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The volume of rejiggering among the IT providers serving commercial enterprise shoppers (as discrete from hyperscalers, cloud builders, and HPC centers) in the past decade and a half has been impressive. And it is not yet lucid what amalgam of items and services will yield long-time age profitability for those who are enjoying the long online game, and taking allotment in it huge.
Hewlett Packard enterprise and Dell applied sciences, as they are now known as, tried to build up IT conglomerates that, enjoy IBM, had the 4 pillars of the IT price sweep – hardware, software, features, and financing. after which, when that didn’t work out, each organizations decided to alternate suggestions. HPE bought off its notebook and printer company and backed away from hyperscaler and cloud system sakes, while Dell held onto its notebook company, went private, and bought EMC and VMware to bolster its core IT company, and did a reverse merger with VMware to evaporate public as 2018 came to a close. IBM began this entire off with the aid of selling off its computer, immoderate End printer, disk power, and chip companies after which offered off its materiel x X86 server company to pay attention to its energy techniques and gadget z systems. IBM’s systems enterprise is quite ecocnomic, as they hold printed, however the traffic nonetheless struggles to construct its public cloud and to Make features Make funds whilst they generate an incredible quantity of earnings.
HPE is smaller and not peculiarly ecocnomic, as they showed in inspecting that business’s financials remaining week. Dell has become a whole lot higher than the final HPE, and has reached the equal tough income degree as colossal Blue, besides the fact that children the groups hold very diverse product and customer profiles. IBM has very a lot focused on significant businesses and HPC centers with some dabbling in hyperscale privilege here and there with the energy platform. Dell nonetheless has a colossal quantity of salary coming from PCs (both commercial and customer buyers) and a considerable number of IT gear it really is bought to small and medium businesses. IBM has some SMB enterprise, but it really is more often than not focused on its IBM i (previously AS/400) midrange server enterprise, which is allotment of the vigour programs division, which is now referred to as the Cognitive systems division to emphasise the indisputable fact that these machines are doing database, analytics, transaction processing, and other hefty work, not running simple infrastructure.
Dell achieved its reverse merger with VMware, which it owned a majority stake in, returned in December, which cost it $21 billion, of which $eleven billion was paid in money to unbelievable VMware shareholders, and $10 billion turned into paid in Dell stock. This maneuver allowed Dell’s stock to emerge on the ny stock exchange, the dwelling VMware become traded, for the first time seeing that Dell went deepest in a $24 billion buyout six years ago. on the time, Michael Dell desired the traffic that bears his designation to scuttle inner most so it might maneuver the company with out the judgements of public shareholders and analysts on Wall street. in the spell time, with the buying of EMC and therefore its minion VMware, and then the reverse merger, Dell has spent a fortune reconfiguring itself and it has nonetheless not institute its method to profitability. however the company is ingesting market share enjoy loopy in servers and storage, and is conserving its own in PCs, and is moving towards profitability ever so slowly.
Dell has so many relocating materials over the terminal pair of years, with devices and divisions coming and going, that it might breathe pretty much unimaginable to regain a constant set of numbers to betray how these combination agencies hold carried out on the grounds that the tremendous Recession, which is when a massive inflection point changed into tipped in so a variety of materials of the monetary system and which is for this understanding an excellent starting factor for analyzing any enterprise within the current period. With the existing records that Dell applied sciences, the guardian company, has made available considering the fact that going deepest and buying EMC and VMware and divesting its capabilities enterprise, they are able to evaporate again four years. (word: Dell’s fiscal yr ends in late January or early February, so the statistics is not introduced on a calendar groundwork.)
Going inner most was certainly about purchasing time to create a a Great deal bigger infrastructure behemoth whereas conserving volume deal leverage with Intel and different core allotment suppliers (believe reminiscence, disk, and flash) through conserving its workstation company rather than selling it off or spinning it out. What is discrete from the chart above is that Dell has turn into significantly higher over the terminal 4 years. In fiscal 2018 ended on February 2, Dell had grown revenues by means of 15 percent to $90.62 billion, with product revenue up 18 p.c to $71.29 billion and capabilities sales (mostly ruin/fix stuff on the immense outcome in base of materiel it has offered, but also together with subscriptions to application) rising only 3 p.c to $19.33 billion. That remains a giant services business, incidentally. but IBM’s services business, as a whole, is set 2.5X higher. For that full fiscal 2018 12 months, Dell lost $2.31 billion, which become not as rank as the $three.35 billion in losses it had in fiscal 2018 nonetheless it changed into nevertheless higher than the $1.1 billion loss it had again in fiscal 2016 when it posted $fifty one.17 billion in sales and the $1.sixty seven billion loss it had in fiscal 2017 towards $sixty one.91 billion in sales. The factor is, boom has forward on the cost of profitability universal as a corporation.
but don’t regain the incorrect affect. The company’s core server, networking, and virtualization software businesses are ecocnomic, at an working degree. it's servicing its gigantic debt that is costing Dell so lots cash, and it is not a shock to any one that this is the case at this factor.
It can breathe extraordinary that Dell has forward lower back to the stock market earlier than it became solidly ecocnomic, however wasn’t to trip its refill as it squeezes extra gains out of the enterprise and continues to develop, and had it waited until it changed into finished to emerge back on Wall road, there could breathe no hero’s tale to expose because the fight changed into progressing. If Dell can achieve the synergies in its commercial enterprise company, hold selling materiel to a few hyperscalers and cloud builders, and hold a tendency to its colossal SMB fields, then there is each occasion that Dell – the enterprise and the man – could pay down its accounts through gains and breathe freed from entire encumbrances.
Dell has been becoming its PowerEdge server company for the past nine quarters and has 4 quarters of increase beneath its belt for its amalgam storage enterprise, too. VMware, regardless of the entire challenges that it faces with the Microsoft home windows Server stack with Hyper-V and the purple Hat commercial enterprise Linux Stack with KVM, and never to mention the entire myriad easy methods to carry Docker containers and Kubernetes orchestration in to outcome off virtual machines, is still very profitable indeed and is still starting to be.
Let’s evaporate through some numbers, first for the fourth quarter after which for the complete fiscal 12 months to Show you.
in the fourth quarter, Dell server and networking sales hold been up 14.8 percent to $5.25 billion. Server revenues hold been transforming into at a sooner clip in the first three quarters of fiscal 2019, so it seems enjoy Dell become passion some pressure, but below lots of different gamers for sure. Storage earnings rose via 9.four % to $4.sixty four billion. Add it up, and the Infrastructure options group at Dell essentially broke through the $10 billion barrier for the quarter, with revenue up 12.2 percent to $9.89 billion. operating salary for Infrastructure functions group rose by way of sixty nine.1 % to $1.27 billion, so this is entire moving in the commandeer path.
In speakme over the numbers with Wall highway, Jeff Clarke, vp and the grownup in imbue of products and operations at Dell, pointed out that there become latitude for the company to grow its share of $eighty five billion datacenter infrastructure market, with about two thirds of that coming from mainstream servers and Dell simplest having about a third of the market. (We feel that it is awfully arduous to regain even a 3rd of a market with so many avid gamers in it, and am impressed that Dell has been in a position to consume so lots market share in any respect to turn into the paramount corporation of enterprise servers and storage on the earth and nevertheless continue to breathe a participant within the custom server racket.)
“We reckon there's latitude to develop there,” Clarke explained. “I mediate that's bolstered by way of the proven fact that they still survey on-prem inner most cloud in an early build out. They talked on the antique designation and entire through their sequence of roadshows, about repatriation of workloads, coming lower back to on-prem; they proceed to study that. there was some fresh research through IDC that suggest there will breathe $a hundred and twenty billion spent on hardware for on-prem private clouds over the subsequent 4 years and one more $100 billion on application and functions on correct of that. They suppose that bodes neatly for the environment on a go-ahead foundation. And as is apparent, they are in a multi cloud and hybrid cloud world.”
For the yr, the Servers and Networking unit had $19.95 billion in sales, up 29.1 p.c. Storage revenue, throughout a wide variety of items that are being rationalized, equipped, paired down, and focuses, rose via 9.6 percent in fiscal 2019, to $16.sixty eight billion. For the complete yr, Infrastructure options group had an working revenue of $4.15 billion, up 61 %, so here's an colossal growth in profitability.
It wasn’t that long ago when Dell itself was simplest a $20 billion company aspiring to breathe a $60 billion enterprise inside a decade, and best three years ago, minus EMC, Dell’s infrastructure company became less than half its current dimension and its storage enterprise turned into one-eighth its latest measurement.
The VMware unit has been saved become independent from servers for now as Dell is reporting its numbers, and its virtual server traffic (which runs on lot of iron from its competitors in the X86 server company) is barely half the measurement of its actual server business. in the fourth quarter, VMware’s sales were up 13.2 p.c to $2.64 billion, and its working profit rose with the aid of 4.6 p.c to $872 million, or about a third of revenues and by far probably the most ecocnomic thing Dell has ever had its palms on. For the whole fiscal yr, VMware brought in $9.1 billion in revenue, up 12.4 percent, and working revenue rose by way of 6.3 p.c to just a tad beneath $three billion. VMware’s virtual server company should breathe would becould very well breathe half the dimension of the physical server company, but assuming that servers are as profitable as storage (maybe no longer a Great assumption), the virtual servers are three times as profitable. in the quarter, bookings for NSX digital networking hold been up with the aid of more than 50 percent, and bookings for vSAN digital storage rose with the aid of over 60 percent.
interestingly, the VMware Cloud on AWS inked its largest deal to this point, for $20 million of services, to shun the ESXi hypervisor, vSphere administration tools, and a whole lot of cloud management tools on AWS iron for, they presume, a multi-12 months time period. VxRail hyperconverged home materiel hold a $2 billion annual shun rate, and so does the NSX virtual networking portfolio, which had $1.3 billion in bookings in fiscal 2019; it isn't lucid the dwelling vSAN is at in terms of bookings for the yr or its annualized shun cost as Dell exited the fourth quarter.
if you add up servers, storage, networking, and VMware, then Dell had earnings of $45.eighty one billion, up 17.9 percent, and working income of $7.14 billion, up 32.4 percent. in this case, the underlying earnings is transforming into at twice the cost as the revenues, which is anything IT vendors infatuation to attain. The feeling now's to grow the revenues and shove Dell into an specific profit besides the fact that it has to pay down lots of accounts for the subsequent pair to a few to a long time. (it is arduous to claim, notably in case you examine its debt statements, which are a twisty turny memoir indeed.)
within the Others class, which contains sales of Pivotal, SecureWorks, RSA, Virtustream, and Boomi items, revenue had been up 5 percent to $593 million, which Dell doesn't reckon individually are giant adequate to convene out separately. This Others category runs a temper earnings or loss in any given quarter and doesn't definitely hold an outcome on the standard Dell traffic at this aspect.
If the rest, Dell is a bit greater storage hefty than the industry at colossal, nevertheless it has entire of the add-ons of contemporaneous methods in its income streams, and on the volume platforms deployed out there, in contrast to entire of its friends.
Given this, Dell is possibly the premier reflection of core spending in the commercial enterprise datacenter that we've. Its small and medium enterprise customers, as Clarke mentioned, are the canaries within the coal mine. in the event that they cease spending swiftly, that capability tremendous commercial enterprise are likely going to comply with. in spite of the fact that boom in servers has slowed enormously, Dell and others expect for server deciding to buy to continue to breathe aggressive if transforming into greater slowly than during the past five quarters. IBM was the bellwether, then it was HPE for a long time when it changed into just known as Hewlett Packard, and now it seems to breathe Dell technologies.
greater colossal information from the cloud–IBM is launching a fresh product line of information storage options, entire within the identify of re-branding efforts. Its Storwize acquisition has been renamed true-Time Compression, unveiling a brand fresh website to evaporate along with the changes underfoot.
the fresh storage options purpose to handle the growing to breathe exact from organizations, as they expand their infrastructure and virtualization needs. extra reliance on these programs is empowering groups to work smarter and faster, with greater skills to scale. To acheive that elastic scalability, these corporations are coping with a combo of unstructured facts, replicated statistics, hardware and a pair of other sever traits.
The cornerstone of IBM’s fresh sequence is the Storwize V700. It minimizes rack space us, and has application for managing statistics with a centralized person interface. including easy Tier software, the Storwize V700 is speedy and quite effecient, compared to rivals within its lowered finances of mid-tier storage techniques.Key aspects and examples of the fresh handy Tier application:
The IBM ProtecTIER deduplication expertise that IBM received in 2008 to aid clients regain rid of reproduction copies of statistics and enormously enrich storage effectivity;
The IBM true-time Compression appliances — expertise that IBM received previous this year to assist consumers reduce actual storage requirements by way of as much as eighty%, in keeping with facts from presently installed home materiel (4);
The XIV excessive-conclusion disk storage architecture that IBM received in 2008. XIV’s architecture makes it practicable for it to conform to changing workloads and deliver consistent immoderate performance;
IBM’s Scale-out network connected Storage (SONAS), invented by means of IBM analysis to aid assorted petabytes of storage in a single file gadget. consumers can also exhaust XIV and SONAS together to create a complete cloud storage answer; and
The IBM information Archive, which mixes tape and disk storage to convey valued clientele a tiered storage device that can give protection to statistics for lengthy-time age retention while assisting optimize fees.
As IBM appears to preserve its dominate position amongst cloud functions, the enterprise has devoted an outstanding deal of analysis and development, supplemented with a handful of acquisitions enjoy Storwize, to lengthen its built-in cloud tools. IBM notes the foremost enterprise concerns surrounding storage options, which additionally delve into protection issues:
“They’re beneath colossal power to Show this facts into perception, and grappling with how they’re going to maintain and cozy it all. IBM continues to enhance imaginative storage applied sciences, the usage of its huge R&D spending to support shoppers no longer only maneuver statistics proliferation, but harness statistics to create insights for aggressive benefits.”IBM additionally introduced nowadays a number other storage products, including:
IBM device Storage DS8800, which in response to interior studies, can present up to 40 % sooner efficiency than its predecessor, the IBM materiel Storage DS8700 (6). The DS8800 will next 12 months abet IBM easy Tier.
up-to-date SAN extent Controller utility that includes convenient Tier, an greater administrator GUI and multiplied scalability as compared to the previous edition of the technology.
IBM techniques Director Storage handle software that manages storage, servers and community technology via a single interface, decreasing storage administration complexity, possibility and value.due to the fact that you’re here …
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greater than 5 years hold handed for the understanding that researchers warned of the severe protection hazards that a generic administrative tool poses to servers used for probably the most most choice and mission-vital computing. Now, fresh analysis shows how baseboard management controllers, because the embedded hardware is referred to as, threaten top rate cloud functions from IBM and might breathe different providers.further studying “Bloodsucking leech” places 100,000 servers vulnerable to extraordinary attacks briefly, BMCs are motherboard-connected microcontrollers that supply stunning manage over servers inside datacenters. using the shrewd Platform management Interface, admins can reinstall working systems, set up or alter apps, and Make configuration alterations to massive numbers of servers, without corporeal being on premises and, in many instances, devoid of the servers being became on. In 2013, researchers warned that BMCs that got here preinstalled in servers from Dell, HP, and different name-manufacturer manufacturers hold been so poorly secured that they gave attackers a stealthy and handy way to consume over total fleets of servers internal datacenters.
Researchers at protection solid Eclypsium on Tuesday arrangement to submit a paper about how BMC vulnerabilities threaten a top class cloud service provided through IBM and probably different suppliers. The top rate carrier is called naked-metal cloud computing, an alternative provided to purchasers who are looking to store specially sensitive statistics however don't exigency it to intermingle on the equal servers other valued clientele are the usage of. The top class lets purchasers purchase exclusive entry to dedicated actual servers for provided that vital and, when the servers are no longer mandatory, recrudesce them to the cloud provider. The issuer, in idea, wipes the servers spotless so they may also breathe safely used by using another naked-metal client.
Eclypsium's analysis demonstrates that BMC vulnerabilities can undermine this model with the aid of allowing a client to depart a backdoor which will continue to breathe energetic once the server is reassigned. The backdoor leaves the client open to quite a lot of assaults, including records theft, denial of provider, and ransomware.
To Show their factor, the researchers commissioned a naked-metallic server from IBM's SoftLayer cloud service. The server became the exhaust of a BMC from Supermicro, a hardware company with a wide array of ordinary firmware vulnerabilities. The researchers verified the BMC became working the latest firmware, recorded the chassis and product serial numbers, after which made a temper change to the BMC firmware within the variety of a single bitflip interior a comment. The researchers additionally created an further consumer account in the BMC's shrewd Platform administration Interface.
The researchers then lower back the server to IBM and requested fresh ones. finally, the researchers hold been assigned one with the equal chassis and product serial quantity as the server they had in the past obtained and modified. An inspection of the server didn't embolden self assurance. in line with the file:
We did observe that the additional IPMI user turned into eliminated with the aid of the reclamation process, despite the fact the BMC firmware containing the flipped bit was still existing. This indicated that the servers' BMC firmware was no longer re-flashed during the server reclamation method. The amalgam of the usage of prostrate hardware and never re-flashing the firmware allows a malicious birthday celebration to implant the server's BMC code and inflict damage or steal facts from IBM consumers that exhaust that server in the future.amplify
We additionally noticed that BMC logs were retained across provisioning, and BMC root password remained the equal throughout provisioning. by not deleting the logs, a brand fresh client could gain perception into the actions and behaviors of the outdated owner of the device, whereas knowing the BMC root password could enable an attacker to greater readily profit control over the machine sooner or later.not the primary time additional reading To avoid hacking, disable accepted Plug and Play now Eclysium researchers aren't the handiest ones to document how weaknesses in Supermicro BMCs can outcome bare-metal cloud users in danger. In 2012, researchers at security enterprise Rapid7 institute out that the Supermicro controllers hold been liable to hacks transmitted over a laptop's standard plug and play networking protocols that gave attackers unfettered access. They went on to combine those insights with fresh findings from researcher Dan Farmer that confirmed the way to build extraordinarily challenging-to-discover backdoors in the BMCs.
To the chagrin of the researchers, they institute the exploits endured to work towards naked-metallic servers regardless of fresh measures cloud providers added in an try and mitigate the vulnerability. HD Moore—who on the time changed into Rapid7's chief research officer and is now vp of analysis and evolution at Atredis companions—spoke of an IPMI feature known as a keyboard controller style made backdooring the BMC of naked-steel servers possible. As turned into the case with IBM SoftLayer, a special cloud issuer didn't become awake of and re-flash modified firmware.
"it's ridiculously Dangerous to exhaust a dedicated (naked-steel) server if the BMC is enabled," Moore observed in an interview. "There is not any Make inescapable that the BMC hasn't been backdoored before your server was provisioned. The high-conclusion cloud suppliers hold hardware solutions to guard against these assaults, however anybody the usage of inventory supermicro boards is going to breathe at risk."
In an extended message to Ars, Moore supplied extra particulars around his analysis in 2012 and 2013:
whereas investigating the impact of the libupnp vulnerabilities in late 2012, they decided that super Micro BMCs had been affected and wrote a Metasploit module to profit far off root shells on these contraptions by the exhaust of that vector. almost immediately after, in 2013, Dan Farmer launched his analysis into IPMI, and they endured searching at the publicity created via tremendous Micro BMCs, with an eye against the means of both a number and a BMC to subvert each different. The system became lined in a weblog post and they persisted searching into super Micro BMC considerations in widespread.
One state of affairs they looked at was whether dedicated server suppliers (what they convene bare-metallic cloud these days) accurately protected the BMC interfaces and no matter if an bombard on a rented server could outcomes in everlasting entry to that hardware. They decided that this become feasible and that there weren't any first rate solutions to it, but they simplest had a pair of ISPs as information points. genesis in 2013, they saw principal adjustments to how dedicated server providers blanketed and isolated the BMC interfaces, nevertheless it wasn't enough to maintain away from a everlasting backdoor from being added with the aid of an attacker.
dedicated server providers answered to the public vulnerabilities in IPMI and libupnp through putting the BMC network interfaces at the back of firewalls and altering the admin passwords on the BMCs in order that a casual consumer of the rented server couldn't interface with it. This failed to maintain away from access to the BMC, as the IPMI over KCS channel permits a brand fresh admin consumer to breathe created and within the case of super Micro at least, the firmware to breathe re-flashed. They validated that they may re-flash a dedicated server with an older version of the firmware after which consume edge of it the usage of the libupnp vulnerability.
This resulted in examine entry to the nvram of the BMC and a root shell within the BMC's Linux-based OS. The nvram contained the plaintext passwords, that hold been shared across entire servers at that specific company. They observed that the BMC may entry BMCs related to different client's servers by the exhaust of the committed community, and that the firmware can breathe modified in order that future updates would no longer practice. making a malicious firmware photograph for super Micro BMCs is trivial the usage of public materiel (https://github.com/devicenull/ipmi_firmware_tools).
We did not publish these consequences, but it resulted in more due diligence on their half when selecting committed servers for their personal use, and quite a number of conversations with Zach Wikholm at Cari.internet, who became juggling related considerations of their data middle, including energetic exploitation of tremendous Micro BMC vulnerabilities.
In an announcement, IBM officers wrote:
We aren't awake about any client or IBM facts being outcome in danger on account of this said potential vulnerability, and we've taken movements to regain rid of the vulnerability. Given the remediation steps we've taken and the stage of issue required to Make the most this vulnerability, they reckon the potential hold an outcome on to purchasers is low. while the document focuses on IBM, this was definitely a potential trade-broad vulnerability for entire cloud carrier providers, and they thank Eclypsium for bringing it to the consideration of the trade.
In a blog outcome up published Monday, IBM officials renowned the countermeasures embrace "forcing entire BMCs, including people who are already reporting up-to-date firmware, to breathe re-flashed with factory firmware earlier than they're re-provisioned to other consumers. entire logs in the BMC firmware are erased and entire passwords to the BMC firmware are regenerated."
Moore, for his half, remained unconvinced the measure will properly offer protection to in opposition t the BMC hacks as a result of, he spoke of, "utility-based mostly re-flashing tools will also breathe subverted by means of an attacker that has already flashed a malicious picture. I enact not believe IBM can solve it short of corporeal disabling the BMC by way of a motherboard jumper."
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Long a staple of consumer devices such as MP3 players, digital cameras, and USB flash drives, nonvolatile NAND flash recollection is raising its game to respond to the fresh challenges posed by data-heavy Internet of Things (IoT) applications (Fig. 1). IoT applications for NAND flash cover a breathtaking range: industrial automation and Factory 4.0, connected vehicles, wearables, healthcare, aviation, plus just about any application that begins with “smart”: smart metering, smart homes, smart utilities, smart farms, smart logistics, and more.
1. NAND flash recollection finds a home in numerous data-heavy IoT applications. (Source: Delkin Devices)
The smallest IoT applications—a remote edge node, for example—commonly exhaust microcontrollers with embedded flash to store both code and data. Their storage requirements are quite modest, but with 30 billion connected devices forecast by 2020 and 75 billion by 2025, the data load rapidly increases at higher levels of the hierarchical IoT architecture: the belt controller, gateway, and especially in the cloud.
Applications at the edge node aren’t usually considered to breathe “data-heavy,” but perspective is everything. An aircraft in flight can breathe considered a mobile edge node from the point of view of Boeing, Airbus, or the airline. However, the sensors on a single jet engine can generate 20 TB of data every hour. Even with a 5G infrastructure, the manufacturer may find it preferable to cache the information during flight and upload it while at the gate rather than risk losing data due to a dropped connection or present an occasion to hackers.
In other edge-node applications, say, a smart factory, nonvolatile storage can abet a machine dissect operational conditions and respond in actual time to alerts or faults. A repair technician could also access the terminal few days of sensor data locally to aid in troubleshooting.
NAND flash is making inroads in the cloud, too. The NAND flash read-write speed is much faster than that of a hard-disk drive (HDD). Therefore, the initial cloud applications for all-flash storage are low-latency applications such as synthetic intelligence (AI), real-time analytics, transactional databases, and machine learning.
The cost per gigabyte of flash storage is currently higher than for an HDD, although it’s dropping quickly. Consequently, HDDs or hybrid flash/HDD solutions are still preferred for secondary data applications enjoy backup storage, digital imaging, and catastrophe recovery.
Manufacturers are continually working to reduce the cost-per-gigabyte of NAND devices, so device life cycles tend to breathe quite short with frequent process feature shrinks. Longer term, industry forecasters are predicting that NAND flash will supersede HDDs in almost entire cloud-storage applications.
Overview of NAND flash Operation
A NAND flash recollection cell (Fig. 2) is similar to a standard MOSFET, but it contains two gates rather than one. The control gate turns the channel on and off, and the insulated floating gate stores charge. When a floating gate contains electrons, it’s considered charged, or programmed. Otherwise, it’s considered uncharged, or erased. The drive registers the cell's bit value as logical “0” when a floating gate is charged and as logical “1” when the floating gate is uncharged.
2. The structure of a typical single-level flash cell. (Source: Tech Target)
Turning on the channel requires a threshold voltage VT to breathe applied to the control gate. If the floating gate is already charged, its outcome is to increase the required threshold voltage to VT+; otherwise the required value of VT is a lower value, VT-. To read a cell, the controller applies an intermediate voltage between VT- and VT+. If the channel conducts, the floating gate is uncharged; otherwise, it’s charged.
Unlike other recollection technologies, a NAND flash device can’t breathe reprogrammed at the individual byte level. Due to its architecture, it can only breathe read and programmed in pages—typically between 4 and 16 kB—and can only breathe erased in blocks that sweep from 16 to 512 kB in size. A block must breathe completely erased before being reprogrammed. This two-step process is called a “program/erase” (P/E) cycle. Repeated P/E cycles lead to the breakdown of the oxide layer within the floating-gate transistor cells and eventual failure. Thus, the endurance, measured in number of P/E cycles, is a key specification.
A NAND flash device requires an internal or external controller to implement mistake code correction (ECC), manage rank blocks, and accomplish wear leveling—a technique to increase endurance by counting writes and dynamically remapping blocks to spread writes more evenly. So-called “raw” NAND includes just the cells and requires an external controller. A fully managed NAND device integrates the controller.
NAND flash devices forward in different varieties, classified by the number of bits that can breathe stored in a single cell: single-level cell (SLC), multilevel cell (MLC), triple-level cell (TLC), and quad-level cell (QLC). As motif 3 illustrates, there’s a tradeoff between cell endurance and cell density: the higher-density cells hold lower endurance.
3. The designer can elect between several varieties of NAND flash to equilibrium between endurance and density. (Source: Micron Technology)
More recently, manufacturers hold begun offering three-dimensional (3D) NAND devices in MLC and TLC formats: current-generation 3D NAND devices stack up to 96 layers vertically for higher density.
Individual devices are available with capacities from 128MB to 2TB. Smaller-density devices are common in consumer IoT applications such as wearables, smart appliances, set-top boxes, and smart TVs. High-density products find a home in cloud storage, plus data-heavy IoT applications such as gateways, factory automation, industrial PCs, surveillance, and drones.
There’s also a preference of interfaces. The embedded multimedia card (e.MMC) format uses an 8-bit parallel interface and integrates the flash recollection and the controller into a 100-, 153-, or 169-ball-grid-array (BGA) package. The e.MMC version 5.1 specification has a 400-MB/s transfer rate.
The Universal flash Storage (UFS) specification employs a full-duplex LVDS interface for higher transfer speeds than e.MMC. The latest (2018) UFS 3.0 revision uses two lanes to achieve a maximum total bandwidth of 2.9 GB/s.
NAND flash devices are offered in a variety of contour factors, from single devices, to modules, to complete systems. recollection cards are used in both consumer and IoT applications; common formats embrace USB flash drives, CompactFlash (CF), and secure digital (SD) cards in either standard or microSD sizes.
Solid-state drives (SSDs) combine great numbers of NAND flash devices and are common as HDD replacements in both consumer and IoT applications. At the elevated end, a typical all-flash drive for cloud storage might breathe rack-mountable with 48 individual SSDs and a total capacity of 34 TB.
Picking the privilege NAND for Your IoT Application
The IoT space covers a lot of ground, so there’s no “one size fits all” approach to picking a NAND solution. SLC NAND has the lowest density, but the highest performance and endurance. It’s preferred for high-end, mission-critical applications. MLC and TLC devices feature increasing density and lower endurance, and QLC devices are suitable for high-density, cost-sensitive mass-storage applications.
Consumer-oriented IoT applications can exhaust off-the-shelf components, but many other IoT applications hold specialized requirements. For example, security is a elevated priority for secure boot code, firmware, keys, and other sensitive information.
Standard commodity parts don’t embrace security features, but secure NAND flash devices offer volatile and nonvolatile block protection features. Volatile block protection locks one or multiple blocks until power is cycled; nonvolatile block protection permanently locks a fixed or variable sweep of blocks. Other security features embrace device-specific unique IDs, password protection, and AES256 data encryption.
Since some security features are computationally intensive, they’re typically included in a module-level design, e.g., a secure SSD.
An extended temperature sweep is considerable for IoT edge devices that are exposed to the elements or operate in a harsh industrial environment.
The TerraMaster F2-221 is a 2-Bay NAS designed for small businesses and the home exhaust such as personal cloud and back up. It is compatible with both 3.5 and 2.5 inch HDDs as well as 2.5 inch SATA SSDs with a maximum capacity of a generous 28TB via two 14GB drives. It also features two USB 3.0 ports and two gigabit LAN ports.
As far as its internal components go, the F2-221 is powered by an Intel dual-core processor (Intel Celeron J3355) with a frequency of up to 2.0 GHz and can breathe outfitted with up to 8GB of RAM. The F2-221 is expected to gain the usual performance from NAS solutions of this class, quoting read speeds of 215MB/s and a write speeds up to 212 MB/s. The fresh TerraMaster NAS also supports 4K HD video transcoding for home entertainment exhaust cases.
TerraMaster NAS solutions feature what they convene their '5-layer data security protection,' which includes mostly the usual peace-of-mind suspects: automatic scheduled backups, btrfs filesystem and snapshots, RAID 1 array security, AES hardware folder and network transport encryption, and cloud drive backup.
The TerraMaster F2-221 comes with a 2-year warranty starts at roughly $250 for the diskless, 2GB RAM model.TerraMaster F2-221 Specifications Processor model Intel Celeron J3355 Processor architecture 64-bit Processor frequency Dual Core, 2.0GHz (Maximum Turo: 2.5GHz) System recollection (standard) 2GB Maximum supported memory 8GB Compatible disk types
Design and build
The TerraMaster F2-221 is a compact NAS comprised of a silver chassis. The two bays are easily accessed on the front panel. Simply draw the tabs by the bottom and they forward privilege out.
On the left side of the front are the arduous drive and network indicators as well as the power switch. Turning the NAS around reveals entire the connectivity, including two USB 3.0 ports, two RJ-45 1GbE network ports, and the power interface, entire of which reside next to the fan.
The TerraMaster F2-221 leverages the companies TOS operating system. TOS is a fairly simple GUI. On the left of the main screen are the primary applications such as File Manager, Applications, Recycle Bin, Control Panel, Backup, Remote Access, and TOS Help. The privilege side has widgets that give users quick information about the NAS such as its designation and OS version, networking connections, storage capacity used and resource utilization.
The Control Panel lets users survey and change Privileges, Network Services, Storage, general Settings, and System information. Drilling down through Storage Manager users can further evaporate into arduous Drive, RAID, iSCSI Target, Virtual Disk, and External Storage. Here they can create, edit, or delete items such as storage pools and RAID configurations.
System Information gives users a quick shun down of everything in the NAS from what hardware is installed, to service statuses, resource monitor, and systems logs.
The Applications App is a basic App store for users to install or uninstall applications compatible with the NAS. Though overall it does look to breathe lacking compared to other NAS OS's on the market.
Enterprise Synthetic Workload Analysis
Our enterprise shared storage and hard drive benchmark process preconditions each drive into steady-state with the very workload the device will breathe tested with under a hefty load of 16 threads with an outstanding queue of 16 per thread, and then tested in set intervals in multiple thread/queue depth profiles to Show performance under light and hefty usage. Since arduous drives gain their rated performance plane very quickly, they only graph out the main sections of each test.
Preconditioning and Primary Steady-State Tests:
Our Enterprise Synthetic Workload Analysis includes four profiles based on real-world tasks. These profiles hold been developed to Make it easier to compare to their past benchmarks as well as widely-published values such as max 4k read and write speed and 8k 70/30, which is commonly used for enterprise drives.
For their testing they configured the TerraMaster F2-221 in RAID1 in both iSCSI and CIFS using Toshiba N300 NAS 8TB hard disk drives.
In the first of their enterprise workloads, they measured a long sample of random 4K performance with 100% write and 100% read activity. Looking at IOPS the F2-221 had performance of 195 IOPS write and 726 IOPS read using iSCSI connectivity, while CIFS showed an improved 262 IOPS write and 788 IOPS read.
Looking at 4K tolerable latency, the TerraMaster NAS hit 351.94ms read and 1,310.47ms read in iSCSI and 986.72ms write and 324.80ms read in CIFS.
Switching over to 4K max latency the F2-221 had 18,727ms read and 32,775ms write in CIFS while iSCSI saw a much better 1,065.7ms read and 30,748ms write.
For 4K standard aberration they saw 2,937.37ms write and 568.32ms read in CIFS and 2,984.11ms write and 189.97ms read in iSCSI.
Our next benchmark measures 100% 8K sequential throughput with a 16T16Q load in 100% read and 100% write operations. Here, the TerraMaster NAS showed much better write performance with 21,078 IOPS vs. 13,247 IOPS in iSCSI; though iSCSI showed much better read performance with 22,197 IOPS vs 14,490 IOPS CIFS.
Compared to the fixed 16 thread, 16 queue max workload they performed in the 100% 4K write test, their mixed workload profiles scale the performance across a wide sweep of thread/queue combinations. In these tests, they span workload intensity from 2 threads and 2 queue up to 16 threads and 16 queue. In throughput, the F2-221 showed a sweep of 322 IOPS to 581 IOPS. For CIFS, they had a much better sweep of 565 IOPS to 750 IOPS.
In tolerable latency, though it started gradual in the early queue depths, the F2-221 showed its best performance in CIFS with a sweep of 56.63ms through 170.3ms IOPS. iSCSI recorded a sweep of 12ms to 439.44ms.
For maximum latency, results were very similar by the End of the test, which posted 14,978.9ms and 14,719ms CIFS and iSCSI respecitively (16 Threads 16 Queue).
Looking at standard deviation, the F2-221 CIFS configuration recorded 390.96ms to 701.42ms, while the iSCSI configuration showed a sweep of 52.95ms to 1248.98ms.
The terminal Enterprise Synthetic Workload benchmark is their 128K test, which is a large-block sequential test that shows the highest sequential transfer speed for a device. In this workload scenario, the F2-221 had 203.2MB/s write and 193.5MB/s read in CIFS and 186.0MB/s write and 207.5MB/s read in iSCSI.
The TerraMaster F2-221 is compact NAS that is equipped with a capable Intel dual-core processor and up to 8GB of RAM. This 2-bay NAS is aimed at SOHO exhaust cases and home users looking for a personal cloud or a storage solution with some multimedia capabilities, such as real-time 4K video transcoding. The F-221 features components that can certainly handle these applications.
For performance, they looked at straight RAID1 HDD performance in both CIFS and iSCSI connectivity, leveraging two Toshiba N300 NAS 8TB drives. Looking at IOPS during their 4K tests, the F2-221 posted195 IOPS write and 726 IOPS read in iSCSI, and an improved 262 IOPS write and 788 IOPS read in CIFS. In our 100% 8K sequential throughput, the F2-221 showed much better write performance in CIFS with 21,078 IOPS vs. 12,247 IOPS in iSCSI; however, iSCSI recorded much better read performance with 22,197 IOPS vs 14,490 IOPS in CIFS. During their large-block sequential test, the F2-221 had 203.2MB/s write and 193.5MB/s read in CIFS and 186.0MB/s write and 207.5MB/s read in iSCSI.
The TerraMaster F2-221 is a small NAS that can bring solid performance to home and small traffic environments. The NAS is cost-effective and can handle most of the tasks smaller offices exigency it to handle.
TerraMaster F2-221 on Amazon
The amount of rejiggering among the IT vendors serving enterprise customers (as discrete from hyperscalers, cloud builders, and HPC centers) in the past decade and a half has been astounding. And it is not yet lucid what mingle of products and services will yield long-term profitability for those who are playing the long game, and playing it big.
Hewlett Packard Enterprise and Dell Technologies, as they are now called, tried to build up IT conglomerates that, enjoy IBM, had the four pillars of the IT budget – hardware, software, services, and financing. And then, when that didn’t work out, both companies decided to change strategies. HPE sold off its PC and printer traffic and backed away from hyperscaler and cloud system sakes, while Dell held onto its PC business, went private, and bought EMC and VMware to bolster its core IT business, and did a reverse merger with VMware to evaporate public as 2018 came to a close. IBM started this entire off by selling off its PC, elevated End printer, disk drive, and chip businesses and then sold off its System x X86 server traffic to concentrate on its Power Systems and System z platforms. IBM’s systems traffic is quite profitable, as they hold revealed, but the company still struggles to build its public cloud and to Make services Make money even as they generate a huge amount of revenue.
HPE is smaller and not particularly profitable, as they showed in analyzing that company’s financials terminal week. Dell has become a lot larger than the remaining HPE, and has reached the very harsh revenue plane as colossal Blue, although the companies hold very different product and customer profiles. IBM has very much focused on great enterprises and HPC centers with some dabbling in hyperscale here and there with the Power platform. Dell still has a sizeable amount of revenue coming from PCs (both commercial and consumer buyers) and various IT gear that is sold to small and medium businesses. IBM has some SMB business, but that is mostly focused on its IBM i (formerly AS/400) midrange server business, which is allotment of the Power Systems division, which is now called the Cognitive Systems division to emphasize the fact that these machines are doing database, analytics, transaction processing, and other hefty work, not running basic infrastructure.
Dell completed its reverse merger with VMware, which it owned a majority stake in, back in December, which cost it $21 billion, of which $11 billion was paid in cash to outstanding VMware shareholders, and $10 billion was paid in Dell stock. This maneuver allowed Dell’s stock to emerge on the fresh York Stock Exchange, where VMware was traded, for the first time since Dell went private in a $24 billion buyout six years ago. At the time, Michael Dell wanted the company that bears his designation to evaporate private so it could maneuver the traffic without the judgements of public shareholders and analysts on Wall Street. In the interim, with the buying of EMC and therefore its minion VMware, and then the reverse merger, Dell has spent a fortune reconfiguring itself and it has still not institute its way to profitability. But the company is eating market share enjoy crazy in servers and storage, and is holding its own in PCs, and is moving towards profitability ever so slowly.
Dell has so many moving parts over the past pair of years, with units and divisions coming and going, that it would breathe nearly impossible to regain a consistent set of numbers to Show how these aggregate businesses hold done since the Great Recession, which is when a major inflection point was tipped in so many different parts of the economy and which is therefore a safe starting point for analyzing any company in the current era. With the current data that Dell Technologies, the parent company, has made available since going private and buying EMC and VMware and divesting its services business, they can evaporate back four years. (Note: Dell’s fiscal year ends in late January or early February, so the data is not presented on a calendar basis.)
Going private was clearly about buying time to create a much larger infrastructure behemoth while preserving volume discount leverage with Intel and other core component suppliers (think memory, disk, and flash) through keeping its PC traffic rather than selling it off or spinning it out. What is lucid from the chart above is that Dell has become considerably larger over the past four years. In fiscal 2018 ended on February 2, Dell had grown revenues by 15 percent to $90.62 billion, with product sales up 18 percent to $71.29 billion and services sales (mostly break/fix stuff on the vast installed base of materiel it has sold, but also including subscriptions to software) rising only 3 percent to $19.33 billion. That is still an colossal services business, by the way. But IBM’s services business, as a whole, is about 2.5X larger. For that full fiscal 2018 year, Dell lost $2.31 billion, which was not as rank as the $3.35 billion in losses it had in fiscal 2018 but it was still larger than the $1.1 billion loss it had back in fiscal 2016 when it posted $51.17 billion in sales and the $1.67 billion loss it had in fiscal 2017 against $61.91 billion in sales. The point is, growth has forward at the cost of profitability overall as a company.
But don’t regain the wrong impression. The company’s core server, networking, and virtualization software businesses are profitable, at an operating level. It is servicing its colossal debt that is costing Dell so much money, and it is not a surprise to anyone that this is the case at this point.
It may breathe surprising that Dell has forward back to the stock market before it was solidly profitable, but it wasn’t to ride its stock up as it squeezes more profits out of the traffic and continues to grow, and had it waited until it was done to emerge back on Wall Street, there would breathe no hero’s tale to expose as the fight was progressing. If Dell can achieve the synergies in its enterprise business, maintain selling gear to some hyperscalers and cloud builders, and tend to its vast SMB fields, then there is every chance that Dell – the company and the man – could pay down its debts through profits and breathe free of entire encumbrances.
Dell has been growing its PowerEdge server traffic for the past nine quarters and has four quarters of growth under its belt for its aggregate storage business, too. VMware, despite entire of the challenges that it faces with the Microsoft Windows Server stack with Hyper-V and the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Stack with KVM, and not to mention entire of the myriad ways to bring Docker containers and Kubernetes orchestration in to enact away with virtual machines, is still very profitable indeed and is still growing.
Let’s evaporate through some numbers, first for the fourth quarter and then for the full fiscal year to Show you.
In the fourth quarter, Dell server and networking sales were up 14.8 percent to $5.25 billion. Server revenues were growing at a faster clip in the first three quarters of fiscal 2019, so it looks enjoy Dell was passion some pressure, but less than a lot of other players for sure. Storage sales rose by 9.4 percent to $4.64 billion. Add it up, and the Infrastructure Solutions Group at Dell nearly broke through the $10 billion barrier for the quarter, with sales up 12.2 percent to $9.89 billion. Operating income for Infrastructure Services Group rose by 69.1 percent to $1.27 billion, so this is entire moving in the privilege direction.
In talking over the numbers with Wall Street, Jeff Clarke, vice chairman and the person in imbue of products and operations at Dell, said that there was latitude for the company to grow its share of $85 billion datacenter infrastructure market, with about two thirds of that coming from mainstream servers and Dell only having about a third of the market. (We mediate that it is very tough to regain even a third of a market with so many players in it, and am impressed that Dell has been able to consume so much market share at entire to become the paramount supplier of enterprise servers and storage in the world and still remain a player in the custom server racket.)
“We mediate there is latitude to grow there,” Clarke explained. “I mediate that is bolstered by the fact that they still survey on-prem private cloud in an early build out. They talked on the previous convene and throughout their series of roadshows, about repatriation of workloads, coming back to on-prem; they continue to survey that. There has been some recent research by IDC that suggest there will breathe $120 billion spent on hardware for on-prem private clouds over the next four years and another $100 billion on software and services on top of that. They mediate that bodes well for the environment on a go-forward basis. And as is clear, they are in a multi cloud and hybrid cloud world.”
For the year, the Servers and Networking unit had $19.95 billion in sales, up 29.1 percent. Storage sales, across a wide variety of products that are being rationalized, organized, paired down, and focuses, rose by 9.6 percent in fiscal 2019, to $16.68 billion. For the full year, Infrastructure Solutions Group had an operating income of $4.15 billion, up 61 percent, so this is a huge improvement in profitability.
It wasn’t that long ago when Dell itself was only a $20 billion company aspiring to breathe a $60 billion company within a decade, and only three years ago, minus EMC, Dell’s infrastructure traffic was less than half its current size and its storage traffic was one-eighth its current size.
The VMware unit has been kept separate from servers for now as Dell is reporting its numbers, and its virtual server traffic (which runs on lot of iron from its competitors in the X86 server business) is only half the size of its physical server business. In the fourth quarter, VMware’s sales were up 13.2 percent to $2.64 billion, and its operating profit rose by 4.6 percent to $872 million, or about a third of revenues and by far the most profitable thing Dell has ever had its hands on. For the full fiscal year, VMware brought in $9.1 billion in sales, up 12.4 percent, and operating income rose by 6.3 percent to just a tad under $3 billion. VMware’s virtual server traffic might breathe half the size of the physical server business, but assuming that servers are as profitable as storage (maybe not a safe assumption), the virtual servers are three times as profitable. In the quarter, bookings for NSX virtual networking were up by more than 50 percent, and bookings for vSAN virtual storage rose by over 60 percent.
Interestingly, the VMware Cloud on AWS inked its largest deal to date, for $20 million of services, to shun the ESXi hypervisor, vSphere management tools, and a whole lot of cloud management tools on AWS iron for, they presume, a multi-year term. VxRail hyperconverged appliances hold a $2 billion annual shun rate, and so does the NSX virtual networking portfolio, which had $1.3 billion in bookings in fiscal 2019; it is not lucid where vSAN is at in terms of bookings for the year or its annualized shun rate as Dell exited the fourth quarter.
If you add up servers, storage, networking, and VMware, then Dell had sales of $45.81 billion, up 17.9 percent, and operating income of $7.14 billion, up 32.4 percent. In this case, the underlying profit is growing at twice the rate as the revenues, which is something IT vendors infatuation to attain. The feeling now is to grow the revenues and shove Dell into an actual profit even though it has to pay down a lot of debts for the next pair to several to many years. (It is arduous to say, especially if you study at its debt statements, which are a twisty turny memoir indeed.)
In the Others category, which includes sales of Pivotal, SecureWorks, RSA, Virtustream, and Boomi products, sales were up 5 percent to $593 million, which Dell does not mediate individually are great enough to convene out separately. This Others category runs a temper profit or loss in any given quarter and does not really affect the overall Dell company at this point.
If anything, Dell is a minute more storage hefty than the industry at large, but it has entire of the components of modern systems in its revenue streams, and on the volume platforms deployed in the market, unlike entire of its peers.
Given this, Dell is perhaps the best reflection of core spending in the enterprise datacenter that they have. Its small and medium traffic customers, as Clarke pointed out, are the canaries in the coal mine. If they stop spending entire of a sudden, that means great enterprise are likely going to follow. Even though growth in servers has slowed significantly, Dell and others are expecting for server purchasing to continue to breathe aggressive if growing more slowly than in the past five quarters. IBM used to breathe the bellwether, then it was HPE for a while when it was just called Hewlett Packard, and now it seems to breathe Dell Technologies.
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CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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