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000-634 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - share 2

Test Code : 000-634
Test title : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - share 2
Vendor title : IBM
: 72 actual Questions

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IBM IBM object Oriented Analysis

report: IBM Outpaces competitors in application progress application marketplace for Seventh Straight year | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

supply: IBM

June 13, 2008 08:00 ET

ARMONK, new york--(Marketwire - June 13, 2008) - IBM (NYSE: IBM) nowadays introduced that analyst firm Gartner, Inc.* and market research firm Evans information Corp. believe ranked IBM because the leader in the application edifice utility market. These rankings near simply as IBM is projecting greater than 12,000 individuals will attend its 2008 IBM Rational software edifice Conferences in 13 nations around the world.

Gartner named IBM the worldwide market share chief in application progress in keeping with complete application salary in 2007 and Evans data Corp. survey respondents who believe been clients of IBM Rational utility Developer ranked it the no 1 built-in Developer atmosphere (IDE) for person pride. this is the seventh consecutive 12 months that Gartner has ranked IBM the leader and 2nd consecutive yr that IBM Rational software Developer changed into selected as the Developer's choice accurate IDE through the 1,200 developers global taking share in the survey.

according to the independent Gartner file, IBM is the main market share supplier in complete software revenue, with 37.8 percent market share -- better market share than its three closest opponents mixed. The global utility edifice software market grew greater than 10% percent in 2007 to nearly $6.9 billion, in line with Gartner.

IBM turned into too cited for its ordinary leadership based on complete utility salary for 2007 across software progress market sub-classes, including SCCM dispensed, object Oriented analysis & Design and Java Platform ad device. Telelogic, these days got via IBM, had a 2007 marketshare of 40.6 % in the necessities Elicitation and administration class in keeping with total utility earnings.

"With the upward thrust of globally disbursed utility progress groups, consumers are trying to find skilled vendors to assist them collaborate in an open and transparent method," pointed out Dr. Daniel Sabbah, time-honored manager, IBM Rational software. "We believe the robust response from the Evans records and Gartner stories coincides with the feedback they now believe obtained from customers about IBM's approach round helpful application birth."

IBM Kicks off the realm's Most Attended Developer conference sequence

This marketshare tidings coincides with IBM's announcement that over 12,000 members are anticipated to attend the 15 IBM Rational software progress Conferences planned worldwide. Following the event held final week in Orlando, FL, IBM will steal the divulge on the street to 17 cities together with Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt; San Paulo, Brazil; Bangalore, India; Shanghai, China; Rome and Milan, Italy.

For convention attendees the usage of an iPhone, IBM is releasing a conference scheduler written in enterprise technology Language (EGL) to allow iPhone users to dynamically adventure the IBM Rational software edifice convention via an interface that they Think comfy with. the Use of web 2.0 and social engineering ideas, clients can provide comments on and chat about sessions, navigate the conference searching for tracks and hobbies, and Use creative know-how that suggests which talks the person may still attend next in line with preferences.

at the annual IBM Rational application progress conference in Orlando, Florida, greater than three,500 attendees realized about new application and programs that aid shoppers transform how they're start software on a worldwide scale. The announcement of latest products, features and industry companion initiatives are designed to radically change how IBM Rational application can aid customers power stronger cost and efficiency from their globally dispensed utility investments.

valued clientele unable to attend the convention in the community can view the keynote presentations on IBM tv.

IBM helps builders continue to be competitive in modern day speedy-paced construction ambiance. inventive courses comparable to IBM developerWorks, the premier technical useful resource for utility developers, and IBM alphaWorks, IBM's rising technologies outlet, deliver an internet group for the developers of nowadays and the following day. builders who are independent utility vendors can steal handicap of revenue and advertising equipment, ability-building lessons and technical assist by using joining the global IBM PartnerWorld program. IBM's tutorial Initiative and IBM Rational software edifice convention are examples of the ongoing discovering and group-constructing courses obligatory by means of students, educators and developers global.

For more assistance, consult with http://www.ibm.com/software/rational.

*"Market Share: application construction utility, international, 2007" through Laurie Wurster, Teresa Jones and Asheesh Raina, may 2008.


12 months in assessment: 5 themes that epitomized Java in 2018 | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

in case you necessity to forecast the future of Java, it helps to understand the location they had been with Java in 2018. this is an issue they explored at TheServerSide total 12 months to fulfill readers' curiosity about how Java fits with different programming languages, no matter if they could age effectively within the expertise profession, if Java nonetheless matters in an more and more Agile and DevOps landscape, and what the IBM-red Hat merger capability for the future of Java programming. These were one of the most most well liked themes for Java in 2018.

How a combined IBM and crimson Hat influences commercial enterprise Java

IBM's $34 billion greenback acquisition of purple Hat introduced two of commercial enterprise Java's precept forces collectively. In 2018, Oracle relinquished its handle of Java EE and the Java group procedure to the Eclipse foundation. each IBM and purple Hat played key roles within the creation of Jakarta EE, and each had a spot on its steerage Committee.

The incontrovertible fact that two of the six strategic businesses on the guidance Committee believe merged raised some considerations. Critics believe long taken Oracle to task for the hegemonic course of Java EE. With two of industry Java's leading forces now merged, IBM-pink Hat can believe considerable tow over the way forward for Java programming.

or not it's doubtful whether IBM and crimson Hat will direct the future of Java as Oracle once did. more than seemingly, the IBM-crimson Hat merger will speed up industry Java's evolution into cloud-native and microservices so it may compete with environments such as JavaScript and Go.

should they nonetheless train Java in 2018 as a primary programming language?

a few decade ago, Java become nevertheless the go-to programming language in introductory computer science courses. Java in 2018, although, can not brag that difference. Many departments believe flipped to Python or C++ as their introductory language of choice.

It makes some sense that Java is no longer the first programming language college students be taught. Java is a verbose, compiled language with a bunch of different Java progress Kits to resolve upon and resolve from. For programmers just starting out, it may too be less difficult to reduce your tooth on a simpler, object-oriented programming language and even an open supply scripting language.

Does this spell the conclusion of Java? Of route now not. Java still boasts an magnificent ecosystem of tackle and a strong aid group. Java might too not be the primary programming language college students gain learning of beyond 2018, but there's a obliging possibility they'll Use it each day in their first job.

Is programming a profession to develop historical in?

Code, as contributor Bob Reselman explains, is an adolescent's video game. younger programmers can tow the all-nighters and work the startup scene. it truly is why many skilled programmers finally do the exodus to management roles. but this is no longer the direction that each programmer wants to stroll. Some programmers wish to proceed to create code and resolve problems.

Reselman asked technologists Charles Petzold, Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols, Dave McCarter and Derek Zott why they selected the course closer to the code than to the C-suite. total create fingers-on coding a achievable profession, but some discovered that management positions carry out not supply the freedom or creativity that lured them into the know-how industry.

subsequently, there may be one more path programmers can steal in the event that they eschew the bill Gates path to CEO glory. they could steal the equally challenging and beneficial path of the wizened technologist -- dote Steve Wozniak, Martin Fowler and Grady Booch.

a way to become a pretty obliging software architect in 13 steps

The role of the utility architect comprises more than just progress and design. whereas not every architect should declare the mantle of plenary stack developer, she or he should still possess potential and journey in know-how, as smartly because the soft potential to be a superb chief and communicator.

contemporary software architects deserve to design the equipment, architecture and strategies that the construction group will use. utility architects are chargeable for constructing a assignment's coding specifications.

they may too should act as mediators between the industry and construction teams. This skill architects necessity to recognize progress -- in addition to developers and industry goals -- and company leaders. Contributor note Spritzler shares 13 steps which you could steal to develop into a a hit application architect.

a way to integrate DevOps practices with a dojo

Some businesses feel a DevOps transformation is as effortless as adopting a yoke of new tools and handing them off to their builders. Verizon discovered a separate means of doing things. It appealed to developer satisfaction and keenness in location of assigning a preordained agenda. this is the dojo formula -- an occasion for hands-on apply without the pressures of the ordinary software start cycle.

The precise DevOps challenge isn't establishing a toolchain. companies the measurement of Verizon believe chummy ample toolchains. but Verizon is additionally so mammoth that getting 20,000 developers on the identical web page is essentially impossible.

it's these collaborative DevOps handicap -- a way to determine the kinks in a greater Agile workflow -- so that it will free up the capacity to carry pleasant software sooner. The a technique to net first rate at it is to follow in an immersive learning atmosphere.


What Apple, Inc. gets from its new iOS partnership with IBM | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

 

Editorial

Apple's newly introduced cell partnership with IBM has been greeted with the aid of a yoke of analysts and pundits as being each "no longer that massive a deal," or conversely, the theatrical reversal of an extended standing contention. each are wrong, here's why. No vast deal?

Piper Jaffray analyst Gene Munster offered one of the vital least enthusiastic views on the announcement, noting that Apple already has huge commercial enterprise penetration whereas postulating that even "if half of the Fortune 500 believe been to each purchase an incremental 2,000 iPhones and 1,000 iPads above what they had been planning to buy because of the IBM deal, it might suggest about a half a % to CY15 income."

Munster too offered a extensive interpretation of the "exclusive partnership" the two corporations special, writing, "we forecast IBM to finally present identical solutions on Android over time."

"Robert X. Cringely" in a similar mode offered a dim view of IBM's enterprise apps and flatly anticipated that "iOS cloud functions from IBM won't occur," concluding that "neither industry may be significantly littered with the different. it's simply not that large a deal."

IBM's existing cellular enterprise apps and cloud functions certainly carry out not seem capable of dramatically boosting Apple's iOS income on their own. however this is not what the groups announced. as an alternative, both described "exclusive" plans to work collectively to "transform commercial enterprise mobility via a brand new type of industry apps."

As stated in more advantageous component under, the language each businesses Use in describing their partnership shows that it isn't simply an application to promote just a few groups a further thousand iPads. Apple and IBM believe massive desires in intellect.

Apple and IBM believe loads of history as nigh allies

at the selfsame time, Apple and IBM don't seem to be suddenly working collectively for the primary time. We're a extremely long methods from 1982, when IBM entered the new microcomputer market that Apple had ignited with the Apple II. Apple at the start "welcomed" IBM to the computing device market (under), as a lots higher competitor.

It subsequently portrayed large Blue as a 1984 huge Brother in 1984 with its iconic customary ad for the Macintosh. It then insulted IBM and its purchasers much more explicitly in "Lemmings," a 2d and even more provocative SuperBowl ad that portrayed blindfolded notebook clients marching themselves off a cliff.

by way of the late 80s, IBM had lost handle of the laptop to Microsoft by itself, and failed to win it back with its proprietary design for new PS/2 programs. while IBM bought notebooks and tablets that competed in opposition t Apple's PowerBooks and Newton MessagePads in the 1990s, throughout that decade Apple and IBM definitely aligned to work collectively in several essential projects.

The purpose Alliance between Apple, IBM and Motorola scaled down IBM's vigor RISC server chipset into the PowerPC processor that became used in Macs starting in 1994 and carrying on with into 2006.

Apple additionally collaborated with IBM to strengthen "Macintosh utility services" to host PowerPC Mac software on IBM's AIX Unix workstations, and in parallel shipped IBM's AIX by itself high discontinuance Apple network Server in 1996.

In parallel with PowerPC, the Taligent mission teamed Apple's future plans for "red," a brand new OS meant to change device 7, with IBM's parallel efforts for office OS. It meant to strengthen a new OS microkernel able to supporting Macs, OS/2 and Unix, and developed object oriented frameworks pattered after Steve Jobs' next. Taligent basically aimed to copy subsequent and steal away Jobs' early supporters (together with IBM, and later HP).

After the Taligent partnership collapsed, Apple determined to acquire subsequent as the foundation for its advanced new Mac OS X instead.

Kaleida Labs changed into a third extravagant profile partnership between Apple in IBM in the early Nineties, geared toward creating a proceed platform, scriptable multimedia progress platform. The collaboration readily raided Apple's QuickTime crew of skill and spent tens of hundreds of thousands of greenbacks before collapsing in failure in 1996. Its position changed into supplanted by using Macromedia Director, and then with the aid of the net, peculiarly via plugins dote Java and Flash.

Apple & IBM partnerships in the 2000s

Apple's acquisition of Jobs' subsequent in 1996 further helped to align the industry with IBM as a co-competitor to Microsoft and an ally to Unix and open source utility. In 2005 IBM offered its computing device company to Lenovo. It more and more threw its sheperd at the back of Linux, and in 2007 created a fork of OpenOffice that it bought as a Microsoft office competitor named IBM Lotus Symphony.

In 2007, IBM's research counsel functions performed a resolve that provided personnel with MacBook pros in location of windows machines. worker remarks famous comments together with, "this can free us from the windows stranglehold," and "I actually believe been a upright notebook stalwart for 2+ decades, but after making an attempt Vista, i am ready for a transformation."

The next yr, IBM ported its Informix records Server to OS X Server and introduced plans to deliver Lotus Notes (IBM's competitor to Microsoft's trade) and the Symphony workplace app suite to Apple's Mac and iOS structures.

IBM now has a portfolio of dozens of commercial enterprise apps for iOS, and turned into basically some of the first App save developers to embody the platform in 2008 earlier than Apple had even launched its iPhone SDK and App store.

IBM goals large information on the vast platform

The large tidings of the brand new partnership between Apple and IBM for this reason is neither that they are now working together for the first time, nor that IBM offers some apps for iOS devices. What's new is the clearly emphasised exclusivity of the connection, and the longer term path for brand spanking new iOS apps, management tackle and cloud functions.

IBM already provides Android cell sheperd roughly on par with iPhone, and Android pill sheperd that is nearly the equal as its iPad's. It too presents support for BlackBerry, PlayBook, BB10, home windows telephone, windows RT and even Symbian. IBM's new apps will completely target iOS however.

That makes sense as a result of IBM may be selling and leasing iOS contraptions, but additionally as a result of IBM can now hub of attention on constructing indigenous apps for the single platform it really is already being broadly used within the business, with out spending lots of substances testing and maintaining wait on for a huge array of OS models and APIs and a bewildering latitude of hardware devices.

In parallel with the edifice of Apple's iOS platform over the ultimate seven years, IBM has moved away from promoting workplace apps (forsaking its OpenOffice / Symphony suite) to as an alternative hub of attention on presenting managed cloud infrastructure, consulting and management functions, as well as "large statistics" analysis.

IBM's SmartCloud hosts public cloud functions for valued clientele (akin to Amazon web capabilities) and too offers inner most cloud features, the location IBM sells the customer servers they then own and operate. tackle can then again be leased from and/or managed onsite by means of IBM.

The partnership certainly outlined, "IBM's massive statistics and analytics capabilities, with the energy of greater than one hundred,000 IBM industry and domain consultants and utility developers in the back of it," should be used to "create apps that can seriously change particular points of how companies and employees work the usage of iPhone and iPad."

One style of IBM's huge statistics analytics has seemed over the closing two fracture shopping seasons. In 2012, the IBM Digital Analytics Benchmark highlighted (beneath) that almost total searching become being accomplished on iOS contraptions--even before the media became manipulated to document that Apple had dash out of "innovation" and that Android and Samsung had been "taking up" mobile contraptions.

here year, IBM's analytics published that the divide had grown even improved, with Apple's iOS clients now accounting for five times the orders of Android users. The media's handwringing about Apple total the way through in 2013 had temporality affected the business's inventory price, but wasn't affecting the outcomes that depend in the tackle market.

The potential to as it should be determine those kinds of trends--devoid of the data being contaminated by using want of learning or wishful considering--is critically essential to enterprise users. That explains why the partnership's announcement described new apps powered with the aid of such analytics as "permitting agencies to obtain new levels of efficiency, effectiveness and client satisfaction."

As Apple stated, IBM has "dependent the world's deepest portfolio in huge information and Analytics consulting and technology handicap in keeping with experiences drawn from more than forty,000 statistics and analytics customer engagements. This analytics portfolio spans research and construction, options, application and hardware, and includes more than 15,000 analytics consultants, four,000 analytics patents, 6,000 trade solution industry partners, and four hundred IBM mathematicians who are assisting valued clientele Use massive statistics to radically change their companies."

iWork business

Apple has its own iWork apps for small industry and schooling users, it recently gained Microsoft's workplace cell apps (at present completely) on iPad, and is now working with IBM to boost "a brand new classification of 'made-for-company apps' targeting selected industry issues or opportunities in retail, healthcare, banking, commute and transportation, telecommunications and insurance, among others, that will become accessible genesis this autumn and into 2015."

instead of simply being some new App shop titles listed with the aid of IBM, the organizations believe outlined that IBM might be selling Apple's iOS as a share of its own MobileFirst platform, with a purpose to "deliver the capabilities required for an end-to-conclusion enterprise ability, from analytics, workflow and cloud storage, to fleet-scale machine administration, protection and integration."

additionally, "improved cellular management includes a personal app catalog, records and transaction security capabilities, and productivity suite for total IBM MobileFirst for iOS solutions. apart from on-premise application solutions, total these services might be purchasable on Bluemix--IBM's construction platform on the IBM Cloud market."IBM is presenting total of the things Apple has never been very decent at or shown a whole lot hobby in doing itself

That capability IBM is featuring total the issues Apple has never been very decent at or proven a whole lot hobby in doing itself, from selling consultation and assist services, to constructing and protecting server infrastructure and customized apps for valued clientele. That contains improving AppleCare for enterprise users with "on-web page provider delivered via IBM."

IBM is additionally presenting "equipment provide, activation and management services for iPhone and iPad, with leasing options." these once more are the styles of capabilities that HP and Dell were historically an impecunious lot greater than Apple at providing for the notebook business.

With BYOD, Apple acquired its foot within the door and iOS instruments grew to become generally adopted with the aid of enterprise and government clients. Partnering with IBM, Apple can work on turning its cell instruments into an enterprise quantity play.

Apple, IBM are considering massive

thus far, the market seems to believe considered Apple and IBM as an evident threat to BlackBerry, which actually does believe a whole lot left to lose: seventy two million subscribers as of the first quarter of 2014. iPhones believe taken a painful chew out of BlackBerry's industry revenue, but iPads goal something distinctive: general PCs.

This makes Munster's estimates of Apple potentially selling best an further '2,000 iPhones and 1,000 iPads' to half of the Fortune 500 by way of some new IBM apps primarily difficult. Apple reasonably obviously plans to aggressively target enterprise pc earnings--a considerable market--with its attach up-laptop cell devices. Tim cook dinner addresses the iPad's commonly stated talents to eclipse computing device earnings at each probability.

"We proceed to trust that the pill market will surpass the laptop market in size in the following yoke of years and they accept as upright with that Apple may be a major beneficiary of this fashion," cook pointed out in the enterprise's April profits call."We proceed to accept as upright with that the tablet market will surpass the pc market in measurement within the following few years and they deem that Apple will be an incredible beneficiary of this vogue " - Tim prepare dinner

Apple already has no rigor promoting fleets of tens of heaps of iPhones and iPads to corporate, govt and training buyers. it could handiest want IBM's aid to goal the customary pc for mass eradication total over the commercial enterprise, pushed using innovative, exclusive indigenous apps able to radically changing how companies Use expertise. Apple's description of IBM makes it very pellucid it really is exactly what both groups design to achieve.

On its new iPad industry web page, the enterprise states "Apple and IBM are working together to carry iPhone, iPad, and IBM MobileFirst for iOS apps to firms everywhere. Their unique international partnership will deliver a new class of apps that link users to large records and analytics arrogate on their iOS gadgets with more ease and effectivity than ever earlier than. Apple and IBM are redefining the cell enterprise by way of combining the exponential energy of corporate facts with the realm's optimum mobile expertise."

In its common press unencumber Apple cited, "IBM's 5,000 cell specialists were at the forefront of mobile commercial enterprise innovation. IBM has secured more than four,300 patents in cell, social and security, that believe been integrated into IBM MobileFirst solutions that allow enterprise consumers to radically streamline and speed up mobile adoption, support groups interact extra americans and capture new markets."

moreover, "IBM has made a dozen acquisitions in safety during the past decade, has greater than 6,000 safety researchers and developers in its 25 safety labs global that work on setting up business-type options."

Apple's personal strategy in acquisitions (in addition to in patents) has frequently focused the quick implementation of differentiating elements and technologies (reminiscent of touch identification, the customized silicon in the A7 chip, and features ranging from Siri to pan consciousness to iTunes Radio to App preserve enhancements).

through partnering with IBM, Apple can leverage outside capabilities in security, social and cell deployment devoid of distracting itself from its core competency in constructing hardware, utility and structures.

And now, a warning

on reflection, the historic partnerships between Apple and IBM didn't believe a mighty song checklist. Taligent and Kaleida believe been total failures, whereas PowerPC did not sustain with the pace of the improved market. IBM Lotus Notes and Symphony didn't exactly transform the industry on any platform.

but cutting-edge Apple and IBM share itsy-bitsy in standard with their weak incarnations within the Nineties. Apple is now no longer most effectual very successful and ecocnomic, but has a digital lock on cellular commercial enterprise items, and in selected instruments with a sophisticated indigenous app edifice platform (as adverse to BlackBerry's messaging-centric platform built as a simple Java VM).

where Microsoft once dominated the industry and partnered with a sequence of companies that shut Apple out, it's now frantically making an attempt to retain the reputation quo for home windows (whilst its valued clientele reject Microsoft's existing direction) as it flip flops between strategic instructions in other markets.

From closing 12 months's "contraptions and services" plan, which in particular didn't sell contraptions, to its newest nebulous cloud strategy that failed to actually articulate a selected strategy at all, Microsoft is at present presiding over a stagnant market for favorite PCs that practically each market analysis enterprise sees as being overtaken by way of drugs, and especially Apple's iPad.

That fact highlights one more reality: when you deem that the iPad's debut in 2010, marketing organizations believe deliberately framed it as a spot gadget with out a workable affect on notebook market, the Use of chosen statistics teased into conclusions that continuously flattered Microsoft inspite of the statistics concerned.

With an mammoth ally in IBM helping to promote its items, Apple will workable pan much less brazenly deceptive media insurance denying the now pellucid and obvious shift occurring as prevalent PCs are changed and augmented via greater mobile--and much easier to manage--post workstation devices.


000-634 object Oriented Analysis and Design - share 2

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000-634 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - share 2

Test Code : 000-634
Test title : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - share 2
Vendor title : IBM
: 72 actual Questions

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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - share 2

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Object-Oriented Analysis & Design | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

Object-Oriented Analysis & DesignJune 2, 3, 9, 10Worcester State CollegeTaught by Jan Bergandy, Computer Science, UMass, Dartmouth

Seminar Objectives:

  • To develop an in-depth understanding of object-oriented paradigm
  • To obtain a working learning of object-oriented analysis & design techniques
  • To learn object-oriented modeling using Unified Modeling Language (UML)
  • To learn about basic design patterns and the role of patterns is software development
  • To understand the repercussion of object paradigm on software progress activities
  • To explore synergy between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming
  • To learn about key object technologies
  • Who should attend:This workshop is addressed to faculty involved in teaching programming, software design, and other courses related to software development. It is addressed to those who pan a transition to object technology and want to learn about challenges and benefits of this transition. The workshop does not require any prior learning of object-oriented programming or learning of object paradigm. general computer fluency and general learning of issues associated with software and software progress are expected.

    Seminar Organization:The course will be conducted as a project with instructor giving short presentations pertaining to a specific stage of the analysis and design process. During this course the participants will construct an analysis model for a selected problem. This model will be refined in to the particular design flush providing an occasion for discussion about the relationship between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming. Each student will receive a copy of the course materials and the textbook.

    Tools & Platforms:Rational-Rose CASE toolThe CASE tool is used exclusively to expedite the process of model construction. The students spend no more than half an hour of their time during the entire class on learning how to Use the tool. Not using the CASE toll will do it almost impossible to sustain hands-on total the elements of the object-oriented analysis and design process.

    Textbooks:M. Fowler, ÒUML DistilledÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-32563-2 (additional/optional )

    E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, J. Vlissides, ÒDesign PatternÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-63361-2

    Outline:

    June 2, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00Topics to be addressed:Object paradigm top-down - analysis & design perspectiveObject paradigm bottom-up - programming perspectiveBasic concepts: abstraction, encapsulation, information hiding, modularityResponsibility view of the requirementsClasses and objects emerging from responsibilitiesComparison of procedural and object-oriented paradigmsClasses and relationships as the edifice blocks of software architectureCriteria of class qualityIntroduction to Unified Modeling Language (UML)Static & dynamic modelActors and Use casesTransitioning from functional requirements to objects - introduction

    Project:Analysis of the requirements for the selected projectIdentifying actors and Use casesConstructing Use case diagrams

    June 3, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to be addressed:Transitioning from functional requirements to objectsIdentifying the first group of classesClass specificationClass as an encapsulation of a responsibilityClass, Utility Class, Parameterized Class and its instantiationClass diagram - introductionIdentifying relationships between classesAssociation relationshipsAssociation classesRepresenting relationships with cardinalityAggregation versus compositionRepresenting aggregation and composition relationshipsRepresenting generalization/ specialization (inheritance)PolymorphismAbstract classes and interfacesSpecification of relationshipsImplementing classes & relationships (bottom-up view of relationships)Class diagram

    Project:Identifying first group of classes based on responsibilitiesPreliminary class diagramIdentifying relationships between classesDefining cardinalitiesClass diagram

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00 (part I)Topics to be addressed:Static versus dynamic modelIdentifying scenarios through refinement of Use casesModeling scenarios using object-interaction and sequence diagrams

    Project:Refining Use casesDeveloping and modeling scenariosIdentifying methodsRefining class specifications

    June 10, 2001 (part II)Topics to be addressed:Events, states and actionsState diagramCriteria for using state diagramsConcurrency, lively objectsMutual exclusion problemSequential, guarded, and synchronous objectsModeling concurrencyConcurrent state diagramsActivity diagrams

    Project:Evaluating classes for the necessity of state diagramsConstructing state diagrams for selected classes(Constructing activity diagrams)Refining class specifications

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to be addressed:Introduction to design patterns: Creational patterns, Abstract Factory, Builder, Prototype, Singleton, Virtual Constructor

    Structural Patterns: Adapter, Bridge, Composite, Decorator, Façade, Proxy

    Behavioral Patterns: Chain of Responsibility, Command, Iterator, Mediator, Memento

    Other significant topics to be covered in this course:What to expect from an object-oriented languageDynamic nature of object-oriented systems and the issues of garbage collectionEffective Use of inheritance and polymorphism and their repercussion on software qualitySingle versus multiple inheritancePolymorphism versus genericsClass design and data normalization (attribute dependence issues)


    Object-Oriented Analysis And Design — Conceptual Model (Part 2) | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Conceptual Model

    Once we’ve some Use cases or user stories, the next thing they can carry out is create a conceptual model of their system. It simply means you’re identifying the most significant objects.

    You shouldn’t be worried about software object birthright now, but more generically what are the things in the application that they necessity to be alert of.

    Things dote product, item, shopping cart, order, invoice, paycheck, spaceship, asteroid, level, that’s what we’re identifying here. Some of them will become actual classes and software object, but not total of them.

    The Process

    So, we’re going to identify those objects, start to refine them, and then draw them in a simple diagram. And they can too note the relationship and interactions between them.

    An Advice

    Creating a simple conceptual model for most applications is not and should not be a long process. A few hours spent on this is usually more than enough.

    Don’t worry about perfection. First time through it will be incomplete, and that’s absolutely daily to miss out even significant objects, things that you will determine later on during programming.

    1. Identifying Objects

    What they carry out is to start collecting their Use cases, user stories, and any other written requirements together.

    Now, they are going to identify the most significant parts of their software; the most significant things, or objects.

    Objects will be in contour of nouns. Those are the candidate objects, some of them will be actual objects in the system, and the leisure won’t, as you’ll survey later.

    Identifying objects

    You are just identifying the objects, you don’t resolve or arbiter them. They too don’t worry about missing one, at the first spin, you may miss some objects, which is normal.

    2. Refining Objects

    After underlying on your candidate objects, you start refining them, you start choosing your actual objects that will be in the system. So, to carry out that, …

    Refining objects
  • Remove any duplicates. They may find selfsame objects with different names, but they actually be substantive the selfsame thing.
  • You may necessity to combine some objects, or, even splitting them into some other objects.
  • You may identify an credit as an object instead.
  • You may identify a behavior as an object instead.
  • An credit is a property or characteristic of the object. For example, when they yell “A car is red”, red here is a property for the car, which is the actual object.

    A behavior is something an object can carry out (responsibility). For example, when they say, “A bird can fly”, wing here is a behavior, while the bird is the actual object.

    You don’t believe to consume a lot of time refining your objects, don’t determine for perfection, it’s daily to encounter some mistakes, or miss up some objects that will be figured out through the process.

    3. Drawing Objects

    What you necessity to carry out now is using your pencil and paper, just draw the conceptual model by box total objects.

    There are some tools you may use, but for now, a pencil, and piece of paper are more than enough.

    Conceptual model 3. Identifying object Relationships

    You start attest the relationships between your objects.

    It’s very obvious that these objects will interact with each other. For example, a customer can location an order, a student can enroll in a course, an admin can update a post, and so on.

    Drawing a line between objects, and writing the relationship verbs is enough to denote there is a relationship.

    Define object relationships 4. Identifying object Behaviors

    Behaviors are the things (verbs) the object can do, or, in other words, the responsibilities of an object, that will become the methods in their object class.

    So, they can proceed back to the Use case or a user story, and determine for verbs and verb phrases to pick responsibilities.

    Identifying object behaviors (responsibilities)

    Things dote verifies items, provides payment and address, process sale, validate payment, substantiate order, provide order number, check order status, and transmit order details email.

    Now, not total of these will become behaviors, some will be combined, some will necessity to be split apart, and some will just not be needed or be replaced by something else, but they are a obliging starting point.

    Assigning responsibilities Whose Responsibility Is This?

    What isn’t always obvious is where these responsibilities belong, particularly if they affect different objects. It’s because the Use case describes what initiates a behavior, not necessarily who’s responsible to effect that behavior.

    So, even though it’s the customer who wants to know the status of the order, it’s the responsibility of the order to check it’s status. The customer should request the order object to report it’s own status.

    When you request whose responsibility is this? Always remember that an object should be responsible for itself.

    The Generic Verbs

    We can change the generic verb provide to set and net instead to do it pellucid for what they are trying to do.

    The “System” Object

    Now, here’s another issue that often comes up. It’s common to survey phrases dote “system” validates payment or “system”will transmit the customer an email at Use cases, and that can lead to people creating a system object and putting a huge amount of responsibilities in it.

    These phrases really be substantive that some share of this system validates payment, some share of this system will transmit an email, and it’s their job to figure out what share of the system should be responsible for that behavior.

    The God Object

    If you believe an object that has a lot of responsibilities, chances are, you are doing it wrong.

    You may necessity to re-think about the responsibility of each object, and deal the responsibilities among the objects. remember that an object should be responsible for itself as much as possible.

    Class Responsibility Collaborator (CRC) Cards

    Class Responsibility Collaborator (CRC) is another technique for organizing the objects.


    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, share 2 | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This article brought to you by LWN subscribers

    Subscribers to LWN.net made this article — and everything that surrounds it — possible. If you treasure their content, gratify buy a subscription and do the next set of articles possible.

    June 7, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    In the first share of this analysis they looked at how the polymorphic side of object-oriented programming was implemented in the Linux kernel using regular C constructs. In particular they examined fashion dispatch, looked at the different forms that vtables could take, and the circumstances where separate vtables were eschewed in preference for storing function pointers directly in objects. In this conclusion they will explore a second significant aspect of object-oriented programming - inheritance, and in particular data inheritance.

    Data inheritance

    Inheritance is a core concept of object-oriented programming, though it comes in many forms, whether prototype inheritance, mixin inheritance, subtype inheritance, interface inheritance etc., some of which overlap. The contour that is of interest when exploring the Linux kernel is most dote subtype inheritance, where a concrete or "final" type inherits some data fields from a "virtual" parent type. They will summon this "data inheritance" to emphasize the fact that it is the data rather than the behavior that is being inherited.

    Put another way, a number of different implementations of a particular interface share, and separately extend, a common data structure. They can be said to inherit from that data structure. There are three different approaches to this sharing and extending that can be create in the Linux kernel, and total can be seen by exploring the struct inode structure and its history, though they are widely used elsewhere.

    Extension through unions

    The first approach, which is probably the most obvious but too the least flexible, is to declare a union as one component of the common structure and, for each implementation, to declare an entry in that union with extra fields that the particular implementation needs. This approach was introduced to struct inode in Linux-0.97.2 (August 1992) when

    union { struct minix_inode_info minix_i; struct ext_inode_info ext_i; struct msdos_inode_info msdos_i; } u;

    was added to struct inode. Each of these structures remained blank until 0.97.5 when i_data was moved from struct inode to struct ext_inode_info. Over the years several more "inode_info" fields were added for different filesystems, peaking at 28 different "inode_info" structures in 2.4.14.2 when ext3 was added.

    This approach to data inheritance is simple and straightforward, but is too quite clumsy. There are two obvious problems. Firstly, every new filesystem implementation needs to add an extra territory to the union "u". With 3 fields this may not seem dote a problem, with 28 it was well past "ugly". Requiring every filesystem to update this one structure is a barrier to adding filesystems that is unnecessary. Secondly, every inode allocated will be the selfsame size and will be large enough to store the data for any filesystem. So a filesystem that wants lots of space in its "inode_info" structure will impose that space cost on every other filesystem.

    The first of these issues is not an impenetrable barrier as they will survey shortly. The second is a actual problem and the general ugliness of the design encouraged change. Early in the 2.5 progress series this change began; it was completed by 2.5.7 when there were no "inode_info" structures left in union u (though the union itself remained until 2.6.19).

    Embedded structures

    The change that happened to inodes in early 2.5 was effectively an inversion. The change which removed ext3_i from struct inode.u too added a struct inode, called vfs_inode, to struct ext3_inode_info. So instead of the private structure being embedded in the common data structure, the common data structure is now embedded in the private one. This neatly avoids the two problems with unions; now each filesystem needs to only designate recollection to store its own structure without any necessity to know anything about what other filesystems might need. Of course nothing ever comes for free and this change brought with it other issues that needed to be solved, but the solutions were not costly.

    The first rigor is the fact that when the common filesystem code - the VFS layer - calls into a specific filesystem it passes a pointer to the common data structure, the struct inode. Using this pointer, the filesystem needs to find a pointer to its own private data structure. An obvious approach is to always location the struct inode at the top of the private inode structure and simply cast a pointer to one into a pointer to the other. While this can work, it lacks any semblance of type safety and makes it harder to arrange fields in the inode to net optimal performance - as some kernel developers are wont to do.

    The solution was to Use the list_entry() macro to effect the necessary pointer arithmetic, subtracting from the address of the struct inode its offset in the private data structure and then casting this appropriately. The macro for this was called list_entry() simply because the "list.h lists" implementation was the first to Use this pattern of data structure embedding. The list_entry() macro did exactly what was needed and so it was used despite the disorderly name. This exercise lasted until 2.5.28 when a new container_of() macro was added which implemented the selfsame functionality as list_entry(), though with slightly more type safety and a more meaningful name. With container_of() it is a simple matter to map from an embedded data structure to the structure in which it is embedded.

    The second rigor was that the filesystem had to be responsible for allocating the inode - it could no longer be allocated by common code as the common code did not believe enough information to designate the remedy amount of space. This simply involved adding alloc_inode() and destroy_inode() methods to the super_operations structure and calling them as appropriate.

    Void pointers

    As famous earlier, the union pattern was not an impenetrable barrier to adding new filesystems independently. This is because the union u had one more territory that was not an "inode_info" structure. A generic pointer territory called generic_ip was added in Linux-1.0.5, but it was not used until 1.3.7. Any file system that does not own a structure in struct inode itself could define and designate a separate structure and link it to the inode through u.generic_ip. This approach addressed both of the problems with unions as no changes are needed to shared declarations and each filesystem only uses the space that it needs. However it again introduced new problems of its own.

    Using generic_ip, each filesystem required two allocations for each inode instead of one and this could lead to more wastage depending on how the structure size was rounded up for allocation; it too required writing more error-handling code. too there was recollection used for the generic_ip pointer and often for a back pointer from the private structure to the common struct inode. Both of these are wasted space compared with the union approach or the embedding approach.

    Worse than this though, an extra recollection dereference was needed to access the private structure from the common structure; such dereferences are best avoided. Filesystem code will often necessity to access both the common and the private structures. This either requires lots of extra recollection dereferences, or it requires holding the address of the private structure in a register which increases register pressure. It was largely these concerns that stopped struct inode from ever migrating to broad Use of the generic_ip pointer. It was certainly used, but not by the major, high-performance filesystems.

    Though this pattern has problems it is still in wide use. struct super_block has an s_fs_info pointer which serves the selfsame purpose as u.generic_ip (which has since been renamed to i_private when the u union was finally removed - why it was not completely removed is left as an exercise for the reader). This is the only way to store filesystem-private data in a super_block. A simple search in the Linux involve files shows quite a collection of fields which are void pointers named "private" or something similar. Many of these are examples of the pattern of extending a data type by using a pointer to a private extension, and most of these could be converted to using the embedded-structure pattern.

    Beyond inodes

    While inodes serve as an effectual vehicle to insert these three patterns they carry out not panoply the plenary scope of any of them so it is useful to determine further afield and survey what else they can learn.

    A survey of the Use of unions elsewhere in the kernel shows that they are widely used though in very different circumstances than in struct inode. The particular aspect of inodes that is missing elsewhere is that a wide range of different modules (different filesystems) each wanted to extend an inode in different ways. In most places where unions are used there are a small fixed number of subtypes of the groundwork type and there is itsy-bitsy expectation of more being added. A simple illustration of this is struct nfs_fattr which stores file credit information decoded out of an NFS reply. The details of these attributes are slightly different for NFSv2 and NFSv3 so there are effectively two subtypes of this structure with the dissimilarity encoded in a union. As NFSv4 uses the selfsame information as NFSv3 this is very unlikely to ever be extended further.

    A very common pattern in other uses of unions in Linux is for encoding messages that are passed around, typically between the kernel and user-space. struct siginfo is used to convey extra information with a signal delivery. Each signal type has a different type of ancillary information, so struct siginfo has a union to encode six different subtypes. union inputArgs appears to be the largest current union with 22 different subtypes. It is used by the "coda" network file system to pass requests between the kernel module and a user-space daemon which handles the network communication.

    It is not pellucid whether these examples should be considered as the selfsame pattern as the original struct inode. carry out they really limn different subtypes of a groundwork type, or is it just one type with internal variants? The Eiffel object-oriented programming language does not support variant types at total except through subtype inheritance so there is clearly a school of thought that would want to treat total usages of union as a contour of subtyping. Many other languages, such as C++, provide both inheritance and unions allowing the programmer to do a choice. So the retort is not clear.

    For their purposes it doesn't really matter what they summon it as long as they know where to Use each pattern. The examples in the kernel fairly clearly note that when total of the variants are understood by a single module, then a union is a very arrogate mechanism for variants structures, whether you want to refer to them as using data inheritance or not. When different subtypes are managed by different modules, or at least widely separate pieces of code, then one of the other mechanisms is preferred. The Use of unions for this case has almost completely disappeared with only struct cycx_device remaining as an illustration of a deprecated pattern.

    Problems with void pointers

    Void pointers are not quite so effortless to classify. It would probably be objective to yell that void pointers are the modern equivalent of "goto" statements. They can be very useful but they can too lead to very convoluted designs. A particular problem is that when you determine at a void pointer, dote looking at a goto, you don't really know what it is pointing at. A void pointer called private is even worse - it is dote a "goto destination" command - almost mindless without reading lots of context.

    Examining total the different uses that void pointers can be attach to would be well beyond the scope of this article. Instead they will restrict their attention to just one new usage which relates to data inheritance and illustrates how the untamed nature of void pointers makes it hard to recognize their Use in data inheritance. The illustration they will Use to account for this usage is struct seq_file used by the seq_file library which makes it effortless to synthesize simple text files dote some of those in /proc. The "seq" share of seq_file simply indicates that the file contains a sequence of lines corresponding to a sequence of items of information in the kernel, so /proc/mounts is a seq_file which walks through the mount table reporting each mount on a single line.

    When seq_open() is used to create a new seq_file it allocates a struct seq_file and assigns it to the private_data territory of the struct file which is being opened. This is a straightforward illustration of void pointer based data inheritance where the struct file is the groundwork type and the struct seq_file is a simple extension to that type. It is a structure that never exists by itself but is always the private_data for some file. struct seq_file itself has a private territory which is a void pointer and it can be used by clients of seq_file to add extra state to the file. For illustration md_seq_open() allocates a struct mdstat_info structure and attaches it via this private field, using it to meet md's internal needs. Again, this is simple data inheritance following the described pattern.

    However the private territory of struct seq_file is used by svc_pool_stats_open() in a subtly but importantly different way. In this case the extra data needed is just a single pointer. So rather than allocating a local data structure to refer to from the private field, svc_pool_stats_open simply stores that pointer directly in the private territory itself. This certainly seems dote a sensible optimization - performing an allocation to store a single pointer would be a waste - but it highlights exactly the source of confusion that was suggested earlier: that when you determine at a void pointer you don't really know what is it pointing at, or why.

    To do it a bit clearer what is happening here, it is helpful to imagine "void *private" as being dote a union of every different workable pointer type. If the value that needs to be stored is a pointer, it can be stored in this union following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern. If the value is not a single pointer, then it gets stored in allocated space following the "void pointers for data inheritance" pattern. Thus when they survey a void pointer being used it may not be obvious whether it is being used to point to an extension structure for data inheritance, or being used as an extension for data inheritance (or being used as something else altogether).

    To highlight this issue from a slightly different perspective it is instructive to examine struct v4l2_subdev which represents a sub-device in a video4linux device, such as a sensor or camera controller within a webcam. According to the (rather helpful) documentation it is expected that this structure will normally be embedded in a larger structure which contains extra state. However this structure still has not just one but two void pointers, both with names suggesting that they are for private Use by subtypes:

    /* pointer to private data */ void *dev_priv; void *host_priv;

    It is common that a v4l sub-device (a sensor, usually) will be realized by, for example, an I2C device (much as a cache device which stores your filesystem might be realized by an ATA or SCSI device). To allow for this common occurrence, struct v4l2_subdev provides a void pointer (dev_priv), so that the driver itself doesn't necessity to define a more specific pointer in the larger structure which struct v4l2_subdev would be embedded in. host_priv is intended to point back to a "parent" device such as a controller which acquires video data from the sensor. Of the three drivers which Use this field, one appears to follow that intention while the other two Use it to point to an allocated extension structure. So both of these pointers are intended to be used following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern, where a void pointer is playing the role of a union of many other pointer types, but they are not always used that way.

    It is not immediately pellucid that defining this void pointer in case it is useful is actually a valuable service to provide given that the device driver could easily enough define its own (type safe) pointer in its extension structure. What is pellucid is that an apparently "private" void pointer can be intended for various qualitatively different uses and, as they believe seen in two different circumstances, they may not be used exactly as expected.

    In short, recognizing the "data inheritance through void pointers" pattern is not easy. A fairly profound examination of the code is needed to determine the exact purpose and usage of void pointers.

    A diversion into struct page

    Before they leave unions and void pointers behind a determine at struct page may be interesting. This structure uses both of these patterns, though they are hidden quite due to historical baggage. This illustration is particularly instructive because it is one case where struct embedding simply is not an option.

    In Linux recollection is divided into pages, and these pages are attach to a variety of different uses. Some are in the "page cache" used to store the contents of files. Some are "anonymous pages" holding data used by applications. Some are used as "slabs" and divided into pieces to retort kmalloc() requests. Others are simply share of a multi-page allocation or maybe are on a free list waiting to be used. Each of these different Use cases could be seen as a subtype of the general class of "page", and in most cases necessity some dedicated fields in struct page, such as a struct address_space pointer and index when used in the page cache, or struct kmem_cache and freelist pointers when used as a slab.

    Each page always has the selfsame struct page describing it, so if the effectual type of the page is to change - as it must as the demands for different uses of recollection change over time - the type of the struct page must change within the lifetime of that structure. While many type systems are designed assuming that the type of an object is immutable, they find here that the kernel has a very actual necessity for type mutability. Both unions and void pointers allow types to change and as noted, struct page uses both.

    At the first flush of subtyping there are only a small number of different subtypes as listed above; these are total known to the core recollection management code, so a union would be model here. Unfortunately struct page has three unions with fields for some subtypes spread over total three, thus hiding the actual structure somewhat.

    When the primary subtype in Use has the page being used in the page cache, the particular address_space that it belongs to may want to extend the data structure further. For this purpose there is a private territory that can be used. However it is not a void pointer but is an unsigned long. Many places in the kernel assume an unsigned long and a void * are the selfsame size and this is one of them. Most users of this territory actually store a pointer here and believe to cast it back and forth. The "buffer_head" library provides macros attach_page_buffers and page_buffers to set and net this field.

    So while struct page is not the most elegant example, it is an informative illustration of a case where unions and void pointers are the only option for providing data inheritance.

    The details of structure embedding

    Where structure embedding can be used, and where the list of workable subtypes is not known in advance, it seems to be increasingly the preferred choice. To gain a plenary understanding of it they will again necessity to explore a itsy-bitsy bit further than inodes and contrast data inheritance with other uses of structure embedding.

    There are essentially three uses for structure embedding - three reasons for including a structure within another structure. Sometimes there is nothing particularly racy going on. Data items are collected together into structures and structures within structures simply to highlight the closeness of the relationships between the different items. In this case the address of the embedded structure is rarely taken, and it is never mapped back to the containing structure using container_of().

    The second Use is the data inheritance embedding that they believe already discussed. The third is dote it but importantly different. This third Use is typified by struct list_head and other structs used as an embedded anchor when creating abstract data types.

    The Use of an embedded anchor dote struct list_head can be seen as a style of inheritance as the structure containing it "is-a" member of a list by virtue of inheriting from struct list_head. However it is not a strict subtype as a single object can believe several struct list_heads embedded - struct inode has six (if they involve the similar hlist_node). So it is probably best to Think of this sort of embedding more dote a "mixin" style of inheritance. The struct list_head provides a service - that of being included in a list - that can be mixed-in to other objects, an capricious number of times.

    A key aspect of data inheritance structure embedding that differentiates it from each of the other two is the being of a reference counter in the inner-most structure. This is an observation that is tied directly to the fact that the Linux kernel uses reference counting as the primary means of lifetime management and so would not be shared by systems that used, for example, garbage collection to manage lifetimes.

    In Linux, every object with an independent being will believe a reference counter, sometimes a simple atomic_t or even an int, though often a more categorical struct kref. When an object is created using several levels of inheritance the reference counter could be buried quite deeply. For illustration a struct usb_device embeds a struct device which embeds struct kobject which has a struct kref. So usb_device (which might in turn be embedded in a structure for some specific device) does believe a reference counter, but it is contained several levels down in the nest of structure embedding. This contrasts quite nicely with a list_head and similar structures. These believe no reference counter, believe no independent being and simply provide a service to other data structures.

    Though it seems obvious when attach this way, it is useful to remember that a single object cannot believe two reference counters - at least not two lifetime reference counters (It is fine to believe two counters dote s_active and s_count in struct super_block which import different things). This means that multiple inheritance in the "data inheritance" style is not possible. The only contour of multiple inheritance that can work is the mixin style used by list_head as mentioned above.

    It too means that, when designing a data structure, it is significant to Think about lifetime issues and whether this data structure should believe its own reference counter or whether it should depend on something else for its lifetime management. That is, whether it is an object in its own right, or simply a service provided to other objects. These issues are not really new and apply equally to void pointer inheritance. However an significant dissimilarity with void pointers is that it is relatively effortless to change your mind later and switch an extension structure to be a fully independent object. Structure embedding requires the discipline of thinking clearly about the problem up front and making the birthright conclusion early - a discipline that is worth encouraging.

    The other key telltale for data inheritance structure embedding is the set of rules for allocating and initializing new instances of a structure, as has already been hinted at. When union or void pointer inheritance is used the main structure is usually allocated and initialized by common code (the mid-layer) and then a device specific open() or create() function is called which can optionally designate and initialize any extension object. By contrast when structure embedding is used the structure needs to be allocated by the lowest flush device driver which then initializes its own fields and calls in to common code to initialize the common fields.

    Continuing the struct inode illustration from above which has an alloc_inode() fashion in the super_block to request allocation, they find that initialization is provided for with inode_init_once() and inode_init_always() support functions. The first of these is used when the previous Use of a piece of recollection is unknown, the second is sufficient by itself when they know that the recollection was previously used for some other inode. They survey this selfsame pattern of an initializer function separate from allocation in kobject_init(), kref_init(), and device_initialize().

    So apart from the obvious embedding of structures, the pattern of "data inheritance through structure embedding" can be recognized by the presence of a reference counter in the innermost structure, by the delegation of structure allocation to the final user of the structure, and by the provision of initializing functions which initialize a previously allocated structure.

    Conclusion

    In exploring the Use of fashion dispatch (last week) and data inheritance (this week) in the Linux kernel they find that while some patterns seem to dominate they are by no means universal. While almost total data inheritance could be implemented using structure embedding, unions provide actual value in a few specific cases. Similarly while simple vtables are common, mixin vtables are very significant and the capacity to delegate methods to a related object can be valuable.

    We too find that there are patterns in Use with itsy-bitsy to recommend them. Using void pointers for inheritance may believe an initial simplicity, but causes longer term wastage, can antecedent confusion, and could nearly always be replaced by embedded inheritance. Using NULL pointers to attest default behavior is similarly a impecunious choice - when the default is significant there are better ways to provide for it.

    But maybe the most valuable lesson is that the Linux kernel is not only a useful program to run, it is too a useful document to study. Such study can find elegant practical solutions to actual problems, and some less elegant solutions. The willing student can pursue the former to wait on help their mind, and pursue the latter to wait on help the kernel itself. With that in mind, the following exercises might be of interest to some.

    Exercises
  • As inodes now Use structure embedding for inheritance, void pointers should not be necessary. Examine the consequences and wisdom of removing "i_private" from "struct inode".

  • Rearrange the three unions in struct page to just one union so that the enumeration of different subtypes is more explicit.

  • As was famous in the text, struct seq_file can be extended both through "void pointer" and a limited contour of "union" data inheritance. account for how seq_open_private() allows this structure to too be extended through "embedded structure" data inheritance and give an illustration by converting one usage in the kernel from "void pointer" to "embedded structure". deem submitting a patch if this appears to be an improvement. Contrast this implementation of embedded structure inheritance with the mechanism used for inodes.

  • Though subtyping is widely used in the kernel, it is not uncommon for a object to contain fields that not total users are interested in. This can attest that more fine grained subtyping is possible. As very many completely different things can be represented by a "file descriptor", it is likely that struct file could be a candidate for further subtyping.

    Identify the smallest set of fields that could serve as a generic struct file and explore the implications of embedding that in different structures to implement regular files, socket files, event files, and other file types. Exploring more general Use of the proposed open() fashion for inodes might wait on here.

  • Identify an "object-oriented" language which has an object model that would meet total the needs of the Linux kernel as identified in these two articles.

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