the identical as described above for telnet (there is no requisite for a -F option). -m allows the user to specify an alternative GSS mechanism if so desired, the default is to employ the kerberos_v5 mechanism.

    The protection flat used for the data transfer can breathe set using the protect command at the ftp prompt. Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software ftp supports the following protection levels:

  • Clear unprotected, unencrypted transmission

  • Safe data is integrity protected using cryptographic checksums

  • Private data is transmitted with confidentiality and integrity using encryption

  • It is recommended that users set the protection flat to private for utter data transfers. The ftp client program does not support or reference the krb5.conf file to find any optional parameters. utter ftp client options are passed on the command line. observe the man page for the Kerberized ftp client, ftp(1).

    In summary, adding Kerberos to a network can increase the overall security available to the users and administrators of that network. Remote sessions can breathe securely authenticated and encrypted, and shared disks can breathe secured and encrypted across the network. In addition, Kerberos allows the database of user and service principals to breathe managed securely from any machine which supports the SEAM software Kerberos protocol. SEAM is interoperable with other RFC 1510 compliant Kerberos implementations such as MIT Krb5 and some MS Windows 2000 vigorous Directory services. Adopting the practices recommended in this section further secure the SEAM software infrastructure to wait on ensure a safer network environment.

    Implementing the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Software and the GSSAPI Mechanism

    This section provides a high-level overview, followed by the in-depth procedures that record the setup necessary to implement the GSSAPI mechanism and the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software. This implementation assumes a realm of EXAMPLE.COM for this purpose. The following list gives an initial high-level overview of the steps required, with the next section providing the particular information.

  • Setup DNS on the client machine. This is an captious step because Kerberos requires DNS.

  • Install and configure the Sun ONE Directory Server version 5.2 software.

  • Check that the directory server and client both beget the SASL plug-ins installed.

  • Install and configure Kerberos v5.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kdc.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file.

  • Move the kerberos_v5 line so it is the first line in the /etc/gss/mech file.

  • Create unusual principals using kadmin.local, which is an interactive commandline interface to the Kerberos v5 administration system.

  • Modify the rights for /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab. This access is necessary for the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

  • Run /usr/sbin/kinit.

  • Check that you beget a ticket with /usr/bin/klist.

  • Perform an ldapsearch, using the ldapsearch command-line tool from the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software to test and verify.

  • The sections that follow fill in the details.

    Configuring a DNS Client

    To breathe a DNS client, a machine must hasten the resolver. The resolver is neither a daemon nor a single program. It is a set of dynamic library routines used by applications that requisite to know machine names. The resolver’s office is to resolve users’ queries. To achieve that, it queries a cognomen server, which then returns either the requested information or a referral to another server. Once the resolver is configured, a machine can request DNS service from a cognomen server.

    The following example shows you how to configure the resolv.conf(4) file in the server kdc1 in the example.com domain.

    ; ; /etc/resolv.conf file for dnsmaster ; domain example.com nameserver 192.168.0.0 nameserver 192.168.0.1

    The first line of the /etc/resolv.conf file lists the domain cognomen in the form:

    domain domainname

    No spaces or tabs are permitted at the stop of the domain name. profile sure that you press return immediately after the eventual character of the domain name.

    The second line identifies the server itself in the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    Succeeding lines list the IP addresses of one or two slave or cache-only cognomen servers that the resolver should consult to resolve queries. cognomen server entries beget the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    IP_address is the IP address of a slave or cache-only DNS cognomen server. The resolver queries these cognomen servers in the order they are listed until it obtains the information it needs.

    For more particular information of what the resolv.conf file does, mention to the resolv.conf(4) man page.

    To Configure Kerberos v5 (Master KDC)

    In the this procedure, the following configuration parameters are used:

  • Realm cognomen = EXAMPLE.COM

  • DNS domain cognomen = example.com

  • Master KDC = kdc1.example.com

  • admin principal = lucy/admin

  • Online wait on URL = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956

  • This procedure requires that DNS is running.

    Before you begin this configuration process, profile a backup of the /etc/krb5 files.

  • Become superuser on the master KDC. (kdc1, in this example)

  • Edit the Kerberos configuration file (krb5.conf).

    You requisite to change the realm names and the names of the servers. observe the krb5.conf(4) man page for a plenary description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/krb5.conf [libdefaults] default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM [realms] EXAMPLE.COM = { kdc = kdc1.example.com admin server = kdc1.example.com } [domain_realm] .example.com = EXAMPLE.COM [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log [appdefaults] gkadmin = { help_url = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956 }

    In this example, the lines for domain_realm, kdc, admin_server, and utter domain_realm entries were changed. In addition, the line with ___slave_kdcs___ in the [realms] section was deleted and the line that defines the help_url was edited.

  • Edit the KDC configuration file (kdc.conf).

    You must change the realm name. observe the kdc.conf( 4) man page for a plenary description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/kdc.conf [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] EXAMPLE.COM= { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s requisite stirring ---------> default_principal_flags = +preauth }

    In this example, only the realm cognomen definition in the [realms] section is changed.

  • Create the KDC database by using the kdb5_util command.

    The kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin, creates the KDC database. When used with the -s option, this command creates a stash file that is used to authenticate the KDC to itself before the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons are started.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key cognomen 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will breathe prompted for the database Master Password. It is captious that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: key

    The -r option followed by the realm cognomen is not required if the realm cognomen is equivalent to the domain cognomen in the server’s cognomen space.

  • Edit the Kerberos access control list file (kadm5.acl).

    Once populated, the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file contains utter principal names that are allowed to administer the KDC. The first entry that is added might witness similar to the following:

    lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM *

    This entry gives the lucy/admin principal in the EXAMPLE.COM realm the capacity to modify principals or policies in the KDC. The default installation includes an asterisk (*) to match utter admin principals. This default could breathe a security risk, so it is more secure to comprise a list of utter of the admin principals. observe the kadm5.acl(4) man page for more information.

  • Edit the /etc/gss/mech file.

    The /etc/gss/mech file contains the GSSAPI based security mechanism names, its remonstrate identifier (OID), and a shared library that implements the services for that mechanism under the GSSAPI. Change the following from:

    # Mechanism cognomen remonstrate Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # diffie_hellman_640_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.4 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.5 dh1024-0.so.1 kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5

    To the following:

    # Mechanism cognomen remonstrate Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5 diffie_hellman_640_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.4 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.5 dh1024-0.so.1
  • Run the kadmin.local command to create principals.

    You can add as many admin principals as you need. But you must add at least one admin principal to complete the KDC configuration process. In the following example, lucy/admin is added as the principal.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin.local kadmin.local: addprinc lucy/admin Enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Re-enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin.local:
  • Create a keytab file for the kadmind service.

    The following command sequence creates a special keytab file with principal entries for lucy and tom. These principals are needed for the kadmind service. In addition, you can optionally add NFS service principals, host principals, LDAP principals, and so on.

    When the principal instance is a host name, the fully qualified domain cognomen (FQDN) must breathe entered in lowercase letters, regardless of the case of the domain cognomen in the /etc/resolv.conf file.

    kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab kadmin/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal kadmin/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption type DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab changepw/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal changepw/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption type DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local:

    Once you beget added utter of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin.local as follows:

    kadmin.local: quit
  • Start the Kerberos daemons as shown:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc start kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master start

    Note

    You stop the Kerberos daemons by running the following commands:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc stop kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master stop
  • Add principals by using the SEAM Administration Tool.

    To achieve this, you must log on with one of the admin principal names that you created earlier in this procedure. However, the following command-line example is shown for simplicity.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin -p lucy/admin Enter password: kws_admin_password kadmin:
  • Create the master KDC host principal which is used by Kerberized applications such as klist and kprop.

    kadmin: addprinc -randkey host/kdc1.example.com Principal "host/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • (Optional) Create the master KDC root principal which is used for authenticated NFS mounting.

    kadmin: addprinc root/kdc1.example.com Enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Re-enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Principal "root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • Add the master KDC’s host principal to the master KDC’s keytab file which allows this principal to breathe used automatically.

    kadmin: ktadd host/kdc1.example.com kadmin: Entry for principal host/kdc1.example.com with ->kvno 3, encryption type DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab ->WRFILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab kadmin:

    Once you beget added utter of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin as follows:

    kadmin: quit
  • Run the kinit command to obtain and cache an initial ticket-granting ticket (credential) for the principal.

    This ticket is used for authentication by the Kerberos v5 system. kinit only needs to breathe hasten by the client at this time. If the Sun ONE directory server were a Kerberos client also, this step would requisite to breathe done for the server. However, you may want to employ this to verify that Kerberos is up and running.

    kdclient # /usr/bin/kinit root/kdclient.example.com Password for root/kdclient.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: passwd
  • Check and verify that you beget a ticket with the klist command.

    The klist command reports if there is a keytab file and displays the principals. If the results argue that there is no keytab file or that there is no NFS service principal, you requisite to verify the completion of utter of the previous steps.

    # klist -k Keytab name: FILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab KVNO Principal ---- ------------------------------------------------------------------ 3 nfs/host.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

    The example given here assumes a single domain. The KDC may reside on the identical machine as the Sun ONE directory server for testing purposes, but there are security considerations to assume into account on where the KDCs reside.

  • With regards to the configuration of Kerberos v5 in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software, you are finished with the Kerberos v5 part. It’s now time to witness at what is required to breathe configured on the Sun ONE directory server side.

    Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 GSSAPI Configuration

    As previously discussed, the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI), is standard interface that enables you to employ a security mechanism such as Kerberos v5 to authenticate clients. The server uses the GSSAPI to actually validate the identity of a particular user. Once this user is validated, it’s up to the SASL mechanism to apply the GSSAPI mapping rules to obtain a DN that is the bind DN for utter operations during the connection.

    The first particular discussed is the unusual identity mapping functionality.

    The identity mapping service is required to map the credentials of another protocol, such as SASL DIGEST-MD5 and GSSAPI to a DN in the directory server. As you will observe in the following example, the identity mapping feature uses the entries in the cn=identity mapping, cn=config configuration branch, whereby each protocol is defined and whereby each protocol must discharge the identity mapping. For more information on the identity mapping feature, mention to the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Documents.

    To discharge the GSSAPI Configuration for the Sun ONE Directory Server Software
  • Check and verify, by retrieving the rootDSE entry, that the GSSAPI is returned as one of the supported SASL Mechanisms.

    Example of using ldapsearch to retrieve the rootDSE and find the supported SASL mechanisms:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -b "" -s foundation "(objectclass=*)" supportedSASLMechanisms supportedSASLMechanisms=EXTERNAL supportedSASLMechanisms=GSSAPI supportedSASLMechanisms=DIGEST-MD5
  • Verify that the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    By default, the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    Example of using ldapsearch to verify that the GSSAPI SASL mechanism is enabled:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D"cn=Directory Manager" -w password -b "cn=SASL, cn=security,cn= config" "(objectclass=*)" # # Should return # cn=SASL, cn=security, cn=config objectClass=top objectClass=nsContainer objectClass=dsSaslConfig cn=SASL dsSaslPluginsPath=/var/Sun/mps/lib/sasl dsSaslPluginsEnable=DIGEST-MD5 dsSaslPluginsEnable=GSSAPI
  • Create and add the GSSAPI identity-mapping.ldif.

    Add the LDIF shown below to the Sun ONE Directory Server so that it contains the redress suffix for your directory server.

    You requisite to achieve this because by default, no GSSAPI mappings are defined in the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

    Example of a GSSAPI identity mapping LDIF file:

    # dn: cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: GSSAPI dn: cn=default,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: default dsMappedDN: uid=${Principal},ou=people,dc=example,dc=com dn: cn=same_realm,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: dsPatternMatching objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: same_realm dsMatching-pattern: ${Principal} dsMatching-regexp: (.*)@example.com dsMappedDN: uid=$1,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com

    It is captious to profile employ of the ${Principal} variable, because it is the only input you beget from SASL in the case of GSSAPI. Either you requisite to build a dn using the ${Principal} variable or you requisite to discharge pattern matching to observe if you can apply a particular mapping. A principal corresponds to the identity of a user in Kerberos.

    You can find an example GSSAPI LDIF mappings files in ServerRoot/slapdserver/ldif/identityMapping_Examples.ldif.

    The following is an example using ldapmodify to achieve this:

    $./ldapmodify -a -c -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w password -f identity-mapping.ldif -e /var/tmp/ldif.rejects 2> /var/tmp/ldapmodify.log
  • Perform a test using ldapsearch.

    To discharge this test, type the following ldapsearch command as shown below, and retort the prompt with the kinit value you previously defined.

    Example of using ldapsearch to test the GSSAPI mechanism:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -o mech=GSSAPI -o authzid="root/hostname.domainname@EXAMPLE.COM" -b "" -s foundation "(objectclass=*)"

    The output that is returned should breathe the identical as without the -o option.

    If you achieve not employ the -h hostname option, the GSS code ends up looking for a localhost.domainname Kerberos ticket, and an error occurs.



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