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000-633 demur Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 1

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000-633 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 1

Test Code : 000-633
Test denomination : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 1
Vendor denomination : IBM
: 105 actual Questions

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IBM IBM demur Oriented Analysis

Analyst enterprise Positions IBM in Leaders Quadrant of Magic Quadrant record | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

source: IBM

July 12, 2006 08:00 ET

SOMERS, the immense apple -- (MARKET WIRE) -- July 12, 2006 -- IBM today announced that Gartner, Inc. has positioned IBM in the leaders quadrant in its Magic Quadrant record of the particular Oriented evaluation and Design tools area. based on the record*, Gartner estimates that IBM has greater than 50 percent of the market share versus its two nearest competitors who combined grasp 30 p.c or more of the market.

mannequin-driven progress helps software progress groups remember, doc and talk the enterprise procedure of software and techniques progress to demonstrate structure resilience earlier than making complete scale progress investments, and to profile a provider oriented structure roadmap leading to enterprise transformation.

IBM's management in the demur Oriented analysis and Design (OOA&D) tools market for 2H06-2H07 is the result of a finished portfolio of choices which succor corporations expend fashions or patterns to coerce their application building, including:

-- IBM Rational software Modeler, IBM Rational application Architect, and IBM Rational programs Developer -- IBM's award-profitable model-driven pile tools, in line with Eclipse, to succor pile groups create effective applications; -- continued usher of Microsoft environments via IBM Rational Rose demonstrates IBM's commitment to offering a utility progress platform that pursuits a wide array of implementation technologies; -- IBM WebSphere industry Modeler -- the outcomes of IBM's acquisition of Holosofx -- supports company procedure evaluation to proximate the gap between an firm's strains of company and their construction corporation's figuring out of the enterprise drivers; -- IBM Rational information Architect -- an commercial enterprise information modeling and database design tool that additionally helps users map data assets to each different to extra readily create database and integration schemas. "Gartner's assessment of the OOA&D positions IBM within the leaders quadrant which they consider confirms their strategy round model-pushed development," observed Danny Sabbah, usual supervisor, Rational software, IBM. "IBM's model-driven apparatus assist geographically dispensed utility pile groups to speak their designs and requirements visually, putting off the haphazard of assignment disasters as a result of mis-verbal exchange as a consequence of language and cultural barriers."

Gartner's Magic Quadrant positions vendors along two dimensions: completeness of imaginative and prescient, and means to execute on that vision. For 2006, demur Oriented analysis and Design apparatus are neatly into mainstream expend reaching 20 percent to 50 percent of the target audience: assistance architects, analysts and developers. in line with the record, most corporations live pleased transformed to OOA&D methods and apparatus in live performance with implementing carrier oriented architectures (SOAs), leading to a speedy explosion of this market from 2000-2004.

today's word builds on IBM's management in assisting purchasers govern their utility and techniques development. IBM turned into lately named the international market share chief in the software progress and venture and portfolio administration software marketplace in response to total software profits for 2005 for the fifth consecutive yr, in accordance with independent analyst company Gartner Inc. in keeping with the independent report**, IBM was the leading market share vendor in total utility income with 25.four p.c market share, greater than double the proportion of its nearest competitor.

For extra guidance, visit http://www.ibm.com/software/rational.

about the Gartner Magic Quadrant

The Magic Quadrant is copyrighted June 1, 2006 by means of Gartner, Inc. and is reused with permission. The Magic Quadrant is a graphical representation of a market at and for a selected time length. It depicts Gartner's analysis of how sure carriers measure towards standards for that marketplace, as defined through Gartner. Gartner doesn't suggest any vendor, product or provider depicted within the Magic Quadrant, and doesn't recommend expertise clients to select best those providers positioned in the "Leaders" quadrant. The Magic Quadrant is supposed completely as a analysis device, and is not supposed to live a specific engage to motion. Gartner disclaims every bit of warranties, categorical or implied, with respect to this analysis, together with any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.

* The Gartner Magic Quadrant for demur Oriented analysis and Design (OOA&D) tools, 2H06-2H07 document became authored by Michael J. Blechar.

** The Gartner market information file is entitled "Market Share: software progress and project and Portfolio management, global, 2005" authored through Laurie Wurster and Fabrizio Biscotti.


IBM and Lightbend live a fragment of forces on industry AI for Scala and Java developers | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM Corp. announced a collaboration today with Lightbend Inc. in a bid to fire up the creation of simulated intelligence purposes in significant agencies.

Lightbend is the issuer of the area’s main construction platform for thus-known as “Reactive” purposes, which are enormously distributed, bendy and tolerant of screw ups. collectively, the two organizations search to construct a complete toolchain for AI pile for Java and Scala builders.

“Working with IBM on an built-in platform for cognitive progress is a natural progression of their work to support advanced cognitive application building,” referred to notice Brewer, president and chief government officer at Lightbend.

Lightbend expects that the alliance with IBM will bring publicity to potentially millions of developers that expend Java and Scala within the commercial enterprise. For its half, IBM sees this as an opening to shape a developer community within the emerging AI and cognitive computing trade using Scala and Java.

“This [deal] brings us confiscate into the middle of the community they wish to construct,” referred to Bob Lord, IBM’s chief digital officer. “This now gives us a extremely captivating angle to succor Scala and Java builders bring unusual functions into the commercial enterprise.”

As AI analysis and computer studying construction proceed to construct headway into commercial enterprise environments, more developers are turning to Scala for its skill to tackle advanced algorithms and streaming information at scale. as an example, up to date huge records frameworks similar to Spark, Kafka and Akka are written in Scala.

Java itself is an exceptionally regular language amid developers commonly, in addition to in industry environments. The language ranked No. 2 in Redmonk’s June 2017 language rankings and has maintained a similarly exorbitant allocate up over the eventual few years. Java is too frequent in AI pile on account of its versatility and ease of expend as an object-oriented programming language.

Lightbend is specially smartly-located to succor Scala builders when it involves AI pile because the company’s founder, Martin Odersky, is the creator of the Scala programming language. The company specializes in proposing builders what it calls Reactive methods, described in element in the “Reactive Manifesto.” The core of Reactive methods is to succor builders create application that’s extra bendy, scalable and tolerant to failure than legacy frameworks.

IBM intends to integrate Lightbend’s Reactive software construction Platform, which brings famous capabilities to builders for reactive programming, records and microservices. With this integration, IBM will prolong its cloud portfolio of cloud services, including statistics analytics, cognitive and computing device studying, and collaborative information science apparatus to expend Lightbend’s structure.

The purpose is to supply industry builders the apparatus mandatory to abruptly install AI and cognitive systems the usage of Scala and Java. “Java and Scala are the languages of cognitive and AI development,” Lord said, “and cognitive construction is the future.”

With Lightbend’s platform and IBM’s lore in computing device discovering techniques – as considered with the pile and deployment of IBM’s flagship AI Watson – builders should live able to prototype, verify and deploy unusual functions the expend of cognitive programs greater quickly.

here’s a video explaining the deal:

photo: Pixabay since you’re here … … We’d want to declare you about their mission and how that you may succor us fulfill it. SiliconANGLE Media Inc.’s company mannequin is according to the intrinsic expense of the content material, now not promoting. unlike many online publications, they don’t live pleased a paywall or sprint banner advertising, because they wish to preserve their journalism open, with out live pleased an outcome on or the deserve to chase site visitors.

The journalism, reporting and commentary on SiliconANGLE — along with reside, unscripted video from their Silicon Valley studio and globe-trotting video groups at theCUBE — steal loads of challenging work, time and cash. keeping the first-class exorbitant requires the usher of sponsors who're aligned with their imaginative and prescient of ad-free journalism content.

if you just love the reporting, video interviews and different advert-free content right here, please steal a flash to try a sample of the video content material supported with the aid of their sponsors, tweet your guide, and retain coming lower back to SiliconANGLE.


Innovation: A application That Works | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Mary Jo Frederich and Peter Andrews report IBM's First-of-a-kind (FOAK) application, which promotes innovation that gives you precise, ecocnomic industry cost.

This chapter is from the publication 

if you were tripping over uncut jewels and precious steel ores, you would likely locate a means to steal abilities of it. IBM analysis can consider love that some days. in the hallways, you hear conversations about computers that consider natural language, advanced evaluation of streaming facts, or "eco-friendly" concepts for reducing vigor and waste. round you are individuals who believe for a living, difficult at work—taking on intractable problems of securing bank data every bit of through failures, optimizing give chains, or pile methods that may simulate drug interactions. safe issues are happening. wonderful things.

but for years, attaining out to the genuine world for innovation partnerships changed into no longer an evident altenative for IBM analysis. IBM has always had good, artistic minds at work, helping purchasers and creating the next generation of elementary apparatus for company and the public sector. but IBM stored the jewels to itself. Researchers (that really expert position emerged in 1945) labored in what seemed to live fabulous isolation. They managed to invent the disk force, random-entry memory, FORTRAN, RISC computing, and dozens of different technologies that helped create brand unusual digital world.

not incidentally, IBM made some huge cash throughout this duration. IBM had first-class questions it needed to answer, and it did not deserve to notice backyard for expertise. just about every diminutive thing turned into proprietary, and every thing that turned into vital for an entire solution came about within the business. besides, IBM research turned into modeled after Bell Labs, and the perception was that fabulous isolation become both acceptable and crucial. The actual world, with its budgets, closing dates, and messy complications, would best distract the foremost and the brightest. Naturally, there live pleased been concepts, problems, and relationships that stored IBM analysis crucial. It wasn't a very closed system, however that was the basic standpoint.

IBM research had few formal ties past company headquarters except the Nineteen Seventies. at that time, other IBM divisions had been facing gigantic challenges, and that they became restive about making contributions to IBM analysis once they weren't getting any immediate advantages. based on this, so-known as "Joint classes" had been based. For the primary time, other divisions of IBM, folks that developed and bought and struggled with customer complications, began to at once live pleased an repercussion on the IBM analysis agenda and its funding.

instead of securing a hundred% of its finances in the course of the service provider, now IBM analysis became allocated most effective a component of its annual funding. IBM research essential to relaxed the balance of its funding directly from the IBM manufacturers. This became meant to align a portion of the analysis work with IBM manufacturer innovations, while nonetheless presenting IBM research with the liberty to pursue pure, unconstrained exploration.

This funding mannequin still exists nowadays. each year, each and every of the IBM manufacturers allocates a element of its expense gain to fund its Joint application with IBM research. For every dollar that a brand invests in its Joint application, IBM research matches it. This matching-of-money strategy has ensured that IBM analysis focuses some of its work on areas strategic to the IBM brands. It additionally has supplied a very safe incentive for the brands to invest of their Joint programs, since it is a mechanism for the brands to boost the number of americans engaged on their products, whereas offering best half of the funding. virtually, they collect extra support at a discount rate.

With the creation of Joint programs, a considerable and turning out to live number of IBMers begun to work shoulder to shoulder with colleagues from across IBM. The collaboration changed into deep, with company division employees working at, and even directing, tasks within the analysis labs. The duties of researchers extended to the products themselves, and it was no longer peculiar for the researchers to movement their offices to a producing or construction web site. And if a product did not near off the road with enough fine, or a client had a problem with an offering that a researcher had a hand in, that researcher may live called in. Firefighting and issue resolution grew to live a fragment of the job, and a lot of researchers became conventional with the motels in Burlington, Poughkeepsie, Endicott, Hursley, and Markham.

In 1993, IBM research took a different step toward becoming more externally concentrated with the introduction of the capabilities, applications, and solutions (SAS) application. SAS aimed to carry IBM analysis abilities and technologies to a much greater number of consumers who had been fighting enterprise challenges that had no off-the-shelf solutions.

SAS recognized that researchers lived within the state of the knack in lots of areas of science and expertise. in the event that they could apply the very best of what IBM analysis needed to precise-world problems, they might power massive cost for customers and the IBM company.

past generating unusual revenue for IBM, SAS led researchers to confront many complicated enterprise challenges. It additionally forced the researchers to consider more deeply and creatively concerning the capabilities influence of their work past the laboratory. looking returned, you'll survey how SAS and the Joint classes drove IBM analysis to live more vital to IBM by using guiding the researchers into areas that they could now not live pleased otherwise explored. design 1.1 suggests the evolution of IBM analysis from being internally concentrated to externally focused.

Figure 1.1

figure 1.1 IBM research goes from isolation to ever deeper partnering with different IBM organizations and consumers.

besides the fact that children IBM analysis did not welcome these adjustments enthusiastically, the cloud had a silver lining. past management questions and economic pressures, it became clear that more and more of the action become going on the dwelling individuals from distinctive agencies labored together. Synergies, unusual perspectives, and spotless concepts drove advances such as parallel computing, object-oriented application, and every thing that came with the introduction of the internet. And with few exceptions, success in the industry depended on a involved array of partnerships. modern competitor is every bit of the time, probably, tomorrow's collaborator.


000-633 demur Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 1

Study usher Prepared by Killexams.com IBM Dumps Experts


Killexams.com 000-633 Dumps and actual Questions

100% actual Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with high Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



000-633 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 1

Test Code : 000-633
Test denomination : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 1
Vendor denomination : IBM
: 105 actual Questions

Dumps modern day 000-633 exam are available now.
I additionally utilized a mixed bag of books, too the years of useful experience. Yet, this prep unit has ended up being exceptionally valuable; the inquiries are indeed what you survey on the exam. Extremely accommodating to live sure. I passed this exam with 89% marks around a month back. Whoever lets you know that 000-633 is greatly hard, accept them! The exam is to live sure exceptionally difficult, which is valid for just about every bit of other exams. killexams.com and Exam Simulator was my sole wellspring of data while collect ready for this exam.


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labored difficult on 000-633 books, however the complete thing changed into in the .
It became sincerely very beneficial. Your accurate question monetary institution helped me smooth 000-633 in first strive with seventy eight.75% marks. My rating modified into ninety% but because of substandard marking it got here to 78.75%. First rateprocess killexams.Com organization..May additionally additionally you achieve every bit of the fulfillment. Thank you.


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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 1

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Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (Part 1) | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

Who does this thing? Does it live pleased any benefit? If I carry out this, will my boss umpire that I am wasting my time or making excuses to not work? live pleased these thoughts ever near to your mind when you were desperate to properly design your next software?

It is too feasible that you live pleased tried designing some piece of software before, but you institute that it was too just time-consuming and it had no benefits. But throughout your career, you might live pleased had these recurring thoughts that you should learn more about design patterns, mastering MVC, and designing something reusable, modular, and smooth to read.

In this multi-part article series, I will cover the basics about how you can properly design your next software even if you live pleased failed eventual time.

What Will You Learn?
  • Why your eventual design attempt failed
  • How to manipulate your manager/boss when you wanted to design
  • How to succeed in designing
  • The software progress process
  • What is object-oriented analysis?
  • What is object-oriented design?
  • What are design patterns?
  • And anything in between that is confusing you
  • What Will You Not Learn?
  • You will not learn the syntax of Java, C#, or C++
  • You will not learn the inequity between functions and variables
  • You will not live overwhelmed with a list of design patterns
  • You will not learn object-oriented programming here
  • "What?" you might lisp after reading the eventual line. "No demur oriented programming? Then why am I wasting my time here?" This post is about object-oriented design, but not programming. They every bit of know about object-oriented programming, i.e., how to write a class in C#.

    As one quote says, “Knowing how to hold a hammer does not construct you an architect.” True? Similarly, learning Java programming will not construct you a safe software engineer (or software programmer or developer or software architect).

    Background

    During the initial years of my undergraduate programs, I thought designing was the very as writing an algorithm because I did not study object-oriented programming. Later, when I learned about object-oriented programming, I thought someone could conquer the world if they just learned everything that is there in 1,000 pages of a Deitel and Deitel book.

    object oriented programming book

    But that was not the case. I could not write a program without tearing my hair apart. I too noticed that if I opened my program again after six months, it looked love such a mystery that even Sherlock Holmes could not solve it.

    Then, in my fourth semester, I learned about object-oriented analysis and design as a subject. But unfortunately, the focus was on UML modeling. I thought that UML was a frigid thing — you just generate some diagrams and hand them over to developers and they will near up with code using your designs (which will construct you proud).

    But there was even an option in the UML modeling tool that their class was using at that time to automatically generate the code from your UML class diagrams. What a beauty, I thought. I could design using UML models and then generate the code, compile it, ship it to a customer, and collect moneyed love Bill Gates. Awesome.

    UML

    Afterward, reality set in. I was never able to generate designs that were modular, smooth to extend, and smooth to understand (The code generated from these tools was never compiled, since it only generated stubs). Then, a age of chaos began.

    Later in my undergraduate study, I learned subjects related to software engineering, software architecture, software process models and software project management. But I was unable to appropriate every bit of things together until very late.

    Still, I survey people struggling with these concepts, unable to appropriate things together. They are overwhelmed with the unstructured data available to them. One key to comprehending every bit of this information is to involve yourself in a project. The only output for that project should live a software that your users can use.

    In this post, I will share some basic object-oriented analysis and design principles, practices, and some of my experiences that you can expend in your next project.

    Introduction to Software progress Process Models

    We every bit of expend some process or steps to develop software. The simplest process model that I expend is just writing 6 lines on the back of a piece of paper and convene them feature list. Then, I open Visual Studio and start writing code. That's it. It's a process model I used during my college years.

    I wrote my first commercial software (which had 1 user, who abandoned it later) using Visual Basic 6.0 in my second year of college using this process model.

    There are many software progress process models that I live pleased studied and applied throughout many projects.

    One process model (which is scolded by many authorities) is waterfall, which uses the process of gathering requirements, analysis, design, implementation, and testing.

    The problem with the waterfall process model is that you carry out every bit of the things in the very exact sequence as written above. First, every bit of the requirements are collected from the customers. A team analyzes requirements, then documents and prepares specifications for the design team. The design team then develops the design using the specification and hands over the design to the implementation team. The implementation team writes code with respect to the design. Finally, test team tests the software against the specifications.

    software process model

    Everything is done sequentially, and a lot of time is spent (months and even years) before the final product is shipped to the customer. Statistics declare us that when a product is shipped to the customer using waterfall process models, a huge number of customers rejected it = because it did not meet their requirements.

    You may live pleased heard the phrase, “The customer is always right.” This truly applies to software development. If the customer does not love the final product, then every bit of the effort (months and years) is wasted.

    To cater to this problem, there is another philosophy — iterative and evolutionary development. Based on this philosophy, there are many software progress process models. Some examples are Scrum, extreme programming(XP), and Rational Unified Process. They are the Agile progress processes.

    The concept of iterative progress is simple. Software progress is organized into a series of small projects called iterations. Each iteration has its analysis, design, implementation, and testing. At the conclude of each iteration, the customer input is taken. If a customer did not agree, then the loss is minimal (usually weeks) as compared to waterfall process model.

    Now you understand the basic inequity between iterative and sequential process models. Many organizations now expend iterative progress process models, as the notion is to minimize waste (months vs. weeks).

    Why I necessity to Understand Process Models

    For a long time, I believed that designing software was something love that: I design everything in the nascence and then, using this design, start coding. Then, once it compiles, I handed over the running software to the conclude user.

    It turns out that this is not the best approach. You will live pleased to change your design strategy, which evolves over time. Therefore, the incremental and evolutionary process model is famous to understand. Flawless design is a myth. After subsequent iterations, one may realize that his or her initial design sucks.

    Another point is that one should not design for every bit of the requirements at the beginning. construct a detailed design map for the iteration you're currently working on.

    Therefore, the key takeaway is that you should expend an iterative progress process where the complete design is not done at the start of the project. Similarly, whatever you design will not perfect and will live changed or evolved during the lifecycle of the project.

    This ends the first article of this four-part series. In this article, I discussed the weight of process models in object-oriented design. I too mentioned the common misconception attached to UML.

    In fragment 2, you will learn the following

  • Difference between process and methodology

  • 2 most famous object-oriented design principles that everyone should know

  • 1 odds of OOP that every developer would cherish to live pleased in his or her code

  • To learn more about demur oriented programming visit here.


    Object-Oriented Analysis And Design — Design Principles (Part 6) | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Design Principles

    Programming is complete of rules. When you learn a language, you spend a lot of time memorizing what can and can’t live done with that language, from syntax rules, keywords, and sometimes things love remembrance management.

    But in anyway, the situation is easy. If you carry out these things, you’ll live pleased an obvious problem, your code won’t compile or your program will crash.

    With demur oriented design, it’s not that straightforward.

  • If you live pleased a situation where you could expend inheritance and you don’t and instead create several classes that duplicate 90% of each other, the program won’t crash, there will live no oversight messages.
  • If you construct every member of every class public and violate encapsulation having every demur gain directly into every other object, again, the program will compile, and it will run.
  • If you combined every single concept in your application into one massive class that acted love a completely procedural program, well, you could carry out that and no alarm bells would ring.
  • But nothing of these would live good, and you’d live creating code that’s difficult to read, code that breaks easily, that’s much harder to maintain, and you’ll abominate adding a unusual feature or doing basic bug fixing, because you’ll live pleased breakable software, and that one small modification could atomize the entire system.

    So, safe demur orientation practices carry out not automatically collect imposed, it’s up to us. They might not live pleased enforced rules, but they carry out live pleased guidelines, and they live pleased principles that they can use.

    They are generic principles, things to stay alert of, and occasionally check back with as you create and iterate through your class design and pile your software.

    These principles aren’t as generic as just the concepts of abstraction, polymorphism, inheritance, and encapsulation. They expend those ideas as a starting point and give you some more guidelines to live pleased a better design.

    Now, we’re going to debate some favorite object-oriented design principles.

    KISS

    It’s stands for “Keep It Simple, Stupid”. You may notice that developers at the nascence of their journey tries to implement complicated, cryptic design.

    What this principles states that “most systems work best if they are kept simple rather than making them complex; therefore simplicity should live a key goal in design and unnecessary complexity should live avoided”.

    If you tried to maintain it simple as much as you can, you definitely will conclude up having a system that’s easier to maintain and debug, easier to test, easier to live documented, and negotiate if there is a problem.

    This is really important, because imagine yourself after some days, or some weeks, you figured out a problem, and you or one of your team is assigned to solve this problem. Now, Can you identify the problem and understand your code and know what it’s actually trying to do?.

    DRY

    “Don’t reiterate Yourself”. Try to avoid any duplicates, instead you allocate them into a single fragment of the system, or a method.

    Imagine that you live pleased copied and pasted blocks of code in different parts in your system. What if you changed any of them?, You will necessity to change and check the logic of every fragment that has the very shroud of code.

    Definitely you don’t want to carry out that. This is an extra cost that you don’t necessity to pay for, every bit of what you necessity to is to live pleased a single source of truth in your design, code, documentation, and even in the database schema.

    YAGNI

    “You Ain’t Gonna necessity It”. If you sprint into a situation where you are asking yourself, “What about adding extra (feature, code, …etc.) ?”, you probably necessity to re-think about it.

    Because you implement only what’s needed, even if you are sure that you’ll necessity it in the future. You implement only what’s needed at this moment, under the current requirements.

    This is a waste of time and efforts, who knows, maybe these features that you umpire you will necessity it, it will live changed then, or not needed at all.

    Adding extra features, means adding more code to write, to maintain, to test and debug.

    SOLID S — ingle Responsibility Principle

    An demur should live pleased one and only one responsibility.

    You don’t necessity to live pleased an demur that does different or many tasks. An demur can live pleased many behaviors and methods, but every bit of of them are apropos to it’s single responsibility.

    So, whenever there is a change that needs to happen, there will live only one class to live modified, this class has one primary responsibility.

    O — pen/Closed Principle

    Software entities (classes, modules, functions, etc.) should live open for extension, but closed for modification.

    Whenever you necessity to add additional behaviors, or methods, you don’t live pleased to modify the existing one, instead, you start writing unusual methods.

    Because, What if you changed a deportment of an object, where some other parts of the system depends on it?. So, you necessity to change too every single fragment in the software that has a dependency with that object, and check the logic, and carry out some extra testing.

    L — iskov Substitution Principle

    A super class can live replaced by any of it’s inheriting sub classes at any parts of the system without any change in the code.

    It means that the sub classes should extend the functionality of the super class without overriding it.

    That’s why we’ve mentioned ealier in Class Diagram that it’s not a safe case drill to override the methods of the super class in inheritance.

    I — nterface Segregation Principle

    Interfaces should live specific rather than doing many and different things.

    That’s because any implementing class will only implement the specific needed interfaces rather than being forced to implement methods that it doesn’t necessity it.

    So, great interfaces should live decomposed into smaller, more specific ones.

    D — ependency Inversion Principle

    Try to minimize the dependency between objects by using abstraction.

    If for illustration you live pleased a App class that depends on very specialized classes; Database and Mail (dependencies).

    Instead, they could live pleased App demur that deals with Service class, which is more abstract, rather than something very specific. So, now the App class is not conditional on the concrete classes, but on abstraction.

    And the capitalize of that is they are able to replace and extend the functionality of Service class without changing the App class at all.

    Perhaps they can replace the Database and Mail classes, or add additional classes love Logger and Auth as well.

    A common design pattern that applies this principle is called Dependency injection. We’re going to debate design patterns in a more detail in the next tutorial.

    GRASP

    General Responsibility Assignment Software Patterns (GRASP) is another set of design principles.

    The principles here steal a slightly different perspective than the principles in SOLID, although there is certainly some crossover.

    GRASP tends to steal a responsibility focus, love who creates this object, who is in pervade of how these objects talk to each other, who takes custody of passing every bit of messages received from a user interface?, etc.

    Now SOLID and GRASP don’t conflict with each other, they are not competing sets, you might select to expend one or both or neither.

    Information Expert

    When you allocate a responsibility in profile of a method, or fields, you allocate it to the demur that has the most information about it.

    Imagine that you live pleased a class called customer and order.

    The customer tries to know every bit of the orders placed by him, a common mistake is to allocate this responsibility to the customer class, since the customer who will trigger this method.

    But, this is not the responsibility of the customer, the order class is the one which as every bit of the information about the orders.

    Creator

    It tries to determine who is taking the responsibility of creating the objects.

    You try to respond these question:

  • Who is responsible for creating the objects?, or, how those objects are created in the first place?
  • Does one demur accommodate another (composition relationship)?
  • Does one demur very closely expend another, or, Will one demur know enough to construct another object?
  • And if so, it would seem to construct sense to nominate those objects as taking that creator role and making it obvious which objects are responsible for creating other objects.

    A common design pattern that applies this principle is called Factory Pattern.

    Low Coupling

    It means you try to reduce the dependency between your objects.

    If one demur needs to connect tightly to five other objects and convene 20 different methods just to work, you live pleased a high coupling.

    Lots of dependencies acceptation lots of potential for breaking things if you construct a change to any of these objects.

    Now low coupling does not live substantive no coupling. Objects carry out necessity to know about each other, but as much as feasible they should carry out what they can with the minimum of dependencies.

    High Cohesion

    The more you live pleased a class that has apropos and focused responsibilities, the higher cohesion you will have.

    You try to construct the responsibilities of your classes relevant, related as much as you can. You may necessity to atomize a class into some classes and ration the responsibilities, instead of having a single class that does everything.

    Controller

    If, for example, they live pleased a user interface and too some industry related classes.

    We don’t want to live pleased high coupling between them to actually tie them directly together, where the user interface demur has to know about the industry objects and the vice-versa.

    It’s very common to create a controller class just for the purpose of handling the connection between the user interface and the industry related objects.

    It’s perfectly usual for demur to exist that takes a role in a program that isn’t a actual world demur as long as it has a well defined responsibility.

    There is a common architectural design pattern called Model View Controller (MVC) which is an illustration of having a controller class.

    Pure Fabrication

    What if there’s something that needs to exist in the application that doesn’t proclaim itself as an obvious class or real-world object?. What if you live pleased deportment that doesn’t naturally appropriate in existing classes?

    Well, rather than coerce that deportment into an existing class where it doesn’t belong, which means they are decreasing cohesion, they instead invent, they fabricate a unusual class.

    That class might not live pleased existed in their conceptual model, but it needs to exist now. And there’s nothing wrong with creating a class that represents sheer functionality as long as you know why you’re doing it.

    Indirection

    This is the notion that they can lessen coupling between objects.

    If you live pleased multiple objects that necessity to talk to each other, it’s very smooth to live pleased high coupling between them, where there is a lot of dependencies.

    And what they can carry out instead is reduce those direct connections by putting an indirection demur between them to simplify the amount of connections that each demur has to make.

    Polymorphism

    Having an demur that can steal the shape of several different objects. This allows us to trigger the remedy behavior.

    If, for example, they live pleased an interface that’s implemented by several classes, you can allocate or pass an instance of any of the sub classes to a reference variable that has the interface as it’s type. This will allow you to trigger the right methods, for the implementing class.

    // Animal class is a generic class where Dog, Duck, & Kangaroo inherits from.Dog shepherd = unusual Dog("Jack", "gold"); Duck mallard = unusual Duck("Daffy", "green"); Kangaroo rock = unusual Kangaroo("Steve", "red", 1.5); Animal animals [] = { shepherd, mallard, rock }; /* Now, you should notice they called the display() method, without knowing exactly what the type of object, and it did displayed the remedy fashion for each animal object. */for(Animal animal: animals) { animal.display(); } Protected Variations

    How to design a system so that changes and variations live pleased the minimum repercussion on what already exists.

    Identify the parts of the system that are more likely to change, separate them from what stays the same, and then, encapsulate every fragment that vary in the system.

    Most of the concepts they live pleased been exploring are simply way of doing this, things love encapsulation and data-hiding, making your attributes private.

    Interfaces are another region where they can wrap the unstable parts with an interface, and using polymorphism to create various implementations of this interface.

    The Liskov substitution principle, where the child classes should always work when treated as their parent classes is another way.

    The open/closed principle that they can add, but they try not to change code that works already is yet another.

    Code Smell

    Code Smells are a Great term for when reading code, the code may live valid, it may work, but there is something about it that just doesn’t smell right.

    It’s often a clue, a warning sign of a deeper problem, that there is a fragment in the code indicates violation of fundamental design principles and negatively repercussion design quality.

    And here are just a few examples of what they live substantive by a code smell.

    Long Method

    One would live the notion of a long method. They open up a fashion to read it, it has got many lines. This is the benign of thing that really needs to live split up into much smaller methods.

    Identifiers

    Working with very short or very long identifiers. Aside from using letters love ‘i’ for indexes and iteration, they shouldn’t live expecting to survey variables called A and B and C in actual code.

    Comments

    Another clue would live pointless comments. Yes, code should live commented and code should live well-written so that it’s readable and the code comments itself.

    We carry out want comments, but they don’t want comments where the observation is actually longer than the code that it’s describing.

    The God Object

    This is where you live pleased one master demur that tries to carry out everything in the program, or at least one demur that seems to live doing very different responsibilities that live pleased nothing to carry out with each other.

    It’s a clue that this needs to live revisited and broken apart into the right benign of objects.

    Feature Envy

    And then there’s feature envy. If a class seems to carry out very diminutive except it uses every bit of the methods of one other class, it’s another sign that you necessity to rethink the roles of one or the other.


    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, fragment 1 | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Did you know...?

    LWN.net is a subscriber-supported publication; they depend on subscribers to maintain the entire operation going. gratify succor out by buying a subscription and keeping LWN on the net.

    June 1, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    Despite the fact that the Linux Kernel is mostly written in C, it makes broad expend of some techniques from the province of object-oriented programming. Developers wanting to expend these object-oriented techniques receive diminutive support or guidance from the language and so are left to fend for themselves. As is often the case, this is a double-edged sword. The developer has enough flexibility to carry out really frigid things, and equally the flexibility to carry out really stupid things, and it isn't always clear at first glance which is which, or more accurately: where on the spectrum a particular approach sits.

    Instead of looking to the language to provide guidance, a software engineer must notice to established drill to find out what works well and what is best avoided. Interpreting established drill is not always as smooth as one might love and the effort, once made, is worth preserving. To preserve that effort on your author's part, this article brings another installment in an occasional series on Linux Kernel Design Patterns and attempts to set out - with examples - the design patterns in the Linux Kernel which outcome an object-oriented style of programming.

    Rather than providing a brief introduction to the object-oriented style, tempting though that is, they will assume the reader has a basic lore of objects, classes, methods, inheritance, and similar terms. For those as yet unfamiliar with these, there are plenty of resources to live institute elsewhere on the web.

    Over two weeks they will notice for patterns in just two areas: fashion dispatch and data inheritance. Despite their patent simplicity they lead to some moneyed veins for investigation. This first article will focus on fashion dispatch.

    Method Dispatch

    The great variety of styles of inheritance and rules for its usage in languages today seems to suggest that there is no uniform understanding of what "object-oriented" really means. The term is a bit love "love": everyone thinks they know what it means but when you collect down to details people can find they live pleased very different ideas. While what it means to live "oriented" might not live clear, what they live substantive by an "object" does seem to live uniformly agreed upon. It is simply an abstraction comprising both state and behavior. An demur is love a record (Pascal) or struct (C), except that some of the names of members mention to functions which act on the other fields in the object. These function members are sometimes referred to a "methods".

    The most obvious way to implement objects in C is to declare a "struct" where some fields are pointers to functions which steal a pointer to the struct itself as their first argument. The calling convention for fashion "foo" in demur "bar" would simply be: bar->foo(bar, ...args); While this pattern is used in the Linux kernel it is not the predominant pattern so they will leave discussion of it until a diminutive later.

    As methods (unlike state) are not normally changed on a per-object basis, a more common and only slightly less obvious approach is to collect every bit of the methods for a particular class of objects into a separate structure, sometimes known as a "virtual function table" or vtable. The demur then has a single pointer to this table rather than a separate pointer for each method, and consequently uses less memory.

    This then leads to their first pattern - a sheer vtable being a structure which contains only function pointers where the first argument of each is a pointer to some other structure (the demur type) which itself contains a pointer to this vtable. Some simple examples of this in the Linux kernel are the file_lock_operations structure which contains two function pointers each of which steal a pointer to a struct file_lock, and the seq_operations vtable which contains four function pointers which each operate on a struct seq_file. These two examples pomp an obvious naming pattern - the structure holding a vtable is named for the structure holding the demur (possibly abbreviated) followed by "_operations". While this pattern is common it is by no means universal. Around the time of 2.6.39 there are approximately 30 "*_operations" structures along with well over 100 "*_ops" structures, most if not every bit of of which are vtables of some sort. There are too several structs such as struct mdk_personality which are essentially vtables but carry out not live pleased particularly helpful names.

    Among these nearly 200 vtable structures there is plenty of variability and so plenty of scope to notice for captivating patterns. In particular they can notice for common variations from the "pure vtable" pattern described above and determine how these variations contribute to their understanding of demur expend in Linux.

    NULL function pointers

    The first observation is that some function pointers in some vtables are allowed to live NULL. Clearly trying to convene such a function would live futile, so the code that calls into these methods generally contains an explicit test for the pointer being NULL. There are a few different reasons for these NULL pointers. Probably easiest to warrant is the incremental progress reason. Because of the way vtable structures are initialized, adding a unusual function pointer to the structure definition causes every bit of existing table declarations to initialise that pointer to NULL. Thus it is feasible to add a caller of the unusual fashion before any instance supports that method, and live pleased it check for NULL and effect a default behavior. Then as incremental progress continues those vtable instances which necessity it can collect non-default methods.

    A recent illustration is confide 77af1b2641faf4 adding set_voltage_time_sel() to struct regulator_ops which acts on struct regulator_dev. Subsequent confide 42ab616afe8844 defines that fashion for a particular device. This is simply the most recent illustration of a very common theme.

    Another common understanding is that inescapable methods are not particularly meaningful in inescapable cases so the calling code simply tests for NULL and returns an confiscate oversight when found. There are multiple examples of this in the virtual filesystem (VFS) layer. For instance, the create() function in inode_operations is only meaningful if the inode in question is a directory. So inode_operations structures for non-directories typically live pleased NULL for the create() function (and many others) and the calling code in vfs_create() checks for NULL and returns -EACCES.

    A final understanding that vtables sometimes accommodate NULL is that an element of functionality might live being transitioned from one interface to another. A safe illustration of this is the ioctl() operation in file_operations. In 2.6.11, a unusual method, unlocked_ioctl() was added which was called without the immense kernel lock held. In 2.6.36, when every bit of drivers and filesystems had been converted to expend unlocked_ioctl(), the original ioctl() was finally removed. During this transition a file system would typically define only one of two, leaving the other defaulting to NULL.

    A slightly more subtle illustration of this is read() and aio_read(), too in file_operations, and the corresponding write() and aio_write(). aio_read() was introduced to support asynchronous IO, and if it is provided the regular synchronous read() is not needed (it is effected using do_sync_read() which calls the aio_read() method). In this case there appears to live no goal of ever removing read() - it will remain for cases where async IO is not apropos such as special filesystems love procfs and sysfs. So it is still the case that only one of each pair necessity live defined by a filesystem, but it is not simply a transition, it is a long-term state.

    Though there seem to live several different reasons for a NULL function pointer, almost every case is an illustration of one simple pattern - that of providing a default implementation for the method. In the "incremental development" examples and the non-meaningful fashion case, this is fairly straightforward. e.g. the default for inode->create() is simply to revert an error. In the interface transition case it is only slightly less obvious. The default for unlocked_ioctl() would live to steal the kernel lock and then convene the ioctl() method. The default for read() is exactly do_sync_read() and some filesystems such as ext3 actually provide this value explicitly rather than using "NULL" to betoken a default.

    With that in mind, a diminutive reflection suggests that if the actual goal is to provide a default, then maybe the best approach would live to explicitly give a default rather than using the circuitous route of using a default of NULL and interpreting it specially.

    While NULL is certainly the easiest value to provide as a default - as the C standard assures us that uninitialized members of a structure carry out collect set to NULL - it is not very much harder to set a more meaningful default. I am indebted to LWN reader wahern for the observation that C99 allows fields in a structure to live initialized multiple times with only the final value taking outcome and that this allows smooth setting of default values such as by following the simple model:

    #define FOO_DEFAULTS .bar = default_bar, .baz = default_baz struct foo_operations my_foo = { FOO_DEFAULTS, .bar = my_bar, };

    This will declare my_foo with a predefined default value for baz and a localized value for bar. Thus for the small cost of defining a few "default" functions and including a "_DEFAULTS" entry to each declaration, the default value for any province can easily live chosen when the province is first created, and automatically included in every expend of the structure.

    Not only are meaningful defaults smooth to implement, they can lead to a more efficient implementation. In those cases where the function pointer actually is NULL it is probably faster to test and branch rather than to construct an roundabout function call. However the NULL case is very often the exception rather than the rule, and optimizing for an exception is not usual practice. In the more common case when the function pointer is not NULL, the test for NULL is simply a waste of code space and a waste of execution time. If they disallow NULLs they can construct every bit of convene sites a diminutive bit smaller and simpler.

    In general, any testing performed by the caller before calling a fashion can live seen as an instance of the "mid-layer mistake" discussed in a previous article. It shows that the mid-layer is making assumptions about the deportment of the lower level driver rather than simply giving the driver liberty to behave in whatever way is most suitable. This may not always live an expensive mistake, but it is still best avoided where possible. Nevertheless there is a clear pattern in the Linux kernel that pointers in vtables can sometimes live NULLable, typically though not always to enable a transition, and the convene sites should in these cases test for NULL before proceeding with the call.

    The observant reader will live pleased noticed a hole in the above logic denouncing the expend NULL pointers for defaults. In the case where the default is the common case and where performance is paramount, the reasoning does not hold and a NULL pointer could well live justified. Naturally the Linux kernel provides an illustration of such a case for their examination.

    One of the data structures used by the VFS for caching filesystem information is the "dentry". A "dentry" represents a denomination in the filesystem, and so each "dentry" has a parent, being the directory containing it, and an "inode" representing the named file. The dentry is separate from the inode because a single file can live pleased multiple names (so an "inode" can live pleased multiple "dentry"s). There is a dentry_operations vtable with a number of operations including, for example, "d_compare" which will compare two names and "d_hash" which will generate a hash for the denomination to usher the storage of the "dentry" in a hash table. Most filesystems carry out not necessity this flexibility. They treat names as uninterpreted strings of bytes so the default compare and hash functions are the common case. A few filesystems define these to manipulate case-insensitive names but that is not the norm.

    Further, filename lookup is a common operation in Linux and so optimizing it is a priority. Thus these two operations emerge to live safe candidates where a test for NULL and an inlined default operation might live appropriate. What they find though is that when such an optimization is warranted it is not by itself enough. The code that calls d_compare() and d_hash() (and a brace of other dentry operations) does not test these functions for NULL directly. Rather they require that a few flag bits (DCACHE_OP_HASH, DCACHE_OP_COMPARE) in the "dentry" are set up to betoken whether the common default should live used, or whether the function should live called. As the flag province is likely to live in cache anyway, and the dentry_operations structure will often live not needed at all, this avoids a remembrance fetch in a erotic path.

    So they find that the one case where using a NULL function pointer to betoken a default could live justified, it is not actually used; instead, a different, more efficient, mechanism is used to betoken that the default fashion is requested.

    Members other than function pointers

    While most vtable-like structures in the kernel accommodate exclusively function pointers, there are a significant minority that live pleased non-function-pointer fields. Many of these emerge on the surface quite whimsical and a few closer inspections suggest that some of them result of needy design or bit-rot and their removal would only ameliorate the code.

    There is one exception to the "functions only" pattern that occurs repeatedly and provides actual value, and so is worth exploring. This pattern is seen in its most generic profile in struct mdk_personality which provides operations for a particular software RAID level. In particular this structure contains an "owner", a "name", and a "list". The "owner" is the module that provides the implementation. The "name" is a simple identifier: some vtables live pleased string names, some live pleased numeric names, and it is often called something different love "version", "family", "drvname", or "level". But conceptually it is still a name. In the present illustration there are two names, a string and a numeric "level".

    The "list", while fragment of the very functionality, is less common. The mdk_personality structure has a struct list_head, as does struct ts_ops. struct file_system_type has a simple pointer to the next struct file_system_type. The underlying notion here is that for any particular implementation of an interface (or "final" definition of a class) to live usable, it must live registered in some way so that it can live found. Further, once it has been institute it must live feasible to ensure that the module holding the implementation is not removed while it is in use.

    There seem to live nearly as many styles of registration against an interface in Linux as there are interfaces to register against, so finding strong patterns there would live a difficult task. However it is fairly common for a "vtable" to live treated as the primary manipulate on a particular implementation of an interface and to live pleased an "owner" pointer which can live used to collect a reference on the module which provides the implementation.

    So the pattern they find here is that a structure of function pointers used as a "vtable" for demur fashion dispatch should normally accommodate only function pointers. Exceptions require clear justification. A common exception allows a module pointer and feasible other fields such as a denomination and a list pointer. These fields are used to support the registration protocol for the particular interface. When there is no list pointer it is very likely that the entire vtable will live treated as read-only. In this case the vtable will often live declared as a const structure and so could even live stored in read-only memory.

    Combining Methods for different objects

    A final common divergence from the "pure vtable" pattern that they survey in the Linux kernel occurs when the first argument to the function is not always the very demur type. In a sheer vtable which is referenced by a pointer in a particular data structure, the first argument of each function is exactly that data structure. What understanding could there live for deviating from that pattern? It turns out that there are few, some more captivating than others.

    The simplest and least captivating explanation is that, for no patent reason, the target data structure is listed elsewhere in the argument list. For illustration every bit of functions in struct fb_ops steal a struct fb_info. While in 18 cases that structure is the first argument, in five cases it is the last. There is nothing obviously wrong with this altenative and it is unlikely to discombobulate developers. It is only a problem for data miners love your author who necessity to filter it out as an extraneous pattern.

    A slight divergence on this pattern is seen in struct rfkill_ops where two functions steal a struct rkfill but the third - set_block() - takes a void *data. Further investigation shows that this opaque data is exactly that which is stored in rfkill->data, so set_block() could easily live defined to steal a struct rfkill and simply to follow the ->data link itself. This divergence is sufficiently non-obvious that it could conceivably discombobulate developers as well as data miners and so should live avoided.

    The next divergence in seen for illustration in platform_suspend_ops, oprofile_operations, security_operations and a few others. These steal an odd assortment of arguments with no obvious pattern. However these are really very different sorts of vtable structures in that the demur they belong to are singletons. There is only one vigorous platform, only one profiler, only one security policy. Thus the "object" on which these operations act is fragment of the global state and so does not necessity to live included in the arguments of any functions.

    Having filtered these two patterns out as not being very captivating they are left with two that carry out serve to declare us something about demur expend in the kernel.

    quota_format_ops and export_operations are two different operations structures that operate on a variety of different data structures. In each case the patent primary demur (e.g. a struct super_block or a struct dentry) already has a vtable structure dedicated to it (such as super_operations or dentry_operations) and these unusual structures add unusual operations. In each case the unusual operations profile a cohesive unit providing a related set of functionality - whether supporting disk quotas or NFS export. They don't every bit of act on the very demur simply because the functionality in question depends on a variety of objects.

    The best term from the language of object-oriented programming for this is probably the "mixin". Though the appropriate may not live perfect - depending on what your exact understanding of mixin is - the notion of bringing in a collection of functionality without using strict hierarchical inheritance is very proximate to the purpose of quota_format_ops and export_operations.

    Once they know to live on the lookout for mixins love these they can find quite a few more examples. The pattern to live alert for is not the one that led us here - an operations structure that operates on a variety of different objects - but rather the one they institute where the functions in an "operations" structure operate on objects that already live pleased their own "operations" structure. When an demur has a great number of operations that are apropos and these operations naturally group into subsets, it makes a lot of sense to divide them into separate vtable-like structures. There are several examples of this in the networking code where for instance both tcp_congestion_ops and inet_connection_sock_af_ops operate (primarily) on a struct sock, which itself has already got a small set of dedicated operations.

    So the pattern of a "mixin" - at least as defined as a set of operations which apply to one or more objects without being the primary operations for those objects - is a pattern that is often institute in the kernel and appears to live quite valuable in allowing better modularization of code.

    The eventual pattern which explains non-uniform function targets is probably the most interesting, particularly in its contrast to the obvious application of object-oriented programming style. Examples of this pattern abound with ata_port_operations, tty_operations, nfs_rpc_ops and atmdev_ops every bit of appearing as useful examples. However they will focus primarily on some examples from the filesystem layer, particularly super_operations and inode_operations.

    There is a strong hierarchy of objects in the implementation of a filesystem where the filesystem - represented by a "super_block" - has a number of files (struct inode) which may live pleased a number of names or links (struct dentry). Further each file might store data in the page cache (struct address_space) which comprises a number of individual pages (struct page). There is a sense in which every bit of of these different objects belong to the filesystem as a whole. If a page needs to live loaded with data from a file, the filesystem knows how to carry out that, and it is probably the very mechanism for every page in every file. Where it isn't always the same, the filesystem knows that too. So they could conceivably store every operation on every one of these objects in the struct super_block, as it represents the filesystem and could know what to carry out in each case.

    In drill that extreme is not really helpful. It is quite likely that while there are similarities between the storage of a regular file and a directory, there are too famous differences and being able to encode those differences in separate vtables can live helpful. Sometimes small symbolic links are stored directly in the inode while larger links are stored love the contents of a regular file. Having different readlink() operations for the two cases can construct the code a lot more readable.

    While the extreme of every operation attached to the one central structure is not ideal, it is equally genuine that the antithetical extreme is not ideal either. The struct page in Linux does not live pleased a vtable pointer at every bit of - in fragment because they want to maintain the structure as small as feasible because it is so populous. Rather the address_space_operations structure contains the operations that act on a page. Similarly the super_operations structure contains some operations that apply to inodes, and inode_operations contains some operations that apply to dentries.

    It is clearly feasible to live pleased operations structures attached to a parent of the target demur - providing the target holds a reference to the parent, which it normally does - though it is not quite so clear that it is always beneficial. In the case of struct page which avoids having a vtable pointer altogether the capitalize is clear. In the case of struct inode which has its own vtable pointer, the capitalize of having some operations (such as destroy_inode() or write_inode()) attached to the super_block is less clear.

    As there are several vtable structures where any given function pointer could live stored, the actual altenative is in many cases diminutive more than historical accident. Certainly the proliferation of struct dentry operations in inode_operations seems to live largely due to the fact that some of them used to act directly on the inode, but changes in the VFS eventually required this to change. For illustration in 2.1.78-pre1, each of link(), readlink(), followlink() (and some others which are now defunct) were changed from taking a struct inode to steal a struct dentry instead. This set the scene for "dentry" operations to live in inode_operations, so when setattr and getattr were added for 2.3.48, it probably seemed completely natural to comprehend them in inode_operations despite the fact that they acted primarily on a dentry.

    Possibly they could simplify things by getting rid of dentry_operations altogether. Some operations that act on dentries are already in inode_operations and super_operations - why not Move them every bit of there? While dentries are not as populous as struct page there are still a lot of them and removing the "d_op" province could rescue 5% of the remembrance used by that structure (on x86-64).

    With two exceptions, every vigorous filesystem only has a single dentry operations structure in effect. Some filesystem implementations love "vfat" define two - e.g. one with case-sensitive matching and one with case-insensitive matching - but there is only one vigorous per super-block. So it would seem that the operations in dentry_operations could live moved to super_operations, or at least accessed through "s_d_op". The two exceptions are ceph and procfs. These filesystems expend different d_revalidate() operations in different parts of the filesystem and - in the case of procfs - different d_release() operations. The necessary distinctions could easily live made in per-superblock versions of these operations. carry out these cases warrant the 5% space cost? Arguably not.

    Directly embedded function pointers

    Finally it is confiscate to reflect on the alternate pattern mentioned at the start, where function pointers are stored directly in the demur rather than in a separate vtable structure. This pattern can live seen in struct request_queue which has nine function pointers, struct efi which has ten function pointers, and struct sock which has six function pointers.

    The cost of embedded pointers is obviously space. When vtables are used, there is only one copy of the vtable and multiple copies of an demur (in most cases) so if more than one function pointer is needed, a vtable would rescue space. The cost of a vtable is an extra remembrance reference, though cache might reduce much of this cost in some cases. A vtable too has a cost of flexibility. When each demur needs exactly the very set of operations a vtable is good, but if there is a necessity to individually tailor some of the operations for each object, then embedded function pointer can provide that flexibility. This is illustrated quite nicely by the observation with "zoom_video" in struct pcmcia_socket

    /* Zoom video behaviour is so chip specific its not worth adding this to _ops */

    So where objects are not very populous, where the list of function pointers is small, and where multiple mixins are needed, embedded function pointers are used instead of a separate vtable.

    Method Dispatch Summary

    If they combine every bit of the pattern elements that they live pleased institute in Linux they find that:

    Method pointers that operate on a particular type of demur are normally collected in a vtable associated directly with that object, though they can too appear:

  • In a mixin vtable that collects related functionality which may live selectable independently of the ground type of the object.
  • In the vtable for a "parent" demur when doing so avoids the necessity for a vtable pointer in a populous object
  • Directly in the demur when there are few fashion pointers, or they necessity to live individually tailored to the particular object.
  • These vtables rarely accommodate anything other than function pointers, though fields needed to register the demur class can live appropriate. Allowing these function pointers to live NULL is a common but not necessarily ideal technique for handling defaults.

    So in exploring the Linux Kernel code they live pleased institute that even though it is not written in an object-oriented language, it certainly contains objects, classes (represented as vtables), and even mixins. It too contains concepts not normally institute in object-oriented languages such as delegating demur methods to a "parent" object.

    Hopefully understanding these different patterns and the reasons for choosing between them can lead to more uniform application of the patterns across the kernel, and hence construct it easier for a newcomer to understand which pattern is being followed. In the second fragment of their examination of demur oriented patterns they will explore the various ways that data inheritance is achieved in the Linux kernel and debate the strengths and weaknesses of each approach so as to survey where each is most appropriate.

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